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 +====== Five Types of Buddhist Study and Practice (Schools or Lineages of Buddhism Cultivation) ======
 +
 +[[Five]] Types of [[Buddhist Study and Practice]]:
 +
 +1) [[study]] and [[practice]] of the [[teachings]] ([[Scholastic Buddhism]]), ​
 +
 +2) [[study]] and [[practice]] of the [[moral]] Regulations ([[Vinaya]] or [[Pratimoksha]]), ​
 +
 +3) [[study]] and [[practice]] of the Mysteries ([[Tantra]] or [[Secret School]] or [[Vajrayana]] - [[Tantrayana]] - [[Mantrayana]]) , 
 +
 +4) [[study]] and [[practice]] of [[meditation]] ([[Shamatha]]-[[Vipassana]]-[[Chan]]-[[Zen]]-[[Dzogchen]]-[[Mahamudra]], ​
 +
 +5) [[study]] and [[practice]] for [[rebirth]] in the [[Pure Land]]s of the [[Buddhas]].
 +
 +"The [[Buddha]]'​s [[teachings]] are taught in [[five]] [[school]]s:​ the [[teachings]] [[school]], the [[Vinaya]] [[school]], the [[Esoteric]] [[school]], the [[Chan School]], and the [[Pure Land]] [[school]]. ​
 +
 +There are many who like to say that these are [[five]] [[sect]]s, or types
 +of [[Buddhism]],​ which leads to all [[kind]]s of doctrinal squabbling. It is not
 +accurate; the [[school]]s might better be called [[five]] basic approaches to
 +[[cultivation]]. Each of these [[Dharma Door]]s has [[special]] appeal to [[certain]] types
 +of [[people]], but only one can be said to be [[Equal]]ly easy for all to [[cultivate]],​
 +and that is the [[Pure Land]] Door." ([[WM]] 17-18)
 +
 +===== I. Teachings - Philosophical Schools =====
 +
 +The [[teachings]] includes the [[Buddhist]] doctrinal [[school]]s,​ such as the [[eighteen]]
 +[[Hinayana]] [[school]]s,​ the [[Madhyamaka]] and [[Yogachara]] [[school]]s of the [[Mahayana]],​ and [[Sutra]]-based [[Mahayana]] [[school]]s such as [[Tian Tai]] and Hwa-yan.
 +
 +"The [[teachings]] [[school]] emphasizes using [[skill]]ful]] [[expedient]]s,​ and therefore
 +capitalizes on beautiful expression and elegant phraseology. Adherents to
 +this [[school]] are well-[[verse]]d in terminology and [[characteristic]]s. They
 +determine the different periods of the [[teachings]] and divide them into
 +[[categories]]. [[thus]], the sea of [[meaning]]s billows, and the [[Dharma]]'​s [[principle]]s
 +run deep. They serve to [[focus]] the au[[die]]nce'​s rambling [[thought]]s,​ and to
 +gather in stray [[mental]] [[activities]] that leak out through [[seeing]] and
 +[[listen]]ing. When this occurs, it's as if one has [[enter]]ed the hall of [[Samadhi]],​
 +and ascended the [[heaven]]s of the [[six]] [[desire]]s. [[lay]]er upon [[lay]]er one bores in;
 +step by step one ascends. Even if one wanted to stop, it would be nearly
 +impossible, and it's hard to [[fat]]hom the very [[source]].
 +
 +"​Regarding the [[teachings]] of the [[teachings]] [[school]]--such as the [[four]] [[teachings]]
 +of [[Tian Tai]], the [[five]] [[Esoteric]] [[meaning]]s of Syan Shou (i.e., Hwa Yan), the
 +[[Dharma]]-[[mark]] propagated by [[consciousness]]-Only]]--each has its [[strength]]s.
 +Although each of these [[school]]s may not be [[extreme]]ly biased; nevertheless,​ on
 +occasion they extol themselves at [[other]]s'​ expense.
