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See Ayurveda glossary - this is just the temporary working page.

adarshanam - impaired visual perception, one of the signs of disturbed agni. 

adhirata - Impatience; living in the future; instability; all signs of impaired agni.

adho jatru granthi - The thymus gland.

agni - fire element, the second of the five elements in the body; it regulates temperature, performs digestion, absorption, and assimilation of ingested food, and transforms food into energy or consciousness.


agnideva - The ancient Vedic deity of fire, both creative and destructive in nature; the energy of physical fire. ahamkara - A continuous feeling of “I am;” a center in the daily operating consciousness from where each individual thinks, feels, and acts as an independent being from his or her individual accumulated experience.

agni nara yana - The fire that enters into the body of every human being and governs life. agni tejas - The energy of the fire element.


ahara rasa - nutritive juice that is the end product of digested food, formed about 12 hours after eating; the nutritional precursor of all bodily tissues; asthayi (unstable, unprocessed) form of rasa dhatu.

aharsha - Unhappiness, depression, signs of impaired agni.

ajna - The center point between the eyebrows related to the pituitary gland; the point where right hemisphere meets with left, alpha meets with omega, intuition meets with logic; the highest end point of human polarity; the center of cognition which is activated by light. 

akasha -  Ether or Space Element, the first of the Five Elements; the first expression of consciousness; the subtle, light, expansive element which serves as the common factor or “home” for all objects in the universe and manifests as nuclear energy. 

akshi vitta sneha - oily secretions from the eyes; one of the inferior by-products of majja dhatu (dhatu mala of majja). 

alochaka - One of the subtypes of pitta dosha, situated in the sense organ of seeing; it is responsible for vision and color perception.

alaukika - Supernatural; uncommon or unusual. amashaya - The stomach; literally, the receptacle for undigested food or Ama.

amatroshna - loss of ability to regulate the body temperature, one of the signs of disturbed agni. ambu vaha srotas - The bodily channels carrying water; the root or governor of this channel is the pancreas, soft palate, and choroid plexus in the brain. Its pathway is the mucus membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, and the openings are the kidneys, tongue, and sweat glands. See brain. Related to prana vayu, sadhaka pitta and tarpaka kapha. amla - sour taste; made of earth and fire, it increases pitta and kapha dosha, and decreases vata dosha.

amla avastha paka - The sour stage of digestion that occurs in the second hour after eating.

amrita - Nectar; immortal nectar; anything strengthening, sweet, or beautiful.

anahata - The heart chakra; related to the thymus gland; the center of unconditional love; related to immunity; also denotes the cardiac plexus which governs heart activity.

anala - fire; one of the synonyms for agni.

anila - cosmic prana which maintains global life along with soma and surya; another name for vata dosha; atmosphere.

anjali - A measurement formed when two hands meet together to make an empty bowl. anna vaha srotas - The bodily channels that take in and carry food; this channel begins at the lips of the mouth, is governed by the esophagus and greater curvature of the stomach, continues through the entire gastrointestinal tract, and opens at the ileocecal valve.

annamaya kosha - Literally, the sheath made of food; the physical body.

antara agni - Internal fire; one of the synonyms for jathara agni. anu - atom; also individual (as opposed to universal).

anu vaha srotas - The atomic channel or pathway; the pathway of atoms, which is the cell.

anumana - Inference as one of the means of attaining valid knowledge according to the Nyaya system of philosophy.

ananda - Bliss. anandamaya kosha - The sheath made of bliss. apas - water; the water element.

apo agni - The fire component inherent in the water element.

apta - authoritative, truthful, trustworthy; authoritative testimony, one of the means of obtaining valid knowledge according to the Nyaya school.

apya tejas - The fire component of water.

apana - The energy that governs outward movement; one of the subtypes of vata dosha functioning mainly in the colon (large intestine), it governs the elimination of feces (bowel movement, defecation - see purisha vaha srotas), flatus (flatulence, gas, farting), urine (urination - see mutra vaha srotas, menstrual blood (menstruation - see raja vaha srotas), and other gross wastes, as well as subtle or cellular wastes.  Apana vayu also controls ejaculation of semen (shukra dhatu) and baby-birthing (pregnancy, pregnant - see artava vaha srotas).

apana vayu dushti - disorder or disturbance of apana vayu; known by such symptoms as abdominal distention (bloating, bloated), diarrhea (pitta dushti) or constipation (vata dushti) - see purisha vaha srotas, gas (flatus, flatulence, farting), pain, and accumulation of wastes.

apakti - indigestion; impaired digestion.

aparatva - Not beyond; postponement, a characteristic of tejas that gives the ability to know what is a priority and what may be done later, especially in a state of physical crisis.

arogya - health - see also arogyavardhini vati.

artava - female reproductive tissue, including ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and the ova; closely associated with rasa dhatu due to its functional integrity with menstruation and lactation. The seventh of the seven dhatus.

artava vaha srotas - The channels carrying nutrients for artava dhatu, or female reproductive tissue; the root or governor of this channel is the ovaries and areola of the nipples. The pathway includes the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervical canal, and vaginal canal, and the opening is the labia of the vagina. 
asana - Yoga posture; one of the eight limbs of Yoga philosophy; that which brings stability, strength, and ease to the body and mind. ashauryam - fear, anxiety, lack of courage, all signs of impaired agni.

ashita - One of the types of food; a soup or jellylike thing that does not have to be masticated (chewed), just swallowed. See kitchari, congee, porridge.

ashru - lacrimation, tears; the superior by-product of majja (upadhatu of majja).

asthayi - Unstable; immature; unformed; relates to stage in the process of tissue formation when food precursors have been selected by the tissue but have not yet been assimilated into the fully formed tissue.

asthayi dhatu dushti - Entry of a dosha into the immature dhatu (tissue) or unstable tissue causing qualitative disturbance; generally causes acute disorders, compared to those resulting from entry of a dosha into the stable, fully formed tissue.

asthavidha virya - eight qualities from the list of twenty gunas that tend to have the most prominent secondary effects on the body. They are the guna pairs of hot-cold, heavy-light, oily-dry, and the soft and sharp gunas. Hot and cold have the strongest effect on agni (digestive fire) and the remaining six qualities are experienced later or in a more subtle way.

asthi - bone tissue; one of the seven dhatus (bodily tissues); that which supports the body, giving protection, shape, and longevity.

asthi vaha srotas - The channel carrying nutrients for asthi dhatu or bone tissue; its root (mula) or governor is the pelvic girdle and sacrum. Its passageway (marga) is the entire skeletal system, and the opening or mouth (mukha) of the channel is the nails and hair.

atman - The soul or self.

Atharva Veda - The fourth of the four Vedas, ancient scripture of India.

atipravruttioverflow; one of the three general categories of sroto dushti.

avila - cloudy; characterized by cloudiness; confusion, loss of sensory perception; it increases kapha, decreases pitta and vata.

avyaktaUnmanifested; the pre-“big bang” state. See also Dharmakaya, Dharmadhatu, Tathagatha Garba ayuh - life; longevity.


