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 +----
 +
 +
 +======= Longchen Rapjampa =======
 +[[Longchen Rapjampa]], see also [[Gosok Rinpoche]] ​
 +
 + ​[[File:​Longchenpa.JPG|thumb|right|280px|Longchenpa in his meditation seat]]{{Tibetan-Chinese-box|t=ཀློང་ཆེན་པ་|w=klong chen rab ’byams pa|ipa={{IPA-bo|lɔŋtɕʰẽpa|}}|z=Longqên Rabjamba (Longqênba)|thdl=Longchen Rapchampa (Longchenpa)|e=—|tc=隆欽然絳巴|s=隆钦然绛巴|p=Lóngqīn Ránjiàngbā}}
 +{{Tibetan Buddhism}}
 +
 +'''​Longchenpa'''​ or '''​Longchen Rabjampa'''​ (1308<​ref name="​practice">​{{cite book |author=Longchen Rabjam |coauthors=Tulku Thondup |title=The Practice of Dzogchen |year=1996 |publisher=[[Snow Lion Publications]] |quote= | pages=145–188| url= |isbn=1559390549 }}</​ref>​ &ndash; 1363<ref name="​practice"/>​ or possibly 1369) was a major teacher in the [[Nyingma]] school of [[Tibetan Buddhism]]. Along with [[Sakya Pandita]] and Je [[Tsongkhapa]],​ he is commonly recognized as one of the three main manifestations of [[Manjushri]] to have taught in Central [[Tibet]]. His major work is the ''​[[Seven Treasuries|Seven Treasures]]'',<​ref>​[http://​www.dzogchen.org/​library/​bios/​dzogchen-lineage.htm The Dzogchen Lineage of Nyoshul Khenpo]</​ref>​ which encapsulates the previous 600 years of [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] thought in [[Tibet]]. Longchenpa was a critical link in the exoteric and [[esoteric transmission]] of the [[Dzogchen]] teachings. He was abbot of [[Samye]], one of [[Tibet]]'​s most important monasteries and the first Buddhist monastery established in the [[Himalaya]],​ but spent most of his life travelling or in [[Retreat (spiritual)|retreat]].
 +
 +David Germano, in his doctoral thesis on the [[Tsigdön Dzö (tshigs don mdzod)]] (one of the [[Seven Treasuries]]),<​ref name="​germano">​Germano,​ David Francis (1992). [http://​vajrayana.faithweb.com/​Poetic%20thought%20-%20The%20Tantric%20synthesis%20of%20Dzogs%20Chen.pdf "​Poetic thought, the intelligent Universe, and the mystery of self: The Tantric synthesis of ''​rDzogs Chen''​ in fourteenth century Tibet."​] The University of Wisconsin, Madison. Doctoral thesis.] (accessed: Friday December 18, 2009)</​ref>​ frames the brilliance of Longchenpa within the wider discourse of the Dzogchen tradition (found in the [[Bonpo]] [[Zhangzhung]] and Indo-Tibetan traditions of Buddhism):  ​
 +
 +{{quote|"​Although at least five hundred years (800 CE - 1300 CE) of thought, contemplation and composition in this tradition (which may not have been a clearly self-conscious tradition in the beginning) preceded him such that all the major themes, structures, and terminology were in place prior to his birth (above all in the canonical [[Seventeen tantras|Seventeen Tantras]] of the Great Perfection (rgyud bcu bdun)), it was Longchenpa (1308-1363) who systematically refined the terminology used by the tradition with a series of subtle yet clear distinctions;​ brilliantly revealed its relationships with mainstream exoteric Buddhist thought; clarified its internal structure; created from it masterpieces of poetic philosophy remarkable for their aesthetic beauty, philosophical rigor, and overall clarity; and overall pinpointed the inner quintessence of the tradition with writings that not only systematized every major topic, but also creatively explained each to render crystal clear the unprecedented revolution in the content, form, and structure of "​philosophical"​ thought in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism that the Great Perfection teachings entail."<​ref name="​germano"/><​ref>''​[[Caveat lector]]'':​ This is a worked quotation: the [[Christocentric]] "​[[AD]]"​ was iterated to the inclusive non-partisan "​[[Common Era|CE]]";​ the hybridized non-standard development of the former scholastic standard [[Wylie transcription]] system capitalizing enunciated [[syllable]]s/​[[phoneme]]s and backgrounding non-vocalized etymological roots as lowercase text employed by Germano was iterated to the Extended Wylie Transcription System (EWTS) favoured by Wikipedia and English [[Peer review|peer-review]] literature; and metatext/​hypertext embellishment and augmentation maximizing the interactive digital medium from the print media source was employed in contravention of Wikipedia guidelines that favour replication of a direct quotation with [[:​wikt:​felicity|felicity]].</​ref>​}}
 +
 +==Nomenclature,​ orthography and etymology==
 +Apart from Longchenpa'​s names given below, he is sometimes referred to by the honorary title "​Second Buddha"​ (Tib. rgyal ba gnyis), a term usually reserved for [[Guru]] [[Padmasambhava]] and indicative of the high regard in which he and his teachings are held. Like the Third [[Karmapa]] [[Rangjung Dorje]], [[Rongzompa]] and [[Jigme Lingpa]], he carried the title "​Kunkhyen"​ (Tibetan; "​All-Knowing"​).