 +
 +"​Whenever [[clear]]-[[eye]]d [[Good and Wise Advisor]]s see such incidents, they [[feel]]
 +[[Great]]ly [[pain]]ed at [[heart]]. Since the [[foundation]] of the [[teachings]] has not
 +flourished, and [[true]] talent is scarce, these [[good]] advisors are willing to
 +act [[person]]ally as models, [[practice]] [[ascetic]] [[discipline]],​ and [[cultivate]] the
 +door of the [[Six Paramitas]]. In the [[face]] of a [[hundred]] oppositions they do not
 +bend, and they are glad to undergo [[ten]] [[thousand]] vicissitudes,​ to the point
 +that even if their bodies had to be smashed to pieces and their [[bone]]s
 +pulverized, they would not begrudge such a sacrifice. Supported by
 +magnanimous [[vow]]s, they are [[courage]]ous and [[vigor]]ous. Renouncing themselves
 +for [[other]]s, they take a[[cross]] everyone with whom they have [[causal]]
 +connections. Observing the opportunities,​ they entice with the [[teachings]] and
 +dispense [[Medicine]] according to the [[illness]]. Not[[avoid]]ing weariness or toil,
 +they would [[offer]] up their [[head]]s, [[eye]]s, [[brain]]s and [[marrow]], [[give]] away their
 +bodies and [[mind]]s, all with the sole [[intention]] of causing [[living beings]] to
 +turn away from [[confusion]] and return to [[enlightenment]],​ to cast out the
 +[[Devi]]ant]] and come back to what is [[Proper]]. They want [[living beings]] to [[quick]]ly
 +[[attain]] [[Bodhi]] and [[perfect]] the [[Sage]]ly [[fruition]]. Therefore, they employ both
 +[[provisional]] and [[actual]] [[means]], and bestow both sudden and [[gra[[dual]] [[teachings]].
 +With [[kindness]] they d[[raw]] in those with whom they have no [[affinities]];​ with
 +[[compassion]] they embrace all [[thing]]s and [[become]] one with them. [[reveal]]ing a
 +[[vast]] and long [[tongue]], they take [[Great]] [[pain]]s to exhort with earnest [[word]]s,
 +sparing no [[effort]]s. They [[teach]] and admonish without tiring, while always
 +[[conduct]]ing themselves in accord with strict [[discipline]]. In such [[way]]s they
 +act as the '​[[Dragon]]s ([[Naga]]) and [[Elephant]]s'​ at the [[Dharma]]'​s entrance, also as
 +[[Teacher]]s of [[Gods]] and [[people]]. Throughout long [[kalpa]]s they [[practice]] the
 +[[Bodhisattva]] [[way]] and never rest." ([[WM]] 74-75)
 +
 +"The [[cultivation]] of the [[teaching]] [[school]], while serving as an [[excellent]] [[cure]]
 +for the [[disease]] of [[stupidity]],​ does demand [[certain]] qualifications. It cannot,
 +for example, be [[cultivate]]d by the illiterate, by those who do not [[know]] the
 +[[language]]s in which the [[teachings]] are written, or by the very [[stupid]]. And so,
 +although the [[teachings]] are [[Universal]] and there is not a single [[being]] who
 +cannot [[benefit]] from them, in their literary [[form]] there is a de[[finite]] group
 +of [[people]] to whom they are best suited."​ ([[WM]] 18)
 +
 +===== II. Moral Regulations (Vinaya School)=====
 +
 +"The [[Vinaya]] [[school]] [[stress]]es the [[study]] of [[precept]]s,​ the rules and
 +regulations. In the [[four]] [[Comportment]]s of [[walking]],​ standing, sitting, and
 +[[lying]] down, one has to be stern and dignified, and the [[Three]] [[karma]]s of [[body]],
 +[[mouth]] and [[mind]] have to be [[pure]]. [[Upasaka]]s and [[Upasika]]s ([[lay]]men and [[lay]][[women]]),​
 +the [[two]] [[lay]] assemblies, may maintain the [[Five Precepts]] and the [[eight]]
 +[[precept]]s,​ as well as the [[Ten Major]] and [[Forty-Eight]] [[minor]] [[Bodhisattva]]
 +[[precept]]s. [[Shramana]]s and Shramanerikas take the [[ten]] [[Novice]] [[precept]]s. [[Bhikshu]]s
 +have 250 [[precept]]s,​ and [[Bhikshuni]]s have 348 [[precept]]s. One should maintain
 +each and every one of those [[precept]]s without every violating them and
 +[[believe]] in them, accept them, and [[offer]] up one's [[conduct]]. One should be
