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 +Some [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist terms, short definitions,​ and the languages in which they appear. In this list, an attempt has been made to organize terms by their original form and give translations and synonyms in other languages along with the definition.
 +
 +Languages and traditions dealt with here:
 +* [[English language|English]] (Eng.)
 +* [[Pāli]]: [[Theravada]] Buddhism
 +* [[Sanskrit]] (or [[Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]]):​ primarily [[Mahayana]] Buddhism
 +* [[Burmese language|Burmese]] (Bur): [[Buddhism in Myanmar]]
 +* [[Khmer language|Khmer]]:​ Theravada Buddhism
 +* [[Mon language|Mon]] (Mon): Theravada Buddhism
 +* [[Mongolian language|Mongolian]] (Mn): [[Buddhism in Mongolia]]
 +* [[Shan language|Shan]] (Shan): Theravada Buddhism
 +* [[Tibetic languages|Tibetan]] (Tib): [[Tibetan Buddhism]]
 +* [[Thai language|Thai]]:​ Theravada Buddhism
 +* [[CJK characters|CJKV languages]]
 +** [[Chinese language|Chinese]] (Cn): [[Chinese Buddhism]]
 +** [[Japanese language|Japanese]] (Jp): [[Buddhism in Japan]]
 +** [[Korean language|Korean]] (Ko): [[Korean Buddhism]]
 +** [[Vietnamese language|Vietnamese]] (Vi): [[Buddhism in Vietnam]] (Mahayana and Theravada)
 +
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==A==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign="​top"​ style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[abhidhamma]]'''​ A category of scriptures that attempts to use Buddhist teachings to create a systematic, abstract description of all worldly phenomena
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* ''​abhi''​ is "​above"​ or "​about",​ ''​dhamma''​ is "​teaching"​
 +* Pāli: ''​abhidhamma''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​abhidharma''​
 +*Khmer: ''​អភិធម្ម''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|အဘိဓမ္မာ}} ''​abhidhamma''​ ({{IPA-my|əbḭdəmà|IPA}})
 +* Tib: ཆོས་མངོན་པ ''​chos mngon pa''​
 +* Mn: их ном, билиг ухаан; ''​ikh nom, bilig ukhaan''​
 +* Thai: อภิธรรม ''​a-pi-tam''​
 +* 阿毘達磨/阿毗昙
 +** Cn: ''​Āpídámó''​
 +** Jp: ''​Abidatsuma''​
 +** Ko: 아비달마,​ ''​Abidalma''​
 +** Vi: ''​a-tì-đạt-ma''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Abhidhamma|Abhidhamma Pitaka]]'''​ The third basket of the [[Tripitaka]] canon, the reorganization of all doctrines in a systematic way
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Abhidhamma-piṭaka''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Abhidharma-piṭaka''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|အဘိဓမ္မာပိဋကတ်}} ''​Abidhamma Pitakat''​ ({{IPA-my|əbḭdamà pḭdəɡaʔ|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|အဘိဓဝ်ပိတကတ}} ({{IPA-mnw|əpʰìʔtʰò pɔeʔtəkɔt|}})
 +* Thai: อภิธรรมปิฎก ''​a-pi-tam-pi-dok''​
 +* 論藏, 論蔵
 +** Cn: ''​Lùnzàng''​
 +** Jp: ''​Ronzō''​
 +** Ko: 논장, ''​Nonjang''​
 +** Vi: ''​Luận tạng'',​ ''​Tạng luận'',​ tạng thứ ba trong ba tạng là kinh, luật và luận
 +* Mn: Илт ном, ''​Ilt nom''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[acariya]]''',​ lit. "​teacher",​ One of the two teachers of a novice monk - the other one is called ''​upādhyāya''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​ācariya''​[http://​dsal.uchicago.edu/​cgi-bin/​philologic/​getobject.pl?​c.0:​1:​2602.pali]
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ācārya''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဆရာ}} ''​saya''​ ({{IPA-my|sʰəjà|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ဢႃႇၸရီႉယႃႉ}} ''​atsariya''​ ({{IPA-shn|ʔaː˨ tsa˩ ri˥ jaː˥|}})
 +* Thai: อาจารย์ ''​[[ajahn]]''​
 +* 阿闍梨 or 阿闍梨耶
 +** Cn: ''​āshélí''​ or ''​āshélíyē''​
 +** Jp: ''​ajari''​ or ''​ajariya''​
 +** Ko: 아사리, ''​asari''​ or 아사리야 ''​asariya''​
 +** Vi: ''​a-xà-lê''​ or ''​a-xà-lê-da''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[adhitthana]]'''​ Determination,​ to pray, to wish
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​{{IAST|Adhiṭṭhāna}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ ''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|အဓိဋ္ဌာန်}} ({{IPA-my|ədeɪʔtʰàɴ|IPA}})
 +* Thai: อธิษฐาน ''​ah-tid-taan''​
 +* 決心 or 決意
 +** Cn: ''​Juéxīn,​ juéyì''​
 +** Jp: ''​kesshin''​
 +** Ko: 결심, ''​gyeolsim''​ or 결의, ''​gyeolui''​
 +** Vi: ''​ ''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Nikaya|Agama]]'''​ The non-Mahayana divisions of the Sutra Pitaka
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Āgama''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Āgama''​ (but usually called ''​Nikāya''​)
 +* 阿含
 +** Cn: ''​Āhán''​
 +** Jp: ''​Agon''​
 +** Ko: 아함, ''​Aham''​
 +** Vi: ''​A-hàm''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[ahimsa]]'''​ The devotion to non-violence and respect for all forms of life. Practicers of ahimsa are often vegetarians or vegans
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ahiṃsā''​
 +* Pāli: ''​ahiṃsā''​
 +|
 +* Thai: อหิงสา '​ah-hing-sa'​
 +* 不害
 +** Cn: ''​bù hài''​
 +** Jp: ''​fugai''​
 +** Ko: 불해, ''​bulhae''​
 +** Vi: ''​bất hại''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Akshobhya]]''' ​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Akṣobhya''​
 +|
 +* Mn: ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ;<​br /> <​small>​Үл Хөдлөгч,​ Хөдөлшгүй;</​small>​
 +* 阿閦如來
 +** Cn: ''​Āchùrúlái''​
 +** Jp: ''​Ashuku Nyorai''​
 +<​small>​Ködelüsi ügei, Ülü hödelügci</​small>​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​alayavijnana''',​ see [[store consciousness]]
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ālayavijñāna''​
 +|
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་}}<​br />''​kun gzhi rnam par shes pa''​
 +* 阿賴耶識,​ 阿頼耶識
 +** Cn: ''​ālàiyēshí''​
 +** Jp: ''​araya-shiki''​
 +** Ko: 아뢰야식,​ ''​aroeyasik''​
 +** Vi: ''​a-lại-da thức''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Amitabha]]'''​ Lit. "The Buddha of Infinite Light"​. The main buddha of the [[Pure Land|Pure Land school]], but is popular in other Mahayana sects as well. The image is of light as the form of wisdom, which has no form. Also interpreted as the Tathagata of Unhindered Light that Penetrates the Ten Quarters by Tan Luan, Shinran and others
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​amitābha''​ (lit. "​limitless light"​) and ''​amitāyus''​ (lit. "​limitless life")
 +|
 +* 阿彌陀 or 阿彌陀佛,​ 阿弥陀 or 阿弥陀仏
 +** Cn: ''​Ēmítuó''​ or ''​Ēmítuó fó''​
 +** Jp: ''​Amida''​ or ''​Amida-butsu''​
 +** Ko: 아미타, ''​Amita''​ or 아미타불,​ ''​Amitabul''​
 +** Vi: ''​A-Di-Đà'',​ ''​ A-Di-Đà Phật'',​ or ''​Phật A-Di-Đà''​
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|འོད་དཔག་མེད།}}
 +* Mn: ᠠᠮᠢᠨᠳᠠᠸᠠ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦ;<​br /><​small>​Аминдаваа,​ Цаглашгүй гэрэлт</​small>;<​br /><​small>''​Amindava'',​ ''​Tsaglasi ügei gereltü''</​small>​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Amoghasiddhi]]''' ​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Amoghasiddhi''​
 +|
 +* Tib: Dön yö drub pa
 +* Mn: ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰ ᠨᠥᠭᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠢᠢᠯᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡ᠋᠌᠋᠋ᠺᠴᠢ;<​br /><​small>​Төгс Нөгчигсөн,​ Үйл Бүтээгч;<​br />Tegüs nögcigsen, Üyile Bütügegci</​small>​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[anagarika]]'''​ A white-robed student in the Theravada tradition who, for a few months, awaits being considered for Samaneras ordination
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​anāgarika''​
 +|
 +* Thai: อนาคาริก ''​a-na-ka-rik''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[anapanasati]]'''​ Mindfulness of the breath meditation
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​ānāpānasati''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ānāpānasmṛti''​
 +* Bur: {{my|အာနာပါန}} ''​anapana''​ ({{IPA-my|ànàpàna̰|IPA}})
 +|
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[anatta]]'''​ The principle denial of the soul in any phenomena. See also [[negative theology]].
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​anattā''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​anātman''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|အနတ္တ}} ''​anatta''​ ({{IPA-my|ənaʔta̰|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ဢၼတ်ႉတႃႉ}} ({{IPA-shn|ʔa˩ nat˥ taː˥|}})
 +* 無我
 +** Cn: ''​wúwǒ''​
 +** Jp: ''​muga''​
 +** Ko: 무아, ''​mua''​
 +** Vi: ''​vô ngã''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[anicca]]'''​ Impermanence
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​anicca''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​anitya''​
 +|
 +*Bur: {{my|အနိစ္စ}} ''​aneissa''​ ({{IPA-my|əneɪʔsa̰|IPA}})
 +*Shan: {{my|ဢၼိၵ်ႈၸႃႉ}} ({{IPA-shn|ʔa˩ nik˧ tsaː˥|}})
 +* 無常
 +** Cn: ''​wúcháng''​
 +** Jp: ''​mujō''​
 +** Ko: 무상, ''​musang''​
 +** Vi: ''​vô thường''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[anuttara]]'''​ Unsurpassing
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​anuttara''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​anuttara''​
 +|
 +* 阿耨多羅/阿耨多罗 (無上/无上)
 +** Cn: ''​Ānòuduōluó''​ ("​wǔshàng"​)
 +** Jp: ''​anokutara''​
 +** Ko: 아뇩다라,​ ''​anyokdara''​
 +** Vi: ''​A-nậu-đà-la''​ (vô thượng)
 +** Fi: Ylittämätön
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[arhat]]''',​ lit. "the Worthy One", A living person who has reached Enlightenment
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​arahat''​ or ''​arahant''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​arhat''​ or ''​arhant''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ရဟန္တာ}} ''​yahanda''​ ({{IPA-my|jaháɴdà|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ရႁၢၼ်းတႃႇ}} ''​rahanta''​ ({{IPA-shn|ra˩ haːn˦ taː˨|}})
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|དགྲ་ཅོམ་པ་}},​ ''​dgra com pa''​
 +* Mn: архад, ''​arkhad''​
 +* 阿羅漢
 +** Cn: ''​āluóhàn''​
 +** Jp: ''​arakan''​
 +** Ko: 아라한, ''​arahan''​
 +** Vi: ''​a-la-hán''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Enlightenment in Buddhism|anuttara samyak sambodhi]]''',​ unsurpassable,​ complete, perfect enlightenment;​ unsurpassable,​ right, and full enlightenment
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​ ''​ ''​ ''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ ''​ ''​ ''​
 +|
 +* Khmer: អនុត្តរសម្មាសម្ពោធិ "​ak-nut-tha-rak-sam-ma-sam-po-thi"​
 +* Tib: , ''​ ''​
 +* Thai: อรหันต์ ''​uh-ra-hann''​
 +* 阿耨多罗三藐三菩提 (or 無上正等正覺)
 +** Cn: ''​ānòuduōluó sānmiǎosānpútí (''​or''​ wúshàng zhèngděng zhèngjué)''​
 +** Jp: ''​anokutara sanmyakusanbodai''​
 +** Ko: 아뇩다라삼먁삼보리,​ ''​Anyokdara sammyak sambori''​
 +** Vi: ''​A-nậu-đà-la tam-miệu tam-bồ-đề'',​ ''​Vô-thượng chánh-đẳng chánh-giác'',​ ''​Sáng-suốt giác-ngộ hoàn-toàn''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Atman (Buddhism)|atman]]'''​ literally "​self",​ sometimes "​soul"​ or "​ego"​. In Buddhism, the predominant teaching is the negating doctrine of anatman, that there is no permanent, persisting atman, and that belief in atman is the prime consequence of ignorance, the foundation of [[samsara]]
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​atta''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ātman''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|အတ္တ}} ''​atta''​ ({{IPA-my|aʔta̰|IPA}})
 +* 我
 +** Cn: ''​wǒ''​
 +** Jp: ''​ga''​
 +** Ko: 아, ''​a''​
 +** Vi: ''​ngã''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Avalokitesvara]]''',​ lit. "One Who Hears the Suffering Cries of the World",​ The [[bodhisattva]] of compassion (see also [[Guan Yin]])
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Avalokiteśvara''​
 +* Bur: {{my|လောကနတ်}} ''​lawka nat''​ ({{IPA-my|lɔ́ka̰ naʔ|IPA}})
 +|
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་}} ''​spyan ras gzigs''​
 +* Mn: Жанрайсиг,​ ''​Janraisig''​
 +* 觀世音 or 觀音
 +** Cn: ''​Guānshì Yīn''​ or ''​Guān Yīn''​
 +** Jp: ''​Kanzeon''​ or ''​Kannon''​
 +** Ko: 관세음, ''​Gwanse-eum''​ or 관음, ''​Gwaneum''​
 +** Vi: "Quan Thế Âm Bồ Tát" , "Quán Thế Âm Bồ Tát' or "Quan Âm"
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Avidya (Buddhism)|avidya]]'''​ "​ignorance"​ or "​delusion"​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​avidyā''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​avijjā''​
 +* Bur: {{my|အဝိဇ္ဇာ}} ''​aweizza''​ ({{IPA-my|əweɪʔ zà|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ဢဝိၵ်ႉၸႃႇ}} ''​awitsa''​ ({{IPA|[ʔa wik˥ tsaː˨]}})
 +* Thai: อวิชชา ''​aa-wit-sha''​
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|མ་རིག་པ་}} ''​ma rig-pa''​
 +* 無明
 +** Cn: ''​wúmíng''​
 +** Jp: ''​mumyō''​
 +** Ko: 무명, ''​mumyeong''​
 +** Vi: ''​vô minh''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==B==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign="​top"​ style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[bardo]]''',​ lit. "​intermediate state" or "​in-between state",​ According to Tibetan tradition, the state of existence intermediate between two lives
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|བར་མ་དོའི་སྲིད་པ་}} ''​bar ma do'i srid pa''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Sanskrit: ''​antarābhava''​
 +* Mn: зуурд, ''​zuurd''​
 +* 中有,​中陰身
 +** Cn: ''​zhongyǒu''​
 +** Jp: ''​chūu''​
 +** Ko: 중유 ''​jungyu''​ or 바르도 ''​bareudo''​
 +** Vi: ''​trung hữu'',​ ''​trung ấm thân'',​ ''​thân trung-ấm''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[bhavacakra|bhavacakra/​bhavacakka]]'''​ A circular symbolic representation of [[samsara]],​ also known as Wheel of becoming
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​bhavacakka''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​bhava-cakra''​
 +|
 +*Bur: {{my|ဘဝစက်}} ''​bawa set''​ ({{IPA-my|bəwa̰ sɛʔ|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ဘဝစက်}} ({{IPA-mnw|həwɛ̀ʔ cɛk|}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ၽဝႃႉၸၢၵ်ႈ}} ({{IPA-shn|pʰa˩ waː˥ tsaːk˧|}})
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|སྲིད་པའི་འཁོར་ལ}}
 +* Mn: Орчлонгийн хүрдэн,​ ''​Orchlongiin khurden''​
 +* 有輪
 +** Cn: ''​yǒulún''​
 +** Jp: ''​ariwa''​
 +** Ko: 유륜, ''​yuryun''​
 +** Vi: ''​hữu luân''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​bhante'''​ The polite particle used to refer to Buddhist [[bhikkhu|monks]] in the [[Theravada]] tradition. ''​Bhante''​ literally means "​Venerable Sir."
