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comiphora_mukul

Guggulu (1/2 lb.)

Item Number : 6382 Price: $23.95 Quantity :

Guggulu resin powder (Commiphora mukul)

Support for deep cleansing and rejuvenation of the tissues*

   * Promotes detoxification and rejuvenation*
   * Helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels already in the normal range*
   * Supports comfortable movement of the joints*
   * Promotes healthy weight management*

Ayurvedic Energetics:

   * Rasa (taste): bitter, pungent, sweet, astringent
   * Virya (action): heating
   * Vipaka (post-digestive effect): pungent
   * Doshas (constitutions): Balancing for all doshas, may increase pitta (in excess).

Commentary: Guggulu resin is a penetrating herb that scrapes out naturally accumulating toxins from the body channels. It is renowned for its ability to carry other herbs with it deep into the tissues. Guggulu's powerful detoxifying and rejuvenating qualities are directed to specific systems of the body by the herbs that accompany it. As such it is the basis for an entire class of traditional Ayurvedic formulas known as Guggulus. Its scraping action helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels already in the normal range and supports healthy weight management. Guggulu supports healthy muscle and nerve tissue and promotes comfortable movement of the joints. Some classic healthy joint and tissue formulas include Yogaraj Guggulu (for vata imbalances), Kaishore Guggulu (for pitta imbalances), and Punarnavadi Guggulu (kapha imbalances).*

For a 1 lb bag click here For five lbs or more in bulk click here

Herbal tablets that contain Guggulu include: Gokshuradi Guggulu , Heart Formula, Joint Support, Kaishore Guggulu, Kanchanar Guggulu, Punarnavadi Guggulu , Simhanad Guggulu, Trim Support, Triphala Guggulu, and Yogaraj Guggulu

Herb powder formulas that contain Guggulu include: Gokshuradi Guggulu , Kaishore Guggulu , Kanchanar Guggulu , Punarnavadi Guggulu , Triphala Guggulu, and Yogaraj Guggulu

Other products that contain Guggulu include: Joint Balm and Trim Balm For more information on Guggulu visit: Wikipedia's entry for Commiphora wightii

Search index page description Banyan Botanicals Guggulu resin powder is sustainably sourced, and fairly traded. Guggulu is also known as Gugal (Hindi), Guggulu (Sanskrit), Gugal (Sinhalese) and Gum Gugal (English). The botanical name of Guggulu is Commiphora mukul. Guggulu resin powder is available in ½ lb and 1 lb bags and in bulk bags of 5 lbs or more.

Fair Use Source: http://www.banyanbotanicals.com/prodinfo.asp?number=6382&variation=&aitem=61&mitem=125

Guggulu

Botanical names: Commiphora mukul, C. molmol, C. abyssinica, Burseraceae

Other names: Mahishaksha (S), Gugal (H), Gukkal (T), Bdellium (E), Mo yao (C); ‘Myrrh’ is C. myrrha, called Bola in Sanskrit; another similar species in the Bursuraceae is Kunduru (Boswellia serrata).

GugguluBotany: Guggulu is a small shrubby tree, 1-2.1.8 meters in height, with knotty and crooked branches that terminate in a sharp spine. The compound leaves are comprised of one to three subsessile leaflets, rhomboid-ovate in shape, serrate along the upper margin and tapering at the base, the leaf surface shining and smooth, the lateral leaflets usually half the size of the terminal leaflet. The flowers are borne in fascicles of two or three, the calyx campanulate, glandular and hairy, the petals brownish-red, nearly three times the length of the calyx. The flowers give way to a red drupe when ripe, 6-8 mm in diameter. Guggulu is found throughout the subcontinent of India, the Middle East and Africa, particularly in dry arid locales (Kirtikar and Basu 1935, 527; Warrier et al 1994, 164).

Part used: Oleogum resin, exuding from the cracks and fissures in the bark, or from incisions. Crude Guggulu may contain the oleogum resin from several different species. Warrier et al states that the best quality Guggulu is that which melts and evaporate with heat, bursts into flame when burned, and dissolves easily in hot water (1994, 172).

