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 +======= Five Skandhas - Pañca Skandha - Pungpo nga - Phung po lnga - Five Aggregates or Five Heaps =======
  
 +[[Image:​Skandhas.JPG]]
 +
 +People in a boat, the usual image for [[name-and-form]] in the [[Wheel of Life]]
 +
 +**[[Five Skandhas]]** ([[Skt.[[ //​[[pañcaskandha]]//​ or //[[pañca skandha]] or [[pañcha skandha]]; [[Tib.]] [[ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ་]] //[[pungpo nga]]//; [[Wyl.]] //[[phung po lnga]]//) — the [[five psycho-physical aggregates]] or [[Five Aggregates]],​ which according to [[Buddhist philosophy]] are the basis for [[self-grasping]]. They are:
 +
 +  - [[form]] ([[Skt.]] //​[[rūpa]]//;​ [[Tib.]] [[གཟུགས་]],​ [[Wyl.]] //​[[gzugs]]//​)
 +  - [[feeling]] or [[sensations]] ([[Skt.]] //​[[vedanā]]//;​ [[Tib.]] [[ཚོར་བ་]],​ [[Wyl.]] //[[tshor ba]]//)
 +  - [[cognition]] or [[perception]] or [[thinking]] ([[Skt.]] //​[[saṃjñā]]//;​ [[Tib.]] [[འདུ་ཤེས་]],​ [[Wyl.]] //[[‘du shes]]//)
 +  - [[formations]] or [[impulses]] or [[compositional factors]] or [[habits]] ([[Skt.]] //​[[saṃskāra]]//;​ [[Tib.]] [[འདུ་བྱེད་]],​ [[Wyl.]] //[[‘du byed]]//)
 +  - [[consciousness]] ([[Skt.]] //​[[vijñāna]]//;​ [[Tib.]] [[རྣམ་ཤེས་]],​ [[Wyl.]] //[[rnam shes]]//)
 +
 +====== Etymology ======
 +The [[Sanskrit]] word //skandha// means an [[aggregate]],​ [[heap]] or [[bundle]].
 +
 +====== Introduction ======
 +
 +[[Sogyal Rinpoche]] wrote:
 +
 +>Once we have a physical body, we also have what are known as the five skandhas — the aggregates that compose our whole mental and physical existence. They are the constituents of our experience, the support for the [[self-grasping|grasping of ego]], and also the basis for the suffering of [[samsara]].<​ref>//​[[The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying]]//, Chapter 15, p. 254</​ref>​
 +
 +And [[Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche]] said:
 +
 +>The five skandhas represent the constant structure of the human psychology as well as its pattern of evolution and the pattern of the evolution of the world. The skandhas are also related to blockages of different types — spiritual ones, material ones, and emotional ones.<​ref>​C. Trungpa Rinpoche, //Glimpses of Abhidharma//,​ Boulder, CO: Prajna, 1975</​ref>​
 +
 +When we look more closely at what it is that we call ‘[[I]]’,​ we can see that it includes several elements, not just the parts that make up our physical bodies, but also our various senses and our minds. ​
 +
 +In [[Buddhism]],​ when we want to examine the [[self]] more precisely, we can make use of the five categories, which we call the ‘five skandhas’.
 +
 +In actual fact, all [[conditioned phenomena]] may be included within these five groups, but when we are investigating the self, we limit ourselves to the form of our bodies, and our own thoughts and so on.
 +
 +====== Form/Matter ======
 +
 +In its broadest sense, form is spoken of in terms of causal and resultant forms. Causal forms are the [[elements]] of [[earth]], [[water]], [[fire]] and [[wind]], and then the resultant forms – which are made from these elements – are said to include the [[five sense faculties]] and their [[five sense objects]], as well as a slightly more problematic category called ‘imperceptible forms’, which we do not need to go into here.
 +
 +The [[sense faculties]] are not the ordinary [[sense organs]] -- our [[eyes]] and [[ears]] and so on -- but subtle forms within the sense organs. They have particular shapes which are described very precisely in the [[Abhidharma]] literature.