 +[[mindful]] of the agony of revolving in [[birth and death]]. If we lose this [[human]]
 +[[body]], it will be hard to recover it in [[ten]] [[thousand]] [[eon]]s. Therefore, at all
 +[[time]]s, we should strictly [[cultivate]] the [[Vinaya]] and never be lax." ([[WM]] 75-76)
 +
 +"The [[Vinaya]], or 'Rules and Regulations'​ [[school]], requires not only that one
 +be literate, but also that one be [[living]] a [[monastic]] [[life]]. There is no [[way]]
 +for the [[world]]ly man to [[perfect]] [[cultivation]] of the [[Vinaya]]. [[pure]] main[[ten]]ance
 +of this [[Dharma Door]] serves as a [[supreme]]ly efficacious [[cure]] for [[greed]],
 +[[desire]], and [[arrogance]]. Much of it, however, can be [[practice]]d by men and
 +[[women]] in the [[world]], and it can be an immense [[help]] in [[cultivation]]. All [[real]]
 +[[practice]]rs of [[Buddha Dharma]], [[Sangha]]-members or [[lay]] [[people]], [[form]]ally maintain
 +[[precept]]s,​ ranging from the [[five]] for [[lay]] [[people]] to the more than [[Three]]
 +[[hundred]] for [[Bhikshuni]]s. There are few more [[awesome]] [[people]] in the [[world]] than
 +the [[Master]]s of [[Vinaya]], [[perfect]] in the [[Three]] [[thousand]] rules of [[Deportment]]."​
 +([[WM]] 18)
 +
 +===== III. Mysteries (Tantra Mantra Vajrayana) =====
 +
 +"The [[school]] of the Mysteries [[special]]izes in the [[Holding]] of [[Mantra]]s and
 +maintains that one can [[realize Buddhahood]] in this very [[life]]. And yet, if
 +[[practitioner]]s are the slightest bit reckless, they can easily fall into the
 +[[Dharma Realm]] of the [[Asura]]s. That is be[[cause]] the [[major]]ity of those in these
 +[[practice]]s have not [[subdue]]d the [[hatred]] in their [[mind]]s, and their [[tendency]] to
 +seek revenge is [[extreme]]ly [[strong]]. They lack [[thought]]s of [[kindness]] and
 +[[compassion]],​ and [[rare]]ly [[practice]] the art of [[patience]]. Many of them are prone
 +to be arrogant, and their [[pride]] and conceit are deeply [[root]]ed. In [[Holding]]
 +[[Secret Mantra]]s they dare to s[[light]] [[other]]s, and wielding their [[Vajra]]s they
 +are not afraid of bul[[lying]] [[people]]. However, if one can be rid of the [[bad]]
 +[[habit]]s described above, then one's [[practice]] of [[Samadhi]] can [[become]]
 +successful, and one can go on to achieve the [[fruition]] that is [[Bodhi]]. In that
 +case, this [[Dharma Door]] is also a [[skill]]ful]] [[expedient]] for [[cultivator]]s of the
 +[[way]]."​ ([[WM]] 76)
 +
 +"The [[school]] of the Mysteries requires among [[other]] [[thing]]s both a [[good]] [[memory]]
 +to [[hold]] its many [[Mantra]]s and [[Dharani]]s,​ plus a [[good]] deal of [[money]] to carry
 +out its elaborate and splendid [[ritual]]s. A fully [[adorn]]ed [[Temple]] and
 +[[Bodhi]][[manda]] are required as well as a profusion of [[image]]s and various [[Dharma]]
 +instruments. Also essential are [[number]]s of [[Dharma Master]]s well-[[train]]ed and
 +conversant with the [[Esoteric]] lore of this [[school]]. They are hard to find.
 +Without them and without [[special]] [[instruct]]ion]],​ it is not possible to be
 +successful with the [[teachings]] of the [[school]] of the Mysteries."​ ([[WM]] 19)
 +
 +I have preached the [[Truth]] without making any distinction [[Exoteric]] and
 +[[Esoteric]] [[doctrine]];​ for in [[respect]] of the [[Truth]]s, [[Ananda]], the [[Tathagata]] has
 +no such [[thing]] as the closed fist of a [[Teacher]] who keeps some [[thing]]s back.
 +(Dialogues of the [[Buddha]] II 107)
 +
 +===== IV. Meditation (Shamatha-Dhyana-Vipassana of Chan-Zen - Dzogchen-Mahamudra) =====
 +
 +"The [[Chan]] ([[Zen]]) or [[Dhyana meditation]] [[school]] [[stress]]es the [[practice]] of
 +[[meditation]],​ and its [[cultivation]] requires a [[special]] set of circumstances.
