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asparagus_racemosus [2016/04/22 14:23]
Dorjay Zopa
asparagus_racemosus [2018/02/26 18:10] (current)
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 o Uses: ♀ reproductive organs (infertility,​ debility, impotence,​etc),​ Digestive (hyper-acidity,​ ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery), Urinary (dysurea, kidney stones), Respiratory system (cough, chronic fever, lung abscess), galactogogue. o Uses: ♀ reproductive organs (infertility,​ debility, impotence,​etc),​ Digestive (hyper-acidity,​ ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery), Urinary (dysurea, kidney stones), Respiratory system (cough, chronic fever, lung abscess), galactogogue.
 o C/I: estrogen induced fibrocystic changes or other problems, massive fibrocystic breasts. o C/I: estrogen induced fibrocystic changes or other problems, massive fibrocystic breasts.
 +|taxon = Asparagus racemosus
 +| name = Satavari
 +| image = Asparagus racemosus.JPG
 +| image_caption = Shatawari plant photographed at Pune
 +| authority = [[Willd.]]<​ref name=grin>​{{cite web
 +  |url=http://​​cgi-bin/​npgs/​html/​​5540
 +  |title=Asparagus racemosus information from NPGS/GRIN
 +  |publisher=[[United States Department of Agriculture|USDA]]
 +  |work=[[Germplasm Resources Information Network]]
 +  |date=August 6, 2002
 +  |accessdate=April 25, 2009
 +  }}</​ref>​
 +| synonyms = *''​Asparagus rigidulus''​ [[Takenoshin Nakai|Nakai]]<​ref name=grin/>​
 +*''​Protasparagus racemosus''​ ([[Willd.]]) [[Oberm.]]<​ref name=grin/>​
 +'''''​Asparagus racemosus'''''​ ('''​satavar''',​ '''​shatavari''',​ or '''​shatamull'''​) is a species of asparagus common throughout [[Nepal]], [[Sri Lanka]], [[India]] and the [[Himalaya]]s. It grows one to two metres tall and prefers to take root in gravelly, rocky soils high up in [[piedmont]] plains, at 1,​300–1,​400 metres elevation.<​ref name=rf>​{{cite web |url=http://​​newcrop/​faminefoods/​ff_families/​liliaceae.html |title=LILIACEAE - Famine Foods |author=Robert Freeman |work=Centre for New Crops and Plant Products, Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture |publisher=[[Purdue University]] |date=February 26, 1998 |accessdate=April 25, 2009}}</​ref>​ It was botanically described in 1799.<​ref name=grin/>​ Because of its multiple uses, the demand for ''​Asparagus racemosus''​ is constantly on the rise. Because of destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction,​ and deforestation,​ the plant is now considered "​endangered"​ in its natural habitat.{{citation needed|date=November 2013}}
 +''​Asparagus racemosus''​ (Shatavari) is recommended in Ayurvedic texts for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers and dyspepsia, and as a galactogogue. ''​A. racemosus''​ has also been used by some Ayurvedic practitioners for nervous disorders.<​ref>​Asparagus racemosus--an update. [Review] [28 refs] Goyal RK. Singh J. Lal H. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 57(9):​408-14,​ 2003 Sep.</​ref>​
 +A few recent reports demonstrated some additional beneficial effects of this herb including antihepatotoxic,​ immunomodulatory,​ immunoadjuvant and antilithiatic effects.<​ref>​{{Cite journal|title = Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari):​ A review|url = http://​​pmc/​articles/​PMC4027291/​|journal = Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease|date = 2013-06-01|issn = 2222-1808|pmc = 4027291|pages = 242–251|volume = 3|issue = 3|doi = 10.1016/​S2222-1808(13)60049-3|first = Shashi|last = Alok|first2 = Sanjay Kumar|last2 = Jain|first3 = Amita|last3 = Verma|first4 = Mayank|last4 = Kumar|first5 = Alok|last5 = Mahor|first6 = Monika|last6 = Sabharwal}}</​ref>​
 +Shatawari has different names in the different [[Languages of India|Indian languages]],​ such as shatuli, vrishya and other terms. In [[Nepal]] it is called kurilo. The name "​shatawari"​ means "curer of a hundred diseases"​ (shatum: "​hundred";​ vari: "​curer"​).
