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charaka_samhita_ayurvedic_definitions_and_theory [2018/02/26 18:10] (current)
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 +Charaka Samhita
  
 +Definitions and Theory
 +
 +Physician
 +
 +Ayurveda
 +
 +Happy life
 +
 +Healthy person
 +
 +The 8 Branches of Ayurveda
 +
 +Similarity and Dissimilarity
 +
 +Substances
 +
 +Supreme Self
 +
 +“Paradi”- means of success in treatment
 +
 +
 +“Ayurveda is that which deals with good, bad, happy and unhappy life, it’s promoters and non-promoters,​ measurement and nature.”
 +
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#41
 +
 +
 +“‘Ayus’:​ means conjunction of body, sense organs, mind and self.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#42
 +
 +health: “Health and disease have the same source; entities, which in suitable state, generate person, cause various disorders in unsuitable state.”
 +
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 25#29
 +
 +
 +“Disease is disequilibrium ​ of the dhatus (7 tissues). Health is equilibrium of dhatus. Health is known as happiness. Disease is known as unhappiness.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 9#3
 +
 +Two types of physicians: 1) promoters of vital breath and destroyers of diseases.
 +2) promoters of diseases and destroyers of vital breath.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 29#5
 +
 +“Under a skilled physician, even extremely severe disorders can vanish quickly. ​ Under an ignorant physician, even the simplest disorders may get worsen.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 9#14
 +
 +“Benefits of a disease-free condition: best source of virtue, wealth, gratification and emancipation. Disease destroys these same, welfare and life.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#15-16
 +
 +“The 4 Vedas (ancient Indian texts): Rk [Rig], Sama, Yajus [Yajur], Atharva.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#20
 +
 +“Vaidyas are devoted to Atharva Veda, because it has dealt with the subject of medicine.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#43], Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#21
 +
 +“Categories of Medicine covered under the Atharva Veda: Prescribing donation, propitiatory rites, offerings, auspicious rites, oblations, observance of rules, expiations, fasting, incantations,​ etc.., and medicine for promotion of life.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#21
 +
 +“Definition of a person: he is an aggregate of sense organs, mind, and ‘objects.’”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 25#4
 +
 +Compare this with the Buddhist Five Aggregates (Pancha Skandha):
 +1. Form (rupa), 2. Feelings – Sensations (vedana), 3. Congition – Re-cognition – Thinking (samjna), 4. Formations – Volitional tendencies – Actions – Karmas (samskara), 5. Consciousness (vijnana).
 +
 +14
 +
 +““Ayus”:​ (life) has 3 synonyms; “Cetananuvrtti” (continuance of consciousness),​ “Jivita” (animation),​ “Anubandha” (continuous flow), “Dhari” (sustaining the body).”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#42, Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#22
 +
 +“Definition of Ayurveda: that which gets the Ayus (life) known (this is done by means of 1) defining ‘Ayus’ (life), and by 2) describing it’s Types - happy and un-happy, beneficial and non-beneficial,​ 3) it’s Measure, and 4) it’s Non-measure. That which imparts knowledge about the substances (including drugs) along with their properties and actions as to their conduciveness or otherwise to life.” ​
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#3
 +
 +“It (Ayurveda) is said as eternally continuing.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +“The Reasons for the Eternal Nature of Ayurveda: Ayurveda is said as eternally continuing because of its beginning-lessness,​ because the characters of its entities are determined by universal nature and because the characters of all substances are eternal.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +
 +
 +“There was never non-existence of the flow of life or intellect.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +“The knower of Ayurveda is also eternally continuing.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +“Pleasure (the state of health) and pain (the state of disease) along with material factors, causes and symptoms, because of their inter-relations,​ are also eternal.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +Discuss this via Buddhism and the five skandhas and anitya and upeksha.
 +
 +
 +“All these point towards the eternal continuity of Ayurveda.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +“Also, the 10 pairs of qualities and the Law of Similars and the Law of Opposites (similar qualities increase each other; opposite qualities decrease each other) are all eternal.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +“Thirdly, the 5 elements, and their properties are also eternal.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +Buddhism refutes this eternal statement – shatter empty space!