 +[[first]], it is essential to have an advisor, one of [[Great]] [[wisdom]] and [[skill]],
 +who can [[teach]] the [[student]] by all manner of [[expedient]] [[means]]. Without such a
 +[[Teacher]],​ there is no [[way]] for [[ordinary]] [[people]] to have any success in [[Chan]]
 +[[meditation]]. They may achieve some [[measure]] of [[attainment]],​ but due to lack of
 +wise counsel, they will be turned by their [[experience]];​ [[thinking]] that they
 +are like the [[Great]] [[Chan Master]]s of old, they will go around committing all
 +sorts of [[stupid]] and even [[d[[anger]]ous or im[[moral]] acts. Such so-called
 +'​[[enlightened]] [[Master]]s'​ and '​[[Patriarch]]s'​ are too often well-[[meaning]] [[practice]]rs
 +of [[Chan]] who have either not met or not submitted to the [[teaching]] of a [[good]]
 +and Wise Advisor. Too many of them have [[enter]]ed into the various [[demon]]ic
 +[[state]]s that the [[Buddha]] discussed in the [[Shurangama Sutra]]. Anyone who
 +professes to be a follower of the [[Buddha]] should act in accordance with his
 +[[teachings]] and find a capable advisor, one whose [[experience]] and [[lineage]] are
 +un[[question]]ed.
 +
 +"In addition to the above qualifications,​ [[Chan]] [[cultivation]] requires a
 +[[certain]] temperament which is [[rare]]ly found. While some immediately get a
 +response in [[Chan]] [[cultivation]],​ there are many for whom it represents
 +un[[bear]]able difficulty. If this is the only [[means]] of [[cultivation]] [[present]]ed to
 +them, many [[people]] will flee from the [[Buddha Dharma]] as a small [[child]] screams
 +upon [[seeing]] a [[tame]] but incredibly [[fierce]]-[[looking]] tiger on a leash. " ([[WM]]
 +18-19)
 +
 +[[See Also]] [[Chan School]].
 +
 +===== V. Pure Land School (Faith-based Buddhism - Devotional Bhakti) =====
 +
 +"The [[Pure Land School]] [[Dharma]] is the most [[perfect]] and the most instantaneous,​
 +the simplest and the easiest. It is a [[Dharma]] that everyone can [[cultivate]];​
 +one and all can [[practice]] it. Hence it is described as '​[[Universal]]ly including
 +the [[Three]] types of faculties (superior, average, and [[inferior]] capabilities),​
 +and [[gathering]] in both the keen and the dull.' One only has to [[single-minded]]ly
 +[[uphold]] the [[Great]] [[name]] '​[[Namo]] [[Amitabha Buddha]]',​ that of the [[teaching]] host of the
 +[[Land]] of [[ultimate]] [[bliss]] of the [[west]]. When one [[recite]]s this [[name]] and arrives
 +at the point of [[single-minded]] [[concentration]],​ then one will definitely be
 +[[reborn]] in the [[west]] from a [[Lotus]] [[Flower]]. When that [[Lotus]] blooms, one will see
 +the [[Buddha]], [[awaken]] to a [[for[[bear]]ance]] with the not [[coming into being]] of
 +[[Dharma]]s,​ and [[attain]] [[irreversible]] [[Anuttara]]- [[Samyak]][[Sambodhi]]. Therefore, if
 +all [[cultivator]]s only [[become]] [[replete]] with deep [[faith]] and earnest [[vow]]s, and
 +[[actual]]ly [[realize]] the [[Three]] requisites--[[faith]],​ [[vow]]s, and [[practice]],​ they all
 +will most certainly reach their destination. It is my [[hope]] that all of you
 +[[good]] [[people]] will exhort each [[other]] onwards."​ ([[WM]] 76-77)
 +
 +"​[[recitation]] is the [[central]] [[practice]] of the [[Pure Land]] [[Dharma Door]]. '​[[Namo]]
 +[[Amitabha Buddha]]'​. '​[[Namo]]'​ [[means]] 'to return in reliance',​ 'to take [[refuge]]'​.
 +'​[[Amita]]'​ [[means]] '​[[limitless]]'​ and refers to the fact that this [[Buddha]] has both
 +'​[[Limitless Light]] ([[Amitabha]])'​ ([[Amitabha]]) and '​[[limitless]] [[life]]'​ ([[Amitayus]]). '​[[Buddha]]'​ [[means]]
 +'​[[Enlightened One]]'​. And so '​[[Namo]] [[Amitabha Buddha]]'​ [[means]] 'I take [[refuge]] with and
 +return my [[life]] in [[worship]] to the [[Buddha]] of [[Limitless Light]] ([[Amitabha]]) and [[life]].'​ The
 +constant repetition of this [[Buddha]]'​s [[name]] is the core of the [[Pure Land]]
 +[[Dharma Door]]. . . .
