Turmeric, org (1/2 lb)
Item Number : 6752 Price: $7.95
Certified Organic Turmeric root powder (Curcuma longa)
Bright yellow Indian cooking spice that promotes digestion and overall health and well-being*
* Cleanses the blood and promotes healthy skin* * Strengthens digestion and promotes healthy intestinal flora* * Supports healthy blood glucose levels that are already within the normal range* * Supports comfortable movement of the joints*
* Rasa (taste): pungent, bitter, astringent * Virya (action): heating * Vipaka (post-digestive effect): pungent * Doshas (constitutions): Balancing for all doshas, may increase vata and pitta in excess.
Commentary: This common Indian kitchen spice has a broad range of beneficial properties. It bolsters the immune system, purifies the blood and promotes clear, healthy skin. Turmeric strengthens digestion and eliminates toxins from the GI tract. It supports proper function of the pancreas, reduces kapha and promotes healthy blood glucose levels that are already within the normal range. Turmeric soothes and nourishes the joint tissue and promotes comfortable movement. An excellent herb for those with kapha constitutions or imbalances, turmeric supports proper function of the heart and helps clear the channels of the physical and subtle bodies.*
For a 1 lb bag click here For five lbs or more in bulk click here
Herbal tablets that contain Turmeric include: Blood Cleanse, Healthy Kapha, Immune Support, Joint Support, Mahasudarshan and Sweet Ease
Herbal powder formulas that contain Turmeric include: Mahasudarshan
Other products that contain Turmeric include: Mahanarayan Oil and Three Ginger Tea
This product is organically grown and processed in accordance with the USDA's National Organic Program (NOP).
For more information on Turmeric visit: Wikipedia's entry for Turmeric
Herbs for life: Turmeric monograph
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Banyan Botanicals Turmeric root powder is USDA certified organic, sustainably sourced and fairly traded. Turmeric is also known as Haldi (Hindi), Haridra (Sanskrit), Turmeric (English) and Haku halu (Sinhalese). The botanical name of Turmeric is Curcuma longa. Turmeric root powder is available in ½ lb and 1 lb bags and in bulk bags of 5 lbs or more.
see Curcuma longa
Fresh turmeric root looks a little like ginger, but inside it can be red or yellow. The red is called kumkum and is considered sacred. Only the yellow root is used in cooking and medicinally. Turmeric is the best medicine in Ayurveda. It cures the whole person. Turmeric is pungent, bitter, astringent and heating and has a pungent vipaka. Turmeric can be used by all doshas. It may stimulate vata, but doesn’t aggravate it (cause an imbalance). Turmeric helps digestion, maintains the flora of the intestine, reduces gas, has tonic properties and is an antibiotic.
AYURVEDIC COOKING Page 216
Turmeric can be used for cough, sty, diabetes, hemorrhoids, cuts, wounds, burns and skin problems. It helps reduce anxiety and stress.
Note: People with hypoglycemia can use small amounts of turmeric in cooking but should not take it in quantity.
Gentle reminder: The yellow color of turmeric tends to stain your clothes and skin.
1. For bronchial cough, dry sore throat, tonsillitis and pharyngitis, drink at bedtime 1 cup of hot milk and 1 teaspoon of turmeric boiled together for 3 minutes.
2. For external hemorrhoids, apply a mixture of half teaspoon of turmeric and 1 teaspoon of ghee locally at bedtime.
3. For fibrocystic breast, apply a paste of half teaspoon turmeric powder and 1 teaspoon warm castor oil on the breast at night. (Just a reminder: it will turn the skin yellow, and the clothes too.)
4. To help stabilize blood sugar in diabetes, put turmeric powder in “00” size capsules. Swallow 2 capsules 3 times a day, 5 minutes before each meal.
5. For anemia, take a bowl of yogurt with up to 1 teaspoon of turmeric. Eat on an empty stomach morning and afternoon. Do not eat after sunset. If kapha is unbalanced, eat this at noon only.
6. For cuts, wound and fungal nail infections, apply a mixture of half teaspoon turmeric and 1 teaspoon aloe vera gel to the affected area.
7. For swelling from traumatic injury, apply a paste of turmeric and water.
8. For a sty in the eye, make a paste of equal parts of red sandalwood powder and turmeric mixed with distilled water. Place on the eyelid to drain the sty.
