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bodhichittavivarana [2018/02/26 18:10] (current)
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 +Bodhicittavivarana by Arya Nagarjuna
 +[[Bodhicittavivarana Translation by Thupten Jinpa]]
 +1.Bowing to the glorious Vajrasattva’s embodying the mind of
 +enlightenment,​ I shall expound the development of the
 +bodhicitta that abolishes [the three kinds of] existence [in
 +2. The Buddhas maintain that bodhicitta is not enveloped in
 +notions conscious of a self, skandhas, and so forth, [but] is
 +always marked by being empty [of any such notions].
 +3. [Those] with minds [only] tinged by compassion must develop
 +[bodhicitta] with particular effort. This bodhicitta is constantly
 +developed by the compassionate Buddhas.
 +4. When the self imagined by the tirthikas is analyzed logically, it
 +obtains no place within the [five] skandhas.
 +5.If it were [identical with] the skandhas [the self] would not be
 +permanent, but the self has no such nature. And between
 +things permanent and impermanent a container- content
 +relationship is not [possible].
 +6. When there is no so- called self how can the so- called creator
 +be permanent? [Only] if there were a subject might one begin
 +investigating its attributes in the world.
 +7. Since a permanent [creator] cannot create things, whether
 +gradually or all at once, there are no permanent things,
 +whether external or internal.
 +8. Why [would] an efficacious [creator] be dependent? He would
 +of course produce things all at once. A [creator] who depends
 +on something else is neither eternal nor efficacious.
 +9.If [he] were an entity he [would] not be permanent, for things
 +are perpetually instantaneous (since [you] do not deny that
 +impermanent things have a creator).
 +10. This [empirical] world, free from a self and the rest, is
 +vanquished by the [Sravakas'​] understanding of the skandhas,
 +elements, sense- fields, and subject and object.
 +Thus the benevolent [Buddhas] have spoken to the Sravakas
 +of the five skandhas: form, feeling, apprehension,​ karma-
 +formations and consciousness.
 +12- 13. But to the Bodhisattvas [the Buddha], the best among those
 +who walk on two legs, has always taught this doctrine about
 +the skandhas: "Form is like a mass of foam, feeling is like
 +bubbles, apprehension is like a mirage, karma- formations are
 +like the plantain, and consciousness is like an illusion."​
 +14. The form skandha is declared to have the four great elements
 +as its nature. The remaining [four skandhas] are inseparably
 +established as immaterial.
 +15. Among these eye, form, and so forth are classified as [the
 +eighteen] elements. Again, as subject- object these are to be
 +known as the [twelve] sense- fields.
 +16. Form is not the atom, nor is it the [organ] of sense. It is
 +absolutely not the active sense [of consciousness]. [Thus] an
 +instigator and a creator are not suited to producing [form].
 +17. The form atom does not produce sense consciousness,​
 +[because] it passes beyond the senses. If [empirical forms are
 +supposed to] be created by an assemblage [of atoms], this
 +accumulation is unacceptable.
 +18. If you analyse by spatial division, even the atom is seen to
 +possess parts. That which is analysed into parts — how can it
 +logically be an atom?
 +19. Concerning one single external object divergent judgments
 +may prevail. Precisely that form which is pleasant [to one
 +person] may appear differently to others.
 +20. Regarding the same female body, an ascetic, a lover and a
 +wild dog entertain three different notions: "A corpse!"​ "A
 +mistress!"​ "A tasty morsel!"​
 +21. Things are efficacious due to being like objects. Is it not like
 +an offense while dreaming [i. e., nocturnal emission]? Once
 +awakened from the dream the net result is the same.
 +22. As to the appearance of consciousness under the form of
 +subject and object, [one must realize] that there exists no
 +external object apart from consciousness.
 +23. In no way at all is there an external thing in the mode of an
 +entity. This particular appearance of consciousness appears
 +under the aspect of form.
 +24. The deluded see illusions, mirages, cities of gandharvas, and
 +so forth. Form manifests in the same way.
 +25. The purpose of the [Buddha'​s] teachings about the skandhas,
 +elements, and so forth is [merely] to dispel the belief in a self.
 +By establishing [themselves] in pure consciousness the
 +greatly blessed [Bodhisattvas] abandon that as well.
 +26.According to Vijhanavada,​ this manifold [world] is established
 +to be mere consciousness. What the nature of this
 +consciousness might be we shall analyse now.