 +
 +The first of the sense objects is **[[visual form]]**, which means the various [[color]]s and shapes that appear to our eyes. Broadly speaking, colors may be divided into the [[wp>​primary colors]] -- which according to the Abhidharma are [[white]], [[red]], [[yellow]] and [[blue]] -- and the [[wp>​secondary colors]]. They may be pleasant, unpleasant or neutral.
 +
 +**[[Sounds]]**,​ the objects of the ears, may occur naturally or be man-made, or they may be a combination of the two, such as when a person beats a drum. A lot of sounds are just meaningless noise, but some impart meaning. In the case of the latter, they might be a vehicle for ordinary notions, or else the sublime, liberating message of the [[Dharma]]. As with [[sights]], [[sounds]] can be pleasant, unpleasant or neutral.
 +
 +**[[Smells]]** or [[odors]] can be natural or artificial, and once again, pleasant, unpleasant or neutral.
 +
 +**[[Tastes]]** are said to be of six kinds, roughly translated as [[sweet]], [[sour]], [[salty]], [[hot]] ([[pungent]] or [[acrid]]), [[bitter]] or [[astringent]].
 +
 +**[[Textures]]**,​ or [[tactile sensations]],​ may be felt on the body’s surface or in its interior. Interior ‘textures’ include [[hunger]] and [[thirst]], and the feelings that come with being ill or deeply relaxed.
 +
 +In this investigation,​ form means our physical bodies. More generally, it is all that we can [[see]], [[hear]], [[smell]], [[taste]] and [[touch]], and also the subtle faculties that do the [[seeing]], [[hearing]],​ [[smelling]],​ [[tasting]] and [[touching]].
 +
 +====== Feelings/​Sensations ======
 +
 +Although this is called the [[skandha of feelings]], it does not mean [[emotional feelings]], but something more like [[sensations]]. These are said to be the [[pain]]ful,​ pleasant and neutral sensations in the body and the pleasant or unpleasant sensations in the [[mind]]. (It is said that neutral sensations of the mind are not counted separately, because they are indistinguishable from the neutral sensations of the body.)
 +
 +We are always experiencing sensations, mostly neutral ones, but also painful and pleasant.
 +
 +They can also be thought of as the sensations that occur based on sense impressions. A sense object such as [[incense]] would belong under the skandha of form, but the sensation created when we smell it belongs in this category. In this case, it would most likely be a pleasant sensation.
 +
 +According to the teachings, feelings are important because they are the basis for [[attachment]] and [[aversion]],​ which lie at the heart of many of the conflicts between [[lay people]], who have not [[renounced mundane concerns]] (see [[renunciation]]).
 +
 +====== Perceptions - Thinking - Cognition ======
 +
 +Perception means the apprehension of a specific object, as circumscribed and distinct from something else.
 +
 +On the conceptual level, this means the recognition of identities or names, and on the sensory level it means the discernment of the five objects of sense.
 +
 +Technically,​ perception is defined as ‘that which grasps or identifies characteristics’. Perception could be non-conceptual,​ in the case of the five physical senses, or conceptual, as in the perception of thoughts and ideas.
 +
 +In all these cases, perception can either be ‘discerning’ or ‘non-discerning’. The five non-conceptual sense perceptions are regarded as discerning when they are operating normally and perceiving their proper objects: colors/​shapes,​ sounds, smells, tastes and textures. Mental perception is said to be discerning when it distinguishes identities or names. This happens when (a) mind recognizes an object and associates it with its name, and (b) the mind knows what is referred to when a name is given.
 +
 +Perception is non-discerning when the sense organ in question is fully functional but there is no object. This occurs in states of deep [[samadhi|meditative absorption]],​ and also when the mind is unable to identify and name objects, as, for example, when you encounter something for the first time and therefore do not recognize it. This is the common experience of children.
