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bowing [2018/02/26 18:10] (current)
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 +** [[Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute]] of [[Medicine Buddha Healing Center]] **
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 +[[Home]] | [[Clinic]] | [[Featured Content]] | [[Buddhist Ayurvedic Distance Learning |Distance Learning]] | [[About Us]] | [[Donate]] | [[Non-Profit]] | [[Recent Changes]] | Phone: 1-510-292-6696
 +
 +Part of the List of [[Dharma Terms]] from the [[Buddhist Ayurveda]] Course ([[SKT220]] ) on [[Sanskrit Terms]] of [[Ayurveda]] and [[Dharma]]
 +----
 +
 +
 +======= Bowing =======
 +
 +
 +[[bowing]]
 +
 +"The [[Buddhist]] [[practice]] of [[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]] . . . diminishes one's [[habit]]s of [[self]]-importance,​ [[pride]], and [[arrogance]]. It is also a [[good]] [[physic]]al [[exercise]] that can make the [[body]] [[strong]]. . . ." ([[WM]] 38)
 +
 +"​[[bowing]] is an important [[practice]] in [[Buddhism]]. It involves a full
 +[[prostration]]-the placing of the fore[[head]],​ forearms, and knees on the [[ground]]
 +in a total gesture of [[revere]]nce and of [[worship]]. It is usually done before an
 +[[image]] of the [[Buddha]], a [[Bodhisattva]],​ a [[Sage]], or before a [[Holy]] text. It is a
 +mis[[conception]],​ though, to think that the [[worship]]per is [[bowing]] to a [[statue]] of
 +the [[Buddha]], to a wooden or [[stone]] or clay [[image]]. The [[Buddha]] we [[bow]] to is the
 +[[Buddha]] [[inside]] our [[true]] [[mind]]s, the [[pure]] [[good]], and [[perfect]] [[spiritual]] [[nature]]
 +that has no [[shape]] or [[form]]. [[image]]s of the [[Buddha]] are simply symbols of the
 +[[real]] [[thing]]."​ ([[PDS]], Feb. 1984, p. 4)
 +
 +[[seven]] [[way]]s to [[bow]]
 +
 +"There are [[seven]] different [[way]]s that [[people]] [[bow]] to the [[Buddha]]:
 +
 +"1) The [[first]] is '​arrogant [[bowing]]',​ and describes a [[person]] who, although he
 +or she [[bow]]s to the [[Buddha]], still has a [[mark]] of a [[self]]. When someone like
 +this [[bow]]s to the [[Buddha]], it is [[force]]d and is accompanied by [[thought]]s like
 +this: 'What am I doing [[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]]? Why do I have to [[bow]] to him?' A [[person]] like this [[become]]s annoyed at [[being]] [[force]]d to put his [[head]] down. He
 +sees everyone else [[bowing]] and [[feel]]s that if he does not [[bow]] along with them,
 +he will stand out, and so out of embarrassment he [[bow]]s to the [[Buddha]].
 +Although he [[bow]]s, his [[mark]] of [[self]] is still not [[empty]]; on the contrary, he
 +is filled with [[arrogance]]. . . .
 +
 +"2) The [[second]] [[kind]] of [[bowing]] is called '​[[seeking]] for [[fame]]'​. This [[category]]
 +describes one who [[hear]]s [[other]]s [[praising]] a [[cultivator]] saying, 'That [[person]]
 +[[bow]]s often and really [[cultivate]]s [[vigor]]ously;​ he [[bow]]s to the [[Buddha]]s,​ he [[bow]]s
 +to [[Sutra]]s, and he [[bow]]s [[Repentance]] ceremonies. He is [[truly]] a [[diligent]]
 +[[cultivator]]. Upon [[hearing]] the [[praise]] of this [[cultivator]],​ he also [[wish]]es to be
 +[[recognize]]d as a [[cultivator]],​ and so he begins [[vigor]]ously [[bowing]] to the
 +[[Buddha]]. Although he finds [[pleasure]] in [[bowing]], he does not [[truly]] [[bow]] to the
 +[[Buddha]]; he is [[bowing]] for [[recognition]]. He is [[seeking]] [[recognition]] as a
 +[[cultivator]],​ and the [[pleasure]] he finds is in that [[recognition]] and in his
 +[[dream]]s of [[fame]]. . . .
 +
 +"With the [[first]], arrogant [[bowing]], you see [[other]]s [[bowing]], and so you [[bow]]
 +along, but you think to your[[self]],​ 'Oh, this is really superstitious. Of what
 +possible use could it be?' The [[second]], '​[[seeking]] for [[fame]]',​ is not [[perform]]ed
 +be[[cause]] you [[believe]] or do not [[believe]];​ you [[bow]] be[[cause]] you see someone else
 +[[bowing]] and [[receiving]] [[offering]]s,​ [[respect]] and [[other]]s'​ [[praise]]. Since you too
 +[[wish]] to [[receive]] [[offering]]s,​ [[respect]],​ and [[praise]], you [[bow]] to the [[Buddha]].