 +27. The Muni's teaching that "The entire [world] is mere mind" is
 +intended to remove the fears of the simple- minded. It is not a
 +[teaching] concerning reality.
 +28. [The three natures] — the imagined, the dependent, and the
 +absolute — have only one nature of their own: sunyata. They
 +are the imaginations of mind.
 +29. To [Bodhisattvas] who rejoice in the Mahayana the Buddhas
 +present in brief the selflessness and equality of [all]
 +phenomena [and the teaching] that mind is originally unborn.
 +The Yogacarins give predominance to mind in itself. [They]
 +claim that mind purified by a transformation in position
 +[becomes] the object of its own specific [knowledge].
 +31. [But mind] that is past does not exist, [while] that which is
 +future is nowhere discovered. [And] how can the present
 +[mind] shift from place [to] place?
 +32. The [[alayavijnana]]] does not appear the way it is. As it appears
 +— it is not like that. Consciousness essentially lacks
 +substance; it has no other basis [than insubstantiality].
 +33. When a lodestone is brought near, iron turns swiftly around;
 +[though] it possesses no mind, [it] appears to possess mind.
 +In just the same way,
 +34. The alayavijnana appears to be real though it is not. When it
 +moves to and fro it [seems to] retain the [three] existences.
 +35. Just as the ocean and trees move though they have no mind,
 +the alayavijnana is active [only] in dependence on a body.
 +36. Considering that without a body there is no consciousness,​
 +you must also state what kind of specific knowledge of itself
 +this [consciousness] possesses!
 +37.By saying that a specific knowledge of itself [exists] one says
 +it is an entity. But one also says that it is not possible to say,
 +"This is it!"
 +38. To convince themselves as well as others, those who are
 +intelligent [should] always proceed without error!
 +39. The knowable is known by a knower. Without the know- able
 +no knowing [is possible]. So why not accept that subject and
 +object do not exist [as such]?
 +40. Mind is but a name. It is nothing apart from [its] name.
 +Consciousness must be regarded as but a name. The name
 +too has no own- being.
 +41. The Jinas have never found mind to exist, either internally,
 +externally, or else between the two. Therefore mind has an
 +illusory nature.
 +42. Mind has no fixed forms such as various colors and shapes,
 +subject and object, or male, female, and neuter.
 +In brief: Buddhas do not see [what cannot] be seen. How
 +could they see what has lack of own- being as its own- being?
 +44. A '​thing'​ is a construct. [[Shunyata]] is absence of constructs.
 +Where constructs have appeared, how can there be [[sunyata]]?​
 +45. The [[Tathagata]]s do not regard mind under the form of know-
 +able and knower. Where knower and knowable prevail there is
 +no enlightenment.
 +46. Space, bodhicitta, and enlightenment are without marks;
 +without generation. They have no structure; they are beyond
 +the path of words. Their '​mark'​ is [non-duality]].
 +47. The magnanimous Buddhas who reside in the heart of
 +enlightenment and all the compassionate [Bodhisattvas]
 +always know sunyata to be like space.
 +48. Therefore [Bodhisattvas] perpetually develop this sunyata,
 +which is the basis of all phenomena; calm, illusory, baseless;
 +the destroyer of existence.
 +49. Sunyata expresses non- origination,​ voidness, and lack of self.
 +Those who practice it should not practice what is cultivated
 +by the inferior.
 +50. Notions about positive and negative have the mark of
 +disintegration. The Buddhas have spoken [of them in terms of]
 +sunyata, [but] the others do not accept sunyata.
 +51. The abode of a mind that has no support has the mark of
 +[empty] space. These [Bodhisattvas] maintain that
 +development of sunyata is development of space.
 +All the dogmatists have been terrified by the lion's roar of
 +sunyata. Wherever they may reside, sunyata lies in wait!
 +53. Whoever regards consciousness as momentary cannot accept
 +it as permanent. If mind is impermanent,​ how does this
 +contradict sunyata?
 +54. In brief: When the Buddhas accept mind as impermanent,​ why
 +should they not accept mind as empty?
 +55. From the very beginning mind has no own- being. If things
 +could be proved through own- being, [we would] not declare
 +them to be without substance.
 +56. This statement results in abandoning mind as having
 +substantial foundation. It is not the nature of things to
 +transcend [their] own own- being!