 +|
 +* Pāli
 +|
 +*Bur: {{my|ဘန္တေ}} ''​bhante''​ ({{IPA-my|bàɴdè|IPA}})
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[bhava]]'''​ Becoming, being, existing; the 10th link of [[Pratitya-samutpada]]
 +|
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​bhava''​
 +|
 +*Bur: {{my|ဘဝ}} ''​bawa''​ ({{IPA-my|bəwa̰|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ဘဝ}} ({{IPA-mnw|həwɛ̀ʔ|}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ၽဝႃႉ}} ({{IPA-shn|pʰa˩ waː˥|}})
 +* Thai: ภาวะ ''​pa-wah''​
 +* 有(十二因緣)
 +** Cn: ''​yǒu''​
 +** Jp: ''​u''​
 +** Ko: 유, ''​yu''​
 +** Vi: ''​hữu''​ (thập nhị nhân duyên)
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[bhikkhu|bhikkhu/​bhikshu]]''',​ lit. "​beggar",​ A Buddhist monk
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​bhikkhu''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|bhikṣu}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဘိက္ခု}} ''​bheikkhu''​ ({{IPA-my|beɪʔkʰù|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ၽိၵ်ႈၶူႇ}} ({{IPA|[pʰik˧ kʰu˨]}})
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|དགེ་སློང་}} ''​dge slong''​
 +* Mn: гэлэн, ''​gelen''​
 +* Thai: ภิกขุ ''​bhikku''​
 +* 比丘
 +** Cn: ''​bǐ qiū''​
 +** Jp: ''​biku''​
 +** Ko: 비구, ''​bigu''​ or 스님 ''​seunim'',​ also 중, ''​jung''​ (pejorative)
 +** Vi: ''​tỉ-khâu'',​ ''​tỉ-khưu''​ or ''​tì-kheo'',​ ''​tăng''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[bhikkhuni|bhikkhuni/​bhikshuni]]'''​ A Buddhist nun
 +|
 +* from [[bhikkhu]]
 +* Pāli: ''​bhikkhuni''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|bhikṣuni}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဘိက္ခုနီ}} ''​bheikkhuni''​ ({{IPA-my|beɪʔkʰùnì|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ၽိၵ်ႈၶူႇၼီႇ}} ({{IPA-shn|pʰik˧ kʰu˨ ni˨|}})
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|དགེ་སློང་མ་}} ''​sde slong ma''​
 +* Mn: гэлэнмаа,​ ''​gelenmaa''​
 +* Thai: ภิกษุณี ''​bhiksuni''​
 +* 比丘尼
 +** Cn: ''​bǐqiūní"​
 +** Jp: ''​bikuni''​
 +** Ko: 비구니, ''​biguni'',​ 여승 (女僧), ''​yeoseung''​
 +** Vi: ''​tỉ-khâu-ni'',​ ''​tỉ-khưu-ni''​ or ''​tì-kheo-ni'',​ ''​ni''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[bija]]''',​ lit. "​seed",​ A metaphor for the origin or cause of things, used in the teachings of the [[Yogacara]] school
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​bīja''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဗီဇ}} ''​biza''​ ({{IPA-my|bì za̰|IPA}})
 +* 種子
 +** Cn: ''​zhŏngzi''​
 +** Jp: ''​shūji''​
 +** Ko: 종자, ''​jongja''​
 +** Vi: ''​chủng tử'',​ ''​hạt giống'',​ ''​hột giống''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[bodhi]]'''​ Awakening or Enlightenment
 +|
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​bodhi''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဗောဓိ}} ''​bawdhi''​ ({{IPA-my|bɔ́dḭ|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ပေႃးထီႉ}} ({{IPA|[pɔ˦ tʰi˥]}})
 +* Thai: โพธิ์ ''​poe''​
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|བྱང་ཆུབ}} ''​byang chub''​
 +* Mn: бодь, ''​bodi''​
 +* 菩提
 +** Cn: ''​pútí''​
 +** Jp: ''​bodai''​
 +** Ko: 보리, ''​bori''​
 +** Vi: ''​bồ-đề'',​ ''​giác,​ ''​giác ngộ''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Bodhi tree]]'''​ The [[Sacred Fig]] (''​Ficus religiosa''​) tree under which Gautama reached Enlightenment
 +|
 +* from [[bodhi]] above
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဗောဓိညောင်}} ''​bawdhi nyaung''​ ({{IPA-my|bɔ́ dḭ ɲàʊɴ|IPA}})
 +*Shan: {{my|ၺွင်ႇပေႃးထီႉ}} ({{IPA-shn|ɲɔŋ˨ pɔ˦ tʰi˥|}})
 +* 菩提樹
 +** Cn: ''​Pútíshù''​
 +** Jp: ''​Bodaiju''​
 +** Ko: 보리수, ''​Borisu''​
 +** Vi: ''​Bồ-đề thụ'',​ ''​Bồ-đề thọ'',​ ''​cây Bồ-đề''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[bodhicitta]]'''​ The motivation of a [[bodhisattva]]
 +|
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​bodhicitta''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဗောဓိစိတ္တ}} ''​bawdhi seitta''​ ({{IPA-my|bɔ́dḭ seɪʔ da̰|IPA}})
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་}},​ ''​byang chub kyi sems''​
 +* Mn: бодь сэтгэл,​ ''​bodi setgel''​
 +* 菩提心
 +** Cn: ''​pútíxīn''​
 +** Jp: ''​bodaishin''​
 +** Ko: 보리심, ''​borisim''​
 +** Vi: ''​bồ-đề tâm''​
 +|- valign="​top",​ ''​tâm bồ đề''​
 +|'''​[[bodhisattva]]'''​ One with the intention to become a Buddha in order to liberate all other sentient beings from suffering
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​bodhisatta''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​bodhisattva''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဗောဓိသတ်}} ''​bawdhi that''​ ({{IPA-my|bɔ́ dḭ θaʔ|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|တြုံ လၟောဝ် ကျာ်}} ({{IPA-mnw|kraoh kəmo caik|}})
 +* Thai: โพธิสัตว์ ''​poe-ti-satt''​
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ}},​ ''​byang chub sems dpaʼ''​
 +* Mn: бодьсад(ва),​ ''​bodisad(va)
 +* 菩薩
 +** Cn: ''​púsà''​
 +** Jp: ''​bosatsu''​
 +** Ko: 보살, ''​bosal''​
 +** Vi: ''​bồ-tát''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Jebtsundamba Khutuktu|Boghda]]'''​ Holy, living Buddha, living Boddhisattva. The title of [[Jebtsundamba Khutuktu]]; also title used with the names of highest Buddhist masters, e.g. ''​[[Tsongkhapa|boghda Tsongkhapa]]'',​ ''​[[Panchen|Panchen boghda]]''​
 +|
 +* Shan: {{my|ၽၵ်ႈၵဝႃႇ}} ({{IPA|[pʰak˧ ka˩ waː˨]}})
 +* Mn: богд, ''​bogd''​
 +|
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|བོག་ད་}} ''​bogda''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Buddhahood|Buddha]]'''​ A Buddha; also, the Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama.
 +|
 +* from ''​√budh'':​ to awaken
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​buddha''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဗုဒ္ဓ}} ''​bodha''​ ({{IPA-my|boʊʔda̰|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ပုၵ်ႉထႃႉ}} ({{IPA|[puk˥ tʰaː˥]}})
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|སངས་རྒྱས}} ''​sangs rgyas''​
 +* Mn: бурхан,​ ''​burhan''​
 +* 佛, 仏, 仏陀
 +** Cn: ''​fó''​
 +** Jp: ''​butsu''​ or ''​[[hotoke]]''​ or ''​budda''​
 +** Ko: 불, ''​Bul''​ or 부처, ''​Bucheo''​
 +** Vi: ''​Phật''​ or ''​Bụt''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[buddha nature]]'''​ The uncreated and deathless Buddhic element or principle concealed within all sentient beings to achieve Awakening; the innate (latent) Buddha essence (esp. in the [[Tathagatagarbha]] sutras, [[Tendai]]/​[[Tiantai]],​ [[Nichiren Buddhism|Nichiren]] thought)
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​buddha-dhatu'',​ ''​buddha-svabhāva'',​ "​tathagata-dhatu",​ or [[tathagatagarbha]].
 +|
 +* 佛性, 仏性
 +** Cn: ''​fóxìng''​
 +** Jp: ''​busshō''​
 +** Ko: 불성, ''​bulseong''​
 +** Vi: ''​Phật tính'',​ ''​Phật tánh'',​ ''​Cái tánh sáng-suốt giác-ngộ hoàn-toàn''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Buddhism]]''' ​
 +
 +* from ''​√budh'':​ to awaken
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit:
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ}} ''​boddha batha''​ ({{IPA-my|boʊʔda̰ bàðà|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ပုၵ်ႉထႃႉၽႃႇသႃႇ}} ({{IPA-shn|puk˥ tʰaː˥ pʰaː˨ sʰaː˨|}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ}} ({{IPA-mnw|pùttʰɛ̀ʔ pʰɛ̀asa|}})
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|ནང་བསྟན།}}
 +* Mn: Бурханы Шашин, ''​Burhanii Shashin''​
 +* 佛教, 仏教
 +** Cn: ''​Fójiào''​
 +** Jp: ''​bukkyō''​
 +** Ko: 불교, ''​bulgyo''​
 +** Vi: ''​Phật-giáo''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==C==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign="​top"​ style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[cetana]]'''​ Volition
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Pali: ''​{{IAST|cetana}}''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|စေတနာ}} ''​sedana''​ ({{IPA-my|sèdənà|IPA}})
 +|- valign="​top"​ style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[Cetiya]]'''​ A reliquary holding holy objects of veneration
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Pali: ''​{{IAST|cetiya}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|caitya}}''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|စေတီ}} ''​zedi''​ ({{IPA-my|zèdi|IPA}})
 +* Khm:
 +* Mon: {{my|စေတဳ}} ''​setaow''​ ({{IPA-mnw|cetɔe|}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ၸေႇတီႇ}} ''​tseti''​ ({{IPA-shn|tse˨ ti˨|}})
 +* Sin: චෛත්යයය ''​chedi''​
 +* Thai: เจดีย์ ''​chedi''​
 +* Tib:  {{bo-textonly|མཆོད་རྟེན༏}} ''​mchod rten''​ (chorten)
 +*塔
 +** Zh: Ta
 +** Vi: Tháp
 +** Ko: Tap
 +** Jp: 卒塔婆 ''​sotōba''​
 +|}
 +
 +==D==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign="​top"​ style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[dakini]]'''​ A supernatural female with volatile temperament who serves as a muse for spiritual practice. Dakinis are often depicted naked to represent the truth
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|ḍākinī}}''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* {{bo|t=མཁའ་འགྲོ་མ་|w=mkha'​ 'gro ma}}
 +* Mn: дагина,​ ''​dagina''​
 +* 空行女, 荼枳尼天
 +** Cn: ''​kong xing mu''​
 +** Jp: ''​Dakini-ten''​
 +** Ko: 다키니 ''​dakini''​ or 공행녀 ''​gonghaengnyeo''​
 +** Vi: ''​không hành nữ''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Dalai Lama]]''',​ lit. "the lama with wisdom like an ocean",​ secular and spiritual leader of [[Tibet]] as nominated by the Mongols
 +|
 +* Mn: далай, ''​dalai'',​ lit. "​ocean"​
 +* Tibetan: {{bo-textonly|ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་}} ''​taa-la'​i bla-ma''​
 +|
 +* 達賴喇嘛
 +** Cn: ''​Dálài Lǎma''​
 +** Jp: ''​Darai Rama''​
 +** Ko: 달라이 라마 ''​dalai nama''​
 +** Vi: ''​Đạt Lai Lạt Ma''​ or ''​Đạt-lại Lạt-ma''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[dana (Buddhism)|dana]]'''​ Generosity or giving; in Buddhism, it also refers to the practice of cultivating generosity
 +|
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​dāna''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဒါန}} ''​dana''​ ({{IPA-my|dàna̰|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ဒါန}} ({{IPA-mnw|tɛ̀anɛ̀ʔ|}}) or {{my|ဒါန်}} ({{IPA|[tàn]}})
 +* Thai: ทาน ''​taan''​
 +* 布施
 +** Cn: ''​bùshī''​
 +** Jp: ''​fuse''​
 +** Ko: 보시 ''​bosi''​
 +** Vi: ''​bố thí''​
 +* Mn: өглөг
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Deva (Buddhism)|deva]]'''​ many different types of non-human beings who share the characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived,​ and, in general, living more contentedly than the average human being
 +|
 +* Pāli and Sanskrit: ''​deva''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဒေဝ}} ''​dewa''​ ({{IPA-my|dèwa̰|IPA}})
 +* Khmer: ទេព or ''​preah''​ (ព្រះ)
 +* Mn:  тэнгэр ''​tenger''​
 +* Mon: {{my|ဒေဝတဴ}} ''​tewetao''​ ({{IPA|[tèwətao]}})
 +* Shan: {{my|တေႇဝႃႇ}} ({{IPA|[a˨ wɔ˨]}})
 +*天
 +**Zh: tiān
 +**Ko: cheon
 +**Jp: ten
 +**Vi: thiên
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[dependent origination]]''',​ see [[Pratityasamutpada]]
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​{{IAST|paṭicca-samuppāda}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​pratītya-samutpāda''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ပဋိစ္စသမုပ္ပါဒ်}} ''​padeissa thamopad''​ ({{IPA-my|pədeɪʔsa̰ θəmoʊʔpaʔ|IPA}})
 +* Tib: rten.cing.'​brel.bar.'​byung.ba
