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Four Noble Truths - Catvāryāryasatyā - འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་ - Pakpé Denpa Shyi - 'Phags pa'i bden pa bzhi

The **Four Noble Truths** (Skt. //catvāryāryasatyā//; Tib. འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་, //pakpé denpa shyi//; Wyl. // 'phags pa'i bden pa bzhi//) or the Four Realities of the Aryas, were taught by Buddha Shakyamuni as the central theme of the so-called first turning of the wheel of the Dharma after his attainment of enlightenment. They are:

 * the truth (or reality) of [[suffering]] ([[Tib.]] [[སྡུག་བསྔལ་གྱི་བདེན་པ་]], [[Skt.]] //[[duḥkha-satya]]//) which is to be understood,
 * the truth (or reality) of the [[origin]] of [[suffering]] (Tib. [[ཀུན་འབྱུང་བའི་བདེན་པ་]], [[Skt.]] //[[samudaya-satya]]//), which is to be abandoned,
 * the truth (or reality) of [[cessation]] ([[Tib.]] [[འགོག་པའི་བདེན་པ་]], [[Skt.]] //[[nirodha-satya]]//), which is to be actualized, and
 * the truth (or reality) of the [[path]] ([[Tib.]] [[ལམ་གྱི་བདེན་པ་]], [[Skt.]] //[[mārga-satya]]//), which is to be relied upon. 

Cause & Effect

The four truths can be divided into two pairs of cause and effect, known as the cause and effect of 'thorough affliction' (Skt. //saṃkliṣṭa//; Tib. ཀུན་ཉོན་, Wyl. //kun nyon//) or samsara, and the cause and effect of 'complete purification' (Skt. //vyavadāna//; Tib. རྣམ་བྱང་, Wyl. //rnam byang//) or nirvana.

Sixteen Aspects of the Four Noble Truths
Further Reading

 * [[Jamgön Mipham Rinpoche]], //Gateway to Knowledge, VOL II// (Hong Kong, Boudhanath & Esby: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 2000).
 * [[Kangyur Rinpoche]], //Treasury of Precious Qualities// (Boston & London: Shambhala, 2001), pages 67-84 & 'Appendix 3'.
 * [[Ringu Tulku]], //Daring Steps Towards Fearlessness: The Three Vehicles of Buddhism//, Snow Lion, 2005
 * Appendix 2, pp.167-168 in //The Light of Wisdom Volume 1//. Root text by [[Padmasambhava]] and commentary by [[Jamgön Kongtrül]] the Great. Published by Shambhala Publications ISBN 0-87773-566-2

 * [[http://www.lotsawahouse.org/three_turnings.html|A Brief Overview of the Three Turnings and the Mantra Pitaka of the Vidyadharas by Khenpo Pema Vajra]]

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four_noble_truths.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:11 (external edit)