 +
 +Mental perception is also non-discerning when it does not know what is referred to when names are given as, for example, when an unknown language is heard.
 +
 +(It should however be noted that non-discerning perception does not refer to the mere privation of sensory stimulus, as, for example, when you are in a dark place with your eyes open or in a soundproof room. In these cases, the senses do in fact have objects – darkness and silence, respectively.)
 +
 +There are as many types of perception as there are [[phenomena]].
 +
 +[[Perceptions]] are [[wp>​subjective]] experiences,​ and are said to be important because they are the basis for disagreement and controversy,​ leading to conflict amongst [[wp>​philosophers]] who have renounced [[worldly affairs]].
 +
 +====== Formations - Impulses - Compositional Factors ======
 +
 +The category called [[formations]] is a little complicated. But if we just limit ourselves to [[mental formations]],​ then it basically refers to [[thoughts]] and [[emotions]],​ or what are technically referred to as the ‘[[mental states]]’. Although there are many possible mental states, the [[Abhidharma]] teachings speak of fifty-one, which are held to be particularly important.
 +
 +[[Sensation]] and [[perception]] are actually included in these fifty-one, but are treated separately in the list of the [[five skandhas]] because they are especially noticeable.
 +
 +There is no need to go into all fifty-one here, but we should know that they include the components necessary for any [[cognition]] to occur, namely [[sensation]],​ [[perception]],​ [[wp>​intention]] (meaning the mind is directed towards a particular object), [[attention]] (the mind is held on that [[object]]) and [[contact]] (an object, a functioning [[sense organ]] and [[consciousness]] all come together).
 +
 +There are also five states which assist in the [[discernment]] of objects. These are interest, appreciation,​ [[mindfulness]],​ [[concentration]] and [[discernment]]. We are talking about these on a [[subtle]] level. For example, we need a certain amount of concentration to [[focus]] on a particular object, and some discernment to identify it.
 +
 +These first ten are called ‘general mind states’.
 +
 +Then there are the [[virtuous]] states of mind such as [[faith]], [[conscientiousness]],​ absence of [[attachment]],​ absence of [[aggression]],​ absence of [[delusion]],​ and [[diligence]].
 +
 +Then there are the principal non-virtuous states of [[ignorance]],​ [[desire]], [[anger]], [[pride]], [[doubt]] and harmful beliefs; as well as the secondary negative states such as [[vindictiveness]],​ [[spite]], [[envy]], [[deceit]], [[stinginess]],​ [[laziness]] and [[forgetfulness]]. Here we also include the [[drowsiness]] and [[agitation]] we experience in [[meditation]],​ as well as [[distraction]].
 +
 +Finally, there are several ‘variable’ states which could be either positive or negative, such as regret.
 +
 +====== Consciousness ======
 +
 +[[Consciousness]] here refers to the consciousness of impressions from the [[five senses]], and also consciousness of mental objects, like thoughts, ideas and emotions. (See: [[Six consciousnesses]].)
 +
 +The consciousnesses of the five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching) are non-conceptual. Then the information is fed to the mental consciousness,​ where concepts can enter in.
 +
 +Visual consciousness registers only colors and shapes. It does not recognize particular colors, which is the function of the skandha of perception. Nor does it identify certain colors as pleasant, which is done by the feeling skandha. ​
 +
 +The followers of the [[Mind Only]] school identified [[Eight consciousnesses|eight types of consciousness]]. In addition to the consciousnesses of the five senses and the mind, they spoke of a ‘defiled mental consciousness’ and the famous ‘[[all-ground consciousness]]’ ([[storehouse consciousness]]),​ or //[[alaya vijñana]]//​.
 +
 +The [[defiled|mental consciousness]] is closely connected with the [[wp>​ego]],​ and is where the notion of ‘[[I]]’ and ‘[[mine]]’ enters into experience. It is absent in the [[meditation]] of [[noble being]]s ([[Arya being]]s), but never ceases in the [[wp>​mind stream]] of an [[ordinary being]]. This [[seventh consciousness]] relates very closely to our ‘[[wp>​self-image]]’. After we receive data from the senses, and process them with the [[sixth consciousness]],​ the [[defiled mental consciousness]] asks whether or not this experience fits with how we have come to think of ourselves – our ‘image’,​ in other words. This means there is a lot of judgment here, paving the way for [[attachment]] and [[aversion]].