 +* Mn: шүтэн барилдлага ''​shuten barildlaga''​
 +* 因縁, also 緣起, 縁起
 +** Cn: ''​yīnyuan'',​ also ''​yuánqǐ''​
 +** Jp: ''​innen'',​ also ''​engi''​
 +** Ko: 인연 ''​inyeon'',​ also 연기 ''​yeongi''​
 +** Vi: ''​nhân duyên'',​ ''​duyên khởi''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Dharma (Buddhism)|dhamma/​dharma]]'''​ Often refers to the doctrines and teachings of the faith, but it may have broader uses. Also, it is an important technical term meaning something like "​[[Phenomenology (philosophy)|phenomenological]] constituent."​ This leads to the potential for confusion, puns, and double entendres, as the latter meaning often has negative connotations
 +|
 +* from ''​{{IAST|√dhṛ}}'':​ to hold
 +* Pāli: ''​dhamma''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​dharma''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဓမ္မ}} ''​dhamma''​ ({{IPA-my|dəma̰|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ဓဝ်}} ({{IPA|[thò]}})
 +* Thai: ธรรมะ ''​tam-ma''​
 +* {{bo|t=ཆོས་|w=chos}}
 +* Mn: дээдийн ном, ''​deediin nom''​
 +* 法
 +** Cn: ''​fă''​
 +** Jp: ''​hō''​
 +** Ko: ''​beop''​
 +** Vi: ''​pháp''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​dhammavinaya'''​ The [[dharma]] and [[vinaya]] (roughly "​doctrine and discipline"​) considered together. This term essentially means the whole teachings of Buddhism as taught to monks
 +|
 +|
 +* Mn: суртгаал номхотгол,​ ''​surtgaal nomkhotgol''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[dharmacakra|dhammacakka/​dharmacakra]]'''​ A symbolic representation of the [[dharma]], also known as the Wheel of Dharma
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​dharmacakra''​
 +* Pāli: ''​dhammacakka''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဓမ္မစကြာ}} ''​dhamma sekya''​ ({{IPA-my|dəməsɛʔtɕà|IPA}})
 +* {{bo|t=ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ|w=chos kyi ʼkhor lo}}
 +* Mn: номын хүрдэн,​ ''​momiin khurden''​
 +* 法輪
 +** Cn: ''​Fǎlún''​
 +** Jp: ''​hōrin''​
 +** Ko: ''​beomnyun''​
 +** Vi: ''​pháp luân''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Dhammapada]]'''​ a versified Buddhist scripture traditionally ascribed to the Buddha
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Dhammapada''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Dharmapada''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဓမ္မပဒ}} ''​Dhammapada''​ ({{IPA-my|dəma̰pəda̰|IPA}})
 +*法句經
 +** {{zh|p=Fǎjù jīng|s=法句经}}
 +** Jp: ''​Hokkukyō''​ ([[Shinjitai|shin.]] 法句経)
 +** Ko: ''​Beopgugyeong''​
 +** Vi: ''​Kinh Pháp Cú''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[dharmapala|dhammapala/​dharmapala]]'''​ A fearsome deity, known as protector of the Dharma
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​dharmapāla''​
 +* Pāli: ''​dhammapāla''​
 +|
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|ཆོས་སྐྱོང་}} ''​chos skyong''​
 +* Mn: догшид,​ ''​dogshid'';​ хангал,​ ''​khangal''​
 +* 護法
 +** Cn: ''​hùfǎ''​
 +** Jp: ''​gohō''​
 +** Ko: ''​hobeop''​
 +** Vi: ''​Hộ Pháp''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[Dhyāna in Buddhism|Dhyana]]''',​ see jhana
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​jhāna''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​dhyāna''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဈာန်}} ''​zan''​ ({{IPA-my|zàɴ|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ဇျာန်}} ({{IPA|[chàn]}})
 +* Mn: дияан, ''​diyan''​
 +* 禪 or 禪那, 禅 or 禅那
 +** Cn: ''​Chán''​ or ''​Chánnà''​
 +** Jp: ''​Zen''​ or ''​Zenna''​
 +** Ko: ''​Seon''​
 +** Vi: ''​Thiền''​ or ''​Thiền-na''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Dīpankara Buddha]]'''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Dīpamkara''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Dīpankara''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဒီပင်္ကရာ}} ''​dipankara''​ ({{IPA-my|dìpɪ̀ɴkəɹà|IPA}})
 +* Thai: พระทีปังกรพุทธเจ้า
 +* 燃燈佛
 +** Cn: ''​Rándēng Fo''​
 +** Jp: ''​Nentōbutsu''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​doan'''​ In Zen, a term for person sounding the bell that marks the beginning and end of [[Zazen]]
 +|
 +* Japanese: 堂行 ''​dōan''​
 +|
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​dokusan'''​ A private meeting between a Zen student and the master. It is an important element in Rinzai Zen training, as it provides an opportunity for the student to demonstrate understanding
 +|
 +* Japanese: 独参 ''​dokusan''​
 +|
 +* 獨參
 +** Cn: ''​dúcān''​
 +** Ko: ''​dokcham''​
 +** Vi: ''​độc tham''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​dudie'''​ official certificate for monks and nuns issued by government
 +|
 +|
 +* 度牒
 +** Cn: ''​dùdié''​
 +** Jp: ''​dochō''​
 +** Ko: ??
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[dukkha]]'''​ Suffering, dissatisfaction,​ stress
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​dukkha''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|duḥkha}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my| ဒုက္ခ}} ''​doukkha''​ ({{IPA-my|doʊʔkʰa̰|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|တုၵ်ႉၶႃႉ}} ({{IPA|[tuk˥ kʰaː˥]}})
 +* Thai: ทุกข์ ''​took''​
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|སྡུག་བསྔལ་}} ''​sdug bsngal''​
 +* Mn: зовлон,​ ''​zovlon''​
 +* 苦
 +** Cn: ''​kǔ''​
 +** Jp: ''​ku''​
 +** Ko: ''​go''​
 +** Vi: ''​khổ''​
 +|- valign="​top"​
 +|'''​[[dzogchen]]'''​ The natural, intrinsic state of every sentient being
 +|
 +* Tibetan: {{bo-textonly|རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་}} ''​rdzogs pa chen po''​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​atiyoga''​
 +* 大究竟
 +** Cn: ''​dàjiūjìng''​
 +** Jp: ''​daikukyō''​
 +** Ko: ''​daegugyeong''​
 +** Vi: ''​đại cứu cánh''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==F==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​Five Five-Hundred-Year Periods'''​ Five sub-divisions of the [[#T|three periods following the Buddha'​s passing]] (三時繫念 Cn: ''​sānshí'';​ Jp: ''​sanji'';​ Vi: ''​tam thời''​),​ significant for many Mahayana adherents:
 +# Age of enlightenment (解脱堅固 Cn: ''​jiětuō jiāngù'';​ Jp: ''​gedatsu kengo''​)
 +# Age of meditation (禅定堅固 Cn: ''​chándìng jiāngù'';​ Jp: ''​zenjō kengo''​)<​br />These two ages comprise the Former Day of the Law (正法時期 Cn: ''​zhèngfǎ'';​ Jp: ''​shōbō''​)
 +# Age of reading, reciting, and listening (読誦多聞堅固 Cn: ''​sòngduōwén jiāngù'';​ Jp: ''​dokuju tamon kengo''​)
 +# Age of building temples and stupas (多造塔寺堅固 Cn: ''​duōzào tǎsì jiāngù'';​ Jp: ''​tazō tōji kengo''​)<​br />These two ages comprise the Middle Day of the Law (像法時期 Cn: ''​xiàngfǎ'';​ Jp: ''​zōhō''​)
 +# Age of conflict (闘諍堅固 Cn: ''​zhēng jiāngù'';​ Jp: ''​tōjō kengo''​),​ an age characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other natural and human-made disasters.<​br />This age corresponds to the beginning of the Latter Day of the Law (末法時期 Cn: ''​mòfǎ'';​ Jp: ''​[[#​M|mappō]]''​) when the (historical) Buddha'​s teachings would lose all power of salvation and perish (白法隠没 Cn: ''​báifǎméi'';​ Jp: ''​byakuhō onmotsu''​) and a new Buddha would appear to save the people.
 +* The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra of the Great Assembly (大集 Cn: ''​dàjí'';​ Jp: ''​Daishutu-kyō'',​ ''​Daijuku-kyō'',​ ''​Daijikkyō'',​ or ''​Daishukkyō''​).
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* 五箇五百歲,​ 五箇五百歳
 +** Cn: 五箇五百歲 ''​wǔ ge wǔbǎi suì''​
 +** Jp: 五箇の五百歳 ''​go no gohyaku sai''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Four Noble Truths]]'''​
 +# Truth of [[dukkha]] (suffering, anxiety, stress) (Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|duḥkhāryasatya}}'';​ Bur: {{my|ဒုက္ခ}} ''​dokkha'';​ Thai: ทุกข์;​ 苦諦 Cn: ''​kǔdì'';​ Jp: ''​kutai'';​ Vi: ''​khổ đế'';​ Mn: зовлон,​ ''​zovlon''​)
 +# Truth of the origin ([[samudaya]]) of dukkha (Sanskrit: ''​samudayāryasatya'';​ Bur: {{my|သမုဒယ}} ''​thamodaya'';​ Thai: สมุทัย;​ 集諦 Cn: ''​jídì'';​ Jp: ''​jittai'';​ Vi: ''​tập khổ đế'';​ ; Mn: зовлонгийн шалтгаан,​ ''​zovlongiin shaltgaan''​)
 +# Truth of the cessation ([[nirodha]]) of dukkha (Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|duḥkhanirodhāryasatya}}'';​ Bur: {{my|နိရောဓ}} ''​niyawdha'';​ Thai: นิโรธ;​ 滅諦 Cn: ''​mièdì'';​ Jp: ''​mettai'';​ Vi: ''​diệt khổ đế'';​ Mn: гэтлэх,​ ''​getlekh''​)
 +# The path ([[Buddhist Paths to liberation|marga]]) that leads out of dukkha (Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|duḥkhanirodhagāminī pratipad}}'';​ Bur: {{my|မဂ်}} ''​meg'';​ Thai: มรรค;​ 道諦 Cn: ''​dàodì'';​ Jp: ''​dōtai'';​ Vi: ''​đạo đế'';​ Mn: мөр, ''​mör''​)
 +|
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​cattāri ariya-saccāni''​
 +* Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि ''​catvāry āryasatyāni''​
 +* Bur: {{my|သစ္စာလေးပါး}} ''​thissa lei ba''​ ({{IPA-my|θɪʔsà lé bá|IPA}})
 +* Khmr: អរិយសច្ចៈទាំង៤
 +* 四諦, 四聖諦, 苦集滅道
 +** Cn: ''​Sìdì''​
 +** Jp: ''​shitai'',​ ''​shishōtai'',​ ''​kujūmetsudō''​
 +** Vi: ''​Tứ diệu đế''​
 +* Mn: Хутагтын дөрвөн үнэн, ''​khutagtiin dörvön unen''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​fukudo'''​ In Zen, term for person who strikes the [[#H|han]]
 +|
 +* Japanese: 副堂 ''​fukudō''​
 +|
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==G==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​gassho'''​ A position used for greeting, with the palms together and fingers pointing upwards in prayer position; used in various [[Buddhist]] traditions, but also used in numerous cultures throughout Asia. It expresses greeting, request, thankfulness,​ reverence and prayer. Also considered a ''​mudra''​ or ''​inkei''​ of Japanese Shingon. See also: [[Añjali Mudrā]], [[Namaste]],​ [[Sampeah]] and [[Thai greeting|Wai]].
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Japanese: [[:​ja:​合掌|合掌]] ''​gasshō''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Sanskrit: ''​anjali''​
 +* 合掌
 +** Cn: ''​hézhǎng''​ (more common to say 合十 ''​héshí''​)
 +** Vi: ''​hiệp chưởng''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Gautama Buddha]]'''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Gotama''​
 +*Sanskrit: ''​Gautama''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဂေါတမ}} ({{IPA-my|ɡɔ́dəma̰|IPA}})
 +* 瞿曇 悉達多
 +** Jp: ''​Kudon Shiddatta''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[geshe]]'''​ A Tibetan Buddhist academic degree in the [[Gelug]] tradition, awarded at the conclusion of lengthy studies often lasting nine years or more
 +|
 +* Tibetan: {{bo-textonly|དགེ་ཤེས་}}
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Mn: гэвш ''​gevsh''​
 +* 格西
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​gongan''',​ lit. "​public case", A meditative method developed in the [[Chán]]/​[[Korean Buddhism#​Seon|Seon]]/​[[Zen]] traditions, generally consisting of a problem that defies solution by means of rational thought; see [[koan]]
 +|
 +* Chinese 公案 ''​gōng-àn''​
 +|
 +* 公案
 +** Jp: ''​kōan''​
 +** Ko: ''​gong'​an''​
 +** Vi: ''​công án''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Guan Yin]]'''​ The bodhisattva of compassion in East Asian Buddhism, with full name being Guan Shi Yin. Guan Yin is considered to be the female form of [[Avalokiteshvara]] but has been given many more distinctive characteristics.