 +
 +Various forms and spellings of Longchenpa'​s full name(s), in which '​Longchen'​ means "Great Expanse",​ "Vast Space",​ or "​Immense Knowledge":​
 +
 +:* Longchen Rabjam (klong chen rab '​byams;​ realization of vast knowledge)
 +:* Longchen Rabjampa (klong chen rab 'byams pa)
 +:* Longchenpa Drimey Özer (klong chen pa dri med 'od zer)
 +:* Künkhyen Longchenpa (kun mkhyen klong chen pa; the omniscient Longchenpa)
 +:* Künkhyen Longchen Rabjam (kun mkhyen klong chen rab '​byams)
 +:* Künkhyen Chenpo (kun mkhyen chen po; Omniscient Great One)
 +:* Künkhyen Chenpo Drimey Özer (kun mkhyen chen po dri med 'od zer)
 +:* Künkhyen Chökyi (kun mkhyen chos kyi rgyal po; All-knowing Dharma King)
 +:* Gyalwa Longchen Rabjam (rgyal ba klong chen rab '​byams)
 +:* Gyalwa Longchen Rabjam Drimey Özer (rgyal ba klong chen rab 'byams dri med 'od zer)
 +
 +==Biography==
 +A reincarnation of [[Pema Ledrel Tsal]], as such Longchenpa is regarded as an indirect incarnation of the princess [[Pema Sal]].<​ref name="​practice"/>​ He was born to master [[Tenpasung]],<​ref name="​practice"/>​ an adept at both the sciences and the practice of [[mantra]], and [[Dromza Sonamgyen]],​ who was descended from the family of [[Dromton Gyelwie Jungne]]. Legend states that at age five, Longchenpa could read and write<​ref name="​practice"/>​ and by age seven his father began instructing him in Nyingma tantras.<​ref name="​practice"/>​ Longchenpa was first ordained at the age of twelve<​ref name="​practice"/>​ and studied extensively with the Third [[Karmapa]],​ [[Rangjung Dorje]].<​ref name="​practice"/>​ He received not only the [[Nyingma]] transmissions as passed down in his family,<​ref name="​practice"/>​ but also studied with many of the great teachers of his day without regard to sect. He thus received the combined [[Kadam]] and [[Sakya]] teachings of the [[Sutrayana]] through his main [[Sakya]] teacher, [[Palden Lama Dampa Sonam Gyaltsen]], in addition to the corpus of both old and new translation [[tantra]]s. At the age of nineteen, Longchenpa entered the famous [[shedra]] (monastic college) [[Sangpu Neutok]] (Wylie: gSang-phu Ne'​u-thog),<​ref name="​practice"/>​ where he acquired great scholarly wisdom. He later chose to practice in the solitude of the mountains, after becoming disgusted by the unpleasant behavior of certain scholars. ​
 +
 +When he was in his late twenties two events occurred that were to be of decisive importance in his intellectual and spiritual development. ​ One was a vision of Guru Padmasambhava and his consort [[Yeshe Tsogyal]]. The other happened in his twenty-ninth year, his meeting with the great mystic [[Rigdzin Kumaradza]] (alt. [[Kumaraja]]) from whom he received the Dzogchen empowerment and teachings in the mountains, the uplands of Yartökyam at [[Samye]] where he was traveling from valley to valley with his students under the most difficult of circumstances. [[Dudjom]] (1904–1987) ''​et al.''​ (1991: p.&​nbsp;​579) hold that just prior to the arrival of Longchenpa, Kumaraja relates to his disciples:
 +
 +{{quote|"​Last night I dreamt that a wonderful bird, which announced itself to be a divine bird, came with a large flock in attendance, and carried away my books in all directions. Therefore, someone will come to hold my lineage."<​ref name="​nyingma">​{{cite book |author=[[Dudjom Rinpoche]] |coauthors=Jikdrel Yeshe Dorje |title=The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: its Fundamentals and History |year=1991 |publisher=[[Wisdom Publications]] |quote= |pages=579 | url= |isbn=0-86171-087-8}}</​ref>​}}
 +
 +Kumaraja accepted no outer tribute from Longchenpa for the teachings he received as Kumararaja through his supernormal cognitive powers discerned that Longchenpa was blameless and had offered his tribute internally.<​ref name="​nyingma"/>​
 +
 +Together with [[Rangjung Dorje]], Longchenpa accompanied Kumaraja and his disciples for two years, during which time he received all of Rigdzin Kumaradza'​s transmissions. Through the efforts of these three, the diverse streams of the "​Innermost Essence"​ (''​nying thig''​) teachings of [[Dzogchen]] were brought together and codified into one of the common grounds between the [[Nyingma]] and [[Karma Kagyu]]d traditions. ​
 +
 +After several years in retreat, Lonchenpa attracted more and more students, even though he had spent nearly all of his life in mountain caves. During a stay in [[Bhutan]] (Tib., Mon), Longchenpa fathered a daughter and a son, of which the latter, [[Trugpa Odzer]] (b. 1356), also became a holder of the [[Nyingtig lineage]]. A detailed account of the life and teachings of Longchenpa is found in ''​Buddha Mind''​ by [[Tulku]] [[Thondup Rinpoche]]<​ref>​{{cite book |author=Thondup Rinpoche |coauthors= |title=Buddha Mind: An Anthology of Longchen Rabjam'​s Writings on Dzogpa Chenpo |year=1989 |publisher=[[Snow Lion Publications]] |quote= | url= |isbn=0937938831 }}</​ref>​ and in ''​A Marvelous Garland of Rare Gems''​ by [[Nyoshul Khenpo Rinpoche|Nyoshul Khenpo]].<​ref>​{{cite book |author=[[Nyoshul Khenpo Rinpoche]] |coauthors= |title=A Marvelous Garland of Rare Gems: Biographies of Masters of Awareness in the Dzogchen Lineage (A Spiritual History of the Teachings of Natural Great Perfection) |year=2005 |publisher=Padma Publishing |quote= | url= |isbn=1881847411 }}</​ref>​
 +
 +[[Pema Lingpa]] the famous ''​[[terton]]''​ (finder of sacred