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see also Asparagus cochinchinensis or Tian Men Dong


Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus/wild Indian asparagus root/one who posseses a hundred husbands/ Tian1 men2 dong1) for pitta (fire and watermetabolic – “bile” – Medium mesomorph)


Shatavari, org (1/2 lb.)

Item Number : 6972 Price: $10.95

USDA Organic

Certified Organic Shatavari powder (Asparagus racemosus)

Rejuvenative for vata & pitta that promotes vitality and strength*

   * Nourishing tonic for men and women*
   * Maintains a healthy female reproductive system*
   * Supports healthy lactation*
   * Promotes fertility and a healthy libido*

Ayurvedic Energetics:

   * Rasa (taste): bitter, sweet
   * Virya (action): cooling
   * Vipaka (post-digestive effect): sweet
   * Doshas (constitutions): Balancing for vata and pitta, may aggravate kapha in excess

Commentary: Shatavari is a rejuvenating herb that cools the body and strengthens and nourishes the tissues. Traditionally used to maintain the healthy production of female hormones, Shatavari may be translated as “100 spouses,” implying its role in promoting fertility and vitality. As a nutritive tonic it encourages the healthy production of milk in lactating mothers and the healthy production of semen in would be fathers. It is also useful during menopause and for women who have had hysterectomies. Shatavari supports a healthy immune system and assists in both physical and mental digestion. Its unctuous quality soothes and nurtures membranes of the lungs, stomach, kidneys and reproductive organs. Sattvic (pure, harmonious) in nature, Shatavari calms the mind and promotes love and devotion.*

For a 1 lb bag click here For five lbs or more in bulk click here

Herbal tablets that contain Shatavari include: Shatavari, Stress Ease, and Women's Support

Other products that contain Shatavari include: Breast Balm, Chyavanprash, Mahanarayan Oil, Pitta Massage Oil, and Shirodhara Oil

This product is organically grown and processed in accordance with the USDA's National Organic Program (NOP).

http://www.banyanbotanicals.com/prodinfo.asp?number=6972&variation=&aitem=101&mitem=125


Botanical name: Asparagus racemosus, Liliaceae

Other names: Abhiru, Mahashatavari (S), Satavar, Satmuli (H), Kilavari, Satavali (T), Wild Asparagus (E), Tian Men Dong (C)

ShatavariBotany: Shatavari is a climbing shrub attaining a height of between one and three meters, with a stout and creeping root stock, annual woody cylindrical stems with recurved or straight spines, and succulent tuberous roots that grow in clusters at the base of the stem. The young stems are quite brittle and delicate, and the leaves are actually flattened lateral shoots or scales called cladodes, arranged in tufts of two to six at each node. The flowers are white and fragrant, solitary or in fascicles, simple or branched racemes, giving rise to a globular fruit that is purplish-black when ripe containing seeds with a hard, brittle covering. Shatavari is found throughout tropical India into the Himalayan range up to 1400 m in elevation, extending into SE Asia, Australia and Africa (Kirtikar and Basu 1935, 2499; Warrier et al 1994, 218).

Part used: Roots.

Dravyguna:

   *
     Rasa: tikta, madhura
   *
     Vipaka: guru
   *
     Virya: shita, snigdha
   *
     Karma: shulaprashamana, stambhana, mutravirechana, shotahara, stanyajanana, prajasthapana, hyrdaya, vedanasthapana, chakshushya, medhya, vajikarana, balya, rasayana, Vatapittahara (Srikanthamurthy 2001, 257; Warrier et al 1994, 218-223).

Constituents: Shatavari has been found to contain steroidal glycosides including shatavarins I-IV, as well as diosgenin and various sterols. Other constituents include the alkaloid asparagamine A, flavonoids such as quercitin, rutin and hyperoside, an isoflavone, and a mucilage (Williamson 2002; Saxena and Chourasia 2001).