 +
 +"3) The [[third]] is called '​[[bowing]] with [[body]] and [[mind]] concurring'​. . . . It
 +describes a [[person]] who [[bow]]s when he sees [[other]]s [[bowing]]. In [[mind]]less
 +imitation, both his [[body]] and his [[mind]] go along with what everyone else is
 +doing. He doesn'​t have the s[[light]]est concern as to whether [[bowing]] to the
 +[[Buddha]] is beneficial or not, or whether it is reasonable or superstitious.
 +You do not seek for [[recognition]];​ you just follow along with everyone else,
 +you [[body]] and [[mind]] concurring. This [[kind]] of [[bowing]] has no [[real]] [[benefit]]s and
 +no [[real]] [[fault]]s.
 +
 +"4) The [[fourth]] [[kind]] of [[bowing]] is called 'wise and [[pure]]'​. '​Wise'​ refers to
 +the functioning of [[wisdom]], and '​[[pure]]'​ refers to the [[development]] of [[purity]].
 +It describes one who uses [[true]] [[wisdom]] to [[purify]] his [[body]] and [[mind]]. [[people]]
 +who are wise use this [[method]] to [[bow]] to the [[Buddha]], and by doing so, they
 +[[purify]] the [[Three]] [[karma]]s of [[body]], [[mouth]], and [[mind]].
 +
 +"When someone uses this [[fourth]] [[method]] to [[bow]] to the [[Buddha]], his bodily [[karma]]
 +is [[correct]] inasmuch as he does not [[kill]], [[steal]], commit [[sexual misconduct]],​
 +and so in this [[way]] his bodily [[karma]] is [[purified]]. When he uses this [[method]] to
 +[[bow]] to the [[Buddha]], he [[enter]]tains no [[thought]]s of [[greed]], [[hatred]], or [[stupid]]ity]],​
 +rather he possesses the [[wisdom]] [[born]] from [[single[[mind]]ed]]ly and [[respect]]fully
 +[[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]], and so his [[karma]] of [[mind]] also [[become]]s [[pure]]. When
 +someone [[bow]]s to the [[Buddha]], he also [[recite]]s the [[Buddha]]'​s [[name]], and by doing
 +so, or by [[Holding]] and reciting [[Sutra]]s and [[Mantra]]s,​ his [[mouth]] [[karma]] is also
 +[[correct]] and de[[void]] of any [[harsh]] [[speech]], [[false [[speech]], irresponsible [[speech]]
 +or duplicity and is thereby [[purified]]. When the [[Three]] [[karma]]s of [[body]], [[mouth]],
 +and [[mind]] are [[pure]], this is called 'wise and [[pure]] [[bowing]]',​ with which one
 +uses [[true]] [[wisdom]] to [[bow]] to the [[Buddha]].
 +
 +"5) The [[fifth]] [[kind]] of [[bowing]] is called '​pervading everywhere throughout the
 +[[Dharma]]-[[realm]]'​. . . . It describes one who, when [[bowing]], [[contemplate]]s:​
 +'​Although I have not yet [[become]] a [[Buddha]] in [[body]], the [[nature]] of my [[mind]]
 +fills the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]]. As I [[bow]] before this one [[Buddha]], I [[bow]] everywhere
 +before all [[Buddha]]s. I am not just [[bowing]] before one [[Buddha]]; my
 +[[transformation]] bodies [[bow]] before each [[Buddha]], [[simultaneous]]ly making
 +[[offering]]s to all [[Buddha]]s and [[Bodhisattva]]s.'​
 +
 +"​Consider that '​every[[thing]] is made from the [[mind]] alone',​ and so one's [[mind]]
 +totally pervades the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]] (see entry). One's [[bowing]] [[practice]] totally
 +pervades the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]]. What is the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]]?​ All of the [[Great]]
 +[[world system]]s of a [[bil[[Lion]] [[world]]s (see [[world system]]s*) are contained within
 +it. In fact, [[nothing]] is [[outside]] of the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]]. With this [[kind]] of
 +[[bowing]], you [[contemplate]] your [[respect]]ful [[bowing]] pervading everywhere
 +throughout the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]]. . . .
 +
 +"6) The [[sixth]] is called '​sincerely [[Cultivating]] [[Proper]] contemplation.'​ One
 +who [[cultivate]]s [[Proper]] [[concentration]] is one who [[concentrate]]s his [[mind]] and
 +[[contemplate]]s:​ '​[[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]] is [[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]]s of the
 +[[Dharma]]-[[realm]];​ [[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]]s of the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]] is just [[bowing]] to
 +one [[Buddha]].'​ This is be[[cause]] 'all [[Buddha]]s of the [[ten directions]] and the
 +[[Three]] periods of [[time]] share one [[Dharma Body]] in common, and all [[Buddha]]s'​
 +[[Land]]s and [[way]]s are identical.'​ A [[concentrate]]d [[mind]] must be used to [[bow]] to
 +the [[Buddha]], to [[contemplate]] the [[Buddha]], and to [[cultivate]],​ so that you will
 +not have [[polluted thoughts]].
