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 +Part of the [[SKT220]] [[Buddhist Ayurveda]] Course on [[Sanskrit Terms]] of [[Ayurveda]] and [[Dharma]]
 +----
 +
 +
 +======= Asanga =======
 +
 + ​[[Asanga]] ([[Bodhisattva]]) ​
 +
 +Together with his [[Teacher]] the [[Bodhisattva]] [[Maitreya]],​ [[Asanga]] was the [[founder]]
 +of the [[Yogachara]],​ or [[consciousness]]-Only]],​ [[school]] of [[Mahayana Buddhism]].
 +
 +The oldest of [[Three]] [[sons]], all called [[Vasubandhu]],​ [[born]] in Purusapura
 +(Peshwar) who were members of the Kausika [[family]] of [[India]]n [[Brahmi]]ns. ​ All
 +[[Three]] became [[Buddhist]] [[Bhikshu]]s. [[Asanga]]'​s youngest [[br[[other]] was [[know]]n as
 +Virincivatsa,​ while the [[Middle]] [[br[[other]] was [[know]]n [[merely]] as [[Vasubandhu]] (see
 +entry).
 +
 +[[Asanga]] was a man who was [[endowed]] with the [[innate]] [[character]] of a
 +[[Bodhisattva]]. ​ He became a [[Bhikshu]] of the [[Sar[[vast]]ivada]] [[school]], but
 +afterwards he [[practice]]d [[meditation]] and became free from [[desire]]. Though he
 +investigated the [[doctrine]] of [[emptiness]],​ he could not [[understand]] it. He was
 +about to commit [[suicide]]. [[P[[Indo]]la]],​ an [[Arhat]], who was then in [[east]]ern
 +[[purva]]vi[[deha]],​ having [[perceive]]d this, came to him from that region and
 +expounded the [[doctrine]] of [[emptiness]] peculiar to the [[Hinayana]]. He arranged
 +his [[thought]]s according to what he was taught and at once comprehended it. 
 +
 +Though he had [[attain]]ed the [[doctrine]] of [[emptiness]] peculiar to the [[Hinayana]],​
 +he, nevertheless,​ did not find comfort in it. [[thinking]] that it would not be
 +[[right]] to [[drop]] the [[matter]] altogether, he went up to the [[Tushita Heaven]] using
 +the [[supernatural]] [[power]] peculiar to the [[Hinayana]] and inquired of [[Maitreya]],​
 +the [[Bodhisattva]],​ who expounded for him the [[doctrine]] of [[emptiness]] belonging
 +to the [[Mahayana]]. When he returned to [[Jambu]]dvipa]],​ he investigated according
 +to the [[method]]s explained to him and soon became [[enlightened]]. While he was
 +[[engage]]d in investi[[gati]]on,​ the [[earth]] began to quake (of its own accord) in
 +[[six]] [[way]]s. Since he understood the [[doctrine]] of [[emptiness]],​ he called him[[self]]
 +"​[[Asanga]]",​ which [[means]] "​without [[attachment]]"​.
 +
 +He afterwards often went up to the [[Tushita Heaven]] in order to ask [[Maitreya]]
 +about the [[doctrine]]s of the [[Mahayana Sutra]]s]]. The [[Bodhisattva]] explained them
 +[[extensive]]ly for him. Whenever he acquired any new [[understand]]ing,​ he would
 +come back to [[Jambu]]dvipa]] and [[teach]] it to [[other]]s. Most of those [[hearing]] him
 +did not [[believe]] him. [[Asanga]], [[Teacher]] of the [[Dharma]], then [[pray]]ed, saying,
 +"I now intend to bring all [[beings]] to [[believe]] fully in the [[doctrine]] of the
 +[[Mahayana]]. I only [[pray]] that you, O [[Great]] [[Master]], come down to [[Jambu]]dvipa]] to
 +expound the [[Mahayana]] so that all [[beings]] may [[become]] fully convinced of its
 +[[Truth]]."​ [[Maitreya]],​ thereupon, in accordance with his [[prayer]], came down to
 +[[Jambu]]dvipa]] at [[night]], flooding it with [[Great]] rays of [[light]], had a large
 +[[Assembly]] of those connected with the [[Dharma]] called in a lecture hall, and
 +began to [[recite]] the _Saptadasa[[Bhumi]] [[Sutra]]. ​ After having [[recite]]d a pas[[Sage]],​
 +he would explain its purport. The [[seven]]teen _[[Bhumi]]s_ were finished during
 +the [[night]]s of [[four]] months. ​ Although all were together in one and the same
 +hall [[listen]]ing to the discourse, it was, nevertheless,​ only [[Asanga]], [[Teacher]]
 +of the [[Dharma]], who had access to the [[Bodhisattva]] [[Maitreya]],​ while the [[other]]s
 +could [[merely]] [[hear]] him from afar. 