 +57. As sweetness is the nature of sugar and hotness that of fire,
 +so [we] maintain the nature of all things to be sunyata.
 +58. When one declares sunyata to be the nature [of all
 +phenomena] one in no sense asserts that anything is
 +destroyed or that something is eternal.
 +59. The activity of dependent co- origination with its twelve
 +spokes starting with ignorance and ending with decay [we]
 +maintain to be like a dream and an illusion.
 +60. This wheel with twelve spokes rolls along the road of life.
 +Apart from this, no sentient being that partakes of the fruit of
 +its deeds can be found.
 +Depending on a mirror the outline of a face appears: It has not
 +moved into it but also does not exist without it.
 +Just so, the wise must always be convinced that the skandhas
 +appear in a new existence [due to] recomposition,​ but do not
 +migrate [as identical or different].
 +63. To sum up: Empty things are born from empty things. The
 +Jina has taught that agent and deed, result and enjoyer are [all
 +only] conventional.
 +64. Just as the totality [of their causes and conditions] create the
 +sound of a drum or a sprout, [so we] maintain that external
 +dependent co- origination is like a dream and an illusion.
 +65. It is not at all inconsistent that phenomena are born from
 +causes. Since a cause is empty of cause, [we] understand it to
 +be unoriginated.
 +66. That phenomena [are said] not to arise indicates that they are
 +empty. Briefly, 'all phenomena'​ denotes the five skandhas.
 +67. When truth is [accepted] as has been explained, convention is
 +not disrupted. The true is not an object separate from the
 +68. Convention is explained as sunyata; convention is simply
 +sunyata. For [these two] do not occur without one another,
 +just as created and impermanent [invariably concur].
 +69. Convention is born from karma [due to the various] klesas,
 +and karma is created by mind. Mind is accumulated by the
 +vasanas. Happiness consists in being free from the vasanas.
 +70. A happy mind is tranquil. A tranquil mind is not confused. To
 +be unperplexed is to understand the truth. By understanding
 +truth one obtains liberation.
 +71. It is also defined as reality, real limit, signless, ultimate
 +meaning, the highest bodhicitta, and sunyata.
 +72. Those who do not know sunyata will have no share in
 +liberation. Such deluded beings wander [among] the six
 +destinies, imprisoned within existence.
 +73. When ascetics (yogacarin) have thus developed this sunyata,
 +their minds will without doubt become devoted to the welfare
 +of others, [as they think]:
 +74. "I should be grateful to those beings who in the past
 +bestowed benefits upon me by being my parents or friends.
 +75. "As I have brought suffering to beings living in the prison of
 +existence, who are scorched by the fire of the klesas, it is
 +fitting that I [now] afford them happiness."​
 +The sweet and bitter fruit [that beings in] the world [obtain] in
 +the form of a good or bad rebirth is the outcome of whether
 +they hurt or benefit living beings.
 +77- 78. If Buddhas attain the unsurpassed stage by [giving] living
 +beings support, what is so strange if [those] not guided by the
 +slightest concern for others receive none of the pleasures of
 +gods and men that support the guardians of the world,
 +Brahma, Indra, and Rudra?
 +79. The different kinds of suffering that beings experience in the
 +hell realms, as beasts, and as ghosts result from causing
 +beings pain.
 +80. The inevitable and unceasing suffering of hunger, thirst,
 +mutual slaughter, and torments result from causing pain.
 +81. Know that beings are subject to two kinds of maturation: [that
 +of] Buddhas [and] Bodhisattvas and that of good and bad
 +82. Support [living beings] with your whole nature and protect
 +them like your own body. Indifference toward beings must be
 +avoided like poison!
 +83. Though the Sravakas obtain a lesser enlightenment thanks to
 +indifference/​ the bodhi of the Perfect Buddhas is obtained by
 +not abandoning living beings.
 +84. How can those who consider how the fruit of helpful and
 +harmful deeds ripens persist in their selfishness for even a
 +single moment?
 +85. The sons of the Buddha are active in developing
 +enlightenment,​ which has steadfast compassion as its root,
 +grows from the sprout of bodhicitta, and has the benefit of
 +others as its sole fruit.
 +86.Those who are strengthened by meditational development find
 +the suffering of others frightening. [In order to support others]
 +they forsake even the pleasures of dhyana; they even enter
 +the Avici hell!