9. Apply turmeric directly to the affected area of the mouth in cases of swollen gums and canker sores.
10. For beautiful skin take a turmeric capsule daily. If a pregnant woman takes turmeric regularly, her child will have gorgeous skin.
11. If there is a family history of melanoma, take 1 or 2 turmeric capsules 3 times a day to help as a preventative.
12. For a sun block for moles, cover them with a mixture of 2 parts ghee and 1 part turmeric.
13. For general protection from disease, carry turmeric root in your pocket or tie it on a yellow silk thread around your neck.
Turmeric is a perennial grown throughout the tropical parts of Asia. It favours a warm and humid climate. Haridra literally means ‘yellow’ and its strong yellow colour signifies its use as a liver herb that is good at drying damp and moving stagnation in the blood.
Turmeric (E), Haldi (H)
Latin Name Curcuma longa – Rhizoma (Zingiberaceae)
Bio-medical Action Emmenagogue, blood tonic, carminative, anti-bacterial, cholagogue, alterative, vulnerary, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, hypolipidaemic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic. Dosage 1–10g/day dried root or 3–15ml/day of a 1:3 @ 45% tincture. Notes • Although at high doses it can aggravate pitta, used judiciously it is an excellent remedy for all diseases of rasa and rakta. It has a particular affinity for blood related disorders. • Traditionally popular with yogis to help stretch ligaments and repair injuries. Also said to clean the nadi network of channels. • It has another yogic use as part of ganesh kriya; a freshly peeled root is inserted into the anus to cleanse the rectum and physically help to open mooladhara chakara.8 • Turmeric alleviates vata and kapha by virtue of its hot energy and pitta via its bitter flavour. • Its pungency combined with its bitter taste, dries and clears ama from the system. • Many Curcuma species have medicinal uses. Karchur (Curcuma zedoaria) is used to reduce kapha and increase circulation. Contraindications Caution in high vata and pitta. Be vigilant if gallstones are present. As Turmeric stimulates the movement of blood it is used with caution at medicinal doses during pregnancy and in those trying to conceive. Not in acute jaundice and hepatitis.6
Botanical name: Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae
Other names: Haldi (H), Manjal (T), Turmeric (E), Jiang huang (C)
Botany: Haridra is a perennial herb that attains a height of up to 90 cm, with a short stem, long sheathing petiolate leaves, and a large cylindrical root with thick sessile tubers that are intensely orange-yellow when cut or broken. The leaves are simple, quite large in proportion to the stem, the petiole as long as the leaf, oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, entire and acute, 30-45 cm long to 12.5 cm wide. The yellow flowers are borne in spikes, concealed by the sheathing petioles. Thought to be native to eastern India, Haridra is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics (Kirtikar and Basu 1935, 2422; Warrier et al 1994, 259).
Part used: Fresh and dried root.
Rasa: tikta, katu, *
Vipaka: katu *
Virya: ushna, ruksha *
Karma: dipanapachana, grahi, jvaraghna, krimiaghna, chedana, raktaprasadana, shothahara, chakshushya, varnya, kushtaghna, saindhaniya, Kaphapittahara (Srikanthamurthy 2001, 191; Warrier et al 1994, 259)
Constituents: The active constituents of Haridra are the yellow flavonoid constituents called the curcuminoids or diarylheptanoids, of which curcumin is the best studied, but also includes methoxylated curcumins. Haridra also contains a volatile oil comprised of sesquiterpene ketones such as ?-tumerone, as well as other volatile compounds including atlantone, zingiberone, ?-phellandrene, sabinene, cineole and borneol. Other constituents include sugars, proteins, and resins (Mills and Bone 2000, 570; Yoganarasimhan 2000, 171; Kapoor 1990, 149; Evans 1989, 468).