 +
 +
 +
 +“Ayurveda never arose out of non-existence except understanding and
 +precepts;​” ​ Some say it’s origin in view of these two. Its natural characters are non-artificial as said here and in the first chapter such as hotness of fire and liquidity of water.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +“It has also got the eternal continuity of natural characters of entities such as increase in heavy substances, decrease in light substances by regular intake of the heavy one.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +
 +-all the above is from Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#27
 +15
 +
 +
 +Definition of Happy Life:
 +“The person is not afflicted with any somatic or psychic disorder, is particularly youthful, capable with strength, energy, reputation, manliness and prowess; possessing knowledge, specific knowledge and strong sense organs and sense objects; having immense wealth and various favorable enjoyments, has achieved desired results of all actions and moves about where he likes. Contrary to it is unhappy life.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#24
 +
 +
 +“Characteristics of the healthy Person: In early times, no undesirable consequence arose except from unrighteousness. During the initial age (krtayaga), people were: having prowess like the sons of gods, exceedingly pure and with vast influence, having perceived the gods, godly sages, virtue, religious sacrifices and method of their performance;​ with the body compact and stable like the essence of mountains, and complexion and sense organs clear, having strength, speed and valor like the wind, with well-formed buttocks, endowed with appropriate measure (size), physiognomy,​ cheerfulness and corpulence, were devoted to truthfulness,​ straightforwardness,​ un-cruelty, charity, control of the senses, observance of rules, penance, fasting, celibacy and vows; devoid of fear, attachment, aversion, confusion, greed, anger, grief, conceit, illness, sleep, drowsiness, fatigue, exhaustion, lassitude and “holding”,​ and were having immeasurable life-span. For those having exalted mind, qualities and actions the crops grew endowed with inconceivable rasa (taste), virya (energy), vipaka (post-digestion),​ prabhava (healing action), and other properties due to presence of all qualities in earth etc (the five elements).”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Vimanasthana Measurement Section 3#24
 +
 +16
 +
 +Definition of Beneficial Life: Person is well-wisher of all creatures, abstains from taking other’s possession, is truth-speaking,​ calm, taking steps after examining the situation, free from carelessness,​ observing the three categories (virtue, wealth and enjoyment) without their mutual conflict, worshiping the worthy persons, devoted to knowledge, understanding and serenity of mind, keeping company of the elderly persons, controlled well the impulses of attachment, aversion, envy, intoxication and conceit, engaged in various types of gifts, constantly devoted to penance, knowledge and peace, having knowledge of and devotion to metaphysics,​ keeping eye to both the worlds and endowed with memory and intelligence. Contrary is non-beneficial.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#24
 +
 +
 +Definition of the Measure of Life:
 +Known by adventitious pathological symptoms in relation to objects,
 +sense organs, mind, intellect, movement, etc. such as one will die after a moment, hour,
 +or day; 3, 5, 7, 10 or 12 days, a fortnight, month, 6 months or a year. “Swabhava”
 +(becoming own self), “Pravrttyuparama” (cessation of activities). “Marana” (death),
 +“anityata” (non-eternity),​ nirodha (annihilation)- all are symptoms. This is the measure of
 +life. Contrary is non-measure which is described in the context of aristas (sudden
 +appearance of fatal signs). The measure of life is also described according to the body
 +constitution.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#25
 +The Object of Ayurveda: To protect health of the healthy and to alleviate the
 +disorders in the diseased.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#24, Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#26
 +Action: application of speech, mind, and body.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 11#39
 +The object of therapy: Dhatusamya (equilibrium of sustaining and nourishing
 + ​factors) [balanced dhatus].
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1353
 +Cause of disorders: perverted, negative and excessive use of time, intelligence
 +and sense objects.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#54
 +Cause of pleasure: balanced use of the same.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#55
 +17
 +Body and mind; location of disorders and pleasures
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#55
 +Cause of Misery and Happiness: Entire misery relating to both mind and body
 +depend on ignorance, the entire
 +happiness resides in pure knowledge
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#84
 +The sages once asked Punarvasu “What is the origin of a person, and what is the
 +origin of his diseases?​”
 +– See Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 25#3-31 in the original text for their discussion. This has not
 +been included in this text. A summary is as follows:
 +He answered: “Only the use of wholesome food promotes growth of the person.
 +And only the use of un-wholesome food is the cause of disorders.”