 +
 +The [[all-ground consciousness|alaya consciousness]] is described as ‘mere knowing, an unspecified apprehension,​ the object of which is general and uncircumscribed’. It is often likened to a [[storehouse]],​ in which we keep all our [[habits]] and [[wp>​instinct]]s,​ the imprints or ‘seeds’ of our actions which will ripen into future experiences.
 +
 +====== Alternative Translations ======
 +
 +  * Five components (Dorje & Kapstein)
 +
 +===== Notes =====
 +
 +
 +===== Further Reading =====
 +  * [[Kangyur Rinpoche]], //Treasury of Precious Qualities// (Boston & London: Shambhala, 2001), '​Appendix 4'​. ​
 +  * Appendix 7, 'The Five Aggregates'​ pp. 183-185 in //The Light of Wisdom Volume 1//. Root text by [[Padmasambhava]] and commentary by [[Jamgön Kongtrül]] the Great. Published by Shambhala Publications ISBN 0-87773-566-2
 +
 +====== External Links ======
 +  * [[http://​www.lotsawaschool.org/​five_skandhas.html|The Five Skandhas in Translation]]
 +
 +
 +====== Categories ======
 +
 +[[Category:​Key|Terms]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Abhidharma]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Enumerations]]
 +
 +[[Category:​05-Five]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +[[Five Skandhas]]
 +
 +1) [[form]], 2) [[feeling]],​ 3) [[cognition]],​ 4) [[formation]]s,​ 5) [[consciousness]].
 +
 +The [[mind]] is like a [[Master]] [[paint]]er
 +
 +Who can [[paint]] all [[world]]s.
 +
 +From it are [[produce]]d the [[Five Skandhas]]
 +
 +As well as all [[Dharma]]s.
 +
 +([[FAS]], HYSC 30:54-70))
 +
 +When the [[Bodhisattva]] [[Avalokiteshvara]] was practicing the [[profound]]
 +[[Prajna Paramita]], he illuminated the [[Five Skandhas]] and saw that they are
 +all [[empty]].
 +
 +([[HS]] 1)
 +
 +[[meaning]] of "​[[skandha]]s"​
 +
 +[[skandha]] is a [[Sanskrit]] [[word]] [[meaning]] heap, pile, or [[aggregate]].The [[Buddha]]
 +il[[lust]]rated his [[teaching]] about the [[skandha]]s by using [[five]] small
 +piles--heaps--of different g[[rain]]s. The [[skandha]]s are general [[division]]s for
 +cat[[ego]]rizing all [[phenomena]] in the [[condition]]ed [[world]]. Be[[cause]] they include
 +within them all [[transitory]],​ [[Im[[permanent]] [[phenomena]],​ they are an important
 +tool for [[understand]]ing the [[Buddhist]] [[doctrine]] of [[no self]]. If one analyzes all
 +[[aspect]]s of what one [[feel]]s to be one's "​[[self]]",​ one finds that all fall within
 +the scope of the [[Five Skandhas]].
 +
 +"The [[Five Skandhas]] as they are found in your [[body]]:
 +
 +1) The [[body]] is the [[form]] [[skandha]].
 +
 +2) Once you have the [[form]] [[skandha]],​ you then have [[feeling]]s of [[enjoyment]] and
 +[[pleasure]].
 +
 +3) You want [[pleasure]],​ and so you [[give]] rise to polluted [[thinking]],​ which is
 +[[cognition]]. How can I get what I want? How can I [[actual]]ly indulge in
 +[[pleasure]]?​
 +
 +4) You have to go and do it. That is [[formation]]s*.