Dravyaguna:

   *
     Rasa: tikta, kashaya, katu
   *
     Vipaka: katu, laghu
   *
     Virya: ushna, ruksha
   *
     Karma: pachana, rasayana, vajikarana, balya, krimiaghna, vedanasthapana, raktaprasadana, artavajanana, ashmaribhedana, sandhaniya, svarya, Vatakaphahara
   *
     Prabhava: Although Guggulu is stated to be ushna in virya, the Bhavaprakasha states that due to its kashaya rasa it also reduces Pitta, and is therefore tridoshaghna (Srikanthamurthy 2001, 211-12; Warrier et al 1994, 164-72).

Constituents: The oleogum resin of Guggulu is a mixture of 30-60% water-soluble gum, 20-40% alcohol-soluble resins, and about 8% volatile oils. Among the water-soluble constituents is a mucilage, arabinose and proteins. Alcohol-soluble constituents include the commiphoric acids, commiphorinic acid and the heerabomyrrhols. Amongst the volatile constituents are terpenes, sesquiterpenoids, cuminic aldehyde, eugenol, myrcene, ?-camphorene, the ketone steroids Z- and E-guggulsterone, and guggulsterols I, II, and III. The sesquiterpenoid fraction within the essential oil contains a group of furanosesquiterpenoids that give Guggulu its primary odour. Also found in Guggulu are the lignans guggullignan I and II. (Williamson 2002, 110; Wu et al 2002; Zhu et al 2001; Blumenthal et al 2000, 275; Bradley 1992, 163; Evans 1989, 475). Gugulipid® is a proprietary standardized extract of the oleogum resin that does not contain the gum or the base fraction of the resin.

Medical research:

Hepatic: The sterol guggulsterone (GS) was shown to enhance farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist-induced transcription of bile salt export pump (BSEP), a major hepatic bile acid transporter, in rats. This suggests that GS is a selective bile acid receptor modulator that regulates expression in a subset of FXR targets (Cui et al 2003). Z- guggulsterone and E-guggulsterone isolated from the tree Commiphora mukul exudate have been shown to act as antagonists of the bile acid receptor (BAR) in vitro, displacing coactivator peptides from the receptor in a dose-dependent manner (Wu et al 2002). The sterol guggulsterone [4,17(20)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione] isolated from the resin of the Commiphora mukul was found to be a highly efficacious antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear hormone receptor that is activated by bile acids. Guggulsterone treatment decreases hepatic cholesterol in wild-type mice fed a high-cholesterol diet but is not effective in FXR-null mice, suggesting that the inhibition of FXR activation is the basis for the cholesterol-lowering activity of guggulsterone (Urizar et al 2002).

Cardiovascular: Commiphora molmol exhibited a strong antithrombotic activity in experimental thrombosis in mice (Olajide 1999). A formulation comprising equal proportions of the extracts of Terminalia arjuna, Inula racemosa, and Commiphora mukul (called “Lipistat”) in three different doses (225 mg/kg; 350 mg/kg; 450 mg/kg) were administered orally daily for 6 days a week for 60 days in rats. Thereafter, the rats were subjected to isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis. Gross and microscopic examinations were done along with estimations of myocardial tissue high-energy phosphates (HEP) stores and lactate content. Gross examination showed significant cardioprotection in Lipistat-treated animals. On microscopic examination no statistically significant reduction in myocardial damage by 350 and 450 mg/kg of Lipistat were observed although loss of myocardial HEP stores and accumulation of lactate were significantly prevented (Seth et al 1998). The cardiovascular effects of an aqueous extract from the branches of Commiphora opobalsamum tree were investigated. The intravenous administration of 4 mg/kg of the aqueous extract depressed systemic arterial blood pressure by 20% and reduced heart rate of anaesthetised rats by 14%. The hypotensive and bradycardiac effects were immediate and dose dependent. The hypotensive effect of C. opobalsamu was inhibited by the pretreatment with atropine sulfate suggesting that the hypotensive effect is due to the activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (Abdul-Ghani and Amin 1997).