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 25#31
 +8 Branches of Ayurveda:
 +Branch English translation
 +1) Kayacikitsa medicine
 +2) Salakya dealing with diseases of supra-clavicular
 +region
 +3) Salyapahartrka dealing with extraction of foreign bodies
 +4) Visa-gara-vairodhika-prasamana dealing with alleviation of poisons, artificial
 +poisons and toxic symptoms due to intake of
 +antagonistic substances
 +5) Bhuta vidya dealing with spirits or organisms
 +6) Kaumarabhrtya pediatrics
 +7) Rasayana promotive measures
 +8) Vajikarana aphrodisiacs
 +This whole chart: Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 30#28
 +Similarity and disimilarity:​
 +Similarity of all substances is always the cause of increase
 +and dissimilarity the cause of decrease.
 +Both effect by their application.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#44
 +Similarity brings unity,
 +dissimilarity brings diversity.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#45
 +“Similarity proposes similar purpose (or action)
 +while dissimilarity has opposite one.”
 +18
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#45
 +a tripod on which the living world stands:
 +Mind, self and body-
 +these three make the tripod on which the living world
 +stands.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#46
 +That (living body) is Purusa (person), sentient and location of this
 +is Ayurveda.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#47
 + The Charaka gives a catalogue of all the (types of ) substances (dravyas):
 +The 5 elements: akasa, vayu, tejas, ap, prthvi)
 +Self
 +mind
 +time
 +space
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#48
 + The Charaka gives a catalogue of all the (types of ) Gunas:
 +Sense objects: sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa, gandha
 +Properties: guru-laghu, sita-usna, snigdha=ruksa,​ manda-tiksna,​ slaksnakhara,​
 +sandra-drava,​ mrdu-kathina,​ sthira-sara,​ suksma-sthula,​
 +visada-picchila
 +Knowledge
 +Para-apara, yukti, sankhya, samyoga, vibhaga, prthaktva, parimana,
 + ​samskara,​ abhyasa (These lists provided by P.V. Sharma.)
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#49
 +Definition of Sentient vs. Non-sentient beings:
 +Dravyas with sense organs are sentient while those without are not.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#48
 +Definition of Karma:
 +Karma is movement initiated by effort.
 +(Or usually, just stated as “action”).
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#49
 +Substance (dravya):
 +that where actions and properties are located
 +The material cause of it’s the properties effect.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#51
 +Property (guna):
 +related with inherence to substance.
 +Devoid of action
 +Is non-inherent cause of it’s effect
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#51
 +19
 +Inherence (samavaya):
 +is the inseparableness of dravya (substances) with their gunas
 +(Properties);​
 +no substance is devoid of property.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#50
 +Action (Karma):
 +causative factor of conjunction and disjunction
 +located in substance
 +performance of that to be done
 +doesn’t require another factor
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#52
 +Supreme Self: it is devoid of abnormalities
 +it is eternal
 +it is seer of all actions
 +it is the cause of conjunction of consciousness with mind
 +it is the creator/ origin of the 5 elements (earth, water, fire, air,
 +space
 +it is the creator/ origin of the 5 sense organs (taste, touch etc.)
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 1#56
 +The following properties are known as “Paradi” (“Beginning with Para”). They
 +are the means of success in treatment:
 +paratva (excellence)
 +aparatva (non-excellence)-- These 2 are used in relation to place, time, age,
 +measure, vipaka, virya, rasa etc.
 +yukti (rationale)-- is the rational planning of therapeutic measures
 +sankhya (enumeration)-- is mathematics including statistics
 +samyoga (conjunction)-- is the joining together of entities. It is of three types
 +according to the active participation of both, all or only one partner. It is non-eternal.
 +[this last statement is a profound philosophical one; no union is permanent, but rather
 +only temporary. All entities are made of the temporary bonding of other entities. All
 +living creatures are only the temporary union of the foods they have eaten, and will
 +eventually disperse to become the foods of a different union or creature.] [Samyoga also
 +refers to conjunction of herbs into formulas, of doshas and dhatus into disease, of
 +multiple etiologies into single etiology, etc.]
 +vibhaga (disjunction)-- it is also of 3 types; vibhakti (excision), viyoga
 +(disjoining) and bhagaso graha (division).
 +prthaktva (separateness) – is of 3 types; asamyoga (spatial separateness),​
 +vailaksanya (class separateness) and anekata (individual separateness).
 +parimana (measurement)-- denotes measures (of all types- including weights).
 +samskara (processing)-- this is processing
 +abhyasa (practice)–is regular use of substance, habituation and practice.
 +–Thus all the paradi properties are said with their definitions,​ which if
 +unknown, do not let the therapy proceed properly.
 +Source: Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana Summary Section 26#29-35
 +20
charaka_samhita_ayurvedic_definitions_and_theory.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:10 (external edit)