 +|
 +* Chinese 觀音 ''​Guān Yīn''​ or 觀世音 ''​Guān Shì Yīn''​
 +|
 +* 觀音 or 觀世音
 +** Jp: ''​Kannon''​ or ''​Kanzeon''​
 +** Ko: ''​Gwaneum''​ or ''​Gwanse-eum''​
 +** Vi: ''​Quan Âm''​ or ''​Quan Thế Âm''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==H==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​han'''​ In Zen monasteries,​ wooden board that is struck announcing sunrise, sunset and the end of the day
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Japanese: 板
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Hinayana]]''',​ lit. "small vehicle",​ A coinage by the Mahayana for the Buddhist doctrines concerned with the achievement of [[Nirvana (concept)|Nirvana]] as a [[Shravakabuddha|Śrāvakabuddha]] or a [[Pratyekabuddha]],​ as opposed to a [[Buddhahood|Samyaksambuddha]]. While sometime thought as derogatory, it means in fact that the Hinayana doctrine is made to save but 1 individual, the one who follows its teachings, just like a 1 place vehicle, while the Mahayana allow the monk to take other people along with him, like a bus or a great plane. ​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​hīnayāna''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဟီနယာန}} ''​hinayana''​ ({{IPA-my|hḭna̰jàna̰|IPA}})
 +* 小乘 or 小乗, 二乘
 +** Cn: ''​Xiǎoshèng''​
 +** Jp: ''​Shōjō''​
 +** Vi: ''​Tiểu thừa''​
 +* Mn: Бага хөлгөн,​ ''​Baga hölgön
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==I==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​Ino''',​ Jp. lit. "​bringer of joy to the assembly."​ Originally from Sanskrit ''​karmadana'',​ lit. bestower of conduct [karma]. In Zen, the supervisor of the meditation hall [''​sodo''​]. One of the six senior temple administrators. ​
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Japanese: 維那
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}<​ref>​{{cite book|last=Leighton / Okumura|title=Dogen'​s Pure Standards for the Zen Community|year=1996|publisher=SUNY|location=Albany,​ NY|isbn=0-7914-2710-2|pages=214}}</​ref>​
 +
 +==J==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[jhana]]'''​ Meditative contemplation;​ more often associated with ''​śamatha''​ practices than ''​vipaśyana''​. See also: [[shamata]],​ [[Samādhi (Buddhism)|samadhi]],​ [[samapatti]]
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* from ''​√dhyā'':​ to think of, to contemplate,​ meditate on
 +* Pāli: ''​jhāna''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​dhyāna''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|ဈာန်}} ''​zan''​ ({{IPA-my|zàɴ|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ဇျာန်}} ({{IPA|[chàn]}})
 +* Thai: ฌาน ''​chaan''​
 +* 禪 or 禪那, 禅 or 禅那
 +* Sinhala: ජාන ''​jhāna''​
 +** Cn: ''​Chán''​ or ''​Chánnà''​
 +** Jp: ''​Zen''​ or ''​Zenna''​
 +** Ko: ''​Seon''​
 +** Vi: ''​Thiền''​ or ''​Thiền-na''​
 +* Mn: дияан, ''​diyan''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[jisha]]'''​ In Zen, a senior priest'​s attendant
 +|
 +* Japanese: 侍者 ''​jisha''​
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Buddhist Initiation Ritual|jukai]]'''​ Zen public ordination ceremony wherein a lay student receives certain Buddhist precepts.
 +|
 +* Chinese: 受戒, shou jie
 +* Korean: 수계, sugye
 +|
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==K==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[Kakusandha Buddha]]'''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Kakusandha''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Krakkucchanda''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ကကုသန်}} ''​Kakuthan''​ ({{IPA-my|ka̰kṵθàɴ|IPA}})
 +* 拘留孙佛
 +** Zh: Jūliúsūn Fó
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Karma in Buddhism|karma]]''',​ lit. "​action",​ The law of cause and effect in Buddhism
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* from ''​√kri'':​ to do
 +* Sanskrit: ''​karma''​
 +* Pāli: ''​kamma''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|ကံ}} ''​kan''​ ({{IPA-my|kàɴ|IPA}}) or {{my|ကြမ္မာ}} ''​kyamma''​ ({{IPA-my|tɕəmà|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ကံ}} ({{IPA|[kɔm]}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ၵျၢမ်ႇမႃႇ}} ({{IPA|[kjaːm˨ maː˨]}}) or {{my|ၵၢမ်ႇ}} ({{IPA|[kaːm˨]}})
 +* Thai: กรรม ''​gum''​
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|ལས}},​ ''​las''​
 +* Mn: үйлийн үр, ''​uiliin ür''​
 +* 業¹, 因果²
 +** Cn: ¹''​yè'',​ comm.: ²''​yīnguǒ''​
 +** Jp: ''​gō'',​ ''​inga''​
 +** Ko: 업 ''​eob''​
 +** Vi: ''​nghiệp''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Kassapa Buddha]]'''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Kassapa''​
 +Sanskrit: ''​Kasyapa''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ကဿပ}} ''​Kathapa''​ ({{IPA-my|kaʔθəpa̰|IPA}})
 +* 迦葉佛
 +** Cn: ''​Jiāyè Fó''​
 +** Jp: ''​Kashōbutsu''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[kensho]]'''​ In Zen, enlightenment;​ has the same meaning as ''​satōri'',​ but is customary used for an initial awakening experience
 +|
 +* Japanese: 見性 ''​kenshō''​
 +|
 +* 見性
 +** Cn: ''​jiànxìng''​
 +** Vi: ''​kiến tính''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[khyenpo]]''',​ also ''​khenpo'',​ An academic degree similar to a doctorate in theology, philosophy, and psychology
 +|
 +* Tibetan
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[khanti]]'''​ patience
 +|
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ခန္တီ}} ''​khanti''​ ({{IPA-my|kʰàɴ dì|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ၶၼ်ႇထီႇ}} ({{IPA|[kʰan˨ tʰi˨]}})
 +* Thai: ขันติ ''​kanti''​
 +* 耐心
 +** Cn: ''​Nàixīn''​
 +** Vi:
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[kinhin]]'''​ Zen walking meditation
 +|
 +* Japanese: 経行 ''​kinhin''​ or ''​kyōgyō''​
 +|
 +* 經行
 +** Cn: ''​jīngxíng''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[koan]]'''​ A story, question, problem or statement generally inaccessible to rational understanding,​ yet may be accessible to Intuition
 +|
 +* Japanese: 公案 ''​kōan''​
 +|
 +* 公案
 +** Cn: ''​gōng-àn''​
 +** Ko: ''​gong'​an''​
 +** Vi: ''​công án''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[ksanti]]'''​ The practice of exercising patience toward behaviour or situations that might not necessarily deserve it&​mdash;​it is seen as a conscious choice to actively give patience as a gift, rather than being in a state of oppression in which one feels obligated to act in such a way.
 +|
 +* Sanskrit
 +|
 +* 忍辱
 +** Jp: ''​ninniku''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Koṇāgamana Buddha]]'''​
 +|
 +* Pāli and Sanskrit: ''​Koṇāgamana ''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ကောဏာဂုံ}} ''​Kawnagon''​ ({{IPA-my|kɔ́nəɡòʊɴ|IPA}})
 +* 拘那含佛
 +** Zh: Jūnàhán Fó
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[kyosaku]]'''​ In Zen, a flattened stick used to strike the shoulders during [[zazen]], to help overcome fatigue or reach [[satori]]
 +|
 +* Japanese: 警策 ''​kyōsaku'',​ called ''​keisaku''​ in Rinzai
 +|
 +* 香板
 +** Cn: ''​xiangban''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==L==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[lama]]'''​ A Tibetan teacher or master; equivalent to Sanskrit "​[[guru]]"​
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Tibetan: བླ་མ་ ''​bla ma''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Sanskrit: ''​guru''​
 +* 喇嘛
 +** Cn: ''​lǎma''​
 +** Jp: ''​rama''​
 +** Vi: ''​lạt-ma''​
 +* Mn: лам, ''​lam''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[lineage (Buddhism)|lineage]]'''​ The official record of the historical descent of dharma teachings from one teacher to another; by extension, may refer to a tradition
 +|
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* 傳承
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==M==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[Madhyamaka]]'''​ Buddhist philosophical school, founded by [[Nagarjuna]]. Members of this school are called Madhyamikas
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Sanskrit: ''​mādhyamika''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Tib: དབུ་མ་པ་ ''​dbu ma pa''​
 +* Mn: төв үзэл, ''​töv üzel''​
 +* 中觀宗, 中観派
 +** Cn: ''​Zhōngguānzōng''​
 +** Jp: ''​Chūganha''​
 +** Vi: ''​Trung quán tông''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[mahabhuta]]'''​ four great elements in traditional Buddhist thought
 +|
 +* Pāli and Sanskrit: ''​Mahābhūta''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|မဟာဘုတ်}} ''​Mahabhot''​ ({{IPA-my|məhà boʊʔ|IPA}})
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[mahamudra]]'''​ A method of direct introduction the understanding of [[sunyata]],​ of [[samsara]] and that the two are inseparable
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​mahāmudrā''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|မဟာမုဒြာ}} ''​maha modra''​ ({{IPA-my|məhà moʊʔdɹà|IPA}})
 +* Tib: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ ''​chag-je chen-po''​
 +* Mn: махамудра,​ ''​mahamudra''​
 +* 大手印
 +** Cn: ''​dàshŏuyìn''​
 +** Jp: ''​daishuin''​
 +** Vi: ''​đại thủ ấn''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[mahasiddha]]'''​ litt. great spiritual accomplishment. A yogi in [[Tantric Buddhism]], often associated with the highest levels of enlightenment
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​mahāsiddha''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|မဟာသိဒ္ဒ}} ''​maha theidda''​ ({{IPA-my|məhà θeɪʔda̰|IPA}})
 +* Thai: มหายาน
 +* 大成就
 +** Cn: ''​dàchéngjiù''​
 +** Jp: ''​daijōju''​
 +** Vi: ''​đại thành tựu''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​Mahayana''',​ lit. "great vehicle",​ A major branch of Buddhism practiced in China, Tibet, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Main goal is to achieve buddhahood or [[samyaksambuddha]]
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​mahāyāna''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|မဟာယာန}} ''​mahayana''​ ({{IPA-my|məhàjàna̰|IPA}})
 +* 大乘 or 大乗
 +** Cn: ''​Dàshèng''​
 +** Jp: ''​Daijō''​
 +** Vi: ''​Đại thừa''​
 +* Mn: ''​Ikh khölgön''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Maitreya]]'''​ The Buddha of the future epoch
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Metteyya''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Maitreya''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|အရိမေတ္တေယျ}} ''​arimetteya''​ ({{IPA-my|əɹḭmèdja̰|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ဢရီႉမိတ်ႈတေႇယႃႉ}} ({{IPA|[ʔa˩ ri˥ mit˧ ta˨ jɔ˥]}})
 +* Tib: བྱམས་པ,​ ''​byams pa''​
 +* Mn: Майдар,​ ''​maidar''​
 +* 彌勒 or 彌勒佛, 弥勒 or 弥勒仏
 +** Cn: ''​Mílè''​ or ''​Mílè Fó''​
 +** Jp: ''​Miroku''​ or ''​Miroku-butsu''​
 +** Vi: ''​Di-lặc''​ or ''​Phật Di-lặc''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[makyo]]'''​ In Zen, unpleasant or distracting thoughts or illusions that occur during [[zazen]]
 +|
 +* Japanese: 魔境 ''​makyō''​
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Māna]]'''​ conceit, arrogance, misconception
 +|
 +* Pāli and Sanskrit: ''​Māna''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|မာန}} ''​mana''​ ({{IPA-my|màna̰|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|မာန်}} ''​man''​ ({{IPA|[màn]}})
 +* Shan: {{my|မႃႇၼႃႉ}} ({{IPA|[maː˨ naː˥]}})
 +* 慢
 +** Jp: ''​man''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[mandala]]'''​ a spiritual and ritual symbol representing the Universe
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ मण्डल Maṇḍala''​ (lit. "​circle"​)
 +|
 +* 曼荼羅
 +** Cn: ''​màntúluó''​
 +** Jp: ''​mandara''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[mantra]]'''​ Chant used primarily to aid concentration,​ to reach enlightenment. The best-known Buddhist mantra is possibly ''​[[Om mani padme hum]]''​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​mantra''​
 +|
 +* Thai: มนตร์ ''​moan''​
 +* Mn: маань, тарни; ''​maani,​ tarni''​
 +* 咒, 真言
 +** Cn: ''​zou''​
 +** Jp: ''​shingon'',​ ''​ju''​
 +** Vi: ''​chân âm''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Mappo]]'''​ The "​degenerate"​ Latter Day of the Law. A time period supposed to begin 2,000 years after Sakyamuni Buddha'​s passing and last for "​10,​000 years";​ follows the two 1,000-year periods of Former Day of the Law (正法 Cn: ''​zhèngfǎ'';​ Jp: ''​shōbō''​) and of Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: ''​xiàngfǎ'';​ Jp: ''​zōhō''​). During this degenerate age, chaos will prevail and the people will be unable to attain enlightenment through the word of Sakyamuni Buddha. See the [[#T|Three periods]]
 +|
 +* Japanese: 末法 ''​mappō''​
 +|
 +* 末法
 +** Cn: ''​mòfǎ''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Merit (Buddhism)|merit]]'''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​puñña''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​puṇya''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ကုသိုလ်}} ''​kutho''​ ({{IPA-my|kṵðò|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ကုသဵု}} ({{IPA-mnw|kaoʔsɒ|}}) or {{my|ပိုန်}} ({{IPA|[pɒn]}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ပုင်ႇၺႃႇ}} ({{IPA-shn|puŋ˨ ɲaː˨|}}) or {{my|ၵူႉသူဝ်ႇ}} ({{IPA|[ku˥ sʰo˨]}}) or {{my|ၵူႉသလႃႉ}} ({{IPA|[ku˥ sʰa˩ laː˥]}})
 +* 功徳
 +** Jp: ''​kudoku''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[metta]]'''​ loving kindness
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​ ''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ ''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|မေတ္တာ}} ''​myitta''​ ({{IPA-my|mjɪʔtà|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|မေတ္တာ}} ({{IPA|[mètta]}})
 +* Shan: {{my|မိတ်ႈတႃႇ}} ({{IPA|[mit˧ taː˨]}}) or {{my|မႅတ်ႈတႃႇ}} ({{IPA|[mɛt˧ taː˨]}})
 +* Thai: เมตตา ''​metta''​
 +* 慈
 +** Ch: ''​Cí''​
 +** Jp: ''​ji''​
 +** Vi: ''​ ''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Middle Way]]'''​ The practice of avoidance of extreme views and lifestyle choices