 +
 +"It is not considered to be [[Proper]] [[concentration]] if when you are [[bowing]],
 +your [[mind]] runs off to the movies, or to the race track, or goes off hunting,
 +or to a [[dance]] hall, a bar, or a restaurant. You need not purchase a ticket
 +for your [[mind]] to travel off in all [[direction]]s. With no travel arrangements
 +at all, suddenly it is in the [[heaven]]s,​ and suddenly it is on [[earth]].
 +Some[[time]]s your [[mind]] will fly off to New York and then for no [[apparent]]
 +reason, it comes back to [[San Francisco]]. You think, 'Oh, I was here [[bowing]] to
 +the [[Buddha]] and then I went to New York, only to fly back to [[San Francisco]]
 +again. This must be a [[spiritual]] [[power]]!'​
 +
 +"In fact, that is not even a [[ghost]]ly [[power]], let alone a [[spiritual]] [[power]]. It
 +is [[nothing]] more than polluted [[thought]] and is called [[Devi]]ant]] contemplation or
 +[[improper]] contemplation. If you [[cultivate]] with [[Proper]] contemplation,​ you will
 +not have these [[polluted thoughts]]. You would [[bow]] to the [[Buddha]] with an
 +undivided [[mind]].
 +
 +"'​Sincerely [[Cultivating]]'​ [[means]] that when you [[bow]] once, that surpasses one
 +[[million]] [[bow]]s made by someone who [[bow]]s while having [[polluted thoughts]]. And so
 +in [[Cultivating]],​ 'when you reach the gate, you [[enter]].'​ You should [[understand]]
 +this [[Dharma Door]], be[[cause]] if you do not, then when you see [[other]]s [[bowing]] to
 +the [[Buddha]], you will not [[bow]] the [[way]] they do but instead will think, 'As
 +soon as I'm finished [[bowing]], I'm going to have a cup of coffee, or perhaps
 +I'll have a [[drink]].'​ [[people]] like that have no [[control]] over their [[mind]]s, and
 +after they have finished [[bowing]], they run off to have a [[drink]].
 +
 +"The problem is not only do they themselves go out to have a [[drink]], but they
 +drag everyone else out with them. That is really pitiful. That is not
 +'​[[Cultivating]] [[pure]]ly with [[Proper]] contemplation',​ but is a [[form]] of [[Devi]]ant]]
 +contemplation,​ be[[cause]] if you have [[false]] [[thought]]s while you are [[bowing]], your
 +[[worship]] is de[[void]] of any [[Merit]] and [[virtue]].
 +
 +"7) The [[seventh]] is called the '​[[true]] [[mark]] of [[impartial]] [[bowing]]'​. It describes
 +a [[person]] who [[bow]]s and yet does not [[bow]]; who does not [[bow]] while he [[bow]]s. When
 +I say this, some of you are [[thinking]],​ 'You say we should [[bow]] and yet not
 +[[bow]], and not [[bow]] and yet [[bow]]. Therefore, if I don't [[bow]] to the [[Buddha]], won't
 +I be [[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]]?'​ That is not what I mean. With this [[kind]] of
 +[[bowing]], although you [[bow]] to the [[Buddha]], you are not [[attached]] to a [[mark]] of
 +[[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]]. You cannot distort the [[meaning]] and say that while you
 +are not [[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]], it counts as [[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]]. One who
 +[[speak]]s in that [[way]] is [[mental]]ly [[disturb]]ed.
 +
 +"For example, recently someone told me he had [[attain]]ed the [[void]]. That is an
 +[[extreme]]ly [[stupid]] [[thing]] to say. What is more, [[people]] like that cannot be
 +helped, and there is no [[way]] to save them be[[cause]] their [[heavy]]
 +[[attachment]]-[[nature]] makes them too [[stupid]].
 +
 +"The '​[[true]] [[mark]] of [[impartial]] [[bowing]]'​ [[means]] that 'I am [[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]],
 +I am [[impartial]]ly [[bowing]] to the [[Triple Jewel]]; I am [[revere]]nt to the [[Buddha]],
 +[[revere]]nt to the [[Dharma]], and [[revere]]nt to the [[Sangha]]. Although I [[bow]] in this
 +[[way]], I, nevertheless,​ do not [[discriminate]] that I am [[bowing]] and 'not one
 +[[thought]] is [[produce]]d,​ nor is one [[thought]] [[destroy]]ed'​. This is the [[Dharma]] of
 +the '​[[true]] [[mark]] of [[impartial]] [[bowing]]'​. It is a [[Dharma]] which involves neither
 +[[coming into being]] nor ceasing to be: 'When not even one [[thought]] [[arise]]s, the
 +entire [[substance]] [[appear]]s.'​ When you [[bow]] to the [[Buddha]] to the point that not
 +even one [[thought]] is [[produce]]d,​ you [[cause]] your [[body]] to [[manifest]] throughout the
 +entire [[Dharma]]-[[realm]]. Although your [[body]] is [[bowing]] here, it is the same size
 +as the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]]. This is just the [[true]] [[mark]] that has no [[mark]]. You [[bow]]
 +until there are no [[people]], [[no self]], [[no living beings]], and no [[lifespan]]. You
 +[[become]] one and the same [[substance]] with the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]]. Your [[body]] is the
 +[[Dharma]]-[[realm]];​ the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]] is your [[body]].
