ayurvedic_chinese_western_medicine_terms_from_marma_points_of_ayurveda
Glossaries: Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical
Ayurvedic Glossary

A ahara rasa: Nutritive juice that is the end product of digested food, formed about 12 hours after eating; the nutritional precursor of all bodily tissues; asthayi (unstable, unprocessed) form of rasa dhatu. ajna: The center point between the eyebrows related to the pituitary gland; the point where right hemisphere meets with left, alpha meets with omega, intuition meets with logic; the highest end point of human polarity; the center of cognition which is activated by light. akasha: Ether or space element, the first of the five basic elements; the first expression of Consciousness; the subtle, light, expansive element which serves as the common factor or “home” for all objects in the universe and manifests as nuclear energy. alochaka pitta: One of the subtypes of pitta dosha, situated in the sense organ of seeing; it is responsible for vision and color perception. ama: Raw, uncooked; toxins; a toxic substance that impairs bodily or mental functions and can be physical, as in undigested food, or mental, as in any incomplete thought, experience or emotion; ama always arises from physical or mental indigestion. It is considered the root cause of many diseases. amashaya: The stomach; literally, the receptacle for undigested food. ananda: Bliss. anandamaya kosha: The sheath made of bliss, apas: Water; the Water element. artava: Female reproductive tissue, including ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina and the ova; closely associated with rasa dhatu due to its functional integrity with menstruation and lactation. artava vaha srotas: The channels carrying nutrients for artava dhatu, or female reproductive tissue. The roots or governors of this channel are the ovaries and areola of the nipples. The pathway includes the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervical canal, and vaginal canal, and the opening is the labia of the vagina. asana: Yoga posture; one of the eight limbs of Yoga Philosophy; that which brings stability, strength and ease to the body and mind. atman: The soul or Self. avila: Cloudy; characterized by cloudiness; confusion, loss of sensory perception; it increases kapha, decreases pitta and vata. ayuh: Life; longevity. abhyantara marga: Abhyantara: inner; marga: pathway; the innermost pathway of the body, it includes the GI tract and is the site of the first two stages of disease according to the Ayurvedic model of pathology. abhrak hhasma: Mica ash. abhyanga: Full-body oil massage commonly given before panchkarma to move doshas and toxins into the gastrointestinal tract where they can be removed by cleansing procedures; abhyanga is also done as part of a daily routine. adho jatru granthi: The thymus gland. agni: Fire element, the second of the five basic elements in the body; it regulates temperature, performs Glossaries ® Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical digestion, absorption and assimilation of ingested food, and transforms food into energy or consciousness. Agnideva: The ancient Vedic deity of fire, both creative and destructive in nature; the energy of physical fire. agni karma: Application of local heat, comparable to moxibustion in TCM, especially effective in kapha related conditions or poor circulation. ahamkara: A continuous feeling of “I am;” a center in the daily operating consciousness from where each individual thinks, feels and acts as an independent being from his or her individual accumulated experience. ahimsa: Non-violence; one of the prerequisite attitudes of a yogi according to Yoga philosophy; one of the primary tenets of Buddhism, it prevented the widespread use of acupuncture in India. ambu: Water; the Water element. ambu vaha srotas: The bodily channels carrying water. The roots or governors of this channel are the pancreas, soft palate, and choroid plexus in the brain. Its pathway is the mucus membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, and the openings are the kidneys, tongue, and sweat glands. anahata: The heart chakra; related to the thymus gland; the center of unconditional love; related to immunity; also denotes the cardiac plexus which governs heart activity. angula: Form of measurement for locating marma points. One angula is the width of the patient's middle finger measured across the proximal interphalangeal joint. anna vaha srotas: The bodily channels that take in and carry food. This channel begins at the lips of the mouth, is governed by the esophagus and greater curvature of the stomach, continues through the entire gastrointestinal tract, and opens at the ileocecal valve. annamaya kosha: Literally, the sheath made of food; the physical body. anu: Atom; also individual (as opposed to universal). anu vaha srotas: The atomic channel or pathway; the pathway of atoms, which is the cell. apana v3yu: The energy that governs outward movement; one of the subtypes of vata dosha functioning mainly in the colon, it governs the elimination of feces, flatus, urine, menstrual blood and other gross wastes as well as subtle or cellular wastes. apana vayu dushti: Disorder or disturbance of apana v3yu; known by such symptoms as abdominal distention, diarrhea or constipation, gas, bloating, pain and accumulation of wastes. apakti: Indigestion; impaired digestion. apara ojas: Unstable, less processed form of ojas that circulates throughout the body. apunarbhava chikitsa: Preventative approach to medicine that emphasizes living with awareness and following a daily routine and diet appropriate to one's prakruti and vikruti as well as the current season. artha: The second of the four goals of human life (see “purushartha”), artha is the universal human goal of attaining proper means of support or wealth. Artha also means having proper goals and objectives. ashru: Lacrimation, tears; the superior by-product of majja dhatu. ashtanga yoga: The path of yoga as explained by Patanjali in the second century BC, which divides the practice of yoga into eight (ashta) limbs (anga). The first two (yama and niyama) deal with establishing the right attitudes and behaviors in the practitioner, the third (asana) relates to the postures of hatha yoga, the fourth (pranayama) deals with breath observance, and the last three (dharana, dhyana and samadhi) relate to cultivating one-pointed awareness, meditation and union with cosmic consciousness. asthi dhatu: One of the seven bodily tissues, asthi relates to bone tissue. Its major functions are supporting the body frame, giving protection, shape and longevity, and making movement possible. asthi vaha srotas: The channel carrying nutrients for asthi dhatu or bone tissue; its roots or governors are the pelvic girdle and sacrum. Its passageway is the entire skeletal system, and the openings or mouths of the channel are the nails and hair. Atharvaveda: The fourth of the four Vedas, ancient scripture of India. avalambaka kapha: The functions of kapha that are specifically related to the lungs and heart, it protects and moisturizes the entire pleural space. avyakta: Unmanifested; the pre-“big bang” state. B bahya marga: Outer (bahya), pathway (marga); the superficial pathway of the body, it includes the channels that carry rasa and rakta and is associated with the prasara (spreading) stage of pathogenesis, during Ayurvedic Glossary — C which the doshas spread throughout the body and affect superficial areas such as the skin. basti: Enema, one of the five important cleansing measures of panchakarma, it eliminates excess vata dosha via the colon, using medicated substances such as herbal tea or oil. bhakti: Unconditional, selfless and causeless love; devotion; reverence. bhakti yoga: One of the main paths to liberation, the path of devotion leading to realization of the Divine in oneself. bheda: Destruction; differentiation; the last stage out of six in the Ayurvedic system of pathogenesis (see “samprapti”), bheda stage is the stage in which complicated symptoms can be observed, and damage or destruction of bodily tissues takes place. hhrajaka pitta: One of the five types of pitta, located in the skin of the entire body. Its function is to give tactile sensation, color complexion and luster to the skin as well as digestion of any medications that are applied to the skin, such as oils, salves, or plasters hhrajaka agni: The fire component of bhrajaka pitta, which governs and organizes its functions. bhuta: Element; the five basic elements of Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth; that which manifests as matter bhuta agni: The fire component of the five elements based in the liver, which manifests as the liver enzymes. It converts the five elements present in ingested food into biologically available forms of the elements that can be utilized by the body. There are five bhuta agnis, one for each of the five elements. blja mantra: Seed sound; a potent sound that sprouts like a seed and conveys a meaning that is beyond the scope of the intellectual or verbal mind, manifesting a reality that is aligned with its particular vibration and application. Brahma: Creative potential; the first in the Hindu trinity of gods: the creator of the universe. brahma: The expansive, all-pervasive, universal consciousness; eternal timeless existence. brahml: An herb similar to gotu kola. buddhi: The individual intellect. C chakra: The energy centers in the body, related to nerve plexus centers that govern the bodily functions. Each chakra is a separate reservoir of consciousness connecting the physical body to the astral body. chala: Mobile; an attribute characterized by mobility and changeability; increases vata and pitta, and decreases kapha. ehikitsa: Treatment. chitta: The mind; psychic energy; the psyche as a whole. D wmmmmmmmmm…….iiiiimiiiiii……..i…..mm……………………………………………………………….i……………………………………………………………………………………………….. dashamula: A classical Ayurvedic herb formula specifically used for vata dosha, dasha is ten and mula is root. Dashamula is comprised of the roots of ten herbs. dhai ana: The sixth limb in the Yoga system of Patan-jali; the act of focusing attention on one object and mentally holding the object; one-pointed awareness. dhatu: The elemental structural tissues that constitute the human body. There are seven basic tissues defined in Ayurveda: plasma, blood, muscle, fat, bone, nerve and bone marrow, and reproductive tissue. dhatu agni: The agni component of each dhatu, located in the membrane that separates one dhatu from another. It nourishes the tissue, maintains tissue metabolism, and transforms immature tissue into mature tissue. dhamani: Artery. dhanurveda: The science of archery; one of the four upa-vedas. dharma: The first of the four goals of human beings (see “purushartha”), dharma is the universal human goal of finding one's true path in life and doing what is uniquely proper for oneself. It is often translated as righteousness dhl: Cognition; one of the faculties of buddhi, or intellect. dhruti: Retention; one of the faculties of buddhi, or intellect. dhyana: The seventh limb in the Yoga system of Patanjali; meditation; a continuous flow of attention without words or thoughts; a state of moment-to-moment, choiceless, passive awareness, or witnessing, without judgment, liking, or disliking. dlpana: The action of kindling agni. dosha: Referring to vata, pitta and kapha; the three psycho-physiological functional principles of the body, the ratio of which determines an individual's constitution at the time of conception. When functioning nor- Glossaries & Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical digestion, absorption and assimilation of ingested food, and transforms food into energy or consciousness. Agnideva: The ancient Vedic deity of fire, both creative and destructive in nature; the energy of physical fire. agni karma: Application of local heat, comparable to moxibustion in TCM, especially effective in kapha related conditions or poor circulation. . ahamkara: A continuous feeling of “I am;” a center in the daily operating consciousness from where each individual thinks, feels and acts as an independent being from his or her individual accumulated experience. ahimsa: Non-violence; one of the prerequisite attitudes of a yogi according to Yoga philosophy; one of the primary tenets of Buddhism, it prevented the widespread use of acupuncture in India. ambu: Water; the Water element. ambu vaha srotas: The bodily channels carrying water. The roots or governors of this channel are the pancreas, soft palate, and choroid plexus in the brain. Its pathway is the mucus membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, and the openings are the kidneys, tongue, and sweat glands. anahata: The heart chakra; related to the thymus gland; the center of unconditional love; related to immunity; also denotes the cardiac plexus which governs heart activity. angula: Form of measurement for locating marma points. One angula is the width of the patient's middle finger measured across the proximal interphalangeal joint. anna vaha srotas: The bodily channels that take in and carry food. This channel begins at the lips of the mouth, is governed by the esophagus and greater curvature of the stomach, continues through the entire gastrointestinal tract, and opens at the ileocecal valve. annamaya kosha: Literally, the sheath made of food; the physical body. anu: Atom; also individual (as opposed to universal). anu vaha srotas: The atomic channel or pathway; the pathway of atoms, which is the cell. apana v3yu: The energy that governs outward movement; one of the subtypes of vata dosha functioning mainly in the colon, it governs the elimination of feces, flatus, urine, menstrual blood and other gross wastes as well as subtle or cellular wastes. apana v3yu dushti: Disorder or disturbance of apana v3yu; known by such symptoms as abdominal distention, diarrhea or constipation, gas, bloating, pain and accumulation of wastes. apakti: Indigestion; impaired digestion. apara ojas: Unstable, less processed form of ojas that circulates throughout the body. apunarbhava chikitsa: Preventative approach to medicine that emphasizes living with awareness and following a daily routine and diet appropriate to one's prakruti and vikruti as well as the current season. artha: The second of the four goals of human life (see “purusharfha”), artha is the universal human goal of attaining proper means of support or wealth. Artha also means having proper goals and objectives. ashru: Lacrimation, tears; the superior by-product of majja dhatu. ashtanga yoga: The path of yoga as explained by Patanjali in the second century BC, which divides the practice of yoga into eight (ashta) limbs (anga). The first two (yama and niyama) deal with establishing the right attitudes and behaviors in the practitioner, the third (asana) relates to the postures of hatha yoga, the fourth (pranayama) deals with breath observance, and the last three (dharana, dhyana and samadhi) relate to cultivating one-pointed awareness, meditation and union with cosmic consciousness. asthi dhatu: One of the seven bodily tissues, asthi relates to bone tissue. Its major functions are supporting the body frame, giving protection, shape and longevity, and making movement possible. asthi vaha srotas: The channel carrying nutrients for asthi dhatu or bone tissue; its roots or governors are the pelvic girdle and sacrum. Its passageway is the entire skeletal system, and the openings or mouths of the channel are the nails and hair. Atharvaveda: The fourth of the four Vedas, ancient scripture of India. avalambaka kapha: The functions of kapha that are specifically related to the lungs and heart, it protects and moisturizes the entire pleural space. avyakta: Unmanifested; the pre-“big bang” state. B bahya marga: Outer (bahya), pathway (marga); the superficial pathway of the body, it includes the channels that carry rasa and rakta and is associated with the prasara (spreading) stage of pathogenesis, during Ayurvedic Glossary — C which the doshas spread throughout the body and affect superficial areas such as the skin. basti: Enema, one of the five important cleansing measures of panchakarma, it eliminates excess vata dosha via the colon, using medicated substances such as herbal tea or oil. bhakti: Unconditional, selfless and causeless love; devotion; reverence. bhakti yoga: One of the main paths to liberation, the path of devotion leading to realization of the Divine in oneself. bheda: Destruction; differentiation; the last stage out of six in the Ayurvedic system of pathogenesis (see “samprapti”), bheda stage is the stage in which complicated symptoms can be observed, and damage or destruction of bodily tissues takes place. bhrajaka pitta: One of the five types of pitta, located in the skin of the entire body. Its function is to give tactile sensation, color complexion and luster to the skin as well as digestion of any medications that are applied to the skin, such as oils, salves, or plasters bhrajaka agni: The fire component of bhrajaka pitta, which governs and organizes its functions. bhuta: Element; the five basic elements of Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth; that which manifests as matter bhuta agni: The fire component of the five elements based in the liver, which manifests as the liver enzymes. It converts the five elements present in ingested food into biologically available forms of the elements that can be utilized by the body. There are five bhuta agnis, one for each of the five elements. blja mantra: Seed sound; a potent sound that sprouts like a seed and conveys a meaning that is beyond the scope of the intellectual or verbal mind, manifesting a reality that is aligned with its particular vibration and application. Brahma: Creative potential; the first in the Hindu trinity of gods: the creator of the universe. brahma: The expansive, all-pervasive, universal consciousness; eternal timeless existence. hi ah ml: An herb similar to gotu kola. buddhi: The individual intellect. c chakra: The energy centers in the body, related to nerve plexus centers that govern the bodily functions. Each chakra is a separate reservoir of consciousness connecting the physical body to the astral body. chala: Mobile; an attribute characterized by mobility and changeability; increases vata and pitta, and decreases kapha. chikitsa: Treatment. chitta: The mind; psychic energy; the psyche as a whole. D dashamula: A classical Ayurvedic herb formula specifically used for vata dosha, dasha is ten and nulla is root. Dashamula is comprised of the roots of ten herbs. dharana: The sixth limb in the Yoga system of Patan-jali; the act of focusing attention on one object and mentally holding the object; one-pointed awareness. dhatu: The elemental structural tissues that constitute the human body. There are seven basic tissues defined in Ayurveda: plasma, blood, muscle, fat, bone, nerve and bone marrow, and reproductive tissue. dhatu agni: The agni component of each dhatu, located in the membrane that separates one dhatu from another. It nourishes the tissue, maintains tissue metabolism, and transforms immature tissue into mature tissue. dhamanl: Artery. dhanurveda: The science of archery; one of the four upa-vedas. d ha una: The first of the four goals of human beings (see “purushartha”), dharma is the universal human goal of finding one's true path in life and doing what is uniquely proper for oneself. It is often translated as righteousness dhl: Cognition; one of the faculties of buddhi, or intellect. dhruti: Retention; one of the faculties of buddhi, or intellect. dhyana: The seventh limb in the Yoga system of Patanjali; meditation; a continuous flow of attention without words or thoughts; a state of moment-to-moment, choiceless, passive awareness, or witnessing, without judgment, liking, or disliking. dlpana: The action of kindling agni. dosha: Referring to vata, pitta and kapha; the three psycho-physiological functional principles of the body, the ratio of which determines an individual's constitution at the time of conception. When functioning nor- Glossaries & Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical mally and present in normal quantities, the doshas maintain all healthy bodily processes. When out of balance, they create disease. dosha gati: The vector or direction in which a dosha moves. dravya: Matter; substance; defined as that which has attribute and action, or guna and karma, dwelling inseparably. duhkha: Literally, 'bad space'; a state of misery, pain, disease, unhappiness, or suffering of any kind. gandha: Odor; the tanmatra relating to earth element; the subtle quality of the earth element that exists in objects, allowing them to be sensed by smell. Ganesha: The big-bellied elephant-headed deity who is the son of Shiva and ParvatT, he is said to be the remover of obstacles and governs the muladhara chakra and the initial rising of the kundalinT energy coiled there. He is always the first deity to be approached at the beginning of a ceremony or any enterprise. gharshana: A dry massage treatment especially good for kapha, in which the skin is brushed with powder or a skin brush, creating friction and stimulating circulation and exfoliation. ghrita: A preparation of ghee (clarified butter) in which herbs are infused or boiled into the ghee. granthi: 1. Gland 2. A swelling or hardening of the vessels or an abnormal growth in the body. guna: Attribute or quality; one