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​{{IAST|majjhimāpaṭipadā}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​madhyamāpratipad''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|မဇ္ဇိမပဋိပဒါ}} ''​myizima badi bada''​ ({{IPA-my|mjɪʔzḭma̰ bədḭ bədà|IPA}})
 +* 中道
 +** Ch: ''​zhōngdào''​
 +** Jp: ''​chūdō''​
 +** Vi: ''​trung đạo''​
 +* Mn: дундаж зам мөр, ''​dundaj zam mör''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​(right) [[Mindfulness (Buddhism)|mindfulness]]'''​ The practice whereby a person is intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. The 7th step of the [[Noble Eightfold Path]]
 +|
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​(sammā)-sati''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|(samyag)-smṛti}}''​
 +* Bur: {{my|သတိ}} ''​thadi''​ ({{IPA-my|ðadḭ|IPA}})
 +* Thai: สัมมาสติ ''​samma-sati''​
 +* 正念
 +** Cn: ''​zhèngniàn''​
 +** Jp: ''​shōnen''​
 +** Vi: ''​chính niệm''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[moksha]]'''​ Liberation
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|mokṣa}}''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​vimutti''​
 +* Bur: {{my|ဝိမုတ္တိ}} ''​wimouti''​ ({{IPA-my|wḭmoʊʔtḭ|IPA}})
 +* 解脱
 +** Cn: ''​jiětuō''​
 +** Jp: ''​gedatsu''​
 +** Vi: ''​giải thoát''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[mokugyo]]'''​ A wooden drum carved from one piece, usually in the form of a fish
 +|
 +* Japanese: 木魚 ''​mokugyo''​
 +|
 +* 木魚
 +** Cn: ''​mùyú''​
 +** Vi: ''​mõ''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[mondo (scripture)|mondo]]'''​ In Zen, a short dialogue between teacher and student
 +|
 +* Japanese: 問答 ''​mondō''​
 +|
 +* 問答
 +** Cn: ''​wèndǎ''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[mudra]]'''​ lit. "​seal",​ A gesture made with hands and fingers in meditation
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​mudrā''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|မုဒြာ}} ''​modra''​ ({{IPA-my|moʊʔdɹà|IPA}})
 +* Tib: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ ''​phyag rgya''​
 +* Mn: чагжаа,​ ''​chagjaa''​
 +* 手印
 +** Cn: ''​sohyìn''​ (commonly only ''​yìn''​)
 +** Jp: ''​shuin''​
 +** Vi: ''​ấn''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==N==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​namo'''​ An exclamation showing reverence; devotion. Often placed in front of the name of an object of veneration, e.g., a Buddha'​s name or a sutra ([[Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō|Nam(u) Myōhō Renge Kyō]]), to express devotion to it. Defined in Sino-Japanese as 帰命 ''​kimyō'':​ to base one's life upon, to devote (or submit) one's life to
 +
 +<​u>​Derivatives</​u>:​
 +* Namo Amitabha
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Pāli: ''​namo''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|namaḥ}}''​ or ''​namas''​
 +
 +<​u>​Derivatives</​u>:​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​namo-'​mitābhāya''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|နမော}} ''​namaw''​ ({{IPA-my|nəmɔ́|IPA}})
 +* Tib: ཕྱག་འཚལ་(ལོ),​ ''​chag tsal (lo)''​
 +* Mn: мөргөмү,​ ''​mörgömü''​
 +* 南無
 +** Cn: ''​nánmó''​
 +** Jp: ''​namu''​ or ''​nam''​
 +** Ko: ''​namu''​
 +** Vi: ''​nam-mô''​
 +
 +<​u>​Derivatives</​u>:​
 +* 南無阿弥陀佛
 +** Cn: ''​Nánmó Ēmítuó fó''​
 +** Jp: ''​Namu Amida butsu''​
 +** Ko: ''​ Namu Amita Bul''​
 +** Vi: ''​Nam-mô A-di-đà Phật''​
 +* 南無觀世音菩薩
 +** Cn: ''​ Nánmó Guán Syr Yín Pū Sá
 +** Jp: ''​ Namu Kanzeon Butsu
 +** Ko: ''​ Namu Gwan Se Eum Bo Sal''​
 +** Vi: ''​ Nam-mô Quan Thế Âm Bồ Tát
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[nekkhamma]]'''​ renunciation
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​ ''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ ''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|နိက္ခမ}} ''​neikhama''​ ({{IPA-my|neɪʔkʰəma̰|IPA}})
 +* Thai: เนกขัมมะ ''​nekkamma''​
 +* Mn: магад гарахуй,​ ''​magad garahui''​
 +* 出世
 +** Cn: ''​Chūshì''​
 +** Jp: ''​shusse ''​
 +** Vi: ''​ ''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Nirvana (Buddhism)|Nirvana/​Nibbana]]'''​ Extinction or extinguishing;​ ultimate enlightenment in the Buddhist tradition
 +|
 +* from ''​{{IAST|niḥ-√vā}}'':​ to extinguish
 +* Pāli: ''​nibbāna''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​nirvana''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|နိဗ္ဗာန်}} ''​neibban''​ ({{IPA-my|neɪʔbàɴ|IPA}})
 +* Thai: นิพพาน ''​nípphaan''​
 +* Tib: མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ,​ ''​mya-ngan-las-'​das-pa''​
 +* Mn: нирван,​ ''​nirvan''​
 +* 涅槃
 +** Cn: ''​Nièpán''​
 +** Jp: ''​Nehan''​
 +** Ko: ''​Yeolban''​
 +** Vi: ''​Niết-bàn''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Nikaya]]''',​ lit. "​volume",​ The Buddhist texts in Pāli
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​nikāya''​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Āgama''​
 +* Bur: {{my|နိကာယ}} ''​nikaya''​ ({{IPA-my|nḭkəja̰|IPA}})
 +* 部經
 +** Cn: ''​Bùjīng''​
 +** Jp: ''​bukyō''​
 +** Vi: ''​Bộ kinh''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Noble Eightfold Path]]'''​
 +# Right View (Pāli: ''​{{IAST|sammā-diṭṭhi}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|samyag-dṛṣṭi}}'';​ 正見 Cn: ''​zhèngjiàn'';​ Vi: ''​chính kiến''​)
 +# Right Thought (Pāli: ''​{{IAST|sammā-saṅkappa}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|samyak-saṃkalpa}}'';​ 正思唯 Cn: ''​zhèngsīwéi'';​ Vi: ''​chính tư duy''​)<​br />These 2 constitute the path of Wisdom (Pāli: ''​paññā'';​ Sanskrit: ''​prajñā''​)
 +# Right Speech (Pāli: ''​sammā-vācā'';​ Sanskrit: ''​samyag-vāk'';​ 正語 Cn: ''​zhèngyǔ'';​ Vi: ''​chính ngữ''​)
 +# Right Action (Pāli: ''​sammā-kammanta'';​ Sanskrit: ''​samyak-karmānta'';​ 正業 Cn: ''​zhèngyè'';​ Vi: ''​chính nghiệp''​)
 +# Right Living (Pāli: ''​sammā-ājīva'';​ Sanskrit: ''​samyag-ājīva'';​ 正命 Cn: ''​zhèngmìng'';​ Vi: ''​chính mệnh''​)<​br />These 3 constitute the path of Virtue (Pāli: ''​sīla'';​ Sanskrit: ''​śīla''​)
 +# Right Effort (Pāli: ''​sammā-vāyāma'';​ Sanskrit: ''​samyag-vyāyāma'';​ 正精進 Cn: ''​zhèngjīngjìn'';​ Vi: ''​chính tinh tiến''​)
 +# Right Mindfulness (Pāli: ''​sammā-sati'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|samyag-smṛti}}'';​ 正念 Cn: ''​zhèngniàn'';​ Vi: ''​chính niệm''​)
 +# Right Concentration (Pāli: ''​sammā-samādhi'';​ Sanskrit: ''​samyak-samādhi'';​ 正定 Cn: ''​zhèngdìng'';​ Vi: ''​chính định''​)<​br />The last 3 constitute the path of Concentration (Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​samādhi''​)
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​{{IAST|aṭṭhāṅgika-magga}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|aṣṭāṅgika-mārga}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|မဂ္ဂင်}} ''​meggin''​ ({{IPA-my|mɛʔɡɪ̀ɴ|IPA}})
 +* Thai: อริยมรรค ''​ariya-mak''​
 +* 八正道
 +** Cn: ''​Bāzhèngdào''​
 +** Jp: ''​Hasshōdō''​
 +** Ko: ''​Paljeongdo''​
 +** Vi: ''​Bát chính đạo''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==O==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[oryoki]]'''​ A set of bowls used in a Zen eating ceremony
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Japanese: 応量器 ''​ōryōki''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​osho'''​ A term used to address a monk of the Zen Buddhist tradition. Originally reserved for high-ranking monks, it has since been appropriated for everyday use when addressing any male member of the Zen clergy
 +|
 +* Japanese: 和尚 ''​oshō''​
 +|
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==P==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[pabbajja]]''',​ (a layperson) leaving home to join a community of monks and nuns (lit. "to go forth"​)
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Sanskrit: ''​pravrajya''​
 +* Pali: ''​Pabbajja''​
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* 出家
 +** Cn: ''​chūjiā''​
 +** Jp: ''​shukke''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Skandha|panca skandha]]'''​ The five constituent elements into which an individual is analyzed. They are:
 +# "​form":​ Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​rūpa'';​ Bu: {{my|ရူပ}} ''​yupa'';​ 色 Cn: ''​sè'';​ Jp: ''​shiki''​
 +# "​sensation":​ Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​vedanā'';​ Bu: {{my|ဝေဒန}} ''​wedana'';​ 受 Cn: ''​shòu'';​ Jp: ''​ju''​
 +# "​cognition":​ Pāli: ''​saññā'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|saṃjñā}}'';​ Bu: {{my|သညာ}} ''​thinnya'';​ 想 Cn: ''​xiàng'';​ Jp: ''​sō''​
 +# "​mental formations":​ Pāli: ''​{{IAST|saṅkhāra}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|saṃskāra}}'';​ Bu: {{my|သင်္ခါရ}} ''​thinkhaya'';​ 行 Cn: ''​xíng'';​ Jp: ''​gyō''​
 +# "​[[higher consciousness|consciousness]]":​ Pāli: ''​{{IAST|viññāṇa}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​vijñāna'';​ Bu: {{my|ဝိညာဉ်}} ''​winyin'';​ 識 Cn: ''​shí'';​ Jp: ''​shiki''​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​pañca skandha''​
 +* Pāli: ''​pañca khandha''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ခန္ဒာငါးပါး}} ''​khanda nga ba''​ ({{IPA-my|kʰàɴdà ŋá bá|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ႁႃႈ ၶၼ်ႇထႃႇ}} ({{IPA|[haː˧ kʰan˨ tʰaː˨]}})
 +* 五蘊, 五陰, 五薀
 +** Cn: ''​wǔyùn''​
 +** Jp: ''​go-on'',​ sometimes ''​go-un''​
 +** Vi: ''​ngũ uẩn''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Panchen Lama]]'''​ The second highest ranking lama in the [[Gelugpa]] sect of Tibetan Buddhism. after the Dalai Lama
 +|
 +* Tibetan: པན་ཆེན་བླ་མ་ ''​pan-chen bla-ma''​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|paṇḍitaguru}}''​
 +* Mn: Банчин Богд, ''​Banchin Bogd''​
 +* 班禪喇嘛
 +** Cn: ''​Bānchán Lǎma''​
 +** Jp: ??
 +** Vi: ''​Ban-thiền Lạt-ma''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[paññā]]''',​ see [[Wisdom in Buddhism|prajna]]
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​ ''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ပညာ}} ''​pyinnya''​ ({{IPA-my|pjɪ̀ɴɲà|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ပညာ}} ({{IPA-mnw|pɔnɲa|}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ပိင်ႇၺႃႇ}} ({{IPA-shn|piŋ˨ ɲaː˨|}})
 +* Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་ ''​shes rab''​
 +* Mn: билиг, ''​bilig''​
 +* 智慧 or 知恵 or 般若
 +** Cn: ''​Zhìhuì,​ zhīhuì, bōrě''​
 +** Jp: ''​chie'',''​hannya''​
 +** Vi: ''​ ''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[paramartha]]'''​ Absolute, as opposed to merely conventional,​ truth or reality; see also [[#​S|samvrti]]
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​paramārtha''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ပရမတ်}} ''​paramat''​ ({{IPA-my|pəɹəmaʔ|IPA}})
 +* Thai: ปรมัตถ์ ''​paramutt''​
 +* 真諦
 +** Jp: ''​shintai''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[paramita]]''',​ lit. "​reaching the other shore,"​ usually rendered in English as "​perfection."​ The Mahayana practices for obtaining enlightenment;​ giving, ethics, patience, effort, concentration and wisdom
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​pāramī''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​pāramitā''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ပါရမီ}} ''​parami''​ ({{IPA-my|pàɹəmì|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ပါရမဳ}} ({{IPA-mnw|parəmɔe|}})
 +* Thai: บารมี ''​baramee''​
 +* Mn: барамид,​ ''​baramid''​
 +* 波羅蜜 or 波羅蜜多
 +** Cn: ''​bōluómì''​ or ''​bōluómìduō''​
 +** Jp: ''​haramitsu''​ or ''​haramita''​
 +** Vi: ''​ba-la-mật''​ or ''​ba-la-mật-đa''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[parinibbana|parinibbana/​parinirvana]]'''​ The final nibbana/​nirvana
 +|
 +* from nibbana/​nirvana above
 +* Pāli: ''​parinibbāna''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|parinirvāṇa}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ပရိနိဗ္ဗာန်}} ''​pareineibban''​ ({{IPA-my|pəɹeɪʔneɪʔbàɴ|IPA}})
 +* Thai: ปรินิพพาน ''​pari-nippaan''​
 +* 般涅槃
 +** Cn: ''​bōnièpán''​
 +** Jp: ''​hatsunehan''​
 +** Vi: ''​bát-niết-bàn''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Perfection of Wisdom]]'''​
 +|
 +* from [[paramita|pāramitā]] ("​perfection"​) above and [[Wisdom in Buddhism|prajñā/​paññā]] ("​wisdom"​) below
 +* Sanskrit: ''​prajñāpāramitā''​
 +* Pāli: ''​paññāparami''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ပညာပါရမီ}} ''​pyinnya parami''​ ({{IPA-my|pjɪ̀ɴɲà pàɹəmì|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ပညာပါရမဳ}} ({{IPA-mnw|pɔnɲa parəmɔe|}})
 +* Mn: билиг барамид,​ ''​bilig baramid''​
 +* 般若波羅蜜 or 般若波羅蜜多
 +** Cn: ''​bōrě-bōluómì''​ or ''​bōrě-bōluómìduō''​
 +** Jp: ''​hannya-haramitsu''​ or ''​hannya-haramita''​
 +** Vi: ''​bát-nhã-ba-la-mật''​ or ''​bát-nhã-ba-la-mật-đa''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​Pointing-out instruction'''​ The direct introduction to the nature of mind in the lineages of Essence [[Mahamudra]] and [[Dzogchen]]. A root guru is the master who gives the '​pointing-out instruction'​ so that the disciple recognizes the nature of mind
 +|
 +* Tibetan: ངོ་སྤྲོད་ ''​ngo-sprod''​
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Wisdom in Buddhism|prajna/​paññā]]'''​ "​wisdom",​ "​insight"​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​paññā''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​prajñā''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ပညာ}} ''​pyinnya''​ ({{IPA-my|pjɪ̀ɴɲà|IPA}})
 +* Thai: ปัญญา ''​pun-ya''​
 +* Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་ ''​shes rab''​
 +* Mn: хөтлөх,​ ''​khötlökh''​
 +* 般若
 +** Cn: ''​bōrě''​ or ''​bānruò''​
 +** Jp: ''​hannya''​
 +** Vi: ''​bát-nhã''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[pratitya-samutpada]]'''​ "​Dependent origination,"​ the view that no phenomenon exists (or comes about) without depending on other phenomena or conditions around it. In English also called "​conditioned genesis,"​ "​dependent co-arising,"​ "​interdependent arising,"​ etc.