 +
 +"Is this not [[wonderful]]?​ Before your [[body]] was just a speck on [[Mount Sumeru]],
 +and [[Mount Sumeru]] was the size of a [[dust]]-[[mote]] in the [[Dharma]]-[[realm]]. But when
 +your reach the point of the '​[[true]] [[appearance]] which has no [[appearance]],'​ [[Mount]]
 +[[Sumeru]] is contained within your [[Dharma Body]]. You now contain [[Mount Sumeru]].
 +Is this not [[wonderful]]?​ You contain absolutely every[[thing]];​ every[[thing]] in the
 +[[uni[[verse]] is contained within your [[nature]], and you [[understand]] every[[thing]]. The
 +[[true]] [[mark]] of [[impartial]] [[bowing]] is an [[inconceivable]] [[state]]. If you can reach
 +this [[state]] while [[bowing]] to the [[Buddha]], can you then explain all of its
 +[[wonderful]] [[aspect]]s?​ No, they are [[ineffable]]."​ ([[UW]] 19-23)
 +
 +1) [[Chinese]]:​ bai , li bai , ding li ; 2) [[Sanskrit]]:​ van[[Dana]],​ vandaniya...;​ 3) [[Pali]]
 +[[Abhi]]vadeti;​ 4) Alternate [[translation]]s:​ full [[prostration]].
 +
 +[[See Also]]: [[faith]], [[repentance]],​ [[confession]],​ [[prostration]],​ [[Thirty-five Confession Buddhas]], [[bowing]], [[Prostrations to the 35 Buddhas]], [[Da Bei Chan]]
 +
 +[[BTTS References]]:​ [[WM]] 38-39; [[SV]] 57; [[UW]] 18-25; [[PDS]] "​[[seven]] Types of [[bowing]]: What
 +Happens When [[people]] [[bow]]";​ [[WOH]]; TS.
 +
 +----
 +
 +A [[prostration]] (Pali: ''​panipāta'',​ Skt.: [[namas-kara]],​ Ch.: ''​li-pai'',​ Jp.: ''​raihai''​) is a gesture used in [[Buddhist]] practice to show reverence to the [[Triple Gem]] (comprising the Buddha, his teachings, and the spiritual community) and other objects of veneration.
 +
 +Among Buddhists prostration is believed to be beneficial for practitioners for several reasons, including:
 +*an experience of [[dana (Buddhism)|giving]] or veneration
 +*an act to purify [[kilesa|defilements]],​ especially conceit
 +*a preparatory act for [[Buddhist meditation|meditation]]
 +*an act that accumulates [[merit (Buddhism)|merit]] (see [[karma in Buddhism|karma]])
 +
 +In contemporary Western Buddhism, some teachers use prostrations as a practice unto itself,<​ref>​See,​ for instance, Tromge (1995), pp. 87-96.</​ref>​ while other teachers relegate prostrations to customary [[liturgy|liturgical]] ritual, ancillary to [[Buddhist meditation|meditation]].<​ref>​See,​ for example, Aitken (1982), pp. 29-31, where he discusses such rituals as having a twofold purpose: "​First,​ ritual helps to deepen our religious spirit and to extend its vigor to our lives. ​ Second, ritual is an opening for the experience of forgetting the self as the words or the actions become one with you, and there is nothing else." (p. 29).</​ref>​
 +
 +Prostrations may also be subsumed within sadhana repetitions of various [[vinyasa]] forms of yogic discipline, such as [[Trul Khor]], eg. Importantly,​ vinyasa forms were directly influenced from Buddhist '​impermanence'​ ([[anitya]]) as was the language of [[Patanjali]]'​s ''​[[Yoga Sutras]]''​ informed by Buddhist discourse.