of the twenty qualities or attributes used to describe substances and determine their effects; also, one of the three universal qualities that are present in creation and that cause all phenomena. These are: sattva, the quality bringing essence, light, balance and understanding; rajas, the energy of movement and activity; and tamas, the quality bringing darkness, inertia, heaviness and materialism. guru: Teacher; one who removes the darkness of ignorance; the channel through which understanding of the Divine comes to one; also: heavy, an attribute characterized by heaviness and bulk, it increases kapha and decreases pitta and vata. H the forest, Hanuman represents the essence of true friendship, the path of loving and serving God as a friend. hrid: The heart; cardiac muscle. I Ida: One of the three primary subtle energy channels in an individual, Ida flows along the left side of the central channel (sushumna nadT). Ida controls the parasympathetic nervous system, is associated with feminine, lunar energy, and is primarily yin. Stimulating this channel by breathing through the left nostril increases relaxation and cools the body. Indra: An ancient Vedic deity; cosmic prana. indriya: Inner doors of perception, including sensory and motor organs and their pathways in the brain. indriya agni: The fire component present in each of the five sense faculties, it converts sensory input into understanding, experience, and knowledge. J jathara agni: The central fire of the digestive system, responsible for digestion and assimilation of ingested food; it nourishes all bodily agni. jatru agni: The fire component present in the thyroid gland; it is the bridge between bhuta agni and dhatu agni. jihva: Tongue; one of the openings of ambu vaha sro-tas. jTvatman: The individual soul. jiva: Individual life; individual consciousness; the pure sense of “me”. jivana: Life-giving (a special function of rakta dhatu). jnana: Wisdom or knowledge. jnana yoga: One of the main paths to liberation; the path of knowledge or wisdom to realize the Divine in oneself. jnanendriya: The five sensory faculties; the inner doors of perception, including sensory organs and their pathways in the brain. Jyotis: Light, luster; the inner light of the self. Hanuman: The monkey god who served Rama with extraordinary strength and prowess during his exile in Ayurvedic Glossary — K K kama: Joy, happiness; the third of the four goals of human beings (see “purushaartha”), kama is the universal human goal of fulfilling positive desires and attaining a lasting state of joyfulness. Kapila: The name of the sage who founded the Sankhya school of philosophy. kaya chikitsa: Internal medicine, one of the eight branches of Ayurvedic medicine along with pediatrics, psychiatry, E.N.T., surgery, dentistry, geriatric medicine and virilization/rejuvenation. kandara: One of the superior by-products of rakta dhatu; small tendons and sinews, such as hamstring muscles. kapha: One of the three doshas, combining the water and earth elements; the psycho-physiological energy that forms the body's structure and holds the cells together. karma: Action; the law stating that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; specific action of a substance or herb; along with guna (attribute), karma makes up the inherent nature of a substance, according to Vaisheshika. karma yoga: One of the main paths to liberation; the path of taking positive action and surrendering the fruits of all actions to the Divine. karmendriya: The five motor faculties; the faculties of action, including motor organs and their pathways in the brain. kathTna: Hard quality; hardness; increases vata and kapha and decreases pitta; associated with strength, rigidity, selfishness, callousness, and insensitivity. Also associated with things like pneumonia, callouses, and hardening of the arteries. kati: Pelvic girdle, waist, lumbo-sacral area, lumbar spine. kesha: Hair; the inferior by-product of asthi dhatu. kha: Space. khavaigunya: Any weak or defective space in the body that exists because of past trauma, chronic disease, or hereditary influence and becomes a place where aggravated doshas can easily lodge and create disorder. khamala: The inferior by-products of mamsa dhatu, including nasal crust, earwax, sebaceous secretions, tartar, and smegma. khara: Rough quality; roughness, which is connected with dryness, absorption, constipation, and which aggravates vata and decreases pitta and kapha. kitta: Waste product or inferior by-product; feces; the non-essential component of ingested food that is excreted from the body. kleda: Liquefaction, hydration, water; sebaceous secretions, mucus, and other liquid secretions associated with kapha dosha. kledaka kapha: One of the kapha subtypes; its function is to liquefy ingested food in the stomach; it also protects the stomach wall from the digestive enzymes and acids; the gastric mucous membrane. kloma: Pancreas; the root of the water carrying channels; kloma also refers to the choroid plexus in the brain. kloma agni: The digestive energy of the pancreas. It works in conjunction with bhuta agni from the liver and assists in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. kosha: Sheath. There are five sheaths: the sheath of bliss, the sheath of knowledge, the sheath of mind, the sheath of prana, and the sheath of food. kshaya: Decrease of anything, used to describe depletion of bodily tissues or doshas. kundalinl: The coiled, serpentine, spiritual energy, which, for most people, lies dormant at the base of the spine. kundalim shakti: The power of pure energy; the term used in describing the awakening of spiritual energy. L laghu: Light; an attribute characterized by radiance and/or lightness, it aids in digestion, cleansing, and promotes freshness and alertness. In excess it may cause insomnia and ungroundedness; an attribute of both vata and pitta doshas. lepana: Plastering; holding; one of the main important functions of mamsa dhatu M mamsa dhatu: One of the seven bodily tissues, mamsa consists of all types of muscle. Its functions include movement, coordination, “plastering,” protection, maintenance of body temperature and body shape, ambition, confidence, and strength. Glossaries Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical mamsa vaha srotas: The channel carrying nutrients for mamsa dhatu, or muscle tissue. The roots or governors of this channel are the fascia and small tendons. The passageway of the channel is the entire musculature system, and the opening of the channel is the pores of the skin. marga: Passageway; a synonym for the word srotas. madhyama marga: Madhyama: middle; marga: pathway; The central pathway of the body, it includes the deep connective tissue, seven dhatus and visceral organs. It is often the site of the last stages of disease according to the Ayurvedic model of pathology, at which point the doshas affect the deep tissues and vital organs. maha marmani: A category of the most vital marma points. maha srotas: The largest channel in the body, the digestive tract Mahad: The great principle; cosmic intelligence; the cosmic aspect of the intellect, it contains buddhi, the individual intellect, ego, and mind. majja dhatu: One of the seven bodily tissues, majja consists of bone marrow, connective tissue and nerve tissue, and associated with the endocrine system and erythrogenesis. Its main functions are communication and filling space in the body, especially the spaces within the bones. majja vaha srotas: The channel carrying nutrients for majja dhatu, or bone marrow and nervous tissue. The roots or governors for this channel are the brain, spinal cord, and joints. The pathway is the central, sympathetic, and parasympathetic nervous system. The opening is the synaptic space. mala: Any impurity; the waste products that get produced in the body through the processes of digestion and tissue nutrition, malas must constantly be moving out of the body as they are produced. Deficiencies or excesses in the production of any mala reflect some disturbance in the particular metabolic process to which the mala is related. mala vaha srotas: Another name for the channel carrying feces, or the purlsha vaha srotas. manas: Mind; one of the causative substances according to the Vaisheshika philosophy; the faculty arising from sattva guna according to the Sankhya school of thought; the sensory-feeling part of the mind that manifests thoughts and emotions, as contrasted with buddhi, the intellectual faculty of mind. Manas can be anu (individual) and vibhu (universal). manas prakruti: Mental constitution, which is manifested at the time of fertilization and described in terms of the three gunas—sattva, rajas, and tamas. In the cosmic mind, equilibrium of the gunas is maintained; in an individual mind, these three are in unequal proportion, according to the karmas expressing in that individual's consciousness. manda: Slow quality; an attribute that increases kapha and decreases vata and pitta, creates sluggishness, slow action, relaxation and dullness as well as calm, quiet and silence. manda agni: Slow digestion; one of the three categories of disturbed agni; digestion affected by the heavy, slow, and cool qualities of kapha dosha, causing slow metabolism. mano vaha srotas: The channel that carries the mind. The roots or governors of this channel are the heart and the sensory pathways. Its pathway is the entire body, and the opening or mouth of this channel is the sense organs and the marmani. manomaya kosha: The sheath made of mind; related to manas, the sensory and emotional mind. mantra: A form of vocal or silent suggestion, usually repetitive; a syllable, word, or group of words that illuminate consciousness, bringing clarity, understanding, stillness, peace, prolonged concentration, and eventually samadhi; words uttered from the heart of a wise being. Mantra must be spoken, heard, or felt; a written mantra has no power. mardana: A very deep, strong massage especially good for kapha type individuals, mardana breaks up stagnation and stimulates circulation. marmani: The plural form of marma; vital energy points, similar to acupuncture points, where consciousness is most expressive. marma: A vital point on the body that is used therapeutically and diagnostically. maya: “Made of as in prana maya kosha, the sheath made of prana. meda dhatu or medas: One of the seven bodily tissues, meda is a loose connective tissue that includes fat, steroids such as cholesterol, and other types of lipids. Its functions include storing energy, giving shape, beauty and insulation to the body, sweet tone to the voice, and lubrication and protection of all bodily systems. medo vaha srotas: The bodily channel carrying nutrients for the fat tissue. The roots or