 +
 +At [[night]], all together [[hear]]d the [[religious]] discourse by [[Maitreya]],​ while in
 +the day[[time]] [[Asanga]], [[Teacher]] of the [[Dharma]], commented once again, for the
 +sake of [[other]]s, upon what had been taught by the [[Bodhisattva]]. In this [[way]]
 +all the [[people]] could [[hear]] and [[believe]] in the [[doctrine]] of the [[Mahayana]].
 +[[Maitreya]],​ the [[Bodhisattva]],​ taught [[Asanga]], [[Teacher]] of the [[Dharma]], to [[learn]]
 +the "​sun[[light]]"​ [[Samadhi]]. As he [[learn]]ed according to what he had been
 +taught, he [[subsequent]]ly [[attain]]ed entry into that [[Samadhi]]. After he
 +[[attain]]ed entry into that [[Samadhi]],​ what he formerly could not [[understand]]
 +all became intelligible. Whatever he [[hear]]d or saw was never forgotten, his
 +[[memory]] having [[become]] re[[ten]]tive,​ whereas he formerly could not fully
 +[[understand]] the [[Sutra]]s of the [[Mahayana]],​ such as the _[[Avatamsaka]]_,​ previously
 +taught by the [[Buddha]]. [[Maitreya]] explained for him all these in the [[Tushita]]
 +[[heaven]]; [[thus]] the [[Teacher]] of the [[Dharma]] became well-[[verse]]d in them and
 +[[remember]]ed them all. Afterwards in [[Jambu]]dvipa]] he composed several
 +_upadesa_ on the [[Sutra]]s of the [[Mahayana]],​ in which he expounded all the
 +[[teachings]] of the [[Mahayana]] taught by the [[Buddha]]. (Paramartha,​ "The [[life]] of
 +[[Vasubandhu]]",​ J. Takakusu, tr. [with some editing], pp. 273-275)
 +
 +1) [[Chinese]]:​ wu zhao_ ; 2) [[Sanskrit]]:​ [[Asanga]].
 +
 +[[See Also]]: [[Maitreya]] ([[Bodhisattva]]),​ [[Vasubandhu]] ([[Bodhisattva]]),​
 +[[Consciousness-Only School]].
 +
 +[[BTTS References]]:​ [[HD]] 9-12; [[UW]] 1-3.
 +
 +----
 +
 +Asaṅga
 +阿僧伽, 無著, Thogs med
 +
 +Indian author, 3rd-4th Century A.D.
 +
 +-[[Ratnagotravibhāga]] ([[Ratnagotravibhaga]]),​ see Johnston (1950) (also attributed to Maitreyanātha;​ see below)
 +
 +-[[Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra]] ([[Mahayanasutralamkara]])
 + 
 +Maitreyanātha (彌勒, mGon po Byams pa):
 +
 +Scholars are divided on the issue of whether Maitreyanātha was a historical figure or not. Tibetan sources tell of how Asaṅga after extensive meditative retreat travelled to Tuṣita Heaven where he received from the bodhisattva and Buddha-to-be Maitreya a series of works, of which the Yogācarabhūmiśāstra,​ the [[Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra]],​ the Dharmadharmatāvibhāga,​ the Madhyāntavibhāgakārikā,​ the Abhisamayālamkāra,​ and the [[Ratnagotravibhāga]] are usually mentioned. The question is therefore whether, as this account states, Asaṅga wrote the texts under some sort of divine inspiration from Maitreya, in which case they should be attributed to Asaṅga, or whether Maitreyanātha was in fact a historical person working together with Asaṅga, in which case they should be attributed to Maitreyanātha. As for the name Maitreyanātha,​ it can be understood as the Protector Maitreya, or as the one protected by Maitreya, in which case it might in fact refer to Asaṅga himself.
 +
 +[[Fair Use]] Source: https://​www2.hf.uio.no/​polyglotta/​index.php?​page=person&​bid=2&​vid=&​entity=60
 +
 +----
 +
 +
 +Asanga
 +
 +Asaṅga (Sanskrit: असङ्ग;​ traditional Chinese: 無著; pinyin: Wúzhuó; Romaji: Mujaku) was a major exponent of the Yogācāra tradition in India, also called Vijñānavāda. Traditionally,​ he and his half-brother Vasubandhu are regarded as the founders of this school. The two half-brothers were also major exponents of Abhidharma teachings, which were highly technical and sophisticated hermeneutics as well.