 +
 +==Theravada Buddhism==
 +In the [[Pali canon]], laypersons prostrating before the then-living Buddha is mentioned in several [[Sūtra|sutta]]s.<​ref>​Khantipalo (1982). ​ In addition to making this general statement, Khantipalo quotes an example of lay people prostrating before the Buddha from the [[Kalama Sutta]] ([[Anguttara Nikaya|AN]] 3.65).</​ref> ​ In [[Theravada Buddhism]], as part of daily practice, one typically prostrates before and after [[Buddhist chant|chanting]] and [[Buddhist meditation|meditation]]. On these occasions, one does typically prostrates three times: once to the [[Gautama Buddha|Buddha]],​ once to the [[Dhamma]], and once to the [[Sangha]]. ​ More generally, one can also prostrate before "any sacred object of veneration."<​ref>​Indaratana (2002), p. v.</​ref>​
 +
 +Theravada Buddhists execute a type of prostration that is known as "​five-point veneration"​ (Pali: ''​patitthitapanca''​) or the "​five-limbed prostration"​ (Pali: ''​pañc'​anga-vandana''​) where the two palms and elbows, two sets of toes and knees, and the forehead are placed on the floor.<​ref>​Indaratana (2002), p. v. Khantipalo (1982).</​ref> ​ More specifically:​
 +
 +{{quote|... In the kneeling position, one's hand in añjali [palms together, fingers flat out and pointed upward] are raised to the forehead and then lowered to the floor so that the whole forearm to the elbow is on the ground, the elbow touching the knee. The hands, palm down, are four to six inches apart with just enough room for the forehead to be brought to the ground between them. Feet are still as for the kneeling position and the knees are about a foot apart....<​ref name="​Khantipalo 1982">​Khantipalo (1982).</​ref>​}}
 +
 +In Thailand, traditionally,​ each of the three aforementioned prostrations are accompanied by the following [[Pali]] verses:<​ref name="​Khantipalo 1982"/>​
 +<​center>​
 +<table cellspacing="​10">​
 +<tr>
 +<​td>'''​First Prostration'''</​td>​
 +<td style="​border-left:​1px solid #​AAAAAA;​border-right:​1px solid #​AAAAAA">​
 +''​Araham samma-sambuddho bhagava<​br />​Buddham bhagavantam abhivademi.''​
 +</td>
 +<​td>​The Noble One, the fully Enlightened One, the Exalted One,<br />I bow low before the Exalted Buddha.</​td>​
 +</tr>
 +<tr>
 +<​td>'''​Second Prostration'''</​td>​
 +<td style="​border-left:​1px solid #​AAAAAA;​border-right:​1px solid #​AAAAAA">​
 +''​Svakkhato bhagavata dhammo<​br />​Dhammam namassami.''​
 +</td>
 +<​td>​The Exalted One's well-expounded Dhamma<​br />I bow low before the Dhamma.</​td>​
 +</tr>
 +<tr>
 +<​td>'''​Third Prostration'''</​td>​
 +<td style="​border-left:​1px solid #​AAAAAA;​border-right:​1px solid #​AAAAAA">​
 +''​Supatipanno bhagavato savakasangho<​br />​sangham namami.''​
 +</td>
 +<​td>​The Exalted One's Sangha of well-practiced disciples<​br />
 +I bow low before the Sangha.</​td>​
 +</tr>
 +</​table>​
 +</​center>​
 +
 +In Theravadin countries such as Sri Lanka, when one goes before one's teacher, in order to "open one's mind up to receive instructions,"​ one bows and recites the phrase, "​Okāsa ahaṃ bhante vandāmi"​ ("I pay homage to you venerable sir"​).<​ref>​Bhikkhu Bodhi (2006), ''​Sn 2.9 Kiṃsīla Sutta — Right Conduct''​ (lecture) at time 25:20, available as "​Sn032"​ (mp3) from "Bodhi Monastery"​ at http://​www.bodhimonastery.net/​bm/​about-buddhism/​audio/​903-audio/​84-sutta-nipata.html. ​ Before a nun (as opposed to a monk), one would presumably use ''​ayye''​ instead of ''​bhante''​.</​ref>​
 +
 +==Mahayana Buddhism==
 +<​table><​tr><​td style="​vertical-align:​top">​
 +In [[Zen Buddhism]], both half- and full-prostrations are used.  Zen master [[Robert Baker Aitken|Robert Aitken]] writes:
 +{{quote|The Zen student is taught that in ''​raihai''​ [prostration] one throws everything away. Pivoting the forearms on the elbows and raising the hands [palms up] while prostrated is the act of raising the Buddha'​s feet above one's head.<​ref>​Aitken (2002). See a similar statement in Aitken (1982), p. 30.</​ref>​}}
 +
 +Roshi [[Philip Kapleau]] writes:
 +{{quote|The act of unself-conscious prostration before a Buddha is ... possible under the impetus of reverence and gratitude. Such "​horizontalizings of the mast of ego"<​ref>​Here Kapleau is referencing a letter by 14th c. Rinzai Zen master [[Bassui Tokushō]] to a layman: "As for the practice of bowing down before the Buddhas, this is merely a way of horizontalizing the mast of ego in order to realize the Buddha-nature"​ (Kapleau, 1989a, pp. 182-183).</​ref>​ cleanse the heart-mind, rendering it flexible and expansive, and open the way to an understanding and appreciation of the exalted mind and manifold virtues of the Buddha and patriarchs. So there arises within us a desire to express our gratitude and show our respect before their personalized forms through appropriate rituals.<​ref>​Kapleau (1989a), p. 21.</​ref>​}}
 +
 +Ninth-century Zen master [[Huangbo Xiyun|Huang Po]] is said to have done prostrations so intensely that he wore a permanent red mark on his forehead.<​ref>​Kapleau (1989b), p. 192.</​ref>​
 +
 +</​td><​td style="​margin-left:​2%; ​ margin-top:​3%;​ margin-bottom:​3%;​ margin-right:​0%;​ background:#​FFD060;​ border:2px solid #FF4500; font-size:​100%">​
 +
 +<​center>'''​An American in Dokusan'''</​center>​
 +<div style="​margin-left:​1%;​ margin-right:​1%">​
 +Zen master [[Phillip Kapleau]] recounts his first stay in "a real Zen monastery":​
 +
 +{{quote|How well, too, I remember the first time I came before my teacher in [[dokusan]]. ​ As you know, it is customary to prostrate oneself before the [[roshi]] as a sign of respect and humility. ​ But how that went against my grain, and how I resisted it! "... [W]hat does all this have to do with Zen?"