Hypolipidemic: The effects of the administration of 50 mg of Gugulipid or placebo capsules twice daily for 24 weeks were compared as adjuncts to a fruit and vegetable enriched diet in the management of 61 patients with hypercholesterolemia in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Gugulipid was found to decrease the total cholesterol level by 11.7%, the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) by 12.5%, triglycerides by 12.0%, and the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio by 11.1% from postdiet levels, whereas the levels were unchanged in the placebo group. The lipid peroxides, which are indicative of oxidative stress, declined 33.3% in the Gugulipid group without any decrease in the placebo group (Singh et al 1994). Two hundred and five patients completed 12 week open trial with Gugulipid in a dose of 500 mg thrice daily after an eight week diet and placebo therapy in an assessment of its potential as a hypolipidemic agent. A significant lowering of serum cholesterol (average of 23.6%) and serum triglycerides (average of 22.6%) was observed in 70-80% patients (Singh et al 1994). The chronic feeding of guggulsterone in rats showed hypolipidemic activity in blood serum and liver membrane lipids. The decrease in serum cholesterol is associated with enhanced uptake of LDL by the liver through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Researchers demonstrated that membranes prepared from the liver of guggulsterone treated rats exhibited up to an 87% increase in binding sites for human 125I-LDL (Singh et al 1990). A double-blind, crossover study was completed in 125 patients with Gugulipid therapy and in 108 patients with clofibrate therapy. With Gugulipid the average fall in serum cholesterol and triglycerides was 11 and 16.8% respectively and 10 and 21.6% with clofibrate, respectively. Hypercholesterolaemic patients responded better to Gugulipid therapy whereas hypertriglyceridaemic patients responded better to clofibrate therapy. In mixed hyperlipidemic patients the response to both drugs was similar. HDL-cholesterol was increased in 60% cases that responded to Gugulipid therapy, whereas clofibrate had no effect on HDL-cholesterol (Nityanand et al 1989).

Hypothyroidism: The effect of Commiphora mukul was studied for its effect upon thyroid function in mice, dosed at 0.2 g/kg daily for 15 days. Researchers noted that the triiodothyronine (T3) concentration and T3/T4 ratio were enhanced following the administration of the herbal extract, with a concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation in the liver, the principal site of T3 generation, suggesting that this increase in T3 concentration by Guggulu is LPO-mediated (Panda and Kar 1999).

Obesity: An open comparative trial conducted in 58 adult obese patients were divided into two groups, group I prescribed a diet of 1200-1600 calories and a brisk walk for 30 minutes daily, and group II, which in addition, received Guggulu resin, 1.5-3 g/day for 30 days. The mean difference in weight loss between Guggulu and the non-drug group was 0.32 kg on day 15 and 0.58 kg on day 30. The mean weight reduction in patients more than 90 kg was 1.92 kg and 2.25 kg higher in Guggulu group, respectively (Bhatt et al 1995).

Acne: Twenty patients with nodulocystic acne were randomly allocated to one of two treatment schedules, either tetracycline 500 mg twice daily, or Gugulipid (equivalent to 25 mg guggulsterone twice daily), over a three month period. With tetracycline the percentage reduction in the inflammatory lesions was 65.2% as compared to 68% with Gugulipid. Follow-up at 3 months showed a relapse in 4 cases on tetracyline and 2 cases on Gugulipid. Researchers observed that patients with oily faces responded remarkably better to Gugulipid (Thappa and Dogra 1994).

Inflammation: A triterpene isolated from Commiphora mukul gum resin called myrrhanol A, displayed a potent anti-inflammatory effect on exudative pouch fluid, angiogenesis, and granuloma weights in adjuvant-induced air-pouch granuloma of mice. Researchers noted that the effects were more marked than those of hydrocortisone (Kimura et al 2001). A petroleum ether extract of the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora molmol, dosed at 500 mg/kg produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan -induced inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma, as well as significant antipyretic activity in mice (Tariq et al 1986).

Inflammatory joint disease: The activity of Commiphora mukul was investigated in experimental arthritis induced in the right hock joint of albino rabbits by intra-articular injection of a killed mycobacterial adjuvant in liquid paraffin. The oral administration of anti-inflammatory agents including phenylbutazone and ibuprofen were compared with C. mukul, administered at a daily dose of 100, 100 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, for a period of five months. All three drugs decreased the thickness of the joint swelling during the course of drug treatment (Sharma and Sharma 1977).