Medical research:

Ulcerogenesis: Researchers investigated the effects of a methanolic extract of fresh roots of A. racemosus in different gastroduodenal ulcer models in rats. An oral dose of between 25-100 mg/kg was given twice daily for 5 days, and demonstrated significant protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by cold restraint stress, pyloric ligation, aspirin and pyloric ligation, and duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The extract was also shown to heal chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid after 10 days treatment, but was ineffective against aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulceration (Sairam et al 2003). A herbo-mineral Ayurvedic preparation called Satavari mandur, which contains A. racemosus as the primary constituent, was investigated in gastric ulcer in rats. Overall, Satavari mandur demonstrated significant protection in cold restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer and acute gastric ulcer induced by pyloric ligation, but was ineffective against aspirin- and ethanol-induced ulcers. It was shown that the extract significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucus secretion, but had little or no effect on factors such as acid and pepsin secretion (Datta et al 2002). The powder of A. racemosus root was compared against metoclopramide on gastric emptying time in healthy human volunteers. Both Shatavari and metoclopramide were found to significantly reduced gastric emptying halftime (Dalvi et al 1990). A clinical trial evaluated the effects of A. racemosus root powder in 32 patients suffering from duodenal ulceration, 12 g/day in divided doses, over an average of six weeks. The root powder was found to relieve symptoms in the majority of patients. Researchers speculate that the antiulcer activity of Shatavari is due to an enhancement of the intrinsic mucosal defense mechanisms (Singh and Singh 1986).

Pulmonary: A methanolic extract of A. racemosus root dosed at 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, showed significant antitussive activity on sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice, comparable to that of codeine phosphate (Mandal et al 2000a). Researchers report that in high doses an alcoholic extract of root of A. racemosus was found to have a dilatory effect on the bronchial musculature of guinea pigs, but failed to antagonize histamine induced broncho-constriction (Roy 1971).

Galactagogue: A proprietary extract of A. racemosus in combination with other herbal ingredients (Ricalex tablets) was shown to increase milk production in human females complaining of deficient milk secretion. Upon the gradual withdrawal of the product researchers noted that there was concomitant gradual decrease in milk production (Joglekar et al 1967). The administration of an alcoholic extract of A. racemosus in weaning rats increased the weight of the mammary glands, inhibited the involution of lobulo-alveolar tissue and maintained milk secretion (Sabins et al 1968). Overall, the research suggests a mild dopaminergic antagonist activity for Shatavari, acting upon the pituitary gland (which lies outside the blood brain barrier) to down-regulate dopaminergic activities peripherally. These effects not only explain the galactagogue effect for Shatavari, but also its positive effect upon gastric emptying, down-regulating the activity of dopamine in the digestive tract, which acts to inhibit gastric emptying (Dalvi et al 1990).

Cardiovascular: An alcoholic extract of the roots of A. racemosus has been reported to produce positive ionotropic and chronotropic effect on frog's heart in low doses, but in high doses was shown to promote cardiac arrest. The same extract was found to cause a hypotensive effect in cats that was blocked by atropine, indicating a cholinergic mechanism of action. The extract also produced congestion and stasis of blood flow in mesentric vessels of mice and rat, and with the intravenous administration of the extract in rabbits promoted a slight increase in bleeding time but no effect on clotting time (Roy et al 1971).

Surgery and adhesions: The effect of A. racemosus was evaluated in an animal model of intraperitoneal adhesions induced by caecal rubbing. The animals were killed 15 days following surgery, the peritoneal macrophages were collected to assess their activity, and the peritoneal cavity was examined for the presence of adhesions. Researcher note that a significant decrease was observed in the adhesion scores attained by animals receiving A. racemosus, indicating that Shatavari could be used to both prevent and manage post-operative adhesions (Rege et al 1898).

Hepatotoxicity: An alcoholic extract of the root of A. racemosus has been shown to significantly reduce enhanced levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatic damage in rats (Muruganadan et al 2000).

Antitumor: A chloroform/methanol extract of fresh root of A. racemosus has been reported to reduce the tumor incidence in female rats treated with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene). Researchers speculate that this action is mediated by virtue of Shatavari's mammotropic and lactogenic effects, which renders the mammary epithelium less susceptible to carcinogens (Rao 1981).

Immunodulant: The oral administration of decoction of the powdered root of A. racemosus has been reported to promote leucocytosis, neutrophilia, and phagocytic activity in the macrophages and polymorphs in rats and mice with experimentally induced abdominal sepsis. The overall percentage mortality of A. racemosus treated animals was found to be significantly reduced while survival rate was comparable to that of the group treated with a combination of metronidazole and gentamicin (Dahanukar et al 1986; Thatte et al 1987)

Antioxidant: The antioxidant effects of the crude extract and a purified aqueous fraction of A. racemosus was examined in damage induced by ?-radiation in rat liver mitochondria. The radiation treatment resulted in lipid peroxidation, as assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), as protein oxidation and depletion of protein thiols, and a reduction in the levels of the superoxide dismutase. Both the polysaccharide fraction (P3) and the crude extract significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. The antioxidant effect of the P3 fraction was more pronounced against lipid peroxidation, while that of the crude extract was more effective in inhibiting protein oxidation. Both the crude extract and P3 fraction also protected against radiation-induced loss of protein thiols and inactivation of superoxide dismutase, comparable to glutathione and ascorbic acid (Kamat et al 2000).