 +
 +My teacher, well aware of these thoughts within me, said nothing, viewing my frustrated maneuvers at each dokusan with an amused smile. ​ Then one day, when I was having a more awkward time than usual trying to prostrate, he suddenly shot at me, "​Kapleau-san,​ when you make prostrations in dokusan you are not bowing down before me but before your own [[Buddha-nature]]."<​ref>​Kapleau (1989b), p. 191.</​ref>​}}
 +</​div></​td></​table>​
 +
 +==Vajrayana Buddhism==
 +[[Image:​Pilgrims prostrating at Jokhang.JPG|thumb|280px|[[Buddhist pilgrimage|Pilgrims]] prostrating at the [[Jokhang]],​ [[Lhasa]]]]
 +In [[Vajrayana Buddhism]], prostrations are often performed before meditation or teachings, but can form a separate practice by itself. ​ Prostrations are seen as a means of purifying ones [[Three vajra|body, speech and mind]] of [[karma|karmic]] defilements,​ especially pride.<​ref>​Tromge (1995), p. 87.</​ref>​ Prostrations are used in tandem with visualization and can be used to express reverence to [[Guru Rinpoche]]<​ref>​Tromge (1995), pp. 88-9.</​ref>​ and others.
 +
 +For example, in the context of offering homage to Guru Rinpoche, prostrations are to be performed as follows:
 +
 +{{quote|...Bring your hands together in the 'lotus bud' [[mudra]] (the base of the palm and the fingertips together, and thumbs slightly tucked in) and place them on the crown of the head, then to the throat and heart. ​ As you place your hands on your crown, you offer homage to Guru Rinpoche'​s enlightened body, purify defilements and obscurations incurred through the avenue of your body, and establish the potential to realize [[nirmanakaya]]. ​ At your throat, you offer homage to his enlightened speech, and establish the potential to realized [[sambhogakaya]]. ​ Bringing your hands to your heart, you offer homage to his enlightened mind, purify your mind's obscurations,​ and establish the potential to realize [[dharmakaya]].
 +The actual prostration is performed by dropping the body forward and stretching it full length on the floor, the arms outstretched in front.... ​ Again, with hands in the lotus bud mudra, bend your arms back and touch your hands to the top of your head, a gesture that acknowledges the blessing flowing from Guru Rinpoche. Then stretch your arms out once more and push yourself up.... ​ Bring your hands into the lotus bud mudra for the third time and touch your heart in a gesture of reverence. ​ Then, with a smooth motion, bring your hands to your crown and perform the next prostration....<​ref>​Tromge (1995), pp. 94-5.</​ref>​}}
 +
 +This type of prostration is often done 3, 7, 21, or 108 times. ​ A prostration [[Buddhist prayer beads|mala]] can be used to facilitate counting.<​ref>​Tromge (1995), p. 95.</​ref>  ​
 +
 +This form of prostration is used with enlightened beings other than Guru Rinpoche as well.
 +
 +Prostrations done in large numbers (like 100,000) can be part of the [[Ngöndro|preliminary practices]] to the practice of [[tantra]]. Other practices like this can be reciting the [[Refuge (Buddhism)|Refuge]] prayer, [[mandala]] offerings, [[Vajrasattva]] mantras and other practices called [[ngöndro]].
 +
 +==See also==
 +
 +*[[Householder (Buddhism)]]
 +*[[Puja (Buddhism)]]
 +*[[Gadaw]], a Burmese form of paying obeisance
 +
 +==Notes==
 +
 +<​references/>​
 +
 +==Bibliography==
 +
 +*Aitken, Robert (1982). ''​Taking the Path of Zen''​. NY:North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-080-4.