 +A famous application of ''​dependent origination''​ is the [[Twelve Nidanas|Twelve Nidana]], or 12 inter-dependences (Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|dvādaśāṅgapratītyasamutpāda}}'';​ 十二因緣,​ 十二因縁 Cn: ''​shíàr yīnyuán'';​ Jp: ''​jūni innen'';​ Vi: ''​thập nhị nhân duyên''​),​ which are:
 +# [[Avijja|Ignorance]] (Pāli: ''​avijjā'';​ Sanskrit: ''​avidyā'';​ 無明 Cn: ''​wúmíng'';​ Jp: ''​mumyō'';​ Vi: ''​vô minh'';​ Mn: мунхрахуй,​ ''​munhrahui''​)
 +# Ignorance creates [[Mental Formation]] (Pāli: ''​{{IAST|saṅkhāra}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|saṃskāra}}'';​ 行 Cn: ''​xíng'';​ Jp: ''​gyō'';​ Vi: ''​hành'';​ Mn: хуран үйлдэхүй,​ ''​khuran uildehui''​)
 +# Mental Formation creates Consciousness (Pāli: ''​{{IAST|viññāṇa}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​vijñāna'';​ 識 Cn: ''​shí'';​ Jp: ''​shiki'';​ Vi: ''​thức'';​ Mn: тийн мэдэхүй,​ ''​tiin medehui''​)
 +# Consciousness creates [[Name & Form]] (Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​nāmarūpa'';​ 名色 Cn: ''​míngsè'';​ Jp: ''​myōshiki'';​ Vi: ''​danh sắc'';​ Mn: нэр өнгө, ''​ner öngö''​)
 +# Name & Form create [[Sense Gates]] (Pāli: ''​{{IAST|saḷāyatana}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|ṣaḍāyatana}}'';​ 六入 or 六処 Cn: ''​liùrù'';​ Jp: ''​rokunyū''​ or ''​rokusho'';​ Vi: ''​lục căn'';​ Mn: төрөн түгэхүй,​ ''​törön tugehui''​)
 +# Sense Gates create [[Sparśa|Contact]] (Pāli: ''​phassa'';​ Sanskrit: ''​sparśa'';​ 觸, 触 Cn: ''​chù'';​ Jp: ''​soku'';​ Vi: ''​xúc'';​ Mn: хүрэлцэхүй,​ ''​khureltsehui''​)
 +# Contact creates [[Feeling]] (Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​vedanā'';​ 受 Cn: ''​shòu'';​ Jp: ''​ju'';​ Vi: ''​thụ'';​ Mn: сэрэхүй,​ ''​serehui''​)
 +# Feeling creates [[Taṇhā|Craving]] (Pāli: ''​{{IAST|taṇhā}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|tṛṣṇā}}'';​ 愛 Cn: ''​ài'';​ Jp: ''​ai'';​ Vi: ''​ái'';​ Mn: хурьцахуй,​ ''​khuritsahui''​)
 +# Craving creates [[Clinging]] (Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​upādāna'';​ 取 Cn: ''​qǔ'';​ Jp: ''​shu'';​ Vi: ''​thủ'';​ Mn: авахуй,​ ''​avahui''​)
 +# Clinging creates [[Bhava#In Buddhism|Becoming]] (Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​bhava'';​ 有 Cn: ''​yǒu'';​ Jp: ''​u'';​ Vi: ''​hữu'';​ Mn: сансар,​ ''​sansar''​)
 +# Becoming creates [[Childbirth|Birth]] (Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​jāti'';​ 生 Cn: ''​shēng'';​ Jp: ''​shō'';​ Vi: ''​sinh'';​ Mn: төрөхүй,​ ''​töröhui''​ )
 +# Birth leads to [[Aging & Death]] (Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|jarāmaraṇa}}'';​ 老死 Cn: ''​láosǐ'';​ Jp: ''​rōshi'';​ Vi: ''​lão tử'';​ Mn: өтлөх үхэхүй,​ ''​ötlöh uhehui)
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​{{IAST|paṭicca-samuppāda}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​pratitya-samutpāda''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ပဋိစ္စသမုပ္ပါဒ်}} ''​padeissa thamopad''​ ({{IPA-my|pədeɪʔsa̰ θəmoʊʔpaʔ|IPA}})
 +* Tib: {{bo-textonly|རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བ་}} ''​rten cing `brel bar `byung ba''​
 +* Mn: шүтэн барилдлага,​ ''​shuten barildlaga''​
 +* 緣起 (thought to be an abbreviation for 因'''​緣'''​生'''​起'''​),​ 縁起
 +** Cn: ''​yuánqǐ''​
 +** Jp: ''​engi''​
 +** Vi: ''​duyên khởi''​
 +* Also called 因緣, 因縁
 +** Cn: ''​yīnyuán''​
 +** Jp: ''​innen''​
 +** Vi: ''​nhân duyên''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Pratyekabuddha|Pratyekabuddha/​Paccekabuddha]]''',​ lit. "a buddha by his own", A buddha who reaches enlightenment on his own
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​paccekabuddha''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​pratyekabuddha''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ပစ္စေကဗုဒ္ဓါ}} ''​pyiseka boddha''​ ({{IPA-my|pjɪʔsèka̰ boʊʔdà|IPA}})
 +* 辟支佛
 +** Cn: ''​Bìzhī Fó''​
 +** Jp: ''​Hyakushibutsu''​
 +** Vi: ''​Bích-chi Phật''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Pure Land Buddhism]]'''​ A large branch of [[Mahayana]],​ dominantly in [[East Asia]]. The goal of Pure Land Buddhism is to be reborn in the Western [[sukhavati]] of [[Amitabha]],​ either as a real place or within the mind, through the other-power of repeating the Buddha'​s name, nianfo or nembutsu.
 +|
 +|
 +* 净土宗(Ch),​ 浄土教(Jp)
 +** Cn: ''​Jìngtǔ-zōng''​
 +** Jp: ''​Jōdo-kyo''​
 +** Ko: ''​Jeongtojong''​
 +** Vi: ''​Tịnh độ tông''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[purisa]]'''​ The practicing Buddhist community as a whole; [[sangha]] and laity
 +|
 +|
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==R==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[rebirth (Buddhism)|rebirth]]'''​ The process of continuity of life after death
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​punabbhava''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​punarbhava''​
 +|
 +* 輪廻
 +** Cn: ''​lunhui''​
 +** Jp: ''​rinne''​
 +** Vi: ''​luân hồi''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Ratnasambhava]]''' ​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Ratnasambhava''​
 +|
 +* Tib: རིན་ཆེན་འབྱུང་གནས Rinchen Jung ne
 +* Mn: ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠣ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ;<​br /><​small>​Эрдэнэ гарахын орон, Төгс Эрдэнэ;<​br />Erdeni garkhu yin oron, Tegüs Erdeni</​small>​
 +* 寶生佛, 宝生如来
 +** Jp: ''​Hōshō Nyorai''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Refuge (Buddhism)|refuge]]'''​ Usually in the form of "take refuge in the [[Three Jewels]]"​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​{{IAST|saraṇa}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|śaraṇa}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သရဏဂုံ}} ''​tharanagon''​ ({{IPA-my|θəɹənəɡòʊɴ|IPA}})
 +* Mn: аврал, ''​avral''​
 +* Tib: ''​skyabs''​
 +* Thai: สรณะ ''​sorana''​
 +* 歸依
 +** Cn: ''​guīyī''​
 +** Jp: ''​kie''​
 +** Vi: ''​quy y''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Rigpa]]''',​ the knowledge that ensues from recognizing one's nature
 +|
 +* Tibetan: རིག་པ (rig pa)
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: विद्या (vidyā)
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Rinpoche]]''',​ lit. "​precious one", An honorific title for a respected Tibetan lama, such as a ''​[[tulku]]''​
 +|
 +* Tibetan: རིན་པོ་ཆེ་,​ ''​rin-po-che''​
 +|
 +* Mn: римбүчий,​ ''​rimbuchii''​
 +* 仁波切
 +** Cn: ''​rénbōqiē''​
 +** Jp: リンポチェ ''​rinpoche''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Rinzai]]'''​ Zen sect emphasizing koan study; named for master [[Linji Yixuan]]
 +|
 +* Japanese: 臨済宗 ''​Rinzai-shū''​
 +|
 +* 臨濟宗
 +** Cn: ''​Línjì-zōng''​
 +** Vi: ''​Lâm Tế tông''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Rohatsu]]'''​ A day traditionally honored as the day of the Buddha'​s enlightenment. While deep in meditation under a bodhi tree, he attained enlightenment upon seeing the morning star just at dawn; celebrated on the 8th day either of December or of the 12th month of the lunar calendar
 +|
 +* Japanese: 臘八 ''​Rōhatsu''​ or ''​Rohachi''​
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[rōshi|roshi]]''',​ lit. "​Master",​ An honorific given to Zen teachers in the Rinzai and Obaku sects.
 +|
 +* Japanese 老師 ''​Rōshi''​
 +|
 +* 禅師
 +** Cn: '​’chan shī''​ (lit., old master)
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==S==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[sacca]]'''​ truthfulness
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Satya''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|သစ္စာ}} ''​thissa''​ ({{IPA-my|θɪʔ sà|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|သစ္စ}} ({{IPA-mnw|sɔtcɛʔ|}})
 +* Shan: {{my|သဵတ်ႈၸႃႇ}} ({{IPA-shn|sʰet˧ tsaː˨|}})
 +* Thai: สัจจะ ''​sadja''​
 +* 真
 +** Cn: ''​zhēn''​
 +** Jp: ''​shin ''​
 +** Vi:
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[samanera]]/​[[shramanera]]'''​ A male novice monk, who, after a year or until the ripe age of 20, will be considered for the higher Bhikkhu ordination
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|śrāmaṇera}}''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|(ရှင်)သာမဏေ}} ''​(shin) thamane''​ ({{IPA-my|(ʃɪ̀ɴ) θàmənè|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|သာမ္မဏဳ}} ({{IPA|[samənɔe]}})
 +* Shan: {{my|သႃႇမၼေႇ}} ({{IPA|[sʰaː˨ mne˨]}})
 +* Thai: สามเณร ''​sama-naen''​
 +* 沙彌
 +** Cn: ''​shāmí''​
 +** Jp: ''​shami''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[samatha]]'''​ Mental stabilization;​ tranquility meditation. Distinguished from [[vipassanā]] meditation
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​samatha''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​śamatha''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သမထ}} ''​thamahta''​ ({{IPA-my|θəmətʰa̰|IPA}})
 +* Thai: สมถะ ''​samatha''​
 +* 舍摩他
 +** Cn: ''​shěmótā''​
 +** Jp: ??
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Samsara (Buddhism)|samsara]]'''​ The cycle of birth and rebirth; the world as commonly experienced
 +|
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|saṃsāra}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သံသရာ}} ''​thanthaya''​ ({{IPA-my|θàɴðəjà|IPA}})
 +* Thai: สังสารวัฏ ''​sung-sara-wat''​
 +* Tib: འཁོར་བ ''​khor ba''​
 +* Bur: ''​သံသရာ''​
 +* Mn: орчлон,​ ''​orchlon''​
 +* 輪迴, 輪廻
 +** Cn: ''​lúnhúi''​
 +** Jp: ''​rinne''​
 +** Vi: ''​luân hồi''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Samu (Zen)|samu]]'''​ Work, conceived as a part of Zen training.[http://​www.mbzc.org/​glossary#​samu]
 +|
 +* Japanese: 作務 ''​samu''​
 +|
 +* 作務
 +** Cn: ''​zuòwù''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[samvrti]]'''​ Conventional,​ as opposed to absolute, truth or reality; see also [[#​P|paramartha]]
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|saṃvriti}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သမ္မုတိ}} ''​thamudi''​ ({{IPA-my|θəmṵdḭ|IPA}})
 +* Thai: สมมุติ ''​sommoot''​
 +* 俗諦
 +** Jp: ''​zokutai''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[sangha]]'''​ The community of Buddhist monks and nuns. Teachers and practitioners.