Antimicrobial: Differing concentrations of a methanol extract of the roots of A. racemosus demonstrated significant in vitro antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (Mandal et al 2000b).

Toxicity: The systemic administration of high doses of various extracts of A. racemosus did not produce any abnormality in the behaviour pattern of mice and rats (Jetmalani et al 1967). Asparagus species may cause delayed-type cell-mediated and IgE-mediated reactions in sensitive individuals (Tabar et al 2003).

Indications: Dyspepsia, gastric and duodenal ulceration, intestinal colic, diarrhea, hepatitis and hepatomegaly, hemorrhoids, pharyngitis, cough, bronchitis, asthma, tuberculosis, stranguary, urethritis, cystitis, nephropathy, leucorrhea, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, agalactia, female and male infertility, threatened miscarriage, menopause, epilepsy, fatigue, asthenia, cardiopathies, tumors, surgical adhesions.

Contraindications: Kaphakopa, agnimandya and ama, due to its shita virya and snigdha and guru properties.

Medicinal uses: Shatavari is an important medicament in Ayurvedic medicine to relieve vitiations of Vata and Pitta, combining a nourishing and strengthening activity (brimhana) with soothing demulcent and emollient properties (snehana). Shatavari is thus indicated in any kind of irritation and inflammation in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts. It is particularly indicated in amlapitta or ‘acid gastritis,’ most notably in the form of a medicated ghee compound called Shatavari ghrita, prepared by decocting a paste of Shatavari root along with an equal quantity of the fresh root juice in milk and ghee. The Chakradatta states that Shatavari ghrita alleviates amlapitta caused by vitiations of Vata, Pitta, and rakta, and can also be used in the treatment of thirst, fainting, dyspnea, and gout (Sharma 2002, 236, 458). The Bhavaprakasha recommends Shatavari ghrita in the treatment of passive hemorrhage, gastritis, asthma and consumptive conditions (Srikanthamurthy 2000, 222). For Vataja fever the fresh juice of Shatavari and Guduchi are mixed with jaggery and taken internally (Sharma 2002, 12). Decocted with goat’s milk Shatavari is used in the treatment of raktapitta, of the passive hemorrhaging of the nose, eyes, ears, mouth, vagina or rectum (Sharma 2002, 124). Shatavari is also an important remedy in consumption and cachexia, used along with botanicals such as Ashvagandha, Bala, Nagabala, Gokshura, Vasaka, Punarnava and Pushkaramula (Inula helenium). Combined with equal parts Trikatu, Triphala, Bala, and Atibala, all of which are then combined with equal parts lauhabhasma (purified iron ore), Shatavari is used in consumptive conditions with severe cachexia, stiffness of the limbs and facial paralysis (Sharma 2002, 137). In the treatment of vertigo Shatavari can be decocted in milk with Bala and Draksha (Vitis vinifera) (Sharma 2002, 178). For epilepsy a simple milk decoction of Shatavari is recommended by the Chakradatta (Sharma 2002, 192). Shatavari is also an important ingredient in Mahanarayana taila, used topically in abhyanga in the treatment of angina, muscular spasm, inflammation and pain. Combined with equal parts Katuka, Guduchi, Triphala and Patola (Trichosanthes dioica), Shatavari is used internally in the treatment of gout (Sharma 2002, 234). In the treatment of disease of the heart Shatavari can be used along with botanicals such as Arjuna and Bala. Prepared as milk decoction with Gokshura and taken with jaggery as an anupana, Shatavari can be used in the treatment of Paittic variants of dysuria, with burning sensations and hematuria. Although the name Shatavari can be translated as ‘one hundred roots,’ (shata- one hundred, avari- below) referring to panicle of roots that is characteristic of the plant’s habit, Shatavari has also been translated to mean ‘one hundred husbands,’ indicating its potent vajikarana properties, especially in women (Lad and Frawley 1986, 183). Shatavari is a common component of many different Ayurvedic formulations used to treat disorders of the female reproductive tract, used along with botanicals such as Bala, Atibala (Abutilon indicum), Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Nagakeshara, Ashvagandha, Kumari (Aloe vera juice), Kurantaka (Barleria prionitis), Nilotpala (Nymphaea stellata) and Kumudam (Nymphaea alba). The Chakradatta suggests that Shatavari is an effective vajikarana rasayana, decocted in milk and ghee and taken with honey and Pippali churna (Sharma 2002, 653). To prevent threatened miscarriage (prajasthapana) the Chakradatta recommends a milk decoction of Shatavari, Manjishta, Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera), and Tila (Sesamum indicum). As a galactagogue (stanyajanana) a simple milk decoction of Shatavari is often used, or is part of more complex formulations that include botanicals such as Ashvagandha, Yavani and Kushta. As a restorative for the male reproductive system and to replenish the shukla dhatu Shatavari is taken along with botanicals such as Ashvagandha, Bala, Kapikachu, Gokshura and Tila (Sesamum indicum). To augment the size of the breasts as well as the penis the Chakradatta recommends a medicated oil to be massaged into these tissues, prepared by decocting Shatavari, Ashvagandha, Kushta, Jatamamsi and Brhati (Solanum indicum) in milk and sesame oil, until all the milk is evaporated (Sharma 2002, 654). In Chinese medicine a very similar species of Asparagus called Tian Men Dong (Asparagus cochinchinesis) is used as a Kidney and Lung Yin restorative in the treatment of dryness of the lungs, hemoptysis, thirst, constipation and asthenia (Bensky and Gamble 1993, 359-60).