 +
 +5) Acting requires a [[certain]] amount of [[wisdom]], a [[consciousness]] which is a
 +[[kind]] of small [[intelligence]],​ a minute amount . . . .
 +
 +"Your [[body]] achieves its aims. 'Oh, [[enjoyment]]! Ahhh!' The [[enjoyment]] lasts
 +about [[five]] minutes. Be[[cause]] of the excessive exertion, your [[blood]] [[vessel]]s
 +rupture and then [[death]] comes. . . . What was it all about? It was just the
 +[[Five Skandhas]].
 +
 +"The [[Five Skandhas]] are just [[five]] [[way]]s of [[Uniting]],​ of [[working]] together to
 +open a company. The company, once opened, opens again and again... The
 +[[skandha]]-company grows everywhere like a wild vine which is never cut. Once
 +opened, the [[Five Skandhas]], Inc. always stays open, always [[feeling]] that there
 +is [[hope]]. What [[hope]]? 'Ah! This [[life]] I didn't make [[money]], but wait until next
 +[[life]] and I will be able to make some.' Who can [[know]] whether there will be
 +even less capital in the next [[life]]?"​ ([[HS]] 46-47)
 +
 +"When you break through all [[Five Skandhas]], and are no longer deluded by
 +them, you can '​[[cross]] beyond all [[suffering]] ([[Dukkha]])'​. You can then put an end to all
 +[[bitter]]ness. [[seeing]] that the [[Five Skandhas]] are all [[empty]] is getting rid of
 +the [[attachment]]s to [[self]]."​ ([[LY]] II 104)
 +
 +[[form]]
 +
 +And why, brethren, do ye say [[body]] (i.e., [[form]])? One is affected , brethren.
 +That is why the [[word]] "​[[body]]"​ is used. Affected by what? Affected by [[touch]] of
 +[[cold]] and [[Heat]], of [[hunger]]Sand thirst, of gnats, [[mosquito]]s,​ [[wind]] and sun and
 +[[snake]]s. One is affected, brethren. That is why we say "​[[body]]"​. ([[kind]]red
 +sayings III 72-73)
 +
 +"What is [[form]]? The [[body]] is included among the [[form]]-[[Dharma]]s;​ since it is
 +[[form]], it is called the "​[[form]]-[[body]]"​. Your [[form]]-[[body]] has an [[appearance]],​ but
 +when you seek for its [[origin]] you will find that it is [[empty]]... When the [[four]]
 +[[Great Elements]], [[name]]ly [[earth]], [[water]], [[fire]], and [[wind]], unite, the [[body]] comes
 +into [[being]].
 +
 +This is what is meant by having a [[form]]. [[working]] together the [[element]]s
 +[[establish]] a corporation. The corporation comes into [[being]] from the [[four]]
 +[[condition]]ed [[cause]]s: [[earth]], which is [[character]]ized by solidity and
 +durability; [[water]], which is [[character]]ized by [[moist]]ure;​ [[fire]], which is
 +[[character]]ized by warmth; [[wind]], which is [[character]]ized by movement. When the
 +[[four]] [[condition]]ed [[cause]]s disperse, each has a place to which it returns;
 +therefore, the [[body]] [[become]]s [[empty]]."​ ([[HS]] 44-45)
 +
 +"Once you break through the [[form]] [[skandha]],​ 'all the [[mountain]]s,​ [[river]]s, and
 +[[Great]] [[earth]] are seen as [[empty]].'"​ ([[LY]] II 103)
 +
 +[[form]] includes the [[Four Great Elements]] and the [[eleven]] derived types of [[form]]
 +[[know]]n as the [[eleven]] [[form]] [[Dharma]]s.