governors of this channel are the omentum and the adrenals. The pas- Ayurvedic Glossary — N sageway is the subcutaneous fat tissue, and the opening is the sweat glands. mithuna: Male and female energy merging together; sex. moksha: Freedom, liberation; the final aim of all knowledge, work, and activity; the ultimate aim of life; the ending of involuntary and unconscious participation in the relative world mrudu: Soft quality; softness, delicacy; promotes mucus, adipose tissue, relaxation, tenderness, love, care, promotes kapha and pitta and decreases vata. mudra: A gesture or positioning of the fingers practiced in devotional worship or yogic practice that allows for communication between the individual and the deity or the mind and body. mukha: Face; mouth; opening; in the bodily srotamsi, the mukha is identified as the place where the srotas system opens. mukta: The free or liberated mind that is completely aware, clear, attentive, and blissful; one of the five states of mind. mukta triveni: One of the significant points at which the Ida, pingala and sushumna nadls meet, associated with the third eye region and ajna marma. mula: Root; governor; in the bodily srotamsi, the mula is identified as the place from which the srotas originates physically, or the place where its functions are primarily governed. muladhara chakra: The first chakra, associated with the perianal area or the base of the spine and related to survival, stability, security and instincts, it is also associated with Ganesha, the deity with whose grace one may awaken the kundalinT energy that lies dormant in muladhara chakra. murdhni: The head, the primary site of prana vayu. mutra: Urine; one of the three primary wastes of the body along with feces and sweat. mutra vaha srotas: The channel that carries urine; the root or governor of this channel is the kidneys. The pathway of this channel is the ureters, urethra, and bladder. The opening or mouth of this channel is the opening of the urethra. N nadT: Literally, a river; a channel or passageway; the pulse; there are innumerable nadis in the human body, from the very subtle to the very gross, all carrying substances into, out of, or throughout the body. nasya: The nasal administration of herbal powders, oil, medicated oil, or other therapeutic substances, nasya is done to eliminate residual doshas in the head, especially as part of the panchakarma process. netra basti: A treatment in which the eyes are bathed in ghee. nirvana: State of pure existence; no-mind state. niyama: The five habits or codes of ethical/moral conduct expounded as the second limb in the eight-limbed Yoga system of Patanjali; the means of putting oneself into harmony with nature and establishing harmony in all relationships, niyama consists of: physical and mental purity, contentment, self-discipline/austerity, self-study, and surrender to God. O ojas: The subtle, positive energy of kapha dosha, it maintains immunity, strength, integrity, and vitality and has a functionally integrated relationship with tejas and prana. oshtha yoni: The labia, or lips of the vagina pachaka: One of the five subtypes of pitta, located in the stomach and small intestine. It includes hydrochloric acid, digestive enzymes, pepsin, and intestinal juices secreted from the villi of the small intestine. paka : Digestion. ParvatI: “Daughter of the Mountain,” she is the goddess whose father is the Himalayas. Parvati is the mother of Ganesha and wife of Shiva, and represents the spine, which is the anchor by which the human being manifests in the body and interacts with the environment, and which becomes the channel for the movement of kundalini. Patanjali: Name of the celebrated sage who created The Yoga Sutras. pakti: Digestion, absorption, and assimilation of food and sensory experience; one of the functions of agni. panchakarma: The five methods for eliminating excess dosha and/or 3ma from the body for internal purification: vomiting, (vamana), purgation (vire-chana), decoction or oil enema (basti), bloodletting (rakta moksha), and nasal administration (nasya). In the panchakarma process, excessive dosha and/or ama is brought back to its main site in the body and then eliminated through one or more of the five measures. Glossaries & Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical pancha mahabhuta: The five great elements from which all substances arise: ether/space, air, fire, water and earth. Para Brahman: The highest self, beyond the body and the mind. paramatman: The higher self; cosmic soul. para ojas: The superfine or fully processed form of ojas, eight drops of which are stored in the'heart to maintain life. parinama: Transformation; change; growth; dimension or expansion, one of the qualities or functions of tejas -as in expansion due to heat. patha: Path; a synonym for the word srotas. pldana: The application of localized deep pressure adjusted according to the patient's pain tolerance. A bluntly tapered object, called a shalaka, is sometimes used for this pllu agni: The digestive fire present in the membrane of every cell, it maintains semi-permeability of the cell membrane and governs the selection of cellular nutrients. pllu paka: The process of cellular digestion and nutrition which takes place in the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm outside the cell nucleus. pingala: One of the three primary subtle energy channels in an individual, pingala flows along the right side of the central channel (sushumna nadf). Pingala controls the sympathetic nervous system, is associated with masculine, solar energy, and is primarily yang. Stimulating this channel by breathing through the right nostril stimulates energy, vigor and stamina. pithara agni: The fire component in the nucleus of the cell; the purest manifestation of tejas in the body; it governs the transformation of cellular food into consciousness. pitta: One of the three doshas, made up of the fire and water elements; governs digestion, absorption, assimilation, nutrition, metabolism, and body temperature. poshaka: The essential component of ingested food, separated from the non-essential component to nourish bodily tissues. Literally, one who nourishes and supports; a name for asthayi (unstable) dhatu, which nourishes the sthayi (stable) dhatu; also a name for the precursors of each dosha. poshaka kapha: The physical precursor or nourisher of kapha dosha, produced by rasa dhatu. poshaka pitta: The physical precursor or nourisher of pitta dosha, produced by rakta dhatu; bile. prajnaparadha: “Crime against wisdom,” going against the body's innate intelligence; for example, indulging a mental craving for a food or substance that undermines the body's health. Prajnaparadha powerfully contributes to doshic disturbance. pranayama: The control of life-energy by various techniques that regulate and restrain breath, helping one to control the mind and improve the quality of awareness and perception; this assists meditation. prana: The vital life force without which life cannot exist and which is primarily taken in through the breath; the flow of cellular intelligence that governs cellular communication, sensory perception, motor responses, and all subtle electrical impulses of the body; the subtle essence of vata dosha. Prana has a functionally integrated relationship with ojas and tejas. prana vayu: One of the five subtypes of vata dosha, prana moves inward and downward and is associated with the nervous system, where it governs all sensory functions and maintains attention, and with the lungs, where it governs the inhalation aspect of respiration. prana vaha srotas: The bodily channels that take in and carry prana, or life force. The roots or governors of this channel are the left chamber of the heart and the entire gastrointestinal tract. The channel continues along the respiratory tract and bronchial tree, including the alveoli, and opens at the nose. prana maya kosha: The sheath made of electromagnetic energy or vital essence. The etheric body. prajanana: Producing, creating; function of shukra and artava dhatus. prakopa: Literally, “enraged;” “provocation,” the second stage of six in the Ayurvedic model of pathogenesis (see “samprapti”), prakopa is the stage in which the doshas have already increased in their own sites and are easily provoked to manifest increasingly intense symptoms. prakruti: Primordial matter, the Cosmic Mother or cosmic womb, the root cause of the creation of the universe; on an individual level, prakruti is the psychosomatic, biological constitution of an individual, the unique combination of the three doshas that forms the person's constitution at the time of conception and creates the inborn tendencies that influence how one experiences life. prasada: Clarity, purity; an offering of holy food to a deity; the essence of food. prasara: Spreading or creeping; the third stage of six in the Ayurvedic model of pathogenesis (see “samprapti”), prasara is the stage in which the pro- Ayurvedic Glossary — R voked doshas enter into the circulatory system and move around the body. pratyahara: Withdrawal of the senses; the fifth limb in Patanjali's eight-limbed system of Yoga; the act of bringing consciousness deeper inside the body, drawing the psychic energy from peripheral sense organs to the inner movements of the mind. pnnanam: Nutrition, the main function of rasa dhatu. pruthivl: Earth element. purisha agni: The fire component of the membranous structure surrounding the organs of the excretory system, it governs the elimination of feces. It also helps to absorb liquids and minerals, forms the stools, and maintains the temperature and color of the feces. purisha vaha srotas: The bodily channel that carries feces; the root or governor of this channel is the cecum, rectum, and sigmoid colon. The pathway of the channel is the large intestine, and the opening or mouth of this channel is the anal orifice. purusharthas: Purusha (human being) artha (goals), the four universal aims of human life: dharrna (duty, proper path), artha (procurement of resources), kama (joy) and moksha (liberation). Purusha: Pure, undifferentiated, infinite consciousness; choiceless, passive awareness; consciousness that dwells in the “city of senses,” which is the human being. purana: Filling up, completing; a major function of majja dhatu and vata dosha, especially prana v3yu. purana: The act of filling space, a function of vata dosha. R raga: Affection; enthusiasm; coloration; one of the functions of healthy agni. rajah: Menstruation; one of the superior by-products of rasa dhatu. rajas: One of the three universal gunas or qualities of consciousness; the principle of kinetic energy; active, mobile, and responsible for all movements. rakta agni: The fire component present in