Dosage:

• Churna: 3-15 g b.i.d.-t.i.d. • Kvatha: 60-120 mL b.i.d.-t.i.d. • Tincture: recently dried root, 1:3, 25% alcohol, 1-10 mL b.i.d.-t.i.d.

http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/331-shatavari


Asparagi, Tuber

Pinyin: tianmen dong

Common name: asparagus root

Botanical family: Liliaceae

Botanical name: Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Primary action: Supplement Yin

Temperature: cold

Taste: sweet, bitter

Entering Channel: Lu, Kd

Actions:

Nourishes Yin, moistens dryness, and descends Vacuity Fire; used for Yin Vacuity with Heat and for Wasting and Thirsting Pattern.

(See Interior-Heat-Vacuity (Vacuity of Yin) ; Vacuity Fire ; Wasting and Thirsting Pattern .)

Dosage: 2-5 qian.

Fair Use Source: http://www.chineseherbacademy.org/databases/hb-db/aspar.html


Means in Sanskrit “one who possesses a hundred husbands” or “one with one hundred roots”

Mandarin name: Tian1 men2 dong1

for pitta (fire and watermetabolic – “bile” – Medium mesomorph); (V-P-K=+)

Most important soothing the fire in the belly Herb. Most important female reproductive tonic Herb. Very rich.

shatavari is a rejuvenative Herb for both the sexes.

It is effective externally for stiff joints, neck and muscle spasms.

shatavari is good for those who have had a hysterectomy.

guna: guru, snigdha/mrudu rasa: Tikhta, madhura virya: shita vipak: madhura

dhatu: rejuvenator, artava (gharbhashaya, uterus), majja, shukra, rasa, raktagami

organs: eyes, stomach, liver, gallbladder, heart, yoni

Main actions: rasayana, cooling, anti-Inflammatory, calming, aphrodisiac, antacid, galactagogue, diuretic, demulcent, laxative

uses: reproductive organs (infertility, debility, impotence, etc),

digestive (hyperacidity, ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery),

urinary (dysuria, kidney stones),

respiratory system (cough, chronic fever, lung abscess), galactagogue.

contraindications: estrogen induced fibrocystic changes or other problems, massive fibrocystic breasts.


Asparagi (Tian Men Dong, Tiandong)

Asparagi Nourishes the Yin and Clears Heat, Moistens the Lungs and Nourishes the Kidneys. Some say it helps peace of mind and memory and makes the skin soft and smooth.