Badarayana - name of the sage said to be the founder of Vedanta philosophy. bala - strength - physical, mental, and spiritual; a function of ojas and of healthy agni. basti - medicated enema (herbal enema), one of the five important cleansing measures of pancha karma; it eliminates excess vata via the colon, using herbal tea enemas or oil enemas. Bhagavad Gita - name of a sacred celestial text that consists in a dialogue between Arjuna and Lord Krishna. Bhakti Yoga - One of the main paths to liberation, the path of devotion leading to realization of the Divine in oneself (see Buddha NatureTathagata Garbha). See also Guru Devotion, Vajra Master, Root Guru, Lama, Guru, Tripitaka Master, Divine Pride, Deity Yoga bhasma - A specialized Ayurvedic preparation alchemically produced by fastidious purification and burning into ash; bhasmas are very potentized, easily absorbable, and release prana into the system. bhasvara - illumination; a characteristic of tejas.

bhaumi tejas - earthly tejas; The fire component present in the earth. bhrajaka - One of the five subtypes of pitta, located in the skin of the entire body. Its function is to give tactile sensation, color complexion, and luster to the skin, as well as digestion of any medications that are applied to the skin, such as oils, salves, or plasters bhrajaka agni - The fire component of bhrajaka pitta, which governs and organizes its functions.

bhrama - Faulty cognition, one of the three sources of invalid knowledge according to Nyaya philosophy. bhuta - element; the five elements of ether, air, fire, water, and earth; that which manifests as matter. bhuta agni - The fire component of the five elements based in the liver, which manifests as the liver enzymes. It converts the five elements present in ingested food into biologically available (bio-available) forms of the elements that can be utilized by the body. There are five bhuta agnis, one for each of the five elements.

bindu - A drop; a point having no parts or magnitude; pulsating consciousness present at the time of fertilization of an ovum; the central point of a yantra (see Tantra).

bodhaka kapha - bodhaka - bodhak - bodhak kapha bodhaka kapha : A subtype of kapha. The Sanskrit word bodhaka comes from bodhana, which means to make known. It is located in the mouth and is represented by saliva, which is liquid, sticky, sweet, and slightly unctuous. The liquid quality of bodhaka kapha keeps the mouth wet and soft. Saliva in the mouth prevents friction between the soft tissues of the tongue and palate. We have two types of palate, the hard palate and the soft palate. The hard palate is a bony dome and the soft palate is a soft mobile structure. The tongue moves freely in the oral cavity without sticking to the palate, because of the liquid and unctuous qualities of bodhaka kapha.

bodhana - Making known; understanding, knowledge. Brahma - The pure, expansive, all-pervasive, universal consciousness; eternal timeless existence. See also Tathagatha Garbha, Buddha Matrix, Dharmadhatu, Dharmakata

Brahma - creative potential; the first in the Hindu trinity of Gods: the creator of the universe. Brahma agni - The fire of attention, awareness, and consciousness which is the ultimate higher function of agni; also known as dhyana agni.

Brahma Randhra - A small opening in the cranium located at the anterior fontanll of the brain and connected to the cosmic consciousness. Brahmanda - The expanding universal egg; the universe.

brahmi - An Ayurvedic herb - gotu kola.

buddhi - The individual intellect. buddhihara - Lack of discrimination and reasoning power; indecisiveness (vata); one of the signs of impaired agni.

buddhikara - The creation of reasoning capacity, one of the functions of agni.


chakra - The energy centers in the body related to nerve plexus centers that govern the bodily functions. Each chakra is a separate reservoir of consciousness, connecting the physical body to the astral body. chala - mobile; an attribute characterized by mobility and changeability; increases vata, increases pitta, and decreases kapha. chaya - shadow; dullness; loss of luster; all signs of disturbed tejas or impaired agni.

chidakash - A space within the brain that is functionally connected to the synaptic spaces in between the neurons; the inner space of pure awareness present in the ventricles of the brain. chikitsa - treatment. chitta - The mind; psychic energy; the psyche as a whole.


danta - Teeth; the superior by-product of asthi dhatu (upadhatu of asthi). darshanam - Visual perception, one of the functions of healthy agni. deha agni - Bodily fire; the general, non-specialized agni present throughout the body.

deha prakruti - The bodily constitution, incorporating the congenital state of the doshas. It results from changes in the doshas of the fetus during gestation due to the mother's diet, lifestyle, emotions, and environment. Deha prakruti expresses congenital disorders and also any altered state of doshas that is so long-standing that it appears to be prakruti. dhairyam - Patience; stability; confidence; all signs of healthy agni.

dharana - The sixth limb in the Yoga system of Patanjali; the act of focusing attention on one object and mentally holding the object; one-pointed awareness. dhatu - The elemental structural tissues that constitute the human body. There are seven basic tissues defined in Ayurveda: plasma, blood, muscle, fat, bone, nerve, bone marrow, and reproductive tissue. dhatu agni - The agni component of each dhatu; located in the membrane that separates one dhatu from another. It nourishes the tissue, maintains tissue metabolism, and transforms immature tissue into mature tissue. dhatu dhara kala - The membranous structure between two dhatus that separates one dhatu from another.

dhatu dushti - qualitative disorder of a stable, fully formed tissue.

dhatu karshyana - tissue emaciation; malnourishment; one of the signs of impaired agni.

dhatu kshaya - Unduly decreased or diminished tissue. See kshaya and ojakshaya.

dhatu poshana - nutrition, (poshana) of the bodily tissues; one of the functions of healthy agni. Governed by the three laws of nutrition: irrigation, selectivity, and transformation.

dhatu vruddhi - Unduly increased or unprocessed tissue.

dhi - cognition; one of the faculties of buddhi, or intellect.

dhruti - Retention; one of the faculties of buddhi, or intellect. 

dhyana - The seventh limb in the Yoga system of Patanjali; meditation; a continuous flow of attention without words or thoughts; a state of moment-to-moment, choiceless, passive awareness, or witnessing, without judgment, liking, or disliking. 

dhyana agni - The fire of attention; awareness, and consciousness which is the ultimate function of agni; also known as Brahma agni. 

dig - direction; one of the 9 causative factors according to Vaisheshika; vector, which is one of the factors influencing the creation and maintenance of the manifested universe. 

Dinacharya - daily routine.

dipana - The action of kindling agni. 

dirgham - Appropriate span of life, maintained by healthy agni.

divya tejas - The fire component of ether or space. dhamani - artery.

dosha - Referring to vata, pitta and kapha; the three psycho-physiological functional principles of the body, the ratio of which determines the individual's constitution at the time of conception. The doshas support and maintain the proper functioning of the body when normal, and they can create disease when imbalanced.

dosha dushti - qualitative disturbance of any dosha, as opposed to quantitative disturbance. dosha gati - The vector or direction in which a dosha moves. dosha kshaya - quantitative disturbance of any dosha wherein the dosha becomes depleted. dosha prakruti - The ratio of doshas present at the time of birth, when the baby takes its first breath. The season, time place, date, and planetary disposition at birth can all affect dosha prakruti. dosha vruddhi - quantitative disturbance of any dosha, wherein the dosha becomes increased.

dravatva - fluidity or liquefaction; a function of tejas due to heat. dravya - matter; substance; defined as that which has attribute and action, or guna and karma dwelling inseparably.

dravyamaya tejas - The tejas inherent in matter that has form, color, and shape; crystallized light.

dravyashakti - The energy of matter; the energy of tamo guna (tamas). duhkha - Literally, 'bad space'; a state of misery, pain, disease, unhappiness, or suffering of any kind. dushti - qualitative disturbance.



edema- The accumulation of excess fluid in the cells or intercellular spaces within the tissues, resulting in raised skin. Edema, which is called Shotha in Sanskrit, is due to an imbalance of Vata, Pitta, or Kapha.