the blood, it is responsible for the digestion and assimilation of nutrients that nourish blood tissue. rakta dhatu: Blood; one of the seven bodily tissues, rakta consists of red blood cells, and in Ayurveda is a separate tissue from the plasma (rasa dhatu). Its main functions include maintenance of life, oxygenation, and transportation of nutrients. Rakta is said by Sush-ruta to be the fourth dosha because ultimately all untreated disorders will affect the blood, and because unhealthy blood causes systemic problems in the same way that an aggravated dosha does. rakta moksha: Bloodletting or blood cleansing, one of the five cleansing actions of panchakarma; a specific treatment for removing excess pitta and purification of the blood. rakta vaha srotas: The bodily channel that maintains the functions of rakta dhatu, or red blood cells. The root or governor of this channel is the liver and spleen. It extends throughout the arteriole circulatory system, and opens at the arteriovenous junction. ranjaka pitta: One of the subtypes of pitta dosha located in the liver and spleen, it gives color to the blood and is responsible for the formation of blood. rasay ana chikitsa: Rejuvenation therapy which brings about renewal, regeneration, and restoration of all bodily cells, tissues and organs; enhances immunity and stamina and gives longevity. rasa: Taste; the tanmatra relating to water element; the subtle quality of the water element that exists in objects, allowing them to be sensed by taste; the first experience of food in the mouth; there are six tastes in our diet: sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter and astringent. rasa dhatu: Plasma, the first of the seven dhatus, it includes lymph fluid, white blood cells, and the plasma component of blood. Rasa is the first tissue to be nourished from ingested food and provides nutrition to every cell and tissue of the body rasa vaha srotas: The bodily channel that maintains the functions of rasa dhatu, the lymph and plasma tissue. The roots or governors of this channel are the right chamber of the heart and the ten great vessels of the heart, the passage is the venous and lymphatic systems, and it opens at the juncture between the arteries and veins. Rigveda: The oldest of the four Vedas, the ancient scriptures of India, the rig veda is said to have been produced from fire. rishis: A seer or sage; the beings who perceived and/or recorded the Vedic hymns; the enlightened sages who shared their knowledge, medicine, philosophy and spiritual teachings. roma kupa: Sweat glands; one of the openings of ambu vaha srotas. Glossaries <& Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical ifiksha: Dry quality; creates dehydration and causes choking, constriction, spasm, pain, and dryness of the skin as well as isolation, separation, fear, nervousness and loneliness. riipa: Form; the tanmatra relating to fire element; the subtle quality of the fire element that exists in objects, making objects visible; color.

sadhaka pitta: One of the five subtypes of pitta; responsible for intelligence, memory, mental digestion, enthusiasm and other functions of the higher mental faculties. sakshin: Witness, observer, a name for the supreme being (purusha) according to Sankhya philosophy. Samaveda: The third of the four Vedas. sankhya: Number; a particular quality or function of tejas by which cellular division takes place and the proper number of chromosomes, tissues, doshas and malas are maintained. Sankhya: A major school of Indian philosophy founded by the sage Kapila. It gives Ayurveda a systematic account of cosmic evolution according to 25 categories: purusha, cosmic spirit; prakruti, creative energy; mahad, cosmic intelligence; ahamkara, the individuating principle or “I-maker”; manas, the individual mind; indriyani, the 10 sense and motor facilities; tanmatras, the five subtle elements; and pancha maha bhutas, the five gross elements. sadyah pranahara: Most vital marmas—see aso maha marmani. sahasrara: The seventh or crown chakra, located at the topmost part of the skull and related to the pineal gland; the “thousand petaled lotus”; “Sa” means soma, lunar, female energy; “Ha” means solar, male energy. This chakra is where male and female energies merge into one and all definitions dissolve into the undefined. sakthi: The thigh or thigh bone; one of the sites of vata dosha. samadhi: Cosmic consciousness; an expansive state of choiceless, passive awareness that is all-inclusive equilibrium; a balanced state of body, mind and consciousness. samana vayu: One of the five subtypes of vata, its movement is linear and outward. It is mainly present in the small intestine and navel area, and stimulates appetite and the secretion of digestive juices, so is closely connected with agni (digestive fire). It is responsible for peristalsis and the opening and closing of the pyloric and ileocecal valves during the process of digestion. sama agni: Balanced agni; the state of optimal, balanced metabolism that arises when all three doshas are in balance according to the individual's constitution. samprapti: The Ayurvedic model of pathogenesis, which involves six phases of dosha activity: sanchaya (accumulation of a dosha within its main site), prakopa (provocation of the dosha), prasara (spreading of the dosha throughout the body), sthana samshraya (deposition of the dosha into a tissue), vyakti (manifestation of cardinal symptoms) and bheda (destruction or derangement of tissue). sandhi: The joints of the body. sandra: Dense; density; associated with substances like meat and cheese; increases kapha and decreases vata and pitta; brings compactness to the body and makes a person more grounded; promotes solidity, density and strength. sanga: Accumulation, stagnation; physiologically it can manifest as constipation, blood clots, lymphatic congestion, growths, or blockages. sanchaya: Accumulation, the first of six stages in the ayurvedic model of pathogenesis (see “samprapti”), sanchaya is the stage in which doshas accumulate in their own sites. sattva: One of the three universal gunas or qualities of consciousness; the principle of equilibrium, intelligence, essence, consciousness and clarity of perception; potential energy; jnanshakti, the energy of wisdom, understanding and cognition; it gives rise to the mind and senses in Sankhya Philosophy. shakha: Limbs; extremities. shabda: Sound; the tanmatra relating to ether element; the subtle quality of the ether element that exists in objects, allowing them to be sensed by hearing; speech; one of the four valid sources of knowledge according to Nyaya philosophy: testimony that is authentic and truthful. Sacred texts and realized masters have verbal authority; their words are shabda. shabdendriya: The auditory pathways of hearing, including the ears as the related sense organs. Shad Darshan: The six major schools of Indian thought, consisting of Sankhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, MTmamsa, Vedanta and Yoga; these philosophies are incorporated and applied in Ayurveda. shakti: Energy; the divine creative will; power, strength. Ayurvedic Glossary — S shalaka: Various kinds of rods or bluntly tapered instruments used to give stronger stimulation to a marma point, especially used in pTdana and agni karma therapies shamana: Therapeutic techniques that involve gently palliating the doshas in patients for whom intensive cleansing therapies are contraindicated. shlta: Cold quality; associated with numbness, unconsciousness, contraction, fear and insensitivity in the body. Slows digestion and reduces immunity. shlta vlrya: Cooling energy of a substance. shiiajit: A naturally occurring mineral resin used in Ayurvedic treatment. shirodhara: A therapy in which a warm stream of oil is poured continuously over the patient's third eye and forehead. Shiva: The third in the Hindu trinity of gods: the destroyer; Infinite Consciousness; who transforms ego into bliss. shiva granthi: The pineal gland. shiva randhra: A small opening located at the posterior fontanel of the cranium bone and connected to sushumna nadT; it is said that the consciousness of a yogi leaves the body at death through this opening. shlakshna: Smooth quality; brings lubrication, flexibility and ease of movement to the body. shleshma: Another name for kapha; the root of shle-shma means “to hug.” It is the nature of kapha molecules to hug together and create a compact mass. shodhana: Cleansing therapies including the process of panchakarma. shukra: Male reproductive tissue, one of the seven bodily tissues; the word shukra also refers to the orgasmic fluid secreted by a woman. shukra vaha srotas: The channel carrying nutrients for shukra dhatu, or male reproductive tissue. The roots or governors of this channel are the testicles and the nipples, the pathway includes the vas deferens, epididymis, prostate, urethra, and urinogenital tract, and the mouth is the urethral opening. siddhi: The result or benefit of any yogasana, meditation or endeavor; success; skill; supernatural power. sir3: Blood vessels, veins; any tubular structure. sira granthi: Dilation, growth, swelling; one of the three general categories of sroto dushti. smruti: Memory; one of the faculties of buddhi, or intellect. snayu: Tendons, sinews, ligaments, flat muscles. snehana: The process of internal and external oil application that precedes and accompanies panchakarma; snehana softens the tissues, helping them to let go of deep-seated toxins, doshas and emotional stresses. snigdha: Oily quality; oiliness; unctuous; associated with nourishment, relaxation, smoothness, moisture, lubrication, love, compassion and vigor; increases pitta and kapha and decreases vata. soma: The subtlest essence of ojas; cosmic plasma; lunar energy; the most subtle form of matter; the food of cells and RNA/DNA molecules, which becomes consciousness. sparsha: Touch; the tanmatra relating to air element; the subtle quality of the air element that exists in objects, allowing them to be sensed by touch; one of the causes of suffering according to Buddhism; in this sense it means contact of objects with the senses. sparshendriya: The faculty of tactile perception, including the skin as the related sense organ. srotamsi: The plural form of the word srotas, bodily channel. srotas: Pathway; a subtle or gross channel made up of dhatus (tissues) that carries substances or energies from place to place in the body; one of the innumerable special systems in the body. Each channel has a root, which is a governing organ or area of the body, a pathway and an opening or outlet. Examples of srotamsi (the plural form of srotas) are the gastrointestinal tract and the veins and arteries. sroto agni: The fire component of a specific bodily