Fair Use Source: http://www.drshen.com/chineseherbs.htm#b


• Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus/Wild Indian Asparagus root/one who posseses a hundred husbands/ Tian1 men2 dong1) for Pitta (Fire and Water – Metabolic – “Bile” – Medium Mesomorph); (V↓P↓K═) Most important soothing the fire in the belly herb. Most important female reproductive tonic herb. Very rich. Shatavari is a rejuvenative herb for both the sexes. It is effective externally for stiff joints, neck and muscle spasms. It is good for those who have had a hysterectomies.

o Guna: Guru/Snigdha/mrudu Rasa: Tikhta/Madhur Virya: Sheeta Vipak: Madhur o Dhatu: Rejuvenator, Arthava (Gharbhashaya/uterus), Majja, Shukra, Rasa, Raktagami o Organs: Eyes, stomach, liver, gall bladder, heart, Yoni o Main Actions: Rasayana, cooling/anti-inflammatory, calming, Aphrodesiac, Anti-acid, Galactagogue, Diuretic, demulcent, laxative o Uses: ♀ reproductive organs (infertility, debility, impotence,etc), Digestive (hyper-acidity, ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery), Urinary (dysurea, kidney stones), Respiratory system (cough, chronic fever, lung abscess), galactogogue. o C/I: estrogen induced fibrocystic changes or other problems, massive fibrocystic breasts.


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Asparagus racemosus (satavar, shatavari, or shatamull) is a species of asparagus common throughout Nepal, Sri Lanka, India and the Himalayas. It grows one to two metres tall and prefers to take root in gravelly, rocky soils high up in piedmont plains, at 1,300–1,400 metres elevation.<ref name=rf>

</ref> It was botanically described in 1799.<ref name=grin/> Because of its multiple uses, the demand for Asparagus racemosus is constantly on the rise. Because of destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction, and deforestation, the plant is now considered “endangered” in its natural habitat.

Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is recommended in Ayurvedic texts for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers and dyspepsia, and as a galactogogue. A. racemosus has also been used by some Ayurvedic practitioners for nervous disorders.<ref>Asparagus racemosus–an update. [Review] [28 refs] Goyal RK. Singh J. Lal H. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 57(9):408-14, 2003 Sep.</ref>

A few recent reports demonstrated some additional beneficial effects of this herb including antihepatotoxic, immunomodulatory, immunoadjuvant and antilithiatic effects.<ref>

</ref>

Shatawari has different names in the different Indian languages, such as shatuli, vrishya and other terms. In Nepal it is called kurilo. The name “shatawari” means “curer of a hundred diseases” (shatum: “hundred”; vari: “curer”).

Leaves, flowers and fruits

Satavar has small pine-needle-like phylloclades (photosynthetic branches) that are uniform and shiny green. In July, it produces minute, white flowers on short, spiky stems, and in September it fruits, producing blackish-purple, globular berries.

Roots

It has an adventitious root system with tuberous roots that measure about one metre in length, tapering at both ends, with roughly a hundred on each plant.

Uses

Asparagus racemosus is an important plant in traditional medicine in tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha.

The roots are used in Ayurvedic medicine, following a regimen of processing and drying. It is generally used as a uterine tonic, as a galactogogue (to improve breast milk), in hyperacidity, and as a best general health tonic.

Chemical constituents

Asparagamine A, a polycyclic alkaloid was isolated from the dried roots<ref> The Ley Group: Combinatorial Chemistry and total synthesis of natural products</ref><ref>Structure of Asparagamine A (I), a Novel Polycyclic Alkaloid from Asparagus racemosus</ref> and subsequently synthesized to allow for the construction of analogs.<ref>Total Synthesis Of The Antitumor Agent Asparagamine A retrieved 11-02-2011

</ref>

Two new steroidal saponins, shatavaroside A and shatavaroside B together with a known saponin, filiasparoside C, were isolated from the roots of Asparagus racemosus.<ref>Steroidal saponins from Asparagus racemosus. Sharma U. Saini R. Kumar N. Singh B. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 57(8):890-3, 2009 Aug.</ref>

Five steroidal saponins, shatavarins VI-X, together with five known saponins, shatavarin I (or asparoside B), shatavarin IV (or asparinin B), shatavarin V, immunoside and schidigerasaponin D5 (or asparanin A), have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus racemosus.<ref>Steroidal saponins from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Hayes PY. Jahidin AH. Lehmann R. Penman K. Kitching W. De Voss JJ. Phytochemistry. 69(3):796-804, 2008 Feb.</ref>

Also known is the isoflavone 8-methoxy-5,6,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.<ref>A new isoflavone from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Saxena VK. Chourasia S. Fitoterapia. 72(3):307-9, 2001 Mar.</ref>

See also

References

asparagus_racemosus.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:10 (external edit)