Antitumor: The anticarcinogenic activity of the oleoresin of Commiphora molmol was studied in Ehrlich-solid-tumor-bearing mice. The antitumor activity of C. molmol was evaluated from the total count and viability of Ehrlich solid tumor cells and their nucleic acid, protein, malondialdehyde and glutathione levels at the end of 25 and 50 days of treatment. Observations of animal survival rate and measurements of the tumor and body weight were also made. Treatment with C. molmol equal to 250 and 500 mg/kg per day was found to be cytotoxic in Ehrlich solid tumors cells, comparable with cyclophosphamide (al-Harbi et al 1994). The genotoxic, cytotoxic and antitumor properties of Commiphora molmol oleo gum resin were studied in normal and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell-bearing mice. Treatment with C. molmol (125-500 mg/kg) showed no clastogenicity but was found to be highly cytotoxic in normal mice. In Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell-bearing mice the antitumor activity of C. molmol was found to be equivalent to cyclophosphamide (Qureshi et al 1993).

Antimicrobial: Sesquiterpene fractions from Commiphora molmol showed antibacterial and antifungal activity against standard pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. These compounds also had local anaesthetic activity, blocking the inward sodium current of excitable mammalian membranes (Dolara et al 2000). The essential oil isolated from the resin of Commiphora tenuis exhibited antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and E. coli, in vitro (Asres et al 1998).

Parasites: Researchers studied seven patients with Fasciola (liver fluke) eggs in their stools and treated them with a formulation consisting of eight parts of resin and three and a half parts volatile oil extracted from Commiphora molmol, given in a dose of 12 mg/kg per day for six consecutive days in the morning on an empty stomach. Patients were followed for 3 months. The therapy proved to be effective, with pronounced improvement of the general condition and amelioration of all symptoms and signs. A dramatic drop in the egg count was detected at the end of treatment. Eggs were no longer detectable in the feces three weeks after treatment and after a follow-up period of three months. High eosinophilic counts, elevated liver enzymes, and Fasciola antibody titers returned to nearly normal. No signs of toxicity or adverse effects were observed (Massoud et al 2001). Concerned with the increasing prevalence of praziquantel-resistant schistosomiasis researchers investigated the efficacy of Commiphora molmol oleo-gum resin in 204 patients with schistosomiasis. The herbal extract was given at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for three days, and induced a cure rate of 91.7%. Re-treatment of cases who did not respond with a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for six days gave a cure rate of 76.5%, increasing the overall cure rate to 98.09%. The drug was well tolerated, and side effects were mild and transient. Twenty cases provided biopsy specimens six months after treatment and none of them showed living ova (Sheir et al 2001).

Toxicity: Acute (24 hour) and chronic (90 day) oral toxicity studies on Commiphora molmol were carried out in mice, using dosages of 0.5, 1.0 and 3 g/kg in the acute studies, and 100 mg/kg per day for the chronic study. Researchers found no significant difference in mortality in acute or chronic treatment as compared to controls, noting a significant increase in the weight of the testes, epididymides and seminal vesicles, as well as a significant increase in RBC and haemoglobin levels in the treatment group, compared to the control group (Rao et al 2001). In young male Nubian goats the use of 1 or 5 g/kg of Commiphora myrrha resin per day caused grinding of teeth, salivation, soft feces, poor appetite, jaundice, dyspnea, ataxia and recumbency. Death occurred between 5 and 16 days, with evidence of enterohepatonephrotoxicity, accompanied by anemia, leucopenia, increases in serum ALP activity and concentrations of bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine, and decreases in total protein and albumin. An oral dose of 0.25 g/kg per day was found to be non-toxic (i.e. 37.5 g in a 150 kg human) (Omer and Adam 1999). Myrrh has been reported to cause dermatitis in topical preparations used to relieve pain and swelling due to traumatic injury (Lee and Lam 1993).

Indications: Gingivitis, apthous ulcers, dyspepsia, candidiasis, chronic colitis, intestinal parasites, hemorrhoids, chronic fever, chronic upper respiratory tract infection, chronic muco-epithelial ulceration, strep throat, pharyngitis, bronchitis, cystitis, urinary calculi, spermatorrhea, endometritis, amenorhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, skin diseases, wounds, abrasions, chronic ulcers, arthritis, gout, lumbago, neurasthenia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypothyroidism, anemia, edema, cancer, post-chemotherapy (to improve WBC count).