srotas (channel). Located in the root of the srotas, it maintains the function of that channel. sroto marga: That portion of a specific srotas that is between the opening and the root, the entire tract of the srotas. sroto inula: The root, origin, or governor of a particular srotas. sroto mukha: The opening, end, or “mouth” of a particular srotas. stanya: Lactation; the superior by-product of rasa dhatu. stanya vaha srotas: The channels carrying breast milk. sthana samsraya: Lodging or deposition; the fourth stage of the Ayurvedic model of pathogenesis (see Glossaries & Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical “samprapti”), the stage in which the aggravated dosha deposits into a weakened tissue or space in the body. sthira: Static or stable quality; stability, promotes stability and support, associated with all supportive structures in the body, also with fixity, obstructiveness, constipation, stubbornness and lack of flexibility; increases kapha and decreases vata and pitta. sthula: Gross quality, grossness; associated with obstruction, obesity and substances like meat and cheese. The gross quality increases kapha and decreases vata and pitta. sukha: Literally: “good space,” a word for health, often translated as happiness. Sushruta: Literally “well-heard,” or one who is versed in Vedas; Sushruta is the name of the author of the Sushruta Samhita, one of the main three authoritative texts on Ayurveda. sushumna: The central channel for prana currents in the body, sushumna carries kundalinl shakti from the base of the spine to the crown center, passing through all seven chakras; it is located in between the Ida and pingala nadis. suchi bharana: The insertion of needles at marma points, equivalent to the Chinese practice of acupuncture. sukshma: Subtle quality; associated with any subtle thing, including cells, thoughts, emotions, etc. surya: The sun; solar energy that maintains life along with soma (lunar energy) and anila (cosmic prana). sutra: A small, easily memorized phrase or aphorism that contains a great deal of knowledge and awakens the intuition. A sutra is analogous to the seed of a tree, which contains within itself all the forms of the tree in its stages of growth. svadhishthana: The second chakra, located in the pelvic cavity; the seat of self-esteem, courage and self-confidence; where vital energy meets the vital organs; associated with prana maya kosha, or the body of life-force. sveda: Sweat. sveda agni: The fire component of the organs and structures related to the excretion of sweat. It regulates body temperature, maintains the moisture, softness, oiliness and acid-alkaline (pH) balance of the skin, and helps govern the water-electrolyte balance in the body. svedana: Sudation; the use of heat to loosen toxins, doshas and emotional stress from the deep tissues and encourage them to move into the gastrointestinal tract where they can be removed by cleansing procedures. sveda vaha srotas: The bodily channels that carry sweat; this channel is governed by the sweat glands, it continues through the sweat ducts and opens at the pores of the skin. T talu: The soft palate; one of the roots of ambu vaha srotas. tada: A unit of measurement equivalent to 12 anguli used to locate marma points. tamas: One of the three universal gunas or qualities of consciousness (along with sattva and rajas), tamas gives rise to the five elements and the tanmatra (subtle qualities of the elements) in Sankhya Philosophy. It is the principle of inertia and is responsible for sleep, heaviness, slowness, unconsciousness and decay. When it predominates in the mind, it brings ignorance, laziness, violence and inertness. tanmatra: Sound, touch, form, taste and smell; the objects of perception; the subtlest energy of the five elements, through which the gross elements are evolved. tanmatra chikitsa: Therapies that involve the five sensory faculties and act on a more subtle, mental or emotional level. tantra: A spiritual path utilizing a set of demanding practices that require great discipline, strength and understanding. tapasya: Austerity, discipline, that which heats up and burns one's karmas. tarpaka kapha: One of the five kapha subtypes. Associated with the white matter of the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid, it forms the protective and nourishing membranes and fluids of the nervous system. Tarpaka kapha is the film on which all experience, emotions, and knowledge are recorded in the form of memory. taruna asthi: Cartilage. tejas: The subtle essence of fire (agni) and pitta dosha, tejas governs digestion on both subtle and gross levels; the energy of intelligence, discrimination and of all bodily fire; gives luminosity, brightness, brilliance, enthusiasm, passion; solar energy. tikshna: Sharp quality; associated with concentration, understanding, discrimination, appreciation and comprehension. tikta: Bitter taste; made up of air and ether, it increases vata dosha, and pacifies pitta and kapha. Ayurvedic Glossary — u tikta ghrita: Bitter ghee (clarified butter with bitter herbs). trasana: A therapy that involves dry massage in which a brush or stone is rubbed against the skin, creating a gentle friction. Trasana enhances circulation and releases stagnant Qi or prana. Equivalent to the Chinese practice of plum blossoming tridoshic: A word to describe something that affects or involves all three doshas, either in a beneficial or detrimental way. tvacha: Skin; one of the superior by-products of mamsa dhatu. U udana vayu: One of the five subtypes of vata dosha; the upward moving energy, it mainly moves through the diaphragm, lungs, bronchi, trachea and throat. It governs exhalation and is responsible for speech, expression and any action that requires effort. It also stimulates memory and helps a person rise from confusion, attachment, depression and other daunting experiences. udvahana: Upward movement; a function of udana vayu. upadhatu: The superior by-product that results from the formation of a dhatu. Upanishad: The later, higher teachings of the Vedas; implies sitting in the vicinity of an enlightened one and listening to him or her without any doubt, delusion, or comparison. The entire teaching of vedanta is upanishad. Upa-vedas: Secondary or subordinate Vedas. Ayurveda is an upa-veda. ushna: Hot quality; stimulates gastric fire, improving circulation, digestion, absorption and assimilation. Promotes cleansing, expansion, anger and irritability. ushna vlrya: Heating energy of a substance. V vata: One of the three doshas, vata is associated with ether and air elements. It governs all movements and activities in the body. vayu: Air element, the second of the five basic elements; wind; another name for vata. vaigunya: Literally: lack of good qualities; defective; impairment. vamana: Therapeutic vomiting, one of the five cleansing procedures of panchakarma, it clears the stomach and especially deals with excessive kapha dosha. vasa: Subcutaneous fat; one of the superior by-products of mamsa dhatu. veda: Knowledge; teaching; also the name of the ancient scriptures of India. veshtana: A therapy that involves applying firm steady pressure, often by binding the area with a cloth. The binding action is antagonistic to the mobile quality of vata dosha that is responsible for creating cramps, spasms, tremors and pain. vibhu: Universal. vlrya: The energy or potency of a substance; the secondary action of an ingested substance, experienced after taste; two primary kinds: hot or cold. vijnanamaya kosha: The sheath made of wisdom, knowledge, or cognition. vikruti: Unnatural, imbalanced, or modified state; the current state of the individual, as opposed to prakruti, the original state of the constitution; a state of the body and mind in which the individual is more prone to disease. vimarga gamanam: False passage; something passing through the wrong channel; one of the three general categories of sroto dushti vipaka: The final post-digestive effect of food that occurs in the colon and has an action on the excreta: urine, feces and sweat. Vipaka is described as sweet, sour, or pungent. virechana: Purgation; one of the five important cleansing procedures used in panchakarma, it eliminates excess pitta via the small intestine using purgative herbs. vishada: Confusion or deep grief. vishada: Clear quality, associated with clarity, understanding, communication, cleansing. Vishnu: The supreme all-pervading lord; the second in the Hindu trinity of gods: the preserver, whose qualities are knowledge, strength, power, virility and splendor; cosmic prana, which is present in the atmosphere and protects global life. vishuddhi: The fifth chakra, located at the throat; related to the thyroid and parathyroid glands; associated with communication, will and the vijfiana maya kosha. vrukka: Kidney; one of the openings of ambu vaha srotas. (Vrukkau is the plural of vrukka.) Glossaries © Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical vrushana: Testicles. vy3na: The subtype of vata dosha that is primarily located in the heart and circulates all over the body. It is responsible for pulsation and circulation of venous blood and lymph fluid, and it maintains cardiac activity and oxygenation of cells, tissues, and organ systems, through the circulation of nutrients. Also responsible for all reflex actions and the movement of the joints and skeletal muscles through the reflex arc. vyakti: Manifestation; the manifested universe; also, the 5th stage of pathogenesis during which the cardinal signs and symptoms of a disease manifest. Y Yajurveda: One of the four main Vedas, this is a collection of sacred ceremonies and rituals. yakrut: The liver. yama: The first limb of Patanjali's eight limbed Yoga system; restraints or abstentions including non-violence, non-lying, non-misuse of sex energy, non-pos-sessiveness; these restraints have the purpose of bringing the Yogi into a harmonious relationship with Nature and with all beings. yantra: A mystical or astronomical diagram used for the worship of a deity; the asana, or seat of the deity into which that deity can be invited and established for worship. yogasana: The third limb of Patanjali's eight limbed Yoga system; the means of bringing awareness, stability and ease to the body through the use of physical postures and mudras for the purpose of supporting meditation. Yoga: One of the six philosophies; the science expounded by celebrated sage Patanjali including the practical means of uniting the higher and lower self and merging with cosmic consciousness through a gradual unfolding of inner strength and wisdom. Yoga Sutras (of Patanjali): The garland of sutras expounding the science of yoga. yogi: One who practices yoga; a blissful or enlightened one. yoni: Vagina.

