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anemia [2016/04/02 02:06]
Dorjay Zopa
anemia [2018/02/26 18:10] (current)
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-The term anemia refers to a decrease in the numbers of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin (Hb) content caused by a limited number of mechanisms that can function independently or occur synergistically. The term anemia is often used incorrectly as a diagnosis, but like hypertension,​ is really a symptom of an underlying pathology. Thus different types of anemia are defined according to the pathophysiology.+The term anemia refers to a decrease in the numbers of [[red blood cell]]s ​([[RBC]]s) or [[hemoglobin]] ([[Hb]]) content caused by a limited number of mechanisms that can function independently or occur synergistically. The term anemia is often used incorrectly as a [[diagnosis]], but like [[hypertension]], is really a [[symptom]] of an underlying ​[[pathology]]. Thus different types of anemia are defined according to the [[pathophysiology]].
  
-The rate by which RBCs develop in red bone marrow is dependent upon the status of hemoglobin, which ensures the proper oxygenation of the tissues. This process is maintained by a negative feedback mechanism that is stimulated by hypoxic conditions in the affected tissues, which in turn, promotes an increase in RBC synthesis until tissue oxygen levels are restored to normal. RBCs develop from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells to progenitor cells, when then form into proerythroblasts,​ reticulocytes and then erythrocytes (RBCs) in a process requiring a variety of growth factors and cytokines including erythropoietin. Once formed, RBC precursor cells are released into circulation as reticulocytes where they remain in circulation for about one day until they lose their nucleus. This causes the center of the cell to indent and form the distinctive concave shape of a mature RBC. Since erythrocytes have no nucleus they rely upon anaerobic and aerobic glycolytic pathways for energy, and as the cell ages the levels of these enzymes gradually decrease. After 120 days worn and damaged RBCs are destroyed by phagocytic cells in the liver and spleen. Thus the body requires that at least 1/120 the number of RBCs are produced on a daily basis to maintain homeostasis and prevent hypoxia. (Berkow 1992; Rubin and Farber 1990, 553-563)+Someone who has anemia is called [[anemic]]. 
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 +The rate by which RBCs develop in red [[bone marrow]] is dependent upon the status of hemoglobin, which ensures the proper ​[[oxygenation]] of the [[tissue]]s. This process is maintained by a negative feedback mechanism that is stimulated by hypoxic conditions in the affected tissues, which in turn, promotes an increase in RBC synthesis until tissue oxygen levels are restored to normal. RBCs develop from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells to progenitor cells, when then form into proerythroblasts,​ reticulocytes and then erythrocytes (RBCs) in a process requiring a variety of growth factors and cytokines including erythropoietin. Once formed, RBC precursor cells are released into circulation as reticulocytes where they remain in circulation for about one day until they lose their nucleus. This causes the center of the cell to indent and form the distinctive concave shape of a mature RBC. Since erythrocytes have no nucleus they rely upon anaerobic and aerobic glycolytic pathways for energy, and as the cell ages the levels of these enzymes gradually decrease. After 120 days worn and damaged RBCs are destroyed by phagocytic cells in the liver and spleen. Thus the body requires that at least 1/120 the number of RBCs are produced on a daily basis to maintain homeostasis and prevent hypoxia. (Berkow 1992; Rubin and Farber 1990, 553-563)
  
 The unique concave shape of an RBC functions to increase the surface area for gas exchange. This shape also ensures that RBCs are highly deformable, and can bend in upon themselves allowing them to squeeze through the narrow openings of capillaries into the tissues. Each RBC contains approximately 280 million molecules of hemoglobin (Hb), contained in a lipid membrane and supported by a cytoskeletal network. (Berkow 1992; Rubin and Farber 1990, 553-563) The unique concave shape of an RBC functions to increase the surface area for gas exchange. This shape also ensures that RBCs are highly deformable, and can bend in upon themselves allowing them to squeeze through the narrow openings of capillaries into the tissues. Each RBC contains approximately 280 million molecules of hemoglobin (Hb), contained in a lipid membrane and supported by a cytoskeletal network. (Berkow 1992; Rubin and Farber 1990, 553-563)
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 [[Category:​Vata Symptoms]] [[Category:​Vata Symptoms]]
 [[Category:​Diseases]] [[Category:​Diseases]]
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anemia.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:10 (external edit)