Gastrointestinal: A variety of constituents in Haridra have been noted for their protective effects upon the digestive tract. One study found that the salt of curcumin inhibited intestinal spasm, and p-tolymethylcarbinol, another constituent isolated from Haridra, increased gastrin, secretin, bicarbonate, and pancreatic enzyme secretion (Ammon and Wahl 1991). Another study demonstrated that Haridra can inhibit experimental ulcerogenesis in rats, induced by stress, alcohol, indomethacin, pyloric ligation, and reserpine, significantly increasing the barrier of protective mucus and the protein sulfhydryl content in the glandular stomachs of the rats (Rafatulla et al 1990). One clinical study examined the efficacy of Haridra powder in 45 patients with symptoms indicating peptic ulcer disease. Actual ulceration was confirmed in 25 cases by endoscopy, with the remaining 20 patients demonstrating some degree of erosion, inflammation or only symptoms of dyspepsia. In both groups, Haridra was given in two capsules, each equal to 300 mg, five times daily. In the group with confirmed peptic ulceration, the ulcers were absent in 12 cases after four weeks, that number increasing to 18 after eight weeks, and 19 after 12 weeks of treatment. The other group received Haridra capsules for four weeks of treatment, the abdominal pain and discomfort satisfactorily subsiding in all participants within the second week of treatment such that they could take normal foods instead of soft meals (Prucksunand et al 2001).
Hepatoprotective: Haridra has been shown to have hepatoprotective properties in animal livers exposed to a variety of hepatotoxins, including carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine, paracetamol, and Aspergillus aflatoxin (Deshpande et al 1998; Kiso et al. 1983; Donatus et al 1990). In rats subjected to carbon tetrachloride curcumin administration significantly decreased elevated liver enzymes when compared to controls (Park et al. 2000). In ducklings infected with Aspergillus parasiticus, Haridra was shown to inhibit the production of fungal aflatoxin by up to 90 percent. In the same study, both the crude herb as well as curcumin were shown to reverse biliary hyperplasia, fatty changes, and necrosis induced by aflatoxin production, although curcumin alone had no effect on aflatoxin production (Soni et al 1992).
Neuroprotective: Curcumin isolated from Curcuma longa was screened for neuroprotective activity using ethanol as a model of brain injury. The oral administration of curcumin to rats caused a significant reversal in lipid peroxidation, and an enhancement of glutathione, an antioxidant in ethanol-intoxicated rats (Rajakrishnan et al 1999).
Cardiovascular: In a study of experimentally-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits given a dose of a Curcuma extract equal to 1.6-3.2 mg/kg daily, the extract decreased the susceptibility of LDL to undergo lipid peroxidation, and was observed to lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Researchers noted that a lower rather than higher dose appeared to be more efficacious (Ramirez-Tortosa et al 1999). The mechanism by which Haridra lowers cholesterol is thought to be due to decreased cholesterol uptake in the intestines, as well as the increased conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver (Ramprasad and Sirsi 1957). Haridra has also been noted to inhibit of platelet aggregation, thought to be due to its enhancement upon prostacyclin synthesis with a comensurate inhibition of thromboxane synthesis (Srivastava et al 1986).
Antioxidant: An in vitro study measured the effect of curcumin on endothelial heme oxygenase-1, an inducible stress protein, on bovine aortic endothelial cells. Incubation with curcumin resulted in enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative damage (Mortellini et al 2000). In a study of experimental ischemia induced in the feline heart pretreatment with curcumin was found to decrease ischemia-induced changes (Dikshit et al 1995). Both water and fat-soluble extracts of Curcuma and curcumin have exhibited strong antioxidant activities in vitro, comparable to vitamins C and E (Toda et al 1985).
Anti-inflammatory: Low concentrations of curcumin incubated with activated macrophages resulted in a decrease in mRNA levels and nitric oxide synthase activity, down-regulating nitric oxide formation, a process that is now thought to be a key component in inflammation (Brouet and Ohshima 1995). An in vitro preparation of curcumin inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1-? by a human monocytic macrophage cell line, as well as inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B and reduced the biological activity of tumor necrosis factor-? in a L929 fibroblast lytic assay (Chan 1995). In an experimental trial using monkeys, curcumin was shown to inhibit neutrophil aggregation associated with inflammation (Srivastava 1989). The oral administration of curcumin in acute experimental inflammation was found to be as effective as cortisone or phenylbutazone, although it was only half as effective in chronic inflammation (Mukhopadhyay et al 1982). In rats with experimentally-induced arthritis the oral administration of Curcuma longa significantly reduced inflammatory swelling compared to controls (Arora et al 1971).