Indra - An ancient Vedic deity; cosmic prana. See Indra and Heaven of the Thirty-Three (Trayastrimsha), Desire Realm, Gods, Devas, Shiva, Narayan, Brahma

indriya - Inner doors of perception, including sensory and motor organs and their pathways in the brain. indriya agni - The fire component present in each of the five [[sense faculties, it converts sensory input into understanding, experience, and knowledge.


jahara agni - The central fire (jahara) of the digestive system, responsible for digestion and assimilation of ingested food; it nourishes all bodily agni. See Traditional Chinese Medicine TermsSpleen Qi jivatman - The individual soul. See Anatman Nasattva Najiva Napudgala and no self. jiva - individual life; individual consciousness; the pure sense of “me”.

jivana - life-giving (a special function of rakta dhatu). Jaimini - name of the celebrated sage who founded the Mimamsa school of philosophy.

janma prakrutiGenetic prakruti, determined at the moment of conception by the state of the doshas in both of the parents. Once established, it does not change. jatru agni - The fire component present in the thyroid gland; it is the bridge between bhuta agni and dhatu agni. jihva - tongue; one of the openings of ambu vaha srotas. Site of bhodhaka kapha. jnanaWisdom or knowledge. See also Prajna, Prajna Paramita, wisdom realizing emptiness

Jnana Yoga - One of the main paths to liberation; the path of knowledge or wisdom to realize the Divine in oneself. See also Sutra, Shastra, Tripitaka, Abhidharma, Gelug, Five Schools of Buddhist Study and Practice

jnanendriya - The five sensory faculties (five sense faculties; the inner doors of perception, including sensory organs and their pathways in the brain. See Eighteen Realmseyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, mind and sense consciousness, sense objects

jnanashakti - The energy of wisdom, cognition; the energy of sattva guna.


kala - time the force that brings transformation in all matter; a measurement of movement; one of the nine causative substances of Vaisheshika. Kapila - The name of the sage who founded the Sankhya school of philosophy. kaya - body. See also Trikaya - Dharmakaya, Sambhoghakaya, Nirmanakaya. kaya agni - Bodily fire; one of the synonyms for jathara agni.

kaya chikitsaInternal medicine; treatment (chikitsa or cikitsa) of disorders relating to the entire body. kala - The membranous structure that holds a tissue, separating one from the other, it also lines all organs and cavities in the body. kalala - The fertilized ovum; the first expression of creation; the primordial expression of the union between male and female. kali - flower bud. [Kanada]] - The name of the sage who founded the Vaisheshika school of philosophy; considered to be the father of atomic theory. kandara - One of the superior by-products of rakta dhatu (upadhatu of rakta); small tendons and sinews, such as hamstring muscles.

kapha - One of the three doshas, combining the water and earth elements; the psycho-physiological energy that forms the body's structure and holds the cells together.

kapha gunas

Kapha Imbalance - Agents of Kapha Imbalance, Signs and Symptoms of Kapha Imbalance, Kapha Diseases, Treatment of Imbalanced Kapha

karaja tejas - The fire component of foods; enzymes.

karma - action; the law stating that for every action there is an equal and opposite re[[action; specific action of a substance or herb; along with guna (attribute), karma makes up the inherent nature of a substance, according to Vaisheshika. karma Yoga - One of the main paths to liberation; the path of taking positive action and surrendering the fruits of all actions to the Di[[vine. karmendriya - The five motor faculties; the faculties of action, including motor organs and their pathways in the brain. kashaya - astringent taste; made up of air and earth, it increases vata dosha and pacifies pitta and kapha. kashaya avastha paka - The astringent stage of digestion, which takes place in the colon during the sixth hour or so after eating. kathina - Hard quality; hardness; increases vata and kapha and decreases pitta; associated with strength, rigidity, selfishness, callousness, and insen- K ? 303 sitivity. Also associated with things like pneumonia, callouses, and hardening of the arteries. kati - Pelvic girdle, waist, lumbo-sacral area, lumbar spine. katu - pungent taste; made up of air and fire, it increases pitta and vata doshas, and pacifies kapha dosha. katu avastha paka - The pungent stage of digestion that occurs in the jejunum during the fourth hour after eating. kedara kulya Nyaya - Irrigation; the first law of tissue nutrition; the process by which the end product of digested food, called ahara rasa, is carried throughout the body via the circulatory sy[[stem. kesha - h[[air; the inferior by-product of asthi dhatu (dhatu mala of asthi).

kha - space.

khamala - The inferior by-products of mamsa dhatu, (dhatu mala of mamsa) including nasal crust, earwax, sebaceous secretions, tartar, and smegma.

khara - Rough quality; roughness, which is connected with dryness, absorption, constipation, and which aggravates vata and decreases pitta and kapha.

khavaigunya - Any weak or defective space in the body that exists because of past trauma, chronic disease, or hereditary influence and becomes a place where aggravated doshas can easily lodge and create disorder. khadita - food that must be masticated in order to become soft. khale kapota nyaya - Selectivity; the second law of tissue nutrition; the process by which every cell and tissue selects the elemental components of ingested food that nourish that particular tissue. kitta - waste product or inferior by-product (dhatu mala); feces; the non-essential component of ingested food that is excreted from the body. kleda - Liquefaction, hydration, water; sebaceous secretions, mucus, and other liquid secretions associated with kapha dosha.

kledaka kapha - One of the subtypes of kapha; its function is to liquefy ingested food in the stomach (ama shaya); it also protects the stomach wall from the digestive enzymes and acids; the gastric mucous membrane. 

kloma - pancreas; the root of the water carrying channels; kloma also refers to the choroid plexus in the brain. 
kloma agni - The digestive energy of the pancreas. It works in conjunction with bhuta agni from the liver and assists in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. 

kosha - s[[heath]]. There are five s[[heath]]s: the s[[heath]] of bliss, the s[[heath]] of knowledge, the s[[heath]] of mind, the s[[heath]] of prana, and the s[[heath]] of food. koshta agni - Internal fire; one of the synonyms for jathara agni. kriyashakti - Kinetic energy; a characteristic of rajo guna (rajas), energy of action and movement. kshaya - decreased, diminished; wasted. signs of impaired agni include decay, weakness; and emaciation. kshipta - hyperactive mind; one of the five states of mind. kshira dadhi Nyaya - transformation, coagulation; the third law of dhatu nutrition; the process by which the tissue precursors are transformed into the tissues themselves. This is the conversion of asthayi (immature, unprocessed) dhatu into sthayi (mature, processed) dhatu, governed by the dhatu agni. kundalini - The coiled, serpentine, spiritual energy, which, for most people, lies dormant at the base of the spine. kundalini shakti - The power of pure energy; the term used in describing the awakening of spiritual energy. 


laja - Roasted rice; apara ojas is described as possessing the smell of roasted rice. laghu - light; an attribute characterized by radiance and/or lightness, it aids in digestion, cleansing, and promotes freshness and alertness. In excess it may cause insomnia and ungroundedness; an attribute of both vata and pitta doshas. laukika - Ordinary; ordinary perception as opposed to extraordinary perception, relative reality. lavana - salty taste; made up of fire and water elements, it increases pitta and kapha dosha but pacifies vata dosha lavana avastha paka - The salty stage of digestion, which occurs in the duodenum during the third hour after eating. lehya - food that is licked, like ice cream. It is also one of the methods of ingesting medicines, especially bhasmas. lekhana - “Scraping” action, the action of cleansing and removing fat and toxins from the body lepana - Plastering; holding; one of the main important functions of mamsa dhatu


mamsa - One of the seven dhatus, consisting of all types of muscle; functions include movement, coordination, “plastering,” protection, maintenance of body temperature, maintenance of body shape, ambition, confidence, and strength. mamsa vaha srotas - The channel carrying nutrients for mamsa dhatu, or muscle tissue; the root or governor of this channel is the fascia and small tendons. The passageway of the channel is the entire musculature sy[[stem, and the opening of the channel is the pores of the skin. marga - Passageway; a synonym for the word sro tas matroshna - regulation of body temperature, one of the signs of healthy agni. maya - universal illusion; the perceivable form of the Di[[vine mother