 +
 +*Aitken, Robert (2002). "​Formal Practice: Buddhist or Christian"​ in ''​Buddhist-Christian Studies''​ (2002), Vol. 22, pp. 63-76. ​ Available on-line at: http://​www.thezensite.com/​ZenEssays/​Miscellaneous/​FormalPractice.htm
 +
 +*Indaratana Maha Thera, Elgiriye (2002). ''​Vandana:​ The Album of Pali Devotional Chanting and Hymns''​. Penang, Malaysia:​Mahindarama Dhamma Publication. Available on-line at: http://​www.buddhanet.net/​pdf_file/​vandana02.pdf.
 +
 +*[[Philip Kapleau|Kapleau,​ Phillip]] (1989a). ''​The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice and Enlightenment''​. NY: Anchor Books. ISBN 0-385-26093-8.
 +
 +*Kapleau, Philip (1989b). ''​Zen:​ Merging of East and West''​. NY:Anchor Book. ISBN 0-385-26104-7.
 +
 +*Khantipalo,​ Bhikkhu (1982). ''​Lay Buddhist Practice: The Shrine Room, Uposatha Day, Rains Residence''​ (The Wheel No. 206/207). Kandy, Sri Lanka:​Buddhist Publication Society. Also transcribed (1995) and available on-line at: http://​www.accesstoinsight.org/​lib/​authors/​khantipalo/​wheel206.html.
 +
 +*Tromge, Jane (1995). ''​Ngondro Commentary: Instructions for the Concise Preliminary Practices of the New Treasure of Dudjom / compiled from the teachings of His Eminence Chagdud Tulku''​. Junction City, CA:Padma Publishing. ISBN 1-881847-06-3.
 +
 +==External links==
 +*[http://​www.tew.org/​archived/​holy.quest.html A Holy Quest in Tibet: Prostrate, and Miles to Go]
 +*[http://​www.urbandharma.org/​udharma7/​bowing.html Buddhist Bowing as Comtemplation]
 +*[http://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=Na7Zd_g7xVY Buddhism: Prostrations (video)] [http://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=LI4xHU44P3o Buddhism: Prostrations Part II (video)] by Ven [[Thubten Chodron]]
 +*[http://​www.phayul.com/​news/​article.aspx?​id=16185&​t=1 Prostrating from Tibet to India]
 +*[http://​zencast.wordpress.com/​2006/​12/​30/​prostrations-a-buddhist-excersice-program/​ Prostrations:​ A Buddhist Exercise Program]
 +*[http://​www.kalachakra.org/​articles/​prostration.shtml Tibetan Prostration (animation)]
 +
 +
 +{{Buddhism2}}
 +{{Buddhism topics}}
 +
 +[[Category:​Buddhist practices]]
 +[[Category:​Tibetan Buddhist practices]]
 +[[Category:​Vajrayana]]
 +
 +[[da:​Glidefald]]
 +[[fr:​Prosternation (bouddhisme)]]
 +
 +
 +
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 +[[Fair Use]]: [[Vaidya]] [[Vasant Lad]], [[Textbook of Ayurveda]], [[Ayurvedic Press]], 2002; 
 +[[Vasant Lad]], [[BAMS]], [[MAsc]], [[Ayurvedic Institute Gurukula Notes]], [[Ayurvedic Institute]],​ 1994-2006; ​
 +and [[Ron Epstein]], [[Buddhism A to Z]], Burlingame, [[California]],​ [[Buddhist Text Translation Society]], 2003, p. and many other sources (see [[Bibliography]]).
 +Adapted from Fair Use Source: [[Upasaka]] [[Ron Epstein]], [[Buddhism A to Z]], 1999: p. 
 +Primary Original Source: The [[Tripitaka]] of [[Sutra]], [[Shastra]] and [[Vinaya]] [[Dharma]] teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the [[India]]n [[Sanskrit]]- [[Siddham]],​ [[Chinese]],​ [[Tibetan]] and [[Japanese]] traditions of the [[Nalanda Tradition]] of ancient [[Nalanda University]]) of [[Shakyamuni Buddha]], and his [[Arya]] [[Sagely]] [[Bodhisattva]] [[Bhikshu]] [[Monk]] and [[Upasaka]] disciples.