Traditional Chinese Medicine Glossary

ashi points: Tender points that are painful to the touch and not a major acupoint located on the 14 principal meridians. bi syndrome: Pain or blockage that is due to stagnant qi or blood in meridians, different types of “bi” related to heat, cold, wind, damp. cun: Form of measurement for locating acupoints. One cun is considered to be the width of the patient's thumb. De: Individual's unique nature or constitution that is expressed as a predominance of one of the five elements. Eight Principles: Used to categorize disease and imbalance through 4 pairs of opposites: interior and exterior, deficiency and excess, hot and cold and yin and yang. gu qi: Energy that is received from food. jin ye: Body fluids that are subdivided into thin and thick fluids. One of the 5 vital substances. jing: Essence that is inherited from the parents at birth. One of the 5 vital substances. jing luo: Meridians and collaterals that are pathways through which energy flows. moxibustion: Herbal heat therapy over an acupoint or meridian to reduce pain, unblock stagnation and eliminate cold and wind. pericardium: The protective structure for the heart that is more susceptible to pathogenic influence. Pernicious Influences: 6 pathogens that create disease are wind, dryness, summer-heat, fire, cold and damp. qi: Energy, life force, flows within the body through channels called meridians. One of the 5 vital substances. Qigong: Practice of cultivating energy either internally or externally for healing purpose. qing qi: Energy of air rebellious qi: Energy that is flowing in the opposite direction of normal movement in the body, counter-flow. Manifests as coughing, wheezing, hiccupping, acid reflux, etc. san jiao: Also known as triple burner or triple heater that is divided into upper jiao, middle jiao and lower jiao. An energetic system of water regulation that includes the synergistic influence of many organs. shen: Spirit that resides in the heart and is governed by that organ. One of the 5 vital substances.

Western Medical Glossary

shu points (5): Located on each of the 12 primary channels where the energy intensifies as it flows from point to point. Originate at the extremities and terminate at the elbows or knees. These points are named jing-well, ying-spring, shu-stream, jing-river and he-sea. stagnation: Interrupted flow of qi or blood in the body that can occur at specific meridians. tai ji: Means supreme ultimate. Image or symbol for yin and yang polarities contained into one. Tao: Supreme Oneness that is undifferentiated potential. Also known as Wu-void. TCM: Abbreviation for Traditional Chinese Medicine that includes the subsets of acupuncture, acupressure, moxibustion, Chinese herbs, tui na (massage) qigong (energy work), tai chi (therapeutic exercise) and diet and lifestyle. wei qi: Immunity or protective energy. Wu: Cosmic undifferentiated unity that is the void or emptiness from which all things arise. Also known as the Tao. Wu Xing: 5 elements, also known as 5 movements or 5 principles of transformation, includes fire, earth, metal, water and wood. xie qi: Pathogens that affect immunity and create imbalance in the body. xue: Blood. One of the 5 vital substances. yang: Exists in relation to it's polarity yin and symbolizes masculine aspects of nature. yin: Exists in relation to it's polarity yang and symbolizes feminine aspects of nature. ying qi: Nutritional energy yuan qi: Source energy, ancestral energy that is inherited from the parents at birth. zang fu: 12 principal organs subdivided under yin or yang predominance. Yin organs include Heart, Pericardium, Lung, Liver, Spleen and Kidney. Yang organs are Large Intestine, Small Intestine, Stomach, Bladder, Gallbladder and Sanjiao. zong qi: Energy of chest that circulates in the upper Jiao. Medical Glossary adenoids: Lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx, also called pharyngeal tonsils. adhesive capsulitis: An inflammatory thickening of the joint capsule limiting range of motion in the joint. When this affects the shoulder joint, it is commonly known as frozen shoulder. adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism: Underactivity of the adrenal glands resulting in decreased production of corticosteroid hormones. allergic rhinitis: A common type of allergic reaction to airborne particles like pollens, molds and dusts that results in sneezing, an itchy, runny or congested nose and itchy eyes. amenorrhea: Absence of menses. anemia: A condition in which the number of red blood cells circulating or the amount of hemoglobin is less than normal. Hemoglobin is the protein in the blood that carries oxygen. angina pectoris: Severe pain in the chest due to decreased blood supply to the heart muscle, resulting from coronary artery disease. anhidrosis: Diminished or complete absence of sweating. anorexia: Loss of appetite. anosmia: Loss of the sense of smell. arrhythmia: Abnormal heart rhythms such as bradycardia (slow heart rate) and tachycardia (fast heart rate). Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD): Childhood disorder characterized by poor attention span and hyperactivity. autoimmune disorders: Disorders involving immune reactions in which abnormal antibodies are produced that attack the body's own tissues. Bell's palsy: Weakness of muscles on one side of the face due to facial nerve paralysis. bipolar disorder: Psychiatric illness characterized by manic or manic and depressive episodes. brachial plexopathy: Disorder involving the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves that supply the shoulder, upper extremity, upper back and chest. bradycardia: Abnormally slow heart rate (less than 60 heart beats per minute). bronchodilatation: Dilatation of the bronchial passage. This is necessary to relieve the symptoms of asthma. Glossaries Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical bronchospasm: An abnormal narrowing and partial obstruction of the bronchi due to spasms of the peribronchial smooth muscle. Occurs in asthma and bronchitis. bursitis: Inflammation of the bursa. A bursa is a sac or cavity found in connective tissue, usually in the vicinity of joints, lined with synovial membrane and containing fluid, synovia. carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve at the wrist resulting in tingling, numbness and weakness of the hand. cerebral ischemia: Decreased blood supply to the brain. cerebral malaria: Complication of malaria involving the brain. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): Nourishing and protecting fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord. cerebrovascular accident (CVA): Cerebrovascular conditions that have either ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions, resulting in critical decrease of blood supply to the brain tissue. Commonly known as a stroke. cervical spondylosis: Degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine. cervicitis: Inflammation of the cervix. chronic fatigue syndrome: An illness characterized by incapacitating fatigue. May be accompanied by low grade fever and swelling of the lymph nodes. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A disorder that decreases the ability of the lungs to perform ventilation. Is associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema resulting in chronic obstruction of the airways. conjunctivitis: Inflammation of the conjunctiva, a mucus membrane covering the surface of the eyeball and the inner surface of the lid. coronary artery disease: A condition in which fatty plaques are deposited in the walls of the coronary arteries. These arteries supply the heart muscle and critical obstruction of them results in myocardial infarction (heart attack). costochronditis: Inflammation of the costal cartilage^) characterized by pain and tenderness locally. This cartilage is present at the junction of the rib and sternum. (Tietze Syndrome) cystitis: Inflammation of the urinary bladder. degenerative joint disease (DJD): Arthritis involving the joints. diverticulosis: Presence of a number of diverticula, small herniations in the lining of the colon. dysentery: Frequent watery stools that may be accompanied by blood or mucus and marked by inflammation of the mucous membrane. dysmenorrhea: Difficult and painful menstruation. dysphagia: Inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing. edema: An abnormal accumulation of fluid, most commonly seen in the legs. It is present in conditions such as congestive heart failure or renal failure. enuresis: Involuntary discharge of urine. epicondylitis: Inflammation and degeneration of the attachments of the muscle to the elbow. Commonly referred to as golfer's elbow (medial epicondylitis) and tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis). epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis. The epididymis is a part of the male genitalia that is a reservoir of sperm. epilepsy: Disorder of cerebral function characterized by sudden, brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory phenomena. Convulsive seizures are the most common form of attack. epistaxis: Nosebleed. fissures (anal): A