Mimamsa - One of the major philosophies that Ayurveda utilizes; Purva Mimamsa, founded by Jaimini, is based on the initial teachings of the Vedas, expounding liberation through performance of ritual, celebration, and duty; Uttara Mimamsa, also known as Ve[[danta]], is based on the later, higher teachings of the Vedas, the Upanishads. muLadhara - The first chakra located in the root area of the trunk of the body; related to the gonads; associated with survival, groundedness, stability, security, and instincts. mutra agni - The fire component of the membranous structure surrounding the kidneys and bladder, it governs the functions of the urinary sy[[stem. It maintains the glomeruli threshold, Acid-alkali balance of urine, and specific gravity of urine. mutra vaha srotas - The channel that carries urine; the root or governor of this channel is the kidneys. The pathway of this channel is the ureters, urethra, and bladder. The opening or mouth of this channel is the opening of the urethra. madhura - sweet taste; made up of earth and water, it increases kapha dosha and pacifies pitta and vata dosha madhura avastha paka - The sweet stage of digestion, which occurs in the first hour after eating. maha srotas - The largest channel in the body, the digestive tract mahat - The great principle; cosmic intelligence; the cosmic aspect of the intellect, it contains buddhi, the individual intellect, ego, and mind. majja - One of the seven dhatus, consisting of bone marrow]], connective tissue, and nerve tissue; associated with the endocrine sy[[stem and erythrogenesis, its main functions are communication and to fill space in the body, especially within the bone. majja vaha srotas - The channel carrying nutrients for majja dhatu, or bone marrow]] and nervous tissue; the root or governor for this channel is the brain, spinal cord, and joints. The pathway is the central, sympathetic, and parasympathetic nervous sy[[stem. The opening is the synaptic space mala agnis - The fire located in the membranous structure of the organs of elimination, governing the elimination of waste products related to those organs. mala vaha srotas - Another name for the channel carrying feces, or the purisha vaha srotas. manas - mind; one of the causative substances according to the Vaisheshika philosophy; the faculty arising from sattva guna according to the Sankhya school of thought; the sensory-feeling part of the mind that manifests thoughts and emotions, as contrasted with buddhi, the intellectual faculty of mind. manas can be anu (individual) and vibhu (universal). manas prakruti - mental]] constitution, which is manifested at the time of fertilization and described in terms of the three gunas-sattva, rajas, and tamas. In the cosmic mind, equilibrium of the gunas is maintained; in an individual mind, these three are in unequal proportion, according to the karmas expressing in that individual's consciousness. manda - slow quality; an attribute that increases kapha and decreases vata and pitta, creates sluggishness, slow action, relaxation and dullness, as well as calm, quiet, and silence. manda agni - slow digestion ; one of the three categories of disturbed agni (three clinical types of agni); digestion affected by the heavy (guru), slow (manda), and cool (shita or sheeta) qualities (gunas) of kapha dosha, causing slow metabolism. Related to underactive thyroid, sluggish digestion, mucous, and ama. See three clinical types of agni (vishama agni of vata, tikshna agni of pitta and manda agni of kapha). See also stomach or ama shaya (amashaya). Related to pachaka pitta, samana vayu and kledaka kapha. See also agni, subtypes of agni, ama (toxins and undigested food). See also gastrointestinal tract, metabolism.

mano vaha srotas - The channel that carries the mind; the root or governor of this channel is the heart and the sensory pathways. Its pathway is the entire body, and the opening or mouth of this channel is the sense organs and the marmani. manomaya kosha - The s[[heath]] made of mind; related to manas, the sensory and emotional mind. 
M ? 305 
mantra - A form of vocal or silent suggestion, usually repetitive; a syllable, word, or group of words that illuminate consciousness, bringing clarity, understanding, stillness, peace, prolonged concentration, and eventually samadhi; words uttered from the heart of a wise being. mantra must be spoken, heard, or felt  -  a written mantra has no power. 
marmani - The plural form of marma; vital energy points, similar to acupuncture points, where consciousness is most expressive. 
marma - A vital point on the body that is used ther
apeutically and diagnostically. maya - “Made of” as in prana maya kosha, the s[[heath]] made of prana. 
medhahara - loss of intelligence, both mental]] and 
cellular; one of the signs of impaired agni. meda dhatu or medas - Adipose tissue, one of the seven dhatus; a loose connective tissue that includes fat, steroids such as cholesterol, and other types of lipids; functions include giving shape and beauty to the body, sweet tone to the voice, and lubrication of all bodily sy[[stems. 
medha - mental]] and physical intelligence. medhakara  -  The creation of intelligence and clear
cellular communication; one of the functions of healthy agni. medo vaha srotas - The bodily channel carrying 
nutrients for the fat tissue; the root or governor of this channel is the omentum and the adrenal]]s. The passageway is the subcu[[taneous]] fat tissue, and the opening is the sweat glands. 
mithuna - male and female energy merging 
together; sex. moksha - Freedom, liberation; the final aim of all knowledge, work, and activity; the ultimate aim of life; the ending of involuntary and unconscious participation in the relative world 
mrudu - soft quality; softness, delicacy; promotes mucus, adipose tissue, relaxation, tenderness, love, care, promotes kapha and pitta and decreases vata. 
mudha - Deluded mind; hallucinating mind; one of 
the five states of mind. mudra - A gesture or positioning of the fingers practiced in devotional worship or yogic practice that allows for communication between the individual and the deity or the mind and body
mukta - The free or liberated mind that is completely aware, clear, attentive, and blissful; one of the five states of mind
murdhni - The head, the primary site of prana vayu. 


nadi - Literally, a river; a channel or passageway; the pulse; there are innumerable nadis in the human body, from the very subtle to the very gross, all carrying substances into, out of, or throughout the body nabhasa agni - The fire component inherent in ether element. nakha - nails; the inferior by-products of asthi dhatu (dhatu mala of asthi). Nava karna dravya - The nine causative factors of the universe in the Vaisheshika school of philosophy, they are: the five elements, soul, mind, time and direction. Nirvana - State of pure existence; no-mind state. nitya - eternal; one of the characteristics of tejas, the eternal flame of life. niyama - The five habits or codes of ethical/moral conduct expounded as the second limb in the eight-limbed Yoga sy[[stem of Patanjali; the means of putting oneself into harmony with nature and establishing harmony in all relationships, niyama consists of: physical and mental]] purity, contentment, self-discipline/austerity, self-study, and surrender to God. Nyaya - A major philosophy applied in Ayurveda; founded by Gautama; a sy[[stem of obtaining valid knowledge of the material universe through reasoning and proper perception.


Ojas - The subtle energy of kapha dosha; the essence of properly nourished bodily tissues (dhatu), it maintains immunity, strength, and vitality of the body.

ojaskara - creation of ojas, the end product of tissue nutrition; one of the functions of healthy agni. ojo-dushti - qualitative disturbance of ojas ojohara - Depletion of ojas; weakened immunity; one of the signs of impaired agni ojo-kshaya - quantitative]]ly decreased ojas ojo-visramsa - Displaced ojas; imp[[airment of the distribution of ojas, due to leakage and escape through one or more of the srotamsi (channels) ojo-vruddhi - quantitative]]ly increased ojas ojo-vyapat - ojas that is disturbed by one or more of the doshas oshtha yoni - The labia, or lips of the vagina



pachaka - One of the five subtypes of pitta, located in the stomach and small intestine. It includes hydrochloric acid (amla), digestive enzymes, pepsin, and intestinal juices secreted from the villi of the small intestine (kshudrantram - the home site of pitta). 

paka - digestion. 
pakvashaya - The large intestine, colon. 
parthiva agni - The fire component inherent in earth element. 

Patanjali - name of the celebrated sage who created The Yoga Sutras.

pilu agni - The digestive fire present in the membrane of every cell, it maintains semi-permeability of the cell membrane and governs the selection of cellular nutrients.

BE SURE TO DO ALTERNATE HINDI SPELLINGS OF ALL USING no final vowel pilu paka - The process of cellular digestion and nutrition which takes place in the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm outside the cell nucleus.

purana - Filling up, completing; a major function of majja dhatu and vata dosha, especially prana vayu.

purana - The act of filling space, a function of vata dosha.