 +
 +These [[Good and Wise Advisors]] ([[Kaliyanamitra]]) [[Dharma Master]] teachers include [[Arya]] [[Venerable]]s [[Om Tare Tuttare Ture]] [[Om Ah Hum]] and [[Namo]] to [[Jivaka]], [[Charaka]],​ [[Lao Zi]] - [[Mahakashapa]],​ [[Ashwagosha]],​ [[Shantideva]] - [[Hui Neng]] - [[Shen Kai]] [[Sheng Ren Shr]], [[Bodhidharma]],​ the 16 [[Nalanda Acharyas]] 1. [[Nagarjuna]]-[[Manjushri]],​ 2. [[Arydeva]],​ 3. [[Buddhapalita]],​ 4. [[Bhavaviveka]],​ 5. [[Chandrakirti]] and [[Chandragomin]],​ 6. [[Shantideva]],​ 7. [[Shantarakshita]],​ 8. [[Kamalashila]],​ 9. [[Asanga]]-[[Maitreya]],​ 10. [[Vasubhandu]],​ 11. [[Dignaga]],​ 12. [[Dharmakirti]],​ 13. [[Vimuktisena]],​ 14. [[Haribhadra]],​ 15. [[Gunaprabha]],​ 16. [[Shakyaprabha]];​ [[Dharmarakshita]],​ [[Atisha]], [[Tsong Khapa]], [[Thogme Zangpo]], [[Nyingma]] [[Padmasambhava]],​ [[Yeshe Tsogyel]], [[Machig Lapdron]], [[Tilopa]], [[Naropa]], [[Milarepa]],​ [[Sakya Pandita]], [[Fazang]], [[Yunmen]], [[Nichiren]],​ [[Honen]], [[Shinran]],​ [[Kukai]], [[Dogen]], [[Hakuin]], [[Jamgon Kongtrul]], [[Nyingma]] [[Penor Rinpoche]], [[Bakula Rinpoche]], [[Dagri Rinpoche]], [[Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche]], [[Geshe Lama Kongchog]], [[Longchen Rapjampa]] - [[Gosok Rinpoche]], [[Phabongkha Rinpoche]], [[Patrul Rinpoche]], [[Mingyur Rinpoche]], [[Geshe Ngwang Dakpa]], [[Geshe Sopa Rinpoche]], [[Garchen Rinpoche]], [[Karmapa]],​ [[Sakya Trizin]], [[Tenzin Gyatso]] the [[Dalai Lama]], [[Hsu Yun]], [[Hsuan Hua]], [[Lama Zopa Rinpoche]], [[Choden Rinpoche]], [[Ajahn Chah]], [[Seung Sahn]], [[Thich Nhat Hanh]], [[Ajahn Sumedho]], ​ [[S. N. Goenka]], [[Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha]], [[bowing]] at your feet I make [[request]]s. Please bestow on me the [[two attainments]] of [[Maha]] [[Punya]] and [[Maha]] [[Prajna Paramita]]. And thanks to other [[modern day masters]]. ​ We consider them to be in accord with [[Tripitaka Master]] [[Hsuan Hua]]’s "​[[Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers]]"​
 +
 +[[Nalanda Online University]]'​s teachings are based especially on the following [[Buddhist Scriptures]]:​ [[Lama]] [[Tsong Khapa]]'​s [[Lam Rim]], the Dharma Flower [[Lotus Sutra]], the [[Avatamsaka Sutra]], the [[Shurangama Sutra]], the [[Ksitigarbha Sutra]], the [[Bhaisajya Guru Sutra]], the [[Dharani Sutra]], the [[Vajra Sutra]], the [[Prajna Paramita]] Hridayam [[Heart Sutra]], the [[Vimalakirti Sutra]], the [[Sanghata Sutra]], the [[Sutra of Golden Light]], the [[Srimala Devi Sutra]], the [[Sutra in 42 Sections]], the [[Mahaparinirvana Sutra]], the [[Hui Neng Sutra]], [[Vasubandhu]]'​s [[Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas]], Maitreya'​s [[Ornament for Clear Realizations]] ([[Abhisamayalamkara]]),​ [[Chandrakirti]]'​s [[Supplement to Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Middle Way]] ([[Madhyamakavatara]]),​ [[Vasubandhu]]'​s [[Treasury of Manifest Knowledge]] ([[Abhidharmakosha]]) and the [[Tantra]]s and [[Mantra]]s of the [[Vajrayana]] the [[42 Hands and Eyes]], [[Guhyasamaja]],​ the [[Kalachakra]],​ the [[Vajrayogini]],​ the [[Heruka]], the [[Chakrasamvara]],​ the [[Chod]], the [[Hayagriva]],​ the [[Hevajra]],​ the [[Yamantaka]],​ the [[Kalarupa]],​ the [[Manjushri Nama Samgiti]], the [[Vajrakilaya]],​ the [[Vajrapani]],​ the [[Vajra Claws Dakini]], the [[Mahakala]],​ the [[Tara]], the [[White Umbrella Goddess]] ([[She Dan Do Bo Da La]]), [[Kirti Losang Trinle]]'​s [[Grounds and Paths of Secret Mantra]], and [[Aku Sherab Gyatso]]'​s [[The Two Stages of the Guhyasamaja Tantra]] and their commentaries ([[shastra]]s) by the above Arya [[Tripitakacharya]] [[Dharma Master]]s.
 +----
 +NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under [[Shastra tradition]] and "​[[Fair Use]]" by an [[Anonymous]] [[Buddhist Monk]] [[Redactor]] (Compiler) of this Online [[Buddhist Encyclopedia]] Compilation) ​
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bowing.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:10 (external edit)