 +
 +"The [[Pure Land]] [[Dharma Door]] requires no [[Great]] [[learn]]ing. Many illiterates
 +[[attain]] [[inconceivable]] [[spiritual]] [[benefit]] through it. Many, too, are the [[high]]
 +and [[learn]]ed [[Master]]s who [[praise]] this door. The [[Pure Land]] [[Dharma Door]] shows us
 +how to [[purify]] our [[mind]]s, and as such it is identical with the [[teaching]]
 +[[school]], whose complex and [[learn]]ed [[system]]s serve to keep the [[mind]] from
 +[[wander]]ing off on useless excursions. To be able to [[hold]] (in one's [[mind]]) the
 +elaborate [[system]]s of the [[teaching]] [[school]] requires prolonged [[concentration]] on
 +the [[Buddha Dharma]]. Concent[[Rating]] on what is [[pure]] is [[fundamental]]ly identical
 +with re[[collect]]ion of the [[Buddha]]. The [[Pure Land]] [[Dharma]] does not require that
 +one lead a [[monastic]] [[life]] and [[perfect]] the [[Three]] [[thousand]] [[awesome]] [[Deportment]]s.
 +This [[Dharma Door]] can be [[cultivate]]d [[right]] in the midst of the most [[ordinary]]
 +[[life]]. [[lay]] [[people]] and [[Vinaya]] [[special]]ists alike can [[cultivate]] this [[Dharma]]. Nor
 +does it require elaborate [[ritual]]s and expensive ceremonies, or [[Secret]],
 +[[Esoteric]] lore to be [[learn]]ed from [[special]]ized [[Teacher]]s. The [[Secret]] of the
 +[[Pure Land School]]--and there is in[[deed]] a [[Great]] [[Secret]] to it--lies in the
 +response. It is a [[Secret]] [[cloth]]ed not in elaborate [[ritual]] and [[Ceremony]] but in
 +the s[[implicit]]y of [[faith]] and sincerity. Its [[Secret]], which is [[right]] out in the
 +open, is in fact the [[high]]est [[Secret]]."​ ([[WM]] 19)
 +
 +"The [[five]] [[school]]s were [[create]]d by [[Buddhist]]s who had [[nothing]] to do and wanted
 +to find some[[thing]] with which to occupy their [[time]]. The [[five]] [[school]]s all
 +issued from [[Buddhism]]. Since they came forth from [[Buddhism]],​ they can return
 +to [[Buddhism]] as well. Although the [[five]] [[school]]s serve different purposes,
 +their [[ultimate]] destination is the same. It is said:
 +
 +There is only one road back to the [[source]].
 +
 +But here are many [[expedient]] [[way]]s to reach it."
 +
 +(Shambala Re[[view]], v.5, nos.1&​2,​ Winter, 1976, p. 26)
 +
 +1) [[Chinese]]:​ wu jyau , wu da dzung , 2) [[Sanskrit]]:​ -----, 3) [[Pali]] -----, 4)
 +Alternate [[translation]]s:​ [[five]] basic approaches to [[cultivation]],​ [[five]] [[school]]s,​
 +[[five]] [[Great]] [[school]]s. [[teachings]]:​* 1) [[Chinese]]:​ jyau. [[moral]] Regulations:​* 1) [[Chinese]]:​
 +jye, 2) [[Sanskrit]]:​ [[Vinaya]], 3) [[Pali]] [[Vinaya]], 4) Alternate [[translation]]s:​
 +[[discipline]]. *Mysteries:​* 1) [[Chinese]]:​ mi dzung, 2) [[Sanskrit]]:​ [[Tantra]], [[Mantra]][[yana]],​
 +[[Vajrayana]]. 4) Alternate [[translation]]s:​ [[Esoteric]],​ [[Secret]], [[tantric]].
 +[[meditation]]:​ 1) [[Chinese]]:​ [[Chan]], 2) [[Sanskrit]]:​ [[Dhyana]], 3) [[Pali]] -----, 4) Alternate
 +[[translation]]s:​ [[Zen]] ([[Japan]]ese [[pronunciation]] of [[Chan]]). [[Pure Land]]: 1) [[Chinese]]:​
 +jing du.
 +
 +[[See Also]]: [[Consciousness-Only School]], [[Tian Tai School]], Hwa Yan [[school]], [[Chan]]
 +[[school]], [[Buddha [[recitation]].*
 +
 +[[BTTS References]]:​ [[FAS]] Ch26 II 113-114; [[WM]] 16-19, 70-77; [[RH]] 230-231; [[VBS]] #12
 +(March, 1971) 32ff; [[VBS]] #185, 186 "​[[Pure Land]] [[Dharma Door]],"​ Oct.-Nov. 1985.
  
five_types_of_buddhist_study_and_practice.txt ยท Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:11 (external edit)