 +
 +A. [[Four Great Elements]]
 +
 +[[name]] [[state]] [[activity]]
 +
 +1) [[earth]] solidity [[produce]]d by repulsion
 +
 +2) [[water]] [[liquid]]ity or [[produce]]d by attr[[action]]
 +
 +fluidity
 +
 +3) [[fire]] temperature [[produce]]d by [[Heat]]
 +
 +4) [[air]]/​[[wind]] [[expansion]],​ [[light]]- [[produce]]d by motionless, mobility
 +
 +When they are in equilibrium,​ the [[Four Great Elements]] together [[produce]] a
 +[[pure]] [[form]] which is not detectible by the [[ordinary]] [[sense]]s]]. That [[pure]] [[form]] is
 +the [[inner]] [[substance]] of the [[five]] perceptual [[organ]]s and the medium of their
 +[[actual]] functioning. When the [[Four Great Elements]] are out of equilibrium,​
 +different combinations of them [[produce]] both the coarse [[material]] [[aspect]], or
 +"​s[[Heat]]hs",​ of the perceptual [[organ]]s and also their [[object]]s (what they
 +[[perceive]]).
 +
 +B. [[eleven]] [[form]] [[Dharma]]S
 +
 +[[organ]]s [[object]]s
 +
 +1) [[eye]]s 6) [[sight]]s
 +2) ears 7) [[sound]]s
 +3) [[nose]] 8) [[smell]]s
 +4) [[tongue]] 9) [[taste]]s
 +5) [[body]] 10) tangible [[object]]s
 +11) [[subtle]] traces
 +
 +The [[subtle]] traces are [[mental]] residue of [[verbal]] and [[physic]]al [[action]]. They can
 +be understood as the "​[[seed]]s"​ of [[future]] [[retribution]].
 +
 +[[feeling]]
 +
 +And why, brethren, do ye say "​[[feeling]]"?​ One [[feel]]s, brethren. That is why the
 +[[word]] "​[[feeling]]"​ is used. [[feel]]s what? [[feel]]s [[pleasure]] and [[pain]]; [[feel]]s [[neutral]]
 +[[feeling]]s. One [[feel]]s, brethren. That is why the [[word]] "​[[feeling]]"​ is used.
 +([[kind]]red sayings III 73)
 +
 +"Once the [[body]] [[manifest]]s,​ it likes ple[[Asura]]ble [[feeling]]S. There are [[Three]]
 +[[kind]]s of [[feeling]]s,​ which correspond to the [[Three]] [[kind]]s of [[suffering]] ([[Dukkha]]):​
 +
 +[[feeling]]s of [[suffering]] ([[Dukkha]]);​
 +[[feeling]]s of [[happiness]];​
 +[[feeling]]s which are [[character]]ized by neither [[suffering]] ([[Dukkha]])
 +nor [[happiness]]."​ ([[HS]] 45)
 +
 +"A [[state]] [[arise]]s and you [[perceive]] it; you [[feel]] it is ple[[Asura]]ble. [[eating]] [[good]]
 +[[thing]]s, putting on a fine garment, [[feeling]] warm and [[being]] [[Great]]ly
 +[[delight]]ed--these [[feeling]]s of [[con[[ten]]tment]],​ as well as [[feeling]]s of dis[[pleasure]]
 +and [[pain]], are all grouped under the [[feeling]] [[skandha]]."​ ([[LY]] II 103)
 +
 +[[feeling]]s are pleasant, unpleasant or [[neutral]]. They [[arise]] from contact of
 +[[organ]], [[object]], and [[consciousness]]. [[feeling]] includes both the primary
 +sensation and the primary affective cat[[ego]]rization of it.