 +87. They are wonderful; they are admirable; they are most
 +extraordinarily excellent! Nothing is more amazing than those
 +who sacrifice their person and riches!
 +88. Those who understand the sunyata of phenomena [but also]
 +believe in [the law of] karma and its results are more
 +wonderful than wonderful, more astonishing than astonishing!
 +89. Wishing to protect living beings, they take rebirth in the mud
 +of existence. Unsullied by its events, they are like a lotus
 +[rooted] in the mire.
 +90. Though sons of the Buddha such as Samantabhadra have
 +consumed the fuel of the klesas through the cognitive fire of
 +sunyata, the waters of compassion still flow within them!
 +91- 92. Having come under the guiding power of compassion they
 +display the descent [from Tusita], birth, merriments,
 +renunciation,​ ascetic practices, great enlightenment,​ victory
 +over the hosts of Mara, turning of the Dharmacakra,​ the
 +request of all the gods, and [the entry into] nirvana.
 +93. Having emanated such forms as Brahma, Indra, Visnu, and
 +Rudra, they present through their compassionate natures a
 +performance suitable to beings in need of guidance.
 +94. Two [kinds] of knowledge arise [from] the Mahayana to give
 +comfort and ease to those who journey in sorrow along life's
 +path— so it is said. But [this] is not the ultimate meaning.
 +95. As long as they have not been admonished by the Buddhas,
 +Sravakas [who are] in a bodily state of cognition remain in a
 +swoon, intoxicated by samadhi.
 +96. But once admonished, they devote themselves to living
 +beings in varied ways. Accumulating stores of merit and
 +knowledge, they obtain the enlightenment of Buddhas.
 +97. As the potentiality of both [accumulations],​ the vasanas are
 +said to be the seed [of enlightenment]. That seed, [which is]
 +the accumulation of things, produces the sprout of life.
 +98. The teachings of the protectors of the world accord with the
 +[varying] resolve of living beings. The Buddhas employ a
 +wealth of skilful means, which take many worldly forms.
 +99. [Teachings may differ] in being either profound or vast; at
 +times they are both. Though they sometimes may differ, they
 +are invariably characterized by sunyata and non- duality.
 +100. Whatever the dharams, stages, and paramitas of the Buddhas,
 +the omniscient [Tathagatas] have stated that they form a part
 +of bodhicitta.
 +101. Those who thus always benefit living beings through body,
 +words, and mind advocate the claims of sunyata, not the
 +contentions of annihilation.
 +102. The magnanimous [Bodhisattvas] do not abide in nirvana or
 +samsara. Therefore the Buddhas have spoken of this as "the
 +non- abiding nirvana"​
 +103. The unique elixir of compassion functions as merit, [but] the
 +elixir of sunyata functions as the highest. Those who drink it
 +for the sake of themselves and others are sons of the Buddha.
 +104. Salute these Bodhisattvas with your entire being! Always
 +worthy of honour in the three worlds, guides of the world, they
 +strive to represent the lineage of the Buddhas.
 +105. [In] Mahayana this bodhicitta is said to be the very best. So
 +produce bodhicitta through firm and balanced efforts.
 +106. [In this] existence there is no other means for the realization
 +of one's own and others'​ benefit. The Buddhas have until now
 +seen no means apart from bodhicitta.
 +107. Simply by generating bodhicitta a mass of merit is collected. If
 +it took form, it would more than fill the expanse of space!
 +108. If a person developed bodhicitta only for a moment, not even
 +the Jinas could calculate the mass of his merit!
 +109. The one finest jewel is a precious mind free of klesas.
 +Robbers like the klesas or Mara cannot steal or damage it.
 +110. Just as the high aspirations of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas in
 +samsara are unswerving, those who set their course on
 +bodhicitta must make [firm their] resolve.
 +111. No matter how amazing [all this seems], you must make
 +efforts as explained. Thereafter you yourself will understand
 +the course of [[Samantabhadra]]!
 +112. Through the incomparable merit I have now collected by
 +praising the excellent bodhicitta praised by the excellent
 +Jinas, may living beings submerged in the waves of life's
 +ocean gain a foothold on the path followed by the leader of
 +those who walk on two legs.
 + Our good fortune is solely due to this translation of this wonderful text 
bodhichittavivarana.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:10 (external edit)