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|saṅgha}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သံဃာ}} ''​thangha''​ ({{IPA-my|θàɴɡà|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|သဳလ}} ({{IPA-mnw|sɛŋ|}})
 +* Shan: {{my|သၢင်ႇၶႃႇ}} ({{IPA-shn|sʰaːŋ˨ kʰaː˨|}})
 +* Thai: สงฆ์ ''​song''​
 +* Tib: ཚོགས་ཀ་མཆོག ''​tsog gyu chog''​
 +* Mn: хуврагийн чуулган,​ ''​khuvragiin chuulgan''​
 +* 僧團
 +** Cn: ''​sēng tuan''​
 +** Jp: ''​sō'',​ ''​sōryō''​
 +** Vi: ''​tăng già''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Sanlun]]'''​ Buddhist philosophical school based on the [[Madhyamaka]] school
 +|
 +* Chinese: 三論 ''​sānlùn''​
 +|
 +* 三論宗
 +** Cn: ''​Sānlùnzōng''​
 +** Jp: ''​Sanron-shū''​
 +** Vi: ''​Tam luận tông''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[sanzen]]'''​ A formal interview with a teacher in many traditions of Zen. Similar to [[#​D|dokusan]]
 +|
 +* Japanese
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[satori]]'''​ Awakening; understanding. A Japanese term for enlightenment
 +|
 +* Japanese: 悟り ''​satori''​
 +|
 +* 悟
 +** Cn: ''​wú''​
 +** Vi: ''​ngộ''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[sayadaw]]'''​ Burmese meditation master
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဆရာတော်}} ''​sayadaw''​ ({{IPA-my|sʰəjàdɔ̀|IPA}})
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[seichu]]'''​ In the Zen Buddhist calendar, a period of intensive, formal monastic training. It is typically characterized by week-long [[sesshin|Daisesshins]] and periodic [[#​S|sanzen]]
 +|
 +* Japanese: 制中 ''​seichu''​
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[sesshin]]'''​ A Zen retreat where practitioners meditate, eat and work together for several days
 +|
 +* Japanese: 接心, 摂心
 +|
 +* 佛七
 +** Cn: '​’fóqī''​
 +* 坐臘/​坐腊
 +** Cn: ''​zuòlà''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[shikantaza]]'''​ Soto Zen. "Only concentrated on sitting"​ is the main practice of the Soto school of Japanese Zen Buddhism
 +|
 +* Japanese: 只管打座
 +|
 +* 默照
 +** Cn: ''​mòzhào''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[shunyata]]'''​ Emptiness; see also [[Nagarjuna]]
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​suññatā''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​śūnyatā''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သုည}} ''''​ ({{IPA-my|θòʊɴɲa̰|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|သုင်ႇၺႃႉ}} ({{IPA|[sʰuŋ˨ ɲaː˥]}})
 +* Tib: ''​stong pa nyid''​
 +* Mn: хоосон чанар, ''​khooson chanar''​
 +* 空
 +** Cn: ''​kōng''​
 +** Jp: ''​kū''​
 +** Vi: ''​tính Không''​
 +|- valign=top
 +
 +|'''​[[Sikhī Buddha]]'''​ Buddha of Knowledge
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Sikhī Buddha''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​Śikhīn Buddha''​
 +|
 +* Jp: ''​Shiki Butsu''​
 +|- valign=top
 +
 +|'''​[[Śīla|sila]]'''​ "​morals",​ "​morality",​ "​ethics":​ precepts
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​sīla''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​śīla''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သီလ}} ''​thila''​ ({{IPA-my|θìla̰|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|သဳ}} ({{IPA-mnw|sɔelaʔ|}})
 +* Shan: {{my|သီႇလႃႉ}} ({{IPA-shn|sʰi˨ laː˥|}})
 +* Thai: ศีล ''​seen''​
 +* 尸羅,戒
 +** Cn: ''​jiè''​
 +** Jp: ''​kai''​
 +** Vi: ''​giới''​
 +* Mn: шагшаабад,​ ''​shagshaabad''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Sōtō]]'''​ Sect of Zen emphasizing [[shikantaza]] as the primary mode of practice; see also [[Dōgen]]
 +|
 +* Japanese: 曹洞宗 ''​Sōtō-shū''​
 +|
 +* 曹洞宗
 +** Cn: ''​Cáodòng-zōng''​
 +** Vi: ''​Tào Động tông''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[store consciousness]]'''​ The base consciousness ([[alayavijnana]]) taught in [[Yogacara]] Buddhism
 +|
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​ālayavijñāna''​
 +|
 +* 阿頼耶識
 +** Cn: ''​āyēshí''​
 +** Jp: ''​arayashiki''​
 +** Vi: ''​a-lại-da thức''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[sukha]]'''​ happiness; ease; pleasure; bliss
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​sukha''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​sukha''​
 +|
 +* Bur: ??
 +* Mon: ??
 +* Mn: ??
 +* 樂
 +** Cn: ''​lè''​
 +** Jp: ??
 +** Vi: ??
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[sutra]]'''​ Scripture; originally referred to short aphoristic sayings and collections thereof
 +|
 +* from √siv: to sew
 +* Sanskrit: ''​sutra''​
 +* Pāli: ''​sutta''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သုတ်}} ''​thoht''​ ({{IPA-my|θoʊʔ|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|သုတ်}} ({{IPA|[sɔt]}})
 +* Mon: {{my|သုၵ်ႈ}} ({{IPA|[sʰuk˧]}})
 +* Thai: สูตร ''​soothe''​
 +* Mn: судар, ''​sudar''​
 +* 經, 経
 +** Cn: ''​jīng''​
 +** Jp: ''​kyō''​
 +** Vi: ''​kinh''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Sutta Pitaka|Sutra Pitaka]]'''​ The second basket of the [[Tripiṭaka]] canon, the collection of all Buddha'​s teachings
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​{{IAST|Sutta-piṭaka}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|Sūtra-piṭaka}}''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သုတ်}} ''​thoht''​ ({{IPA-my|θoʊʔ|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|သုတ်}} ({{IPA|[sɔt]}})
 +* Mon: {{my|သုၵ်ႈ}} ({{IPA|[sʰuk˧]}})
 +* Mn: Судрын аймаг ''​Sudriin aimag''​
 +* 經藏, 経蔵
 +** Cn: ''​jīngcáng''​
 +** Jp: ''​kyōzō''​
 +** Vi: ''​Kinh tạng''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==T==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​tangaryō'''​ A period of waiting for admission into a Zen [[monastery]] at the gate, lasting anywhere from one day to several weeks&​mdash;​depending on the quality of one's sitting. Refers to the room traveling monks stay in when visiting, or await admittance into the sōdō.
 +|
 +* Japanese: 旦過寮 
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +*
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[tanha]]'''​ Craving or desire
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Pāli: ''​{{IAST|taṇhā}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|tṛṣṇā}}''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|တဏှာ}} ''​tahna''​ ({{IPA-my|tən̥à|IPA}})
 +* Thai: ตัณหา ''​tunha''​
 +* Mn: хурьцахуй,​ ''​khuritsahui''​
 +* 愛
 +** Cn: ''​ài''​
 +** Jp: ''​ai''​
 +** Kr: 애 ''​ae''​
 +** Vi: ''​ái''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​Tanto'''​ In Zen, one of the main temple leaders, lit."​head of the tan." In a Zen temple, the Tanto is one of two officers (with the ''​Godo''​) in charge monks' training.<​ref>​{{cite book|last=Leighton/​ Okumura|title=Dogen'​s Pure Standards for the Zen Community|year=1996|publisher=SUNY|location=Albany|isbn=0-7914-2710-2|pages=231}}</​ref> ​
 +|
 +* Japanese:​単頭
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +*
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[tantra]]'''​ Esoteric religious practices, including [[yoga]], [[mantra]], etc. See also [[Vajrayana]].
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​tantra''​
 +|
 +* Mn: тарнийн ёс, дандар,​ ''​tarniin yos, dandar''​
 +* 續部,​怛特羅
 +** Cn: ''​dátèluó''​
 +** Jp: ??
 +** Vi: ''​đát-đặc-la''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Tathagata]]'''​ one of the [[Gautama Buddha|Buddha]]'​s [[ten epithets]]
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​tathāgata'';​ The "​Thus-Gone One"
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|တထာဂတ}} ''​tahtagata''​ ({{IPA-my|ta̰tʰàɡəta̰|IPA}})
 +* Thai: ตถาคต ''​tatha-kohd''​
 +* Mn: түүнчлэн ирсэн, ''​tuunchlen irsen''​
 +* 如来
 +** Cn: ''​rúlái''​
 +** Jp: ''​nyorai''​
 +** Vi: ''​như lai''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[tathagatagarbha]]'''​ Buddha-nature or the seed of enlightenment
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​tathāgatagarbha''​
 +|
 +* 佛性, 仏性
 +** Cn: ''​fóxìng''​
 +** Jp: ''​busshō''​
 +* Also 覚性
 +** Cn: ''​juéxìng''​
 +** Jp: ''​kakushō''​
 +** Vi: ''​giác tính''​
 +* Also 如来藏, 如来蔵
 +** Cn: ''​rúláizàng''​
 +** Jp: ''​nyuoraizō''​
 +** Vi: ''​như lai tạng''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​teisho'''​ A presentation by a Zen master during a sesshin. Rather than an explanation or exposition in the traditional sense, it is intended as a demonstration of Zen realisation
 +|
 +* Japanese: 提唱 ''​teishō''​
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​tenzo'''​ In Zen, the head cook for a sesshin. In Zen temples, the officer in charge of the kitchen
 +|
 +* Japanese: 典座 ''​tenzo''​
 +|
 +* 典座
 +** Cn: ''​diǎnzuò''​
 +** Vi: ''​điển toạ''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Theravada]]''',​ lit. "words of the elders",​ Most popular form of Buddhism in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka.
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​theravāda''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​sthaviravāda''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ထေရဝါဒ}} ''​hterawada''​ ({{IPA-my|tʰèɹa̰wàda̰|IPA}} or {{IPA-my|tʰèja̰wàda̰|}})
 +* Thai: เถรวาท ''​tera-waad''​
 +* 上座部
 +** Cn: ''​shàngzuòbù''​
 +** Jp: ''​jōzabu''​
 +** Vi: ''​Thượng toạ bộ''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​thera'''​ or '''​their''',​ lit. "​elder",​ Honorific applied to senior monks and nuns in the Theravada tradition.
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​thera''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ထေရ}} ''​htera''​ ({{IPA-my|tʰèɹa̰|IPA}})
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Three Jewels]]'''​ Three things that Buddhists take refuge in: the Buddha, his teachings ([[Dharma]]) and the community of realized practitioners ([[Sangha]]),​ and in return look toward for guidance (see also [[Refuge (Buddhism)]])
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​tiratana''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​triratna''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|သရဏဂုံသုံးပါး}} ''​tharanagon thon ba''​ ({{IPA-my|θəɹənəɡòʊɴ θóʊɴ bá|IPA}}) OR {{my|ရတနာသုံးပါး}} ''​yadana thon ba''​ ({{IPA-my|jədənà θóʊɴ bá)|}})
 +* Thai: ไตรรัตน์ ''​trai-rut''​
 +* Tib: དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ,​ ''​dkon mchog gsum''​
 +* Mn: чухаг дээд гурав ''​chuhag deed gurav''​
 +* 三寶
 +** Cn: ''​sānbăo''​
 +** Jp: ''​sanbō''​
 +** Vi: ''​tam bảo''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Three Ages of Buddhism|Three periods]]'''​
 +* Three divisions of the time following the historical Buddha'​s passing: the Former (or Early) Day of the Law (正法 Cn: ''​zhèngfǎ'';​ Jp: ''​shōbō''​),​ the first thousand years; the Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: ''​xiàngfǎ'';​ Jp: ''​zōhō''​),​ the second thousand years; and the Latter Day of the Law (末法 Cn: ''​mòfǎ'';​ Jp: ''​mappō''​),​ which is to last for 10,000 years.
 +* The three periods are significant to Mahayana adherents, particularly those who hold the [[Lotus Sutra]] in high regard; e.g., [[Tiantai]] ([[Tendai]]) and [[Nichiren Buddhism|Nichiren]] Buddhists, who believe that different Buddhist teachings are valid (i.e., able to lead practitioners to enlightenment) in each period due to the different ''​capacity to accept a teaching''​ (機根 Cn: ''​jīgēn'';​ Jp: ''​kikon''​) of the people born in each respective period.
 +* The three periods are further divided into [[#Five five-hundred year periods|five five-hundred year periods]] (五五百歳 Cn: ''​wǔ wǔbǎi suì'';​ Jp: ''​go no gohyaku sai''​),​ the fifth and last of which was prophesied to be when the Buddhism of Sakyamuni would lose all power of salvation and a new Buddha would appear to save the people. This time period would be characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other, natural disasters.
 +* The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra of the Great Assembly (大集経 Cn: ''​dàjí jīng'';​ Jp: ''​Daishutu-kyō'',​ ''​Daijuku-kyō'',​ ''​Daijikkyō'',​ or ''​Daishukkyō''​). Descriptions of the three periods also appear in other sutras, some of which ascribe different lengths of time to them (although all agree that [[#​Mappo|Mappō]] will last for 10,000 years).