 +
 +[[cognition]]
 +
 +And why, brethren, do ye say "​[[perception]]"?​ One [[perceive]]s,​ brethren. That is
 +why the [[word]] "​[[perception]]"​ is used. [[perceive]]s what? [[perceive]]s [[blue]]-[[green]],​
 +[[perceive]]s [[yellow]], or red, or [[white]]. One [[perceive]]s,​ brethren. That is why the
 +[[word]] "​[[perception]]s"​ is used. ([[kind]]red sayings III 73)
 +
 +When you are awake, your [[mind]] thinks. When you are a[[sleep]], you [[dream]]. [[thus]]
 +your [[thinking]] moves [[false]] [[emotion]]s through inter[[action]]. ([[SS]] VIII]] 276)
 +
 +"As for [[cognition]],​ you certainly must have (the need for) [[false]] [[thought]]s if
 +you want [[enjoyment]]. You can't be without it. 'How can I think of a [[way]] to
 +buy a car? How can I buy a beautiful home? How can I think of a [[way]] to buy a
 +yacht? an [[air]][[plane]]?'​ Your [[false]] [[thought]]s fly back and forth and your [[hair]]
 +turns [[white]]. Why? It turns [[white]] from [[false thinking]]."​ ([[HS]] 46)
 +
 +[[cognition]] is the [[differentiation]] and identification of [[object]]s both [[physic]]al
 +and [[mental]]. Therefore, it includes both [[high]]er perceptual functions and
 +[[thinking]] processes, including those of [[language]].
 +
 +[[formation]]S
 +
 +In many of the pas[[Sage]]s below the alternate [[translation]] '​[[activities]]'​ is
 +used.
 +
 +And why, brethren, do ye say "the [[activities]]-compound"?​
 +
 +Be[[cause]] they compose a compound. That is why, brethren, the [[word]]
 +"​[[activities]]-compound"​ is used. And what compound do they compose?
 +
 +It is the [[body]] that they compose into a compound of [[body]]. It is [[feeling]] that
 +they compose into a [[feeling]]-compound. It is [[perception]] that they compose
 +into a [[perception]] compound; the [[activities]] into an [[activities]]-compound;​
 +[[consciousness]] into a [[consciousness]]-compound. They compose a compound,
 +brethren. Therefore, the [[word]] ([[activities]])-compound is used. ([[kind]]red
 +sayings III 73)
 +
 +"These [[activities]] never stop. They progress and shift through [[subtle]]
 +[[Chan]]ges. Your nails grow long, your [[hair]] grows, your [[energy]] wanes, and your
 +[[face]] [[become]]s wrinkled. The processes continue and yet you never wake up."
 +([[SS]] VIII]] 277)
 +
 +"When you lie in bed at [[night]], you have a [[thousand]] plans...Some[[time]]s you get
 +up early and act on them. Some[[time]]s [[sleep]]ing seems nice, and you just [[sleep]].
 +[[formation]]S are basically the acting out of [[karma]], that is, really acting
 +upon your [[false thinking]]."​ ([[HS]] 46)
 +
 +"​[[activities]] mean movement. They are ceaseless. [[people]] are [[first]] [[young]], and
 +they [[become]] [[Middle]]-aged,​ and then old, and then they [[die]]. [[thought]] after
 +[[thought]] [[arise]]s and is extinguished,​ [[thought]] after [[thought]] without cease.
 +This is the [[skandha]] of [[activities]]."​ ([[SS]] III]] 22)
 +
 +[[formation]]s refer to both [[conscious]] and non-[[conscious]] [[volition]]al [[force]]s,
 +including:
 +
 +a) [[conscious]] [[intention]]s or acts of will, the most important [[category]] of this
 +[[skandha]];​
 +
 +b) [[innate]] predispositions ([[karma]] from [[past lives]]);
 +
 +c) un[[conscious]] [[force]]s having to do with basic [[life]] functions, nourishment,​
 +and growth.
 +
 +[[consciousness]]
 +
 +And why, brethren, do ye say [[consciousness]]?​
 +
 +One is [[conscious]],​ brethren. Therefore, the [[word]] "​[[consciousness]]"​ is used.
 +[[conscious]] of what? Of (flavours) [[sour]] or [[bitter]]; acrid or [[sweet]]; alkaline or
 +non-alkaline;​ saline or non-saline. One is [[conscious]],​ brethren. That is why
 +the [[word]] "​[[consciousness]]"​ is used. ([[kind]]red sayings III 74)
 +
 +It is like rapidly flowing [[water]] which [[appear]]s to be still on the sur[[face]].