Antitumor: Several animal studies involving rodents as well as in vitro studies on human cell lines have demonstrated curcumin's ability to inhibit tumor promotion, angiogenesis, and tumor growth (Kawamori et al 1999; Thaloor et al 1998; Limtrakul et al 1997). Researchers investigated the chemopreventive action of curcumin when administered during the promotion/progression stage of colon carcinogenesis in male rats, late in the premalignant stage. The rats were given injections of azoxymethane on a weekly basis, and after the second treatment were fed a diets containing 0.2 and 0.6% curcumin. The results showed that the administration of 0.2% curcumin during both the initiation and postinitiation periods significantly inhibited colon tumorigenesis, and increased apoptosis in the colon tumors as compared to colon tumors in the control groups (Kawamori et al 1999). While the antitumor activities of Haridra and curcumin are due in part to quenching free radicals these, they have also been shown to enhance glutathione levels and inhibit nitrosamine formation, a known carcinogen (Boone et al 1992). Curcumin has demonstrated chemopreventive activities in experimental models of carcinogenesis, inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX-2), which has been implicated in the development of many human cancers. In one study, researchers noted that curcumin inhibited COX-2 protein induction and prostaglandin E2 production in blood from healthy human volunteers after incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Researchers further explored this effect in by administering an oral dose of a Curcuma extract in 15 patients with advanced colorectal cancer. An analysis of basal and LPS-induced PGE2 production during treatment demonstrated a trend toward dose-dependent inhibition (Plummer et al 2001). An ethanol extract of Curcuma longa as well as an ointment of curcumin were found to produce remarkable symptomatic relief in patients with external cancerous lesions. Reduction in odour was noted in 90% of the cases and reduction in itching in almost all cases. Dry lesions were observed in 70% of the cases, and a small number of patients (10%) had a reduction in lesion size and pain. In many patients the effect continued for several months. An adverse reaction was noticed in only one of the 62 patients evaluated (Kuttan et al 1987).
Antimicrobial: Chicks infected with the intestinal parasite Eimera maxima and treated with a diet supplemented with one-percent Curcuma longa resulted in a reduction in small intestinal lesion scores and improved weight gain (Allen et al 1998). Guinea pigs infected with dermatophytes and pathogenic fungi were treated topically with a dilution of the volatile oil from Curcuma longa. The oil was was found to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic organisms, and within seven days the lesions were observed to disappear completely (Apisariyakul et al 1995).
Chronic anterior uveitis: Curcumin was administered orally to patients suffering from chronic anterior uveitis at a dose of 375 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The patients were divided into two groups: one group of 18 patients who received curcumin alone, whereas the other group of 14 patients, who had a strong PPD reaction (indicating tuberculosis), received antitubercular treatment in addition. The patients in both groups started to improve within two weeks of treatment, although the response to the therapy in the PPD group was only 86%. Follow up of all the patients over the next three years indicated a recurrence rate of 55% in the first group and of 36% in the second group. The efficacy of curcumin and recurrences following treatment are comparable to corticosteroid therapy, but without any side effects (Lal et al 1999).
Wound healing: The in vivo effects of curcumin on wound healing in rats and guinea pigs was evaluated. Researchers noted faster wound closure of punch wounds in curcumin-treated animals in comparison with untreated controls. Biopsies of the wound showed reepithelialization of the epidermis and increased migration of various cells including myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages in the wound bed. Multiple areas within the dermis showed extensive neovascularization and greater collagen deposition. Immunohistochemical localization showed an increase in transforming growth factor-?-1, which is known to play an important role in wound healing (Sidhu et al 1998). In a similar study performed on the efficacy of curcumin treatment by oral and topical application on impaired wound healing in diabetic rats and genetically diabetic mice, similar beneficial results were obtained (Sidhu et al 1999).
Toxicity: The oral LD50 in rats of the petroleum-ether extract of Haridra was determined to be 12.2g/kg (Arora et al 1971). Researchers evaluated the potential oral toxicity of curcumin taken over a three month period in 25 patients suffering from a variety of severe illnesses. Researchers noted that there was no treatment-related toxicity up to 8 g daily, but that beyond this, the bulky volume of the drug was unacceptable to the patients (Cheng et al 2001). Haridra is commonly used as a culinary spice and is generally recognized as safe.