 +Contents
 +[hide]
 +
 +    * 1 Early life
 +    * 2 Meditation and teachings
 +    * 3 Abhidharma Samuccaya
 +    * 4 Questions of authorship
 +    * 5 References
 +    * 6 External links
 +
 +Early life
 +
 +Asaṅga was born as the son of a Kshatriya father in Purushapura (present day Peshawar in Pakistan), which at that time was part of the ancient kingdom of Gandhāra. He was perhaps originally a member of the Mahīśāsaka school or the Mūlasarvāstivāda school but later converted to Mahāyāna.[1]
 +
 +In the record of his journeys through the kingdoms of India, Xuanzang wrote that Asaṅga was initially a Mahīśāsaka monk, but soon turned toward the Mahāyāna teachings.[2] Asaṅga had a half-brother,​ Vasubandhu, who was a monk from the Sarvāstivāda school. Vasubandhu is said to have taken up Mahāyāna Buddhism after meeting with Asaṅga and one of Asaṅga'​s disciples.[3]
 +[edit] Meditation and teachings
 +
 +Asaṅga spent many years in intense meditation, during which time tradition says that he often visited Tuṣita Heaven to receive teachings from Maitreya Bodhisattva. Heavens such as Tuṣita Heaven are said to be accessible through meditation, and accounts of this are given in the writings of the Indian Buddhist monk Paramārtha,​ who lived during the 6th century CE.[4] Xuanzang tells a similar account of these events:[2]
 +“ In the great mango grove five or six li to the southwest of the city (Ayodhya), there is an old monastery where Asaṅga Bodhisattva received instructions and guided the common people. At night he went up to the place of Maitreya Bodhisattva in Tuṣita Heaven to learn the Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra,​ the Mahāyāna-sūtra-alaṃkāra-śāstra,​ the Madhyānta-vibhāga-śāstra,​ etc.; in the daytime, he lectured on the marvelous principles to a great audience. ”
 +
 +Asaṅga went on to write many of the key Yogācāra treatises such as the Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra,​ the Mahāyāna-samgraha and the Abhidharma-samuccaya as well as other works, although there are discrepancies between the Chinese and Tibetan traditions concerning which works are attributed to him and which to Maitreya.[5]
 +
 +Abhidharma Samuccaya
 +
 +According to Walpola Rahula, the thought of the Abhidharma-samuccaya is invariably closer to that of the Pali Nikayas than is that of the Theravadin Abhidhamma.[6]
 +
 +Questions of authorship
 +
 +The Tibetan tradition attributes authorship of the Ratnagotravibhaga to him, while the Chinese traditions attributes it to a certain Sthiramati or Sāramati. Peter Harvey finds the Tibetan attribution less plausible.[7]
 +
 +References
 +
 +   1. ^ '​Doctrinal Affiliation of the Buddhist Master Asanga'​ - Alex Wayman in Untying the Knots in Buddhism, ISBN 81-208-1321-9
 +   2. ^ a b Rongxi, Li. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions., Numata Center, Berkeley, 1996, p. 153.
 +   3. ^ Rongxi, Li. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions., Numata Center, Berkeley, 1996, pp. 154-155.
 +   4. ^ Wayman, Alex. Untying the Knots in Buddhism: Selected Essays. 1997. p. 213
 +   5. ^ On Some Aspects of the Doctrines of Maitreya (natha) and the Asanga - Giuseppe Tucci, Calcutta, 1930.
 +   6. ^ Dan Lusthaus, Buddhist Phenomenology. Routledge, 2002, page 44, note 5. Lusthaus draws attention to Rahula'​s Zen and the Taming of the Bull.
 +   7. ^ Peter Harvey, "An Introduction to Buddhism."​ Cambridge University Press, 1993, page 114.
 +
 +External links
 +
 +* Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (type in "​guest"​ as userID)
 +
 +* Vasubandhu: Entry at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
 +
 +* Distinguishing Dharma and Dharmata by Asanga and Maitreya By: Thrangu Rinpoche
 +
 +[[Fair Use]] Source: Retrieved from "​http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Asanga"​
 +Categories: 300 births | 4th-century deaths | 4th-century philosophers | Buddhist philosophers | Indian philosophers | Indian Buddhists
 +
 +This page was last modified on 22 May 2011 at 17:02.
 +
 +----
 +[[Previous Term]] | [[Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi |Next Term]]
 +
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 +[[Glossary of Dharma]] and [[Ayurvedic Terms]] | [[Recent Changes]]
 +
 +[[Fair Use]]: [[Vaidya]] [[Vasant Lad]], [[Textbook of Ayurveda]], [[Ayurvedic Press]], 2002; 
 +[[Vasant Lad]], [[BAMS]], [[MAsc]], [[Ayurvedic Institute Gurukula Notes]], [[Ayurvedic Institute]],​ 1994-2006; ​
 +and [[Ron Epstein]], [[Buddhism A to Z]], Burlingame, [[California]],​ [[Buddhist Text Translation Society]], 2003, p. and many other sources (see [[Bibliography]]).
 +Adapted from Fair Use Source: [[Upasaka]] [[Ron Epstein]], [[Buddhism A to Z]], 1999: p. 
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 +
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 +----
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asanga.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:10 (external edit)