linear ulcer on the margin of the anus. flatulence: Excessive amount of gas in the intestines. gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach mucosal lining gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A disorder thought to be due to a reflux of gastric or intestinal contents into the lower esophagus. This results in damage to the esophageal mucus lining. glaucoma: Disorder characterized by increased intraocular pressure of the eye resulting in difficulty with vision and possibly blindness. goiter: An enlargement of the thyroid gland. hemorrhoids: Painful dilation of the hemorrhoidal veins, both external and internal, in the anal region. hernia: Abnormal protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it. hydrocele: An accumulation of fluid within the testis. hyperthyroidism: An abnormal condition of the thyroid gland associated with elevated secretion of thyrox ine. Medical Glossary hypothyroidism: An abnormal condition of the thyroid gland associated with deficient thyroid secretion. hypoxia: An oxygen deficiency. incontinence: Inability to restrain the discharge of excretions such as urine or feces. inflammatory bowel disease: Chronic disorders characterized by inflammation of the intestinal wall. It can result in recurring abdominal cramps and diarrhea. The two main types are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. insomnia: Prolonged or abnormal inability to sleep. iritis: Inflammation of the iris. irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): A condition where the motility of the gastrointestinal tract is affected, resulting in abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea. keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea. leukorrhea: Vaginal discharge that is characterized as white or yellowish in color. lymphadenopathy: Any disease process affecting a lymph node(s). Cervical lymph nodes are those located in the neck region and axillary lymph nodes those in the armpits. lymphedema: An abnormal increase of tissue fluid (potential lymph) in the interstitial spaces. mastitis: Inflammation of the breast. Meniere's disease: A condition involving recurrent attacks of vertigo, hearing loss and tinnitus. meningitis: Inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord. migraine: A severe headache occurring periodically and possibly accompanied by nausea, vomiting, vertigo or photophobia. Ophthalmic migraines are a type of migraine where the extraocular muscles of the eyes are affected. myalgia: Tenderness or pain in the muscle. myocardial infarction (MI): A medical emergency where blood supply to the heart is critically restricted. This results in death of the heart muscle. It is commonly referred to as a heart attack. nasal polyp: Mass of tissue that develops within the nasal mucus membranes. neuropathy: Any disease of the nerves. Can be due to injury (focal neuropathy) or a disease process (peripheral neuropathy), for example, diabetes. Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain and/ or weakness. night blindness: A disorder in which vision is affected at nighttime. oophoritis: Inflammation of an ovary. optic neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. orchitis: Inflammation of the testis. otitis media: Inflammation of the middle ear. palpitations: A condition in which the pulsations of the heart become faster than normal or irregular. The patient may perceive this as a “pounding” in the chest. paresthesia: A sensation of numbness, prickling or tingling. Most commonly occurs due to nerve damage in conditions like neuropathy. parotitis: An Inflammation of the parotid gland that commonly occurs in mumps. pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and contiguous pelvic structures that is not associated with surgery or pregnancy. peptic ulcer disease: An ulcer created by the erosive action of digestive juices on the lining of the duodenum (duodenal ulcer) or stomach (gastric ulcer). pericardial effusion: Fluid in the pericardial cavity. Peripheral Neuropathy - See neuropathy. peripheral vascular disease (PVD): A condition in which there is narrowing of the arteries and veins of the extremities leading to decreased blood flow. photophobia: Sensitivity to light. pleural effusion: An accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity surrounding the lungs. postural hypotension: A reduction in blood pressure when a person goes from supine position to sitting or standing posture. prolapse: A falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part, especially at a natural or artificial orifice. For example, a prolapsed uterus or bladder prolapse. prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate. ptosis: A condition in which there is drooping of an organ or a part, such as an eyelid due to paralysis of the oculomotor nerve (third cranial nerve). pyloric stenosis: Narrowing of the pyloric canal, which is the distal-most part of the stomach connecting to the duodenum. quadriplegia: Paralysis of all four limbs. radiculopathy: Disorder of the spinal nerve roots, commonly referred to as a pinched nerve. When this affects the nerve roots in the lumbosacral area, it is commonly referred to as sciatica. Glossaries Ayurvedic, Chinese and Medical renal colic: Excruciating pain originating in the kidneys and toward the thigh, often due to the presence of a stone (renal calculi). retention of urine: Incomplete emptying of the bladder often due to a neurological condition such as spinal cord injury and diabetic polyneuropathy but with many other causes as well. scleritis: Inflammation of the sclera. sinusitis: Inflammation of the mucus membrane of a sinus, which are air cavities in the facial skeleton around the nose. spasticity: An increase in muscle tone or contractions of muscles causing stiff or awkward movements. Commonly seen in neurological disorders such as strokes, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. spermatorrhea: An involuntary discharge of semen without orgasm. stroke: see Cerebrovascular accident. syncope: Transient loss of consciousness caused by diminished cerebral blood flow. tachycardia: Rapid beating of the heart (over 100 beats per minute). tendonitis: Inflammation of a tendon. Commonly affected tendons include rotator cuff and biceps tendons in the shoulder and patellar tendon in the knee. tinnitus: Subjective ringing in the ears. TMJ pain: Pain resulting from dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint(s). This joint is present on each side of the jaw. trigeminal neuralgia: A disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which supplies sensation to the face. This results in severe pain. ulcerative colitis: A chronic disease of the large intestine characterized by inflammation and ulceration. Symptoms may include abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea and fever. urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra. vertigo: A sensation of one's self moving or spinning or of the surrounding objects moving or spinning. Commonly referred to as dizziness. Marma Points of Ayurveda The Energy Pathways for Healing Body, Mind and Consciousness with a Comparison to Traditional Chinese Medicine by Vasant D. Lad, B.A.M.S., M.A.Sc. and Anisha Durve, M.S.O.M., Dipl. Ac, A.P. Sonam Targee Traditional Chinese Medicine Reviewer yurvcdic Press Albuquerque, New Mexico The Ayurvedic Press, Albuquerque 87112 Copyright © 2008 by The Ayurvedic Press, Vasant D. Lad and Anisha Durve. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review. Although the information contained in this book is based on Ayurvedic principles practicedfor thousands of years, it should not be taken or construed as standard medical treatment. For any medical condition, always consult with a qualified health care practitioner. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Edited by Jack Forem. Cover design by Michael Quanci. Illustrations by Yvonne Wylie Walston, CMI, of Creative Imagery, Inc. Layout design by Laura Humphreys. Project manager: Laura Humphreys. Printed in the Canada. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lad, Vasant, 1943- Marma points of Ayurveda : the energy pathways for healing body, mind, and consciousness with a comparison to traditional Chinese medicine / by Vasant D. Lad and Anisha Durve. p. cm. Summary: “Presents healing energetics of Ayurvedic marma points and compares them with Chinese system of acupuncture. Based on traditional medicine system from India, provides commentaries of diagnostic and therapeutic scope for each marma point including techniques for massage, detoxification, acupressure, aromatherapy, yoga and meditation”—Provided by publisher. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-883725-08-2 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-883725-08-9 (alk. paper) 1. Acupuncture points. 2. Medicine, Ayurvedic. I. Durve, Anisha. II. Title. RM184.5.L32 2008 6l5.5'38-dc22 2005032880 For more information on Ayurveda contact: The Ayurvedic Institute, P.O. Box 23445, Albuquerque, N.M. 87192-1445. Phone (505) 291-9698 or www.ayurveda.com.

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