Indications: Poor appetite, dyspepsia, peptic and duodenal ulcers, gas and flatulence, constipation, candidiasis, intestinal parasites, pharyngitis, catarrh, bronchitis, asthma, anemia, cholecystitis, cholecystalgia, jaundice, hepatitis, hepatosplenomegaly, edema, inflammatory joint disease, sports injuries, skin diseases, parasitic skin conditions, wounds, bruises, sprains, fractures, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, amenorrhea, gonorrhea, cystitis, cancer prevention and treatment.
Contraindications: Vatakopa, in excess.
Medicinal uses: Haridra is one of the more familiar Indian herbs in West, most people identifying it with the flavour of curries, although in actuality Haridra is only a minor component in most spice mixtures, used in small proportions as a colouring agent rather than for its flavour, which is rather bitter and unpleasant. The same potency of Haridra to colour curries and other foods is also utilized in the dyeing of textiles, for which it was imported from India to the West before the advent of aniline dyes. Haridra is still used in India as a dyeing agent, not only for textiles but also as a cosmetic, popular among Indian women as a paste to improve the texture and luster of the skin. Haridra also has important symbolic uses in Hindu ceremonies, especially at weddings in which it is used to draw designs on the hands and feet. The activity of Haridra as a dyeing agent is due to the curcuminoids, which are also in large part responsible for its medicinal activities. The volatile constituents and resins however are also medicinal and therefore aqueous extracts are avoided in favour of the churna or a tincture. Given the quality of Haridra as a culinary spice however, the tincture made from the fresh rhizomes is preferred, allowing for a lower dosage, which can enhance patient compliance considerably. Haridra is among the more common household remedies in Ayurveda. For mild colds and flus one teaspoon of the churna is mixed with one half teaspoon of Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis), with a little honey and water, taken two to three times daily. In pharyngitis Haridra churna can be mixed with Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza) churna, saindhava and water and gargled, thrice daily. For dry coughs and bronchitis, one large teaspoon of Haridra churna can be decocted in a 150 mL of milk, taken with honey. Mixed with a pinch of Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) and Pippali powders, Haridra is mixed with a small amount of ghee, burned and inhaled in dhuma to treat respiratory catarrh. For skin conditions including eczema, psoriasis, acne and parasitic infections (e.g. scabies) Haridra is taken internally as well as applied externally as a paste with water or honey, or prepared as a medicated ghee, although people with very white skin may find the transient staining somewhat unappealing. For sprains, bruises and other sports-related injuries Haridra can be made into a paste with honey, and applied generously over the affected part and covered with plastic wrap, changing the dressing every few hours. Taken internally, Haridra is an effective treatment to strengthen the joints and tendons, and is an exceptionally important remedy in arthritis and other joint diseases, often used with Guggulu and Shunthi. In the treatment of ophthalmic disorders equal parts Haridra and Triphala can be prepared as a medicated ghee and applied to the eye. The Chakradatta recommends a collyrium called Saugata anjana in ophthalmic disorders, prepared from equal parts Haridra, Daruharidra (Beberis nepalensis), Haritaki, Jatamamsi, Kushta and Pippali (Sharma 2002, 543). Prepared as a douche with equal parts Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Shatavari, Haridra can be used in cervical dysplasia. In the treatment of hemorrhoids the churna can be mixed with mustard oil and applied topically, to accompany internal treatments. Taken as a paste prepared with Guduchi and Amalaki, Haridra may be of benefit in diabetes. Combined with Guggulu, Haridra can be an effective treatment in dyslipidemia. In the treatment of jaundice the Chakradatta recommends a milk decoction of Haridra, Pippali, Nimba, Bala and Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra) (Sharma 2002, 199). In the treatment of memory loss, poor concentration, and speech disorders the Chakradatta recommends a formula called Kalyanakaleha, consisting of Haridra mixed with equal parts Vacha, Kushta, Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis), Jiraka (Cuminum cyminum), Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and saindhava, taken with ghee (Sharma 2002, 199). In the treatment of gout with Kaphaja symptoms the Chakradatta recommends a formulation of Haridra, Amalaki and Musta (Sharma 2002, 235). Haridra is used in Chinese medicine for patterns of blood stasis and stagnant qi, with cold and deficiency, in the treatment of menstrual pain, abdominal pain and pain in the shoulders (Bensky and Gamble 1993, 272).