 +== Leaves, flowers and fruits ==
 +[[File:​Asparagus racemosus fleurs.JPG|thumb|right|Close-up on flowers]]
 +Satavar has small [[Pine needle|pine-needle]]-like [[phylloclade]]s (photosynthetic branches) that are uniform and shiny green. In July, it produces minute, white [[flower]]s on short, spiky [[Plant stem|stem]]s,​ and in September it [[fruit]]s, producing blackish-purple,​ globular [[berry (botany)|berries]].
 +== Roots ==
 +It has an [[adventitious|adventitious root system]] with [[tuber|tuberous roots]] that measure about one metre in length, tapering at both ends, with roughly a hundred on each plant.
 +{{unreferenced section|date=September 2014}}
 +''​Asparagus racemosus''​ is an important plant in traditional medicine in tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the Indian and [[British Pharmacopoeia]]s and in traditional systems of medicine such as [[Ayurveda]],​ [[Unani]] and [[Siddha]].{{citation needed|date=September 2014}}
 +The roots are used in [[Ayurvedic medicine]], following a regimen of processing and drying. It is generally used as a uterine tonic, as a [[galactogogue]] (to improve breast milk), in hyperacidity,​ and as a best general health tonic.
 +==Chemical constituents==
 +[[Asparagamine A]], a [[polycyclic compound|polycyclic]] [[alkaloid]] was isolated from the dried roots<​ref>​[http://​​lab_letters/​PDF/​asparagamine.pdf ​ The Ley Group: Combinatorial Chemistry and total synthesis of natural products]</​ref><​ref>​[http://​​doi/​10.1002/​chin.199505264/​full Structure of Asparagamine A (I), a Novel Polycyclic Alkaloid from Asparagus racemosus]</​ref>​ and subsequently synthesized to allow for the construction of analogs.<​ref>​[http://​​g/​1F32CA091635-01/​Total-Synthesis-of-the-Antitumor-Agent-Asparagamine-A/​ Total Synthesis Of The Antitumor Agent Asparagamine A] retrieved 11-02-2011 ​ {{wayback|url=http://​​g/​1F32CA091635-01/​Total-Synthesis-of-the-Antitumor-Agent-Asparagamine-A/​ |date=20120425132550 }}</​ref>​
 +Two new [[steroid]]al [[saponin]]s,​ [[shatavaroside A]]  and [[shatavaroside B]] together with a known saponin, [[filiasparoside C]], were isolated from the roots of ''​Asparagus racemosus''​.<​ref>​Steroidal saponins from Asparagus racemosus. Sharma U. Saini R. Kumar N. Singh B. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 57(8):​890-3,​ 2009 Aug.</​ref>​
 +Five steroidal saponins, shatavarins VI-X, together with five known saponins, shatavarin I (or asparoside B), shatavarin IV (or asparinin B), shatavarin V, immunoside and schidigerasaponin D5 (or asparanin A), have been isolated from the roots of ''​Asparagus racemosus''​.<​ref>​Steroidal saponins from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Hayes PY. Jahidin AH. Lehmann R. Penman K. Kitching W. De Voss JJ. Phytochemistry. 69(3):​796-804,​ 2008 Feb.</​ref>​
 +Also known is the [[isoflavone]] 8-methoxy-5,​6,​4'​-trihydroxyisoflavone 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.<​ref>​A new isoflavone from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Saxena VK. Chourasia S. Fitoterapia. 72(3):​307-9,​ 2001 Mar.</​ref>​
 +==See also==
 +* [[Shatavar Vatika Herbal Park, Hisar]], [[Haryana]]—a herbal park in India for the research, preservation and propagation of ''​Shatavari''​
 +==External links==
 +{{Commons category|Asparagus racemosus}}
 +*[http://​​longshots/​Satawari.jpg Nice picture of ''​A. racemosus''​ flowers from "​Flowers of India" website]
 +*[http://​​cgi-bin/​npgs/​html/​​5540 USDA GRIN]
 +*{{cite book |last=Caldecott |first=Todd |year=2006 |title=Ayurveda:​ The Divine Science of Life |publisher=Elsevier/​Mosby |isbn=0-7234-3410-7 }} Contains a detailed monograph on ''​Asparagus racemosus''​ (Shatavari) as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at http://​​index.php/​herbs/​learning-herbs/​331-shatavari
 +[[Category:​Plants used in Ayurveda]]
 +[[Category:​Flora of the Indian Subcontinent]]
 +[[Category:​Plants described in 1799]]
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 [[Category:​Rasayanas]] [[Category:​Rasayanas]]
 [[Category:​Latin Ayurvedic Herb Names]] [[Category:​Latin Ayurvedic Herb Names]]
asparagus_racemosus.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:10 (external edit)