Contraindications: The Bhavaprakasha states that those undergoing therapy with Guggulu should avoid sour foods and drinks, uncooked foods, excessive physical and sexual activity, alcohol consumption, and excess exposure to heat and sunlight (Srikanthamaurthy 2001, 212). Generally speaking, Guggulu should be used with caution in Pittakopa conditions. Guggulu is contraindicated with concurrent hypoglycemic and lipotriptic therapies, thyrotoxicosis, thyroiditis, and pregnancy. The effect of a single oral dose of Gugulipid was studied on bioavailability of single oral dose of propranolol (40 mg) and diltiazem (60 mg), and was found to significantly reduce the peak plasma concentration and area under curve of both the drugs in a small trial of healthy volunteers (Dalvi et al 1994).

Medicinal uses: Guggulu is a common ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations, used both as a medicinal agent and excipient, such that an entire class of medicaments are called Guggulu (e.g. Triphala guggulu, Yogaraja guggulu, Goksuradi guggulu, etc.). In the treatment of boils and gout, the Bhavaprakasha recommends a preparation of Guggulu mixed with equal parts juice of Guduchi and Draksha (Vitis vinifera), macerated in a decoction of Triphala. This preparation is evaporated in the hot sun or over heat to the correct consistency and rolled into pills of about 5 grams and taken with honey (Srikanthamurthy 2001, 394). As an anseptic and vulnerary the Chakradatta recommends that Guggulu be mixed with a decoction of Triphala, and applied topically (Sharma 2002, 94). In the treatment of broken bones and fracture, the Chakradatta recommends an internal preparation comprised of one part each Haritaki, Trikatu and Triphala, mixed with a portion of Guggulu equal to all of the above (Sharma 422). In the treatment of sciatica the Chakradatta recommends a pill comprised of 40 g of Rasna and 50 g of Guggulu, mixed with ghee (Sharma 2002, 203). In the treatment of Vattic disorders of muscles, bones, joints and nerves, the Chakradatta recommends a formula comprised of ten parts Guggulu, two parts each of Triphala and Pippali, and one part each Tvak (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and Ela (Elettaria cardamomum), soaked in a decoction of Dashamula, and dried in the sun. When the appropriate consistency is obtained the mixture is rolled into pills and dosed at 3-5 g, b.i.d.-t.i.d., taken with a diet rich in meat soups (Sharma 2002, 205). The famous formula Yogarajaguggulu is prescribed in similar conditions. As a tincture, Guggulu is effective as a gargle in gingivitis, apthous ulcers, strep throat, and pharyngitis, alone or with such herbs as Sage (Salvia officinalis). The tincture also has a vulnerary and antiseptic activity in gastrointestinal ulcers, both of the upper and lower tracts, although it is best avoided in active inflammation, used only after the initial inflammation has been dealt with with demulcent and more cooling vulnerary botanicals such as Vamsarochana, Calendula (Calendula officinalis) and Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva). Internally, the tincture improves digestion and stimulates the appetite in digestive atony, removing chronic catarrh in both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Guggulu also finds utility in urogenital infections after the active inflammation has been resolved, improving mucus membrance secretion and providing an antiseptic action against any lingering infection. In endometritis it may be combined with Purple Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia), False Unicorn (Chamaelirium luteum), Chasteberry (Vitex agnus castus) and Dandelion root (Taraxacum officinalis) to check inflammation, remove infection and reorientate the estrus cycle. In arthritis and gout Guggulu is particularly effective, combined with such herbs like Lignum vitae (Guaicum officinalis), Ajamoda, and Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), or used in formulations like Yogaraja guggulu. In the treatment of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and diabetes the use of the standardized extract called Gugulipid has shown promise, especially when taken with a low-carbohydrate diet and array of antioxidant minerals, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids. For a more traditional approach, Guggulu may be combined with herbs such as Guduchi, Amalaki and Shilajitu in the treatment of diabetes. In chronic immunodeficiency, or in patients undergoing chemotherapy or taking corticosteroids, Guggulu may be combined with Ashvagandha and Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

Dosage:

• Churnam: 2-5 g b.i.d.-t.i.d. • Tincture: 2-5 mL (1:3 95%) b.i.d.-t.i.d. • Standardized extract : (equal to 25 mg guggulsterones), 500 mg b.i.d.-t.i.d.

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comiphora_mukul.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:11 (external edit)