 +|
 +|
 +* 三時
 +** Cn: ''​Sānshí''​
 +** Jp: ''​Sanji''​
 +** Vi: ''​Tam thời''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Three poisons (Buddhism)|Three Poisons]]'''​ or '''​[[Three fires (Buddhism)|Three Fires]]''' ​
 +:The three primary causes of unskillful action that lead to the creation of "​negative"​ karma; the three root [[Kleshas (Buddhism)|kleshas]]:​
 +# [[Raga (Buddhism)|Attachment]] (Pāli: ''​{{IAST|lobha}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|rāga}}'';​ Tib.: འདོད་ཆགས་ '''​dod chags''​)
 +# [[Dvesha (Buddhism)|Aversion]] (Pali: ''​doha'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|dveṣa}}'';​ Tib.: ཞེ་སྡང་ ''​zhe sdang'';​ Mn: урин хилэн, ''​urin khilen'';​ 瞋 Cn: ''​chēn'';​ Jp: ''​jin'';​ Vi: ''​sân''​)
 +# [[Moha (Buddhism)|Ignorance]] (Pāli: ''​moha'';​ Sanskrit: ''​moha'';​ Tib.: གཏི་མུག་ ''​gti mug''​)
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​[[kilesa]]''​ (Defilements)
 +* Sanskrit: ''​kleśa''​
 +|
 +* Sanskit: triviṣa
 +* Tib: ''​düsum''​ ({{wylie|w=dug gsum}})
 +* Bur: {{my|မီးသုံးပါး}} ''​mi thon ba''​ ({{IPA-my|mí θóʊɴ bá|IPA}})
 +* Mn: гурван хор, ''​gurvan khor''​
 +* 三毒
 +** Cn: ''​Sāndú''​
 +** Jp: ''​Sandoku''​
 +** Vi: ''​Tam độc''​
 +|- valign=top
 +| '''​[[Tiantai]]/​[[Tendai]]'''​ A Mahayana school of [[China]] that teaches the supremacy of the [[Lotus Sutra]]
 +|
 +* Chinese: 天台 ''​tiāntái''​
 +|
 +* 天台宗
 +** Cn: ''​tiāntái zōng''​
 +** Jp: ''​tendai-shū''​
 +** Vi: ''​Thiên Thai tông''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[trailõkya]]'''​ The 3 "​regions"​ of the world:
 +# [[Kamaloka]] or Kamadhatu: world of desires (Sanskrit, Pāli: ''​kāmaloka'',​ ''​kāmadhātu'';​ Tibetan: འདོད་ཁམས་ ''​`dod khams'';​ Mn: амармагийн орон, ''​amarmagiin oron'';​ 欲界 Cn: ''​yùjiè'',​ Jp: ''​yokkai'' ​ Vi: ''​dục giới''​)
 +# [[Rupaloka]] or Rupadhatu: world of form (Sanskrit: ''​rūpaloka'',​ ''​rūpadhātu'';​ Tibetan: གཟུགས་ཁམས་ ''​gzugs khams'';​ Mn: дүрстийн орон, ''​durstiin oron'';​ 色界 Cn: ''​sèjiè'';​ Jp: ''​shikikai '',​ Vi: ''​sắc giới''​)
 +# [[Arupaloka]] or Arupadhatu: world without form or desire (Sanskrit: ''​arūpaloka'',​ ''​arūpadhātu'';​ Tibetan: གཟུགས་མེད་ཁམས་ ''​gzugs med khams'';​ Mn: дүрсгүйн орон, ''​dursquin oron'';​ 無色界 Cn: ''​wú sèjiè'',​ Jp: ''​mushikikai''​ Vi: ''​vô sắc giới''​)
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​triloka''​
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​tisso dhātuyo''​
 +* Tibetan: ཁམས་གསུམ་ ''​khams gsum''​
 +* Mn: гурван орон, ''​gurvan oron''​
 +* 三界
 +** Cn: ''​sānjiè''​
 +** Jp:  ''​sangai''​
 +** Vi: ''​tam giới''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[trikaya]]'''​ The 3 "​bodies"​ of Buddha:
 +* Dharma-kaya (Sanskrit: ''​dharmakāya'';​ 法身 Cn: ''​fǎshēn'';​ Jp: ''​hosshin'';​ Vi: ''​pháp thân''​)
 +* Sambhoga-kaya (Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|saṃbhogakāya}}'';​ 報身 Cn: ''​bàoshēn'';​ Jp: ''​hōshin'';​ Vi: ''​báo thân''​)
 +* Nirmana-kaya (Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|nirmāṇakāya}}'';​ 應身,​化身,​応身 Cn: ''​yìngshēn'';​ Jp: ''​ōjin'';​ Vi: ''​ứng thân''​)
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​trikāya''​
 +|
 +* 三身
 +** Cn: ''​sānshēn''​
 +** Jp: ''​sanjin''​
 +** Vi: ''​tam thân''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Tripitaka]]'''​ The "Three Baskets";​ canon containing the sacred texts for Buddhism ([[Pāli]])
 +* [[Vinaya|Vinaya Pitaka]] (Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|Vinaya-piṭaka}}'';​ Tib: འདུལ་བའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ ''​`dul ba`i sde snod'';​ Mn: винайн аймаг сав ''​vinain aimag sav'';​ 律藏, 律蔵 Cn: ''​lǜzàng'';​ Jp: ''​Ritsuzō'';​ Vi: ''​Luật tạng''​)
 +* [[Sutta Pitaka|Sutra Pitaka]] (Pāli: ''​{{IAST|Sutta-piṭaka}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|Sūtra-piṭaka}}'';​ Tib: མདོ་སྡེའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ ''​mdo sde`i sde snod'';​ Mn: судрын аймаг сав ''​sudriin aimag sav'';​ 經藏, 経蔵 Cn: ''​jīngzàng'';​ Jp: ''​Kyōzō'';​ Vi: ''​Kinh tạng''​)
 +* [[Abhidhamma|Abhidhamma Pitaka]] (Pāli: ''​{{IAST|Abhidhamma-piṭaka}}'';​ Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|Abhidharma-piṭaka}}'';​ Tib: མངོན་པའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ ''​mngon pa`i sde snod'';​ Mn: авидармын аймаг сав ''​avidarmiin aimag sav'';​ 論藏, 論蔵 Cn: ''​lùnzàng'';​ Jp: ''​Ronzō'';​ Vi: ''​Luận tạng''​)
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​{{IAST|tipiṭaka}}''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|tripiṭaka}}''​
 +|
 +* Burmese: {{my|တိပိဋက}} ''​Tipitaka''​ ({{IPA-my|tḭpḭtəka̰|IPA}})
 +* Thai: ไตรปิฎก ''​Traipidok''​
 +* སྡེ་སྣོད་་གསུམ,​ ''​sde snod gsum''​
 +* Mn: гурван аймаг сав, ''​gurvan aimag sav''​
 +* 三藏, 三蔵
 +** Cn: ''​Sānzàng''​
 +** Jp: ''​Sanzō''​
 +** Ko: ''​Samjang''​
 +** Vi: ''​Tam tạng''​
 +|- valign=top
 +| '''​[[Three Jewels|Triratna/​Tiratana]]''',​ see Three Jewels above
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​tiratana''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​triratna''​
 +|
 +* Tib: དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ,​ ''​dkon mchog gsum''​
 +* Mn: гурван эрдэнэ,​ ''​gurvan erdene''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[trsna]]''',​ see [[tanha]] above
 +|
 +|
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[tulku]]'''​ A re-incarnated Tibetan teacher
 +|
 +* Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ ''​tulku''​
 +|
 +* Mn: хувилгаан,​ ''​khuvilgaan''​
 +* 再來人 (轉世再來的藏系師長)
 +** Cn: ''​Zài lái rén''​
 +** Jp: ''​keshin''​
 +** Vi: ''​hoá thân''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==U==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[upadana]]'''​ Clinging; the 9th link of [[Pratitya-Samutpada]];​ the Ninth [[Twelve Nidanas]]
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​upādāna''​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|ဥပါဒါန်}} ''​upadan''​ ({{IPA-my|ṵpàdàɴ|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ဢူႉပႃႇတၢၼ်ႇ}} ({{IPA|[ʔu˥ paː˨ taːn˨]}})
 +* Thai: อุปาทาน ''​u-pa-taan''​
 +* Tib: ལེན་པ,​ ''​len pa''​
 +* Mn: авахуй,​ ''​avahui''​
 +* 取(十二因緣第九支)
 +** Cn: ''​qǔ''​
 +** Jp: ''​shu''​
 +** Vi: ''​thủ''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Upajjhaya]]'''​ spiritual teacher
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​Upajjhaya''​
 +*Sanskrit: ''​upādhyāy''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဥပဇ္ဇာယ်ဆရာ}} ''​Upyizesaya''​ ({{IPA-my|ṵ pjɪʔzèsʰajà|IPA}})
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[upasaka]]'''​ A lay follower of Buddhism
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​upāsaka''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဥပါသကာ}} ''​upathaka''​ ({{IPA-my|ṵpàθəkà|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ဥပါသကာ}} ({{IPA-mnw|ʊʔpasəka|}})
 +* Thai: อุบาสก ''​u-ba-sok''​
 +* 近事男, 優婆塞
 +** Cn: ''​jìnshìnán''​
 +** Jp: ''​ubasoku''​
 +** Vi: ''​cận sự nam''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​upasika'''​ A female lay follower
 +|
 +* from [[upasaka]] above
 +* Sanskrit: ''​upāsika''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဥပါသိကာ}} ''​upathika''​ ({{IPA-my|ṵpàθḭkà|IPA}})
 +* Thai: อุบาสิกา ''​u-ba-sika''​
 +* 近事女, 優婆夷
 +** Cn: ''​jìnshìnǚ''​
 +** Jp: ''​ubai''​
 +** Vi: ''​cận sự nữ''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[upaya]]'''​ Expedient though not necessarily ultimately true. Originally used as a polemical device against other schools - calling them "​merely"​ expedient, lacking in ultimate truth, later used against ones own school to prevent students form forming attachments to doctrines
 +
 +In Mahayana, exemplified by the Lotus Sutra, upaya are the useful means that Buddhas (and Buddhist teachers) use to free beings into enlightenment
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​upāya''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဥပါယ်}} ''​upe''​ ({{IPA-my|ṵ pè|IPA}})
 +* Tib: ཐབས, ''​thabs''​
 +* Mn: арга, ''​arga''​
 +* 方便
 +** Cn: ''​fāngbiàn''​
 +** Jp: ''​hōben''​
 +** Vi: ''​phương tiện''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[upekkha]]'''​ equanimity
 +|
 +* Pāli: ''​upekkhā''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​upekṣā''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဥပက္ခာ}} ''​upyikkha''​ ({{IPA-my|ṵpjɪʔkʰà|IPA}})
 +* Thai: อุเบกขา ''​u-bek-kha''​
 +* Tib: བཏང་སྙོམས་,​ ''​btang snyoms''​
 +* Mn: тэгшид барихуй,​ ''​tegshid barihui''​
 +* 镇定,沉着,​ 捨
 +** Cn: ''​Zhèndìng,​ chénzhuó''​
 +** Jp: ''​sha''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[urna]]'''​ A concave circular dot on the forehead between the eyebrows
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​urna''​
 +|
 +* Mn: билгийн мэлмий,​ ''​bilgiin melmii''​
 +* 白毫
 +** Jp: ''​byakugō''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==V==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[Vajrayana]]''',​ The third major branch, alongside Hinayana and Mahayana, according to Tibetan Buddhism'​s view of itself
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Sanskrit: ''​vajrayāna'',​ lit. "​diamond vehicle"​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* Bur: {{my|ဝဇိရယာန}} ''​wazeirayana''​ ({{IPA-my|wəzeiɹa̰ jàna̰|IPA}})
 +* Thai: วชิรญาณ ''​wachira-yaan''​
 +* Mn: Очирт хөлгөн,​ ''​ochirt khölgön''​
 +* 金剛乘
 +** Cn: ''​Jīngāng shèng''​
 +** Jp: ''​Kongō jō''​
 +** Vi: ''​Kim cương thừa''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Vairocana]]''',​
 +|
 +* Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|वैरोचन}}''​
 +|
 +* Tib: རྣམ་པར་སྣང་མཛད། rNam-par-snang mdzad
 +* Mn: ᠪᠢᠷᠦᠵᠠᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠋᠋ᠭᠡᠢᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦ;​ <br /><​small>​Бярузана,​ Машид Гийгүүлэн Зохиогч,​ Гэгээн Гэрэлт;​ <br />​Biruzana,​ Masida Geyigülün Zohiyaghci, Gegegen Gereltü</​small>​
 +* 毗盧遮那佛,​ 大日如來
 +** Cn: Pílúzhēnàfó
 +** Jp: Dainichi Nyorai, Birushana-butsu
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Vāsanā]]''' ​ habitual tendencies or dispositions
 +|
 +* Pāli and Sanskrit: ''​Vāsanā''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဝါသနာ}} ''​wathana''​ ({{IPA-my|wàðanà|IPA}})
 +* 習気
 +** Jp: ''​jikke''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Vinaya|Vinaya Pitaka]]''',​ The first basket of the [[Tripitaka]] canon, which deals with the rules of monastic life
 +|
 +* Pāli, Sanskrit: ''​{{IAST|vinaya-piṭaka}}'',​ lit. "​discipline basket"​
 +|
 +*Bur: {{my|ဝိနည်းပိဋကတ်}} ''​wini pitakat''​ ({{IPA-my|wḭní pḭdəɡaʔ|IPA}})
 +* Mon: {{my|ဝိနဲ}} ({{IPA-mnw|wìʔnòa|}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ဝီႉၼႄး}} ({{IPA-shn|wi˥˩ ɛ˦|}})
 +* Thai: วินัย ''​wi-nai''​
 +* Tib: འདུལ་བའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ ''​dul-bai sde-snod''​
 +* Mn: Винайн аймаг сав, ''​vinain aimag sav''​
 +* 律藏
 +** Cn: ''​Lǜzàng''​
 +** Jp: ''​Ritsuzō''​
 +** Vi: ''​Luật tạng''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[vipassana]]'''​ Usually translated as "​Insight"​ meditation, most associated with the Theravāda tradition, but also present in some other traditions such as Tiantai. Often combined with [[samatha|śamatha]] meditation
 +|
 +* from ''​{{IAST|vi-√dṛś}}'':​ to see apart
 +* Pāli: ''​vipassanā''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​vipaśyanā'',​ ''​vidarśanā''​
 +|
 +* Bur: {{my|ဝိပဿနာ}} ''​wipathana''​ ({{IPA-my|wḭpaʔθanà|IPA}})
 +* Shan: {{my|ဝီႉပၢတ်ႈသၼႃႇ}} ({{IPA|[wi˥ paːt˧ sʰa˩ naː˨]}})
 +* Thai: วิปัสสนา ''​wipadsana''​
 +* Tib: ལྷག་མཐོང''​lhag mthong''​
 +* Mn: үлэмж үзэл, ''​ulemj uzel''​
 +* 觀,観
 +** Cn: ''​guān''​
 +** Jp: ''​kan''​
 +** Vi: ''​quán''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[viriya]]'''​ energy, enthusiastic perseverance
 +|
 +* from ''​ ''​
 +* Pāli: ''​viriya''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​vīrya'',​ ''​ ''​
 +|
 +* Tib: ''​brtson-grus''​
 +* Thai: วิริยะ ''​wiriya''​
 +* 能量
 +** Cn: ''​néngliàng ''​
 +** Jp: ''​nōryō''​
 +** Vi: ''​năng-lượng''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==Y==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[yāna]]'''​ divisions or schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice (lit. "​vehicle"​)
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Pāli: ''​yāna''​
 +* Sanskrit: ''​yāna'' ​
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* 乘
 +** Cn: ''​shèng''​
 +** Jp: ''​jō''​
 +** Vi: ??
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==Z==
 +{| border="​1"​ style="​border-collapse:​ collapse;"​
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Definition
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|Etymology
 +!bgcolor=#​cccccc|In other languages
 +|- valign=top style="​width:​450px"​
 +|'''​[[zazen]]'''​ Sitting meditation as practiced in the [[Zen|Zen School]] of [[Buddhism]]
 +| style="​width:​150px"​ |
 +* Japanese: 坐禅
 +| style="​width:​200px"​ |
 +* 坐禪
 +** Cn: ''​zuòchán''​
 +** Kr: ''​jwaseon''​
 +** Vi: ''​toạ thiền''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[Zen|Zen School]]'''​ A branch of Mahayana originating in China that originally emphasizes non-dualism and intuition. Modern monastic forms have a strong emphasis on zazen (Korean) or on zazen combined with militaristic top-down hazing (Japanese)
 +|
 +* Japanese: 禅宗 ''​Zen-shu''​
 +|
 +* 禪宗
 +** Cn: ''​Chánzōng''​
 +** Vi: ''​Thiền tông''​
 +|- valign=top
 +|'''​[[zendo]]'''​ In Zen, a hall where zazen is practiced
 +|
 +* Japanese: 禅堂
 +|
 +* 禪堂
 +** Cn: ''​chántáng''​
 +** Vi: ''​thiền đường''​
 +|}
 +{{compact ToC|side=yes|top=yes|num=yes}}
 +
 +==See also==
 +* [[Buddhism]]
 +* [[Buddhist texts]]
 +*[[Glossary of Japanese Buddhism]]
 +
 +==References==
 +{{reflist}}
 +
 +==External links==
 +* [http://​dsal.uchicago.edu/​dictionaries/​Pali/​ Pali Text Society Dictionary] (Be sure to check the "​Unicode font" option, and to have one; also, if looking for a word, choose "words that match"​)
 +* [http://​www.uni-koeln.de/​phil-fak/​indologie/​tamil/​mwd_search.html Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
 +* [http://​www.buddhism-dict.net/​ddb Digital Dictionary of Buddhism] (Login with userid "​guest"​)
 +* [http://​kadampa.org/​en/​reference/​glossary-of-buddhist-terms/​ Kadampa Glossary of Buddhist Terms]
 +
 +{{Buddhism topics}}
 +
 +
 +[[Categories]]:​
 +
 +
 +[[Category:​Buddhist terminology| ]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Glossaries of religion|Buddhism]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Zen Buddhist terminology| ]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Buddhist philosophical concepts| ]]
  
glossary_of_buddhism.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:11 (external edit)