 +You don't detect the flow, but it is, nevertheless,​ not flowing."​ ([[SS]] VIII]]
 +280)
 +
 +"The [[skandha]] of [[consciousness]] involves the making of distinctions. It
 +[[discriminate]]s,​ considers, and seeks advantages from circumstances."​ ([[SS]] III]]
 +22)
 +
 +[[consciousness]] is the [[subtle]] [[basis]] of [[feeling]],​ [[cognition]],​ and [[formation]]s. It
 +consists of a [[subtle]] distinction-making [[awareness]] that distinguishes
 +[[awareness]] from the [[object]]s of [[awareness]]. It is a flux of constantly [[Chan]]ging
 +[[know]]ing [[activity]].
 +
 +THE [[five]]
 +
 +[[body]] (i.e., [[form]]), brethren, is [[Im[[permanent]]. What is [[Im[[permanent]],​ that is
 +[[suffering]] ([[Dukkha]]). What is [[suffering]] ([[Dukkha]]),​ that is not the [[self]].
 +
 +What is not the [[self]], "that is not mine, that am not I, that is not the [[self]]
 +of me." This is the [[way]] one should regard [[thing]]s as they really are, by
 +[[right]] [[insight]].
 +
 +So likewise with regard to [[feeling]],​ [[perception]],​ the [[activities]],​
 +[[consciousness]].
 +
 +So [[seeing]], brethren, the well-taught Ariyan [i.e., [[noble]] [[disciple]] [[feel]]s
 +disgust at [[body]], at [[feeling]],​ [[perception]],​ the [[activities]] and [[consciousness]].
 +
 +[[feeling]] disgust he is repelled: by repulsion he is [[release]]d;​ by that [[release]]
 +set free, [[knowledge]] [[arise]]s: "in the freed man is the free [[thing]],"​ and he
 +[[know]]s: '​[[destroy]]ed is [[rebirth]];​ lived is the [[right]]eous [[life]]; done is the task;
 +for [[life]] in these [[condition]]s there is no hereafter."​ ([[kind]]red sayings III
 +68-69)
 +
 +The [[skandha]] of [[form]] is like a mass of [[foam]], be[[cause]],​ when taken [[hold]] of,
 +it cannot be kept together (in the [[hand]]); [[feeling]] is like a bubble be[[cause]],​
 +as [[lasting]] only for a moment, it is [[Im[[permanent]];​ [[perception]] ([[cognition]]) is
 +like a mirage, be[[cause]] it is misled by the thirst of [[craving]];​ the im[[pulse]]s
 +([[formation]]) are like a [[plant]]ain [[tree]] be[[cause]],​ when (the leaf-s[[Heat]]hs) are
 +taken away, no core remains; [[consciousness]] is like a [[dream]], be[[cause]] it takes
 +[[hold]] of what [[deceive]]s. Therefore, the [[Five Skandhas]] have [[no self]], (and
 +they contain) no [[person]] ([[Pudgala]]),​ no [[living]] [[being]], no [[living]] soul, no
 +[[person]]ality and no manhood (purusa). . . . (Conze, tr.
 +[[Arya]]-[[Prajna Paramita]]-hrdaya-tika 54)
 +
 +[[Five Skandhas]]: 1) [[Chinese]]:​ wu yun , 2) [[Sanskrit]]:​ [[skandha]],​ pancopan[[Dana]]-
 +[[skandha]]h,​ 3) [[Pali]] k[[hand]]ha,​ 4) Alternate [[translation]]s:​ heaps, [[aggregate]]s,​
 +agglomerations.
 +
 +[[See Also]]: [[Dharma]]/​[[Dharma]].
 +
 +[[BTTS References]]:​ [[HS]] 24-28, 41-48; [[LY]] II 103-104, 223-225; [[SS]] III]] 4-24; [[SS]]
 +VIII.
 +
 +
 +----
 +
 +[[Fair Use]]
five_skandhas.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:11 (external edit)