• Churna: recently dried and powdered rhizome, 3-5 g b.i.d.-t.i.d.; up to 10 g t.i.d. of the herb derived from culinary sources • Tincture: fresh rhizome, 1:2, 95%, 2-5 ml b.i.d.-t.i.d.
TURMERIC ROOT (Curcuma longa)
Latin: Curcuma longa Sanskrit: Haridra Chinese: Jiang huang / Yu jin
WHAT IT DOES: Turmeric root is bitter in taste and warming in action. It strongly reduces inflammation and mucus in all parts of the body, protects the liver, lungs and intestines, and helps prevent and treat cancer.
SAFETY ISSUES: Due to mucin-reducing effects, do not use the concentrated extract (curcumin) or oil in high doses, especially if you have bile duct obstruction, gall stones, or stomach ulcers. Use turmeric as a spice freely.
STARTING DOSAGE: • Crude powder: 500 mg two to three times per day.
Turmeric is a common tuberous vegetable spice used all over the world. It stimulates gastric juices, and it is used in Indian households in most vegetable dishes as an anti-food poisoning agent that also reduces mucous formation. Turmeric root is used externally by TAM doctors to treat skin diseases, and as a plaster to reduce swelling. It is a valuable anti-inflammatory. Modern research has shown it to be a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hepatotoxic herb, useful in the treatment of many inflammation-related conditions such as diabetes, hepatitis, arthritis, diarrhea, psoriasis, eczema, asthma and smoking related lung inflammation (Pandey et al., 1996).
Turmeric rhizome is yellow in color and egg-shaped (called jiang huang), with numerous secondary garlic bulb-like projections (called yu jin). TCM doctors report that these two parts have different medicinal properties. Though similar in action, the larger jiang huang is used to invigorate the blood, relieve menstrual cramps, and treat the pain and swelling associated with trauma. The smaller yu jin is cooler in action and used more to break up blood stasis and relieve constrained liver energy with symptoms of internal tension.
Turmeric root can be rendered more effective in treating inflammation by adding a small amount of trikatu (three-pepper compound). Piperine, an alkaloid found in black pepper and long pepper, enhances the bio-availability of turmeric considerably. For patients low on funds who suffer from arthritis, I suggest purchasing a pound of turmeric from an Indian grocery store, and then adding about three percent trikatu. This can be taken in half-teaspoon doses three times per day at a cost of less than $10 for a six-month supply. Based upon traditional use patterns, I think it is better to use this formula for periods of three to four weeks, with a one or two week rest in between.
• The anti-inflammatory action of turmeric root extract is partially based on its ability to strongly inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, which affects the inflammatory enzymes 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase. This gives it a lower side effect profile than aspirin (reported in Bone, 1991).
• Various pharmacological and animal models have shown curcumin and turmeric root to possess cancer, radiation and chemical toxin protective effects (Chun et al., 1999; Singhal et al., 1999; Kang et al., 1999; Bhaumik et al., 1999; Navis et al., 1999; Choudhary et al., 1999; Khar et al., 1999; Kawamori et al., 1999; Lee et al., 1998; Huang et al., 1997).
• In a study of 32 patients with chronic eye inflammation (anterior chamber uveitis), a 375-mg dose of curcumin three times per day for three months showed improvement comparable to the effects seen with a similar cortisone dose (Lal et al., 1999).
• Several studies suggest that turmeric root also has a mild to moderate cholesterol-lowering action (Ramirez-Tortosa et al., 1999, Pandey et al., 1996, Deshpande et al., 1998).
• Because it also has low toxicity as well as anti-platelet, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, it appears to be a good addition to the diet for long-term prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (reported in Bone, 1991).
• Slow tissue repair and wound healing are difficult problems for diabetics. In an animal study done at the Center for Combat Casualty and Life Sustainment Research in Bethesda, Maryland, curcumin was shown to enhance wound repair in diabetes-impaired healing (Sidhu GS et al., 1999).
• It has also been shown to reduce diabetic kidney damage (Suresh et al., 1998)
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