Purva Mimamsa - The school of thought founded by Jaimini, based on the initial teachings of the Vedas and emphasizing rituals (puja and sadhana) and actions as a path (Marga or Yana) to God-consciousness. See also Mimamsa.

pachana - digestion; that which promotes digestion.

pakti - digestion, absorption, and assimilation of food and sensory experience; one of the functions of agni.

pakvashaya agni - The fire component in the large intestine or colon.

pancha rasa alavana - five tastes except for salty; a name for triphala, which contains all the tastes except for salty taste.

pancha karma - The five methods for eliminating excess dosha and/or ama from the body for internal purification: vomiting, (vamana), purgation (virechana), decoction or oil enema (basti), bloodletting (rakta moksha), and nasal administration (nasya). In the pancha karma process, excessive dosha and/or ama is brought back to its main home site in the body and then eliminated through one or more of the five measures.

para - Beyond; superior; one of the two types of ojas, para ojas is the eight drops (bindu) of superfine ojas that stays in the heart.


Para Brahman - The highest self, beyond the body and the mind.

paramatman - The higher self (see no self); cosmic soul.

paratva - Beyond; priority, a quality of tejas that allows the cells to prioritize their functions in order to heal a trauma or disorder.

parinama - transformation; change; growth; dimension or expansion (sara), one of the qualities or functions of tejas - as in expansion due to heat.

patha - Path; a synonym for the word srotas. peyam - food that can be drunk, like water, juice or gruel. pithara agni - The fire component in the nuclear membrane inside the cell, it nourishes the RNA and DNA. Pithara agni maintains the genetic code, which is prakruti, and transforms cellular food into consciousness, yielding sattvic, rajasic, and tamasic qualities. pithara agni - The fire component in the nucleus of the cell; the purest manifestation of tejas in the body; it governs the transformation of cellular food into consciousness.

pitta - One of the three doshas, made up of the fire and water elements; governs digestion, absorption, assimilation, nutrition, metabolism, and body temperature.

pitta-kapha diet

poshaka - The essential component of ingested food, separated from the non-essential component to nourish bodily tissues. Literally, one who nourishes and supports; a name for asthayi (unstable) dhatu, which nourishes the sthayi (stable) dhatu; also a name for the precursors of each dosha.

poshaka kapha - The physical precursor or nour isher of kapha dosha, produced by rasa dhatu. poshaka pitta - The physical precursor or nourisher of pitta dosha, produce by rakta dhatu; bile.

Prana - The vital life force without which life cannot exist; the flow of cellular intelligence that governs cellular communication, sensory perception, motor responses, and all subtle electrical impulses of the body; the subtle essence of vata dosha.   See also Qi or Chi

pranayama - The control of life-energy by various techniques that regulate and restrain breath, helping one to control the mind and improve the quality of awareness and perception; this assists meditation. 
prana vaha srotas - The bodily channels that take in and carry prana, or life force; the root or governor of this channel is the left chamber of the heart and the entire gastrointestinal tract. The channel contin-
P ? 307 
ues along the respiratory tract and bron[[chial]] tree, including the alveoli, and opens at the nose. pranahara - Depletion of prana; one of the signs of impaired agni. pranakara - creation of prana, one of the functions of healthy agni. pranamaya kosha - The s[[heath]] made of electromagnetic energy or vital essence. The etheric body. prarabdha karma  -  That portion of previously accumulated karma that is manifesting at the present time or the present life. prabha - Luster, glow; one of the functions of healthy agni. prabhava - The dynamic, electro-magnetic action of a substance that cannot be explained by the logic of its taste, energy, and post-digestive effects (rasa, virya, and vipaka). prajanana - Producing, creating; function of shukra and artava dhatus. prakruti - Primordial matter; the cosmic mother; creative potential; the psychosomatic, biological constitution of an individual; the unique combination of the three doshas that forms the person's constitution at the time of conception; the inborn tendencies that determine how one experiences life. prakruti varna - Main tenance of normal color complexion, one of the functions of healthy agni. pralaya - disintegration or destruction; the period of dissolution of the universe at the end of its cycle of creation. pramana - proof. prasada - Clarity, purity; an offering of holy food to a deity; the essence of food. praspandana]]m - Pulsation, throbbing, a function of vyana vayu. pratyahara - Withdrawal of the senses; the fifth limb in Patanjali's eight-limbed sy[[stem of Yoga; the act of bringing consciousness deeper inside the body, drawing the psychic energy from peripheral sense organs to the inner movements of the mind. pratyaksha - direct perception; what one sees or perceives; one of the means of acquiring valid knowledge according to Nyaya philosophy. prinana - nutrition, the main function of rasa dhatu. pruthaktva - Separation; one of the functions of tejas. pruthivi - earth element. purisha agni - The fire component of the membranous structure surrounding the organs of the excre
tory sy[[stem, it governs the elimination of feces. It also helps to absorb liquids and minerals, forms the stools, and maintains the temperature and color of the feces. 
purisha vaha srotas - The bodily channel that carries feces; the root or governor of this channel is the cecum, rectum, and sigmoid colon. The pathway of the channel is the large intestine, and the opening or mouth of this channel is the anal orifice. 
Purusha - pure, undifferentiated, infinite consciousness; choiceless, passive awareness; consciousness that dwells in the “city of senses,” which is the human being. 


raga - affection; enthusiasm; coloration; one of the functions of healthy agni. ruksha - dry quality; creates dehydration and causes choking, constriction, spasm, pain, and dryness of the skin, as well as isolation, separation, fear, nervousness and loneliness. rupa - form; the tanmatra reLating to fire element; the subtle quality of the fire element that exists in objects, making objects visible; color. rajah - menstruation; one of the superior by-prod ucts of rasa dhatu. rajas - One of the three universal gunas or qualities of consciousness; the principle of kinetic energy; active, mobile, and responsible for all movements. rakta - blood; one of the seven dhatus; the tissue consisting of red blood cells, which in Ayurveda is a separate tissue from the plasma (rasa dhatu); main functions include maintenance of life, oxygenation, transportation of nutrients. Said by Sushruta to be the fourth dosha because ultimately all untreated disorders will affect the blood. rakta agni - The fire component present in the blood, it is responsible for the digestion and assimilation of nutrients that nourish blood tissue. rakta moksha - bloodletting or blood cleansing, one of the five cleansing actions of pancha k[[arma]]; a specific treatment for removing excess pitta and purification of the blood. rakta vaha srotas - The bodily channel that maintains the functions of rakta dhatu, or red blood cells. The root or governor of this channel is the liver and spleen. It extends throughout the arteriole circulatory sy[[stem, and opens at the arterial-venous junction. ranjaka - One of the subtypes of pitta dosha located in the liver and spleen, it gives color to the blood and is responsible for the formation of blood. rasayana chikitsa - Rejuvenation therapy which brings about renewal, regeneration, and restoration of all bodily cells, tissues, and organs; enhances immunity and stamina and gives longevity]]. rasa - taste; the tanmatra reLating to water element; the subtle quality of the water element that exists in objects, allowing them to be sensed by taste; the first experience of food in the mouth; there are six tastes in our diet: sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter, and astringent. rasa dhatu - Plasma, the first of the seven dhatus; includes lymph fluid, white blood cells, and the plasma component of blood. rasa is the first tissue to be nourished from ingested food and provides nutrition to every cell and tissue of the body. rasa vaha srotas - The bodily channel that maintains the functions of rasa dhatu, the lymph and plasma tissue; the root or governor of this channel is the right chamber of the heart and the ten great vessels of the heart, the passage is the venous and lymphatic sy[[stems, and it opens at the juncture between the arteries and veins. RigVeda - The oldest of the four Vedas, the ancient scriptures of India, the rig Veda is said to have been produced from fire. rishis - A seer or sage; the beings who perceived and/or recorded the Vedic hymns; the enlightened sages who shared their knowledge, medicine, philosophy, and spiritual teachings. roma kupa - sweat glands; one of the openings of ambu vaha srotas.


sadhaka pitta - One of the five subtypes of pitta; responsible for intelligence, memory, mental]] digestion, enthusiasm, and other functions of the higher mental]] faculties.

Sadhana - Meditation Manual

Sama Veda or Samaveda - The third of the four Vedas.

Sankhya - Number; a particular quality or function of tejas by which cellular division takes place and the proper number of chromosomes], [[tissues, doshas, and malas are maintained.

Sankhya - A major school of Indian philosophy founded by the sage Kapila; it gives Ayurveda the theory of cause and effect and a sy[[stematic account of cosmic evolution according to 25 categories: Purusha, cosmic spirit; Prakruti, creative energy;

mahat, cosmic intelligence; ahamkara, individuating principle or “I-maker”; manas, mind; indriya, the 10 sense and motor facilities; tanmatras, the five subtle elements; and maha bhutas, the five gross elements. The word Sankhya is related to Sat, meaning truth, and Khya, meaning knowledge.

sara - The pure, stabilized tissue (as opposed to the unstable or unprocessed tissue or the wastes (dhatu mala) or by-products of a tissue (upadhatu); the perfect superior essence of a tissue; healthy tissue.

sukshma - subtle quality; associated with any sub tle thing, including cells, thoughts, emotions, etc. sukshma a[[pana - The subtle form of a[[pana vayu which is present in the nervous sy[[stem and governs outward moving impulses such as motor responses. (See also a[[pana vayu and shakti a[[pana.) surya - The sun; solar energy that maintains life along with soma (lunar energy) and anila (cosmic prana). sutra - A small, easily memorized phrase or aphorism that contains a great deal of knowledge and awakens the intuition. A sutra is analogous to the seed of a tree, which contains within itself all the forms of the tree in its stages of growth. sahasrara - The seventh or crown chakra, located at the topmost part of the skull, and related to the pineal gland; the “thousand petaled lotus”; “Sa” means soma, lunar, female energy; “Ha” means solar, male energy. This chakra is where male and female energies merge into one and all definitions dissolve into the undefined. sakthi - The thigh or thigh bone; one of the sites of vata dosha. samadhi - cosmic consciousness; an expansive state of choiceless, passive awareness that is all-inclusive equilibrium; a balanced state of body, mind, and consciousness. samana vayu - One of the five subtypes of vata, its movement is linear and outward. It is mainly present in the small intestine and navel area, and stimulates appetite and the secretion of digestive juices, so is closely connected with agni (digestive fire). It is responsible for peristalsis and the opening and closing of the pyloric and ileocecal valves during the process of digestion. sama agni - balanced agni; the state of optimal, balanced metabolism that arises when all three doshas are in balance according to the individual's constitution. S ? 309 samshaya - Doubt; one of the sources for non-valid knowledge according to Nyaya philosophy. samyoga - Combination; conjunction; union; as a quality of the intelligence of tejas, the principle that allows things that have affinity to collect together. sandra - Dense; density; associated with substances like meat and cheese; increases kapha and decr[[eases vata and pitta; brings compactness to the body and makes a person more grounded; promotes solidity, density, and strength. sanga - Accumulation, stagnation; physiologically it can manifest as constipation, blood clots, lymphatic congestion, growths, or blockages. sattva - One of the three universal gunas or qualities of consciousness; the principle of equilibrium, intelligence, essence, consciousness, and clarity of perception; potential energy; jnanshakti, the energy of wisdom, understanding, and cognition; it gives rise to the mind and senses in Sankhya philosophy. shakha - Limbs; extremities. shastra - Scripture or scriptural knowledge. shita - cold quality; associated with numbness, unconsciousness, contraction, fear, and insensitivity in the body. slows digestion and reduces immunity. shita virya - cooling energy of a substance. shabda - sound; the tanmatra reLating to ether element; the subtle quality of the ether element that exists in objects, allowing them to be sensed by hearing; speech; one of the four valid sources of knowledge according to Nyaya philosophy: testimony that is authentic and truthful. their words are shabda. shabdendriya - The auditory pathways of h[[earing, including the ears as the related sense organs. shad d[[arshan]] - The six major schools of Indian thought, consisting of Sankhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, Ve[[danta]], and Yoga; these philosophies are incorporated and applied in Ayurveda. shad rasa - six tastes: sweet, sour, salty, butter, pungent, astringent are the six tastes present in substances. Each of these tastes is made up of two main elements. shakti - energy; the Di[[vine creative will; power, strength. shakti a[[pana - The subtle form of a[[pana vayu, it is present in the nervous sy[[stem and governs outward moving impulses such as motor responses. shauryam - Bravery, courage, fearlessness, all functions of healthy agni. shilajit - A naturally occurring mineral resin used in Ayurvedic treatment. Shiva - The third in the Hindu trinity of Gods: the destroyer; Infinite consciousness; who transforms ego into bliss. shiva granthi - The pineal gland. shiva randhra - A small opening located at the posterior fontanel of the cranium bone and connected to sushumna nadi; it is said that the consciousness of a yogi leaves the body at death through this opening. shlakshna - Smooth quality; brings lubrication, flexibility, and ease of movement to the body. shleshma - Another name for kapha; the root of shleshma means “to hug.” It is the nature of kapha molecules to hug together and create a compact mass. shukra - male reproductive tissue, one of the seven dhatus; also the orgasmic fluid secreted by a woman during intercourse. shukra vaha srotas - The channel carrying nutrients for shukra dhatu, or male reproductive tissue. The root or governor of this channel is the testicles and the nipples, the pathway includes the vas deferens, epididymis, prostate, urethra, and urinogenital tract, and the mouth is the urethral opening. siddhi - The result or benefit of any yogasana, meditation or endeavor; success; skill; supernatural power. sira - blood vessels, veins; any tubular structure. sira granthi - Dilation, growth, swelling; one of the three general categories of sroto dushti. smruti - memory; one of the faculties of buddhi, or intellect. snayu - tendons, sinews, ligaments, flat muscles. snehana - The process of internal and external oil application that precedes and accompanies pancha k[[arma]]; snehana softens the tissues, helping them to let go of deep-seated toxins, doshas, and emotional stresses. snigdha - oily quality; oiliness; unctuous; associated with nourishment, relaxation, smoothness, moisture, lubrication, love, compassion, and vigor; increases pitta and kapha and decr[[eases vata. soma - The subtlest essence of ojas; cosmic plasma; lunar energy; the most subtle form of matter; the food of cells and RNA/DNA molecules, which becomes consciousness. spanda dhamani - Pulsating arteries; associated with rakta dhatu. spandana]]m - Pulsation; one of the functions of vyana vayu in the body; the throbbing sensation that is palpable in the movement of the pulse, or the pulsation of circulation governed by the heart. sparsha - touch; the tanmatra reLating to air element; the subtle quality of the air element that exists in objects, allowing them to be sensed by touch; one of the causes of suffering according to Buddhism - in this sense it means contact of objects with the senses. sparshendriya - The faculty of tactile perception, including the skin as the related sense organ. srotamsi - The plural form of the word srotas, bodily channel. srotas - Pathway; a subtle or gross channel made up of dhatus (tissues) that carries substances or energies from place to place in the body; one of the innumerable special sy[[stems in the body. Each channel has a root, which is a governing organ or area of the body, a pathway, and an opening or outlet. examples of srotamsi (the plural form of srotas) are the gastrointestinal tract and the veins and arteries. sroto agni - The fire component of a specific bodily srotas (channel). Located in the root of the srotas, it maintains the function of that channel. sroto marga - That portion of a specific srotas that is between the opening and the root, the entire tract of the srotas. sroto mula - The root, origin, or governor of a par ticular srotas. sroto mukha - The opening, end, or “mouth” of a particular srotas.

stanya - lactation; the superior by-product of rasa dhatu (upadhatu of rasa).

sthayi - stable, mature, fully formed; especially the stable, fully formed dhatu. sthayi dhatu dushti - qualitative disturbance of stable, fully formed dhatu; often causes chronic disorders. sthula - gross quality, grossness; associated with obstruction, obesity, and substances like meat and cheese. The gross quality increases kapha and decr[[eases vata and pitta.

sthira - Static or stable quality; stability, promotes stability and support, associated with all supportive structures in the body, also with fixity, obstructiveness, constipation, stubbornness, and lack of flexibility; increases kapha and decr[[eases vata and pitta. svadhishthana - The second chakra, located in the pelvic cavity; the seat of self-esteem, courage, and self-confidence; where vital energy meets the vital organs; associated with prana maya kosha, or the body of life-force. sVeda - sweat. sVeda agni - The fire component of the organs and structures related to the excretion of sweat. It regulates body temperature, maintains the moisture, softness, oiliness, and Acid-alkali balance of the skin, and helps govern the water-electrolyte balance in the body. sVedana - Sudation; the use of heat to loosen tox ins, doshas, and emotional stress from the deep tissues and encourage them to move into the gastrointestinal tract where they can be removed by cleansing procedures. sVeda vaha srotas - The bodily channels that carry sweat; this channel is governed by the sweat glands, it continues through the sweat ducts, and opens at the pores of the skin.


talu - The soft palate; one of the roots of ambu vaha srotas. tikshna - Sharp quality; associated with concentration, understanding, discrimination, appreciation, and comprehension. tikshna agni - Sharp digestion; one of the three categories of disturbed agni; digestion that is affected by the hot, sharp, and penetrating attributes of pitta dosha, causing excessively strong appetite and hyperactive metabolism. tamas - One of the three universal gunas or qualities of consciousness; the principle of darkness, ignorance, and inertia. It is responsible for sleep, hea[[viness]], slowness, unconsciousness, and decay. tanmatra - sound, touch, form, taste, and smell; the objects of perception; the subtlest energy of the five elements, through which the gross elements are evolved. tantra]] - A spiritual path utilizing a set of demanding practices that require great discipline, strength, and understanding. tapas - Austerity, discipline, that which heats up and burns one's karmas. tarka - hypothetical argument; one of the three sources of non-valid knowledge according to Nyaya philosophy. T ? 311 tar[[paka kapha - One of the five subtypes of kapha; present in the brain as white matter and the cerebrospinal fluid, it forms the protective membranes in the nervous sy[[stem. tar[[paka kapha is the film on which all experience, emotions, and knowledge are recorded in the form of memory. tarpana - That which nourishes; that which records and retains the memories. taruna asthi - Cartilage. tejas - The subtle essence of fire (agni) and pitta dosha, tejas governs digestion on both subtle and gross levels; the energy of intelligence, discrimination, and of all bodily fire; gives luminosity, brightness, brilliance, enthusiasm, passion; solar energy. tejaskara - creation of tejas, one of the functions of healthy agni. tejo agni - The fire component inherent in fire element. tejo hara - Depletion of tejas; one of the signs of impaired agni. tikta - bitter taste; made up of air and ether, it increases vata dosha, and pacifies pitta and kapha. tikta avastha paka - The bitter stage of digestion, which takes place in the ileum, (the last and longest portion of the small intestine) during the fifth hour or so after eating. tikta ghrita - bitter ghee (clarified butter with bitter herbs). tridoshic - A word to describe something that affects or involves all three doshas, either in a beneficial or detrimental]] way. trikatu churna - An herba]]l compound of dry ginger, black pepper, and piper longum (pippali) that kindles agni, burns ama, detoxifies the body, and improves digestion.

trataka - ghee candle gazing meditation

trushna - thirst. As the thirst for enjoyment, it is one of the causes of suffering according to Buddhism.

tvacha or tvak or twak - skin; one of the superior by-products of mamsa dhatu (upadhatu of mamsa).


udana vayu or udan or udana - One of the five subtypes of vata dosha; the upward moving energy, it mainly moves through the diaphragm, lungs, bron[[chi, trachea, and throat. It governs exhalation and is responsible for speech, expression, and any action that requires effort. It also stimulates memory and helps a person rise from confusion, attachment, depression, and other daunting experiences. udaraka tejas - The subtle fire of the stomach. udvahana - Upward movement; a function of u[[dana vayu]]. upachaya - Improvement; nutrition, good muscle tone; cheerfulness; one of the qualities of healthy ojas and a function of normal tejas.

upadhatu - The superior by-product that results from the formation of a dhatu.

upamana - Comparison, one of the four sources of valid knowledge according to Nyaya.

Upanishad - The later, higher teachings of the Vedas; implies sitting in the vicinity of an enlightened one and listening to him or her without any doubt, delusion, or comparison. The entire teaching of Ve[[danta]] is upanishad. Upa-Vedas - Secondary or subordinate Vedas. Ayurveda is an upa-Veda.

urdhva gamitva - Upward movement; a quality of tejas; psychologically, the ability to move upward or forward, going beyond depression, sadness, etc.; transcendence. urdhva jatru granthi - The thyroid gland. ushna - hot quality; stimulates gastric fire, improving circulation, digestion, absorption, and assimilation. Promotes cleansing, expansion, anger, and irritability. ushna virya - heating energy of a substance. Uttara Mimamsa - School of thought founded by the celebrated sage, Jaimini; the later, higher teachings of Ve[[danta]] found in the Upanishads. See also Mimamsa.


vata - One of the three doshas, combining ether and air elements; it governs all movements in the body. vayavya agni - The fire component inherent in the air element. vayu - air element, the second of the five elements; wind; another name for vata. vayu tejas - The subtle fire component present in air element. virya - The energy or potency of a substance; the secondary action of an ingested substance, experienced after taste; two primary kinds: hot or cold.

vadavanala]] - The fire component inherent in water. vaigunya - Literally: lack of good qualities; defective; imp[[airment.

Vaisheshika - School of thought founded by [Kanada]]. Seeking to understand the physical universe.

vaishvanala]] - The fire component inherent in the earth.

vardhati - To grow to maturity. Vardhamana is a noun of the same root meaning growing or increasing.

varna - color complexion, one of the qualities of healthy agni and tejas.

vasa - Subcutaneous fat; one of the superior by-products of mamsa dhatu (upadhatu of mamsa).

vastu - Object.

Vata-Pitta Diet

Vata Diet

Vedanta - Literally “the ending of knowledge;” the ultimate aim and scope of the Vedas; the last of the six philosophies, which expounds that duality is artificial and all creation is nothing but Brahman.

Veda - knowledge; teaching; also the name of the ancient scriptures of India.

vega - velocity; random movement, reLating to functions of vata such as the creation of natural urges.

vibhaga - Distinction; categorization; one of the qualities or functions of tejas whereby the proper forms of all cells and organs are maintained

vibhu - universal.

vichitra pratyaya arabdha - substances having similar rasa, virya, and vipaka, but different atomic structures. The basis of prabhava, otherwise unexplained actions.

Vidanga - Embelia ribes

Vidari Kanda - Ipomoea digitata

vijnanamaya kosha - The s[[heath]] made of wisdom, knowledge, or cognition. vikruti - Unnatural, imbalanced, or modified state; the current state of the individual, as opposed to prakruti, the original state of the constitution; a state of the body and mind in which the individual is more prone to disease.

vikruti varna - Abnormal color complexion, one of the signs of impaired agni. vikshipta - Changeable mind; sometimes active, sometimes slow and dull; one of the five states of mind. vimarga gamanam - False passage; something passing through the wrong channel; one of the three general categories of sroto dushti

vipaka - The final post-digestive effect of food that occurs in the colon and has an action on the excreta: urine, feces, and sweat. Vipaka is described as sweet, sour, or pungent.

viraga - Revulsion; depression; withdrawal; lack of enthusiasm; one of the signs of impaired agni. vishada - clear quality, associated with clarity, understanding, communication, cleansing. vishada - Confusion or deep grief. vishama - Imbalanced; irregular. vishama agni - Irregular digestion; one of the three categories of disturbed agni; digestion that is affected by vata dosha, which can quickly enkindle agni but also quickly slow it down. Vishnu - The Supreme all-pervading lord; the second in the Hindu trinity of Gods: the preserver, whose qualities are knowledge, strength, power, virility, and splendor; cosmic prana, which is present in the atmosphere and protects global life. vishuddha - The fifth chakra, located at the throat; related to the thyroid and parathyroid glands; associated with communication, will, and the vijnana maya kosha. viveka - One of the important functions of vata especially associated with samana vayu; discrimination; splitting apart or isoLating; physiologically it manifests as the function of separating essential components of ingested food from inessential ones during digestion; mental]]ly it manifests as discernment. vruddhi - increase (of a dosha or substance); one of the nine types of dosha gati. vrukka - kidney; one of the openings of ambu vaha srotas. (Vrukkau is the plural of vrukka.) vyakta - manifestation; the manifested universe; also, the 5th stage of pathogenesis during which the cardinal signs and [[symptoms]] of a disease manifest. vyana - The subtype of vata dosha that is primarily located in the heart and circulates all over the body. It is responsible for pulsation and circulation of venous blood and lymph fluid, and it maintains cardiac activity and oxygenation of cells, tissues, and organ sy[[stems, through the circulation of nutrients. Also responsible for all reflex actions, and the movement of the joints and skeletal muscles through the reflex arc. vyana dushti - qualitative disturbance of vyana vayu, the subtype of vata related to circulation.


YajurVeda - One of the four main Vedas, this is a collection of sacred ceremonies and rituals. yakrut - The [[liver. yama - The first limb of Patanjali's eight limbed Yoga sy[[stem; restraints or abstentions including nonviolence, non-lying, non-misuse of sex energy, non- Y ? 313 possessiveness; these restraints have the purpose of bringing the Yogi into a harmonious relationship with Nature and with all beings. yantra - A mystical or astronomical diagram used for the worship of a deity; the asana, or seat of the deity into which that deity can be invited and established for worship. Yoga - One of the six philosophies; the science expounded by celebrated sage Patanjali including the practical means of uniting the higher and lower self and merging with cosmic consciousness through a gradual unfolding of inner strength and wisdom. Yoga Sutras (of Patanjali) - The garland of sutras expounding the science of Yoga. yogi - One who practices Yoga; a blissful or enlightened one. yogasana - The third limb of Patanjali's eight limbed Yoga sy[[stem; the means of bringing awareness, stability, and ease to the body through the use of physical postures and mudras for the purpose of supporting meditation. yoni - vagina.

Fair Use Bibliographic Sources

Fair Use: Primary Fair Use Compilation Source: Vaidya Vasant Lad, Textbook of Ayurveda Volume 1 Fundamental Principles, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Ayurvedic Press, 2001, p. ISBN 1883725070 Hardback: 335 pages. Vasant Lad, BAMS, MAsc, Ayurvedic Institute Gurukula Notes, Ayurvedic Institute, 1994-2006; and many other sources (see Bibliography). Primary Original Source: The Tripitaka of Sutra, Shastra and Vinaya Dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the Indian Sanskrit- Siddham, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese traditions of the Nalanda Tradition of ancient Nalanda University) of Shakyamuni Buddha, and his Arya Sagely Bodhisattva Bhikshu Monk and Upasaka disciples and especially Nagarjuna Suśruta-saṃhitā सुश्रुतसंहिता was composed by Suśruta सुश्रुत and redacted by Bhishu Nagarjuna with commentary by Dalhana, Charaka-saṃhitā चरकसंहिता was composed by Agniveśa अग्निवेश and later edited by Charaka चरक Patanjali, Aṣṭāṅga-hṛdaya-saṃhitā अष्टाग्ङहृदयसंहिता was composed by Vāgbhaṭa वाग्भट, Astanga Samgraha, Atreyea, Agnivesa, Sarngadhara Samhita, Madhava Nidanam, Bhavaprakasha, Madanapala's Nighantu, Kashyap Samhita (Sanskrit: कश्यप संहिता), also known as Braddha Jivakiya Tantra, Tibetan Medicine Rgyud bzi Rgyud Bzhi Four Medical Tantras by Yuthok Yondon Gonpo, Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda, Bhaisajya Ratnavali by Shri Govinda Dasji These Good and Wise Advisors (Kaliyanamitra) Dharma Master teachers include Arya Venerables Om Tare Tuttare Ture Om Ah Hum and Namo to Jivaka, Charaka, Lao Zi - Mahakashapa, Ashwagosha, Shantideva - Hui Neng - Shen Kai Sheng Ren Shr, Bodhidharma, the 16 Nalanda Acharyas 1. Nagarjuna-Manjushri, 2. Arydeva, 3. Buddhapalita, 4. Bhavaviveka, 5. Chandrakirti and Chandragomin, 6. Shantideva, 7. Shantarakshita, 8. Kamalashila, 9. Asanga-Maitreya, 10. Vasubhandu, 11. Dignaga, 12. Dharmakirti, 13. Vimuktisena, 14. Haribhadra, 15. Gunaprabha, 16. Shakyaprabha; Dharmarakshita, Atisha, Tsong Khapa, Thogme Zangpo, Nyingma Padmasambhava, Yeshe Tsogyel, Machig Lapdron, Tilopa, Naropa, Milarepa, Sakya Pandita, Kumarajiva, Xuan Zang, Baozhi, Hui Yuan, Daosheng, Changzhi, Fazang, Han Shan, Shi De, Yunmen, Nichiren, Honen, Shinran, Kukai, Dogen, Hakuin, Jamgon Kongtrul, Nyingma Penor Rinpoche, Bakula Rinpoche, Dagri Rinpoche, Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche, Geshe Lama Kongchog, Longchen Rapjampa - Gosok Rinpoche, Phabongkha Rinpoche, Patrul Rinpoche, Tenzin Gyatso the Dalai Lama, Sakya Trizin, Hsu Yun, Hsuan Hua, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Choden Rinpoche, Garchen Rinpoche, Karmapa, Mingyur Rinpoche, Geshe Ngwang Dakpa, Geshe Sopa Rinpoche, Seung Sahn, Thich Nhat Hanh, Ajahn Chah, Ajahn Sumedho, S. N. Goenka, Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha, making offerings and bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two attainments of Maha Punya and Maha Prajna Paramita. And Om Ah Hum thanks to other modern day masters. We consider them to be in accord with Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua’s “Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine TeachersNalanda Online University's teachings are based especially on the following Buddhist Scriptures: Lama Tsong Khapa's Lam Rim, the Dharma Flower Lotus Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Ksitigarbha Sutra, the Bhaisajya Guru Sutra, the Dharani Sutra, the Vajra Sutra, the Prajna Paramita Hridayam Heart Sutra, the Vimalakirti Sutra, the Sanghata Sutra, the Sutra of Golden Light, the Srimala Devi Sutra, the Sutra in 42 Sections, the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Hui Neng Sutra, Vasubandhu's Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas, Maitreya's Ornament for Clear Realizations (Abhisamayalamkara), Chandrakirti's Supplement to Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Middle Way (Madhyamakavatara), Vasubandhu's Treasury of Manifest Knowledge (Abhidharmakosha) and the Tantras and Mantras of the Vajrayana the 42 Hands and Eyes, Guhyasamaja, the Kalachakra, the Vajrayogini, the Heruka, the Chakrasamvara, the Chod, the Hayagriva, the Hevajra, the Yamantaka, the Kalarupa, the Manjushri Nama Samgiti, the Vajrakilaya, the Vajrapani, the Vajra Claws Dakini, the Mahakala, the Tara, the White Umbrella Goddess (She Dan Do Bo Da La), Kirti Losang Trinle's Grounds and Paths of Secret Mantra, and Aku Sherab Gyatso's The Two Stages of the Guhyasamaja Tantra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya Tripitakacharya Dharma Masters. Making offerings and bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two attainments of Maha Punya and Maha Prajna Paramita.

NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under Shastra tradition and “Fair Use” by an Anonymous Buddhist Monk Redactor (Compiler) of this Online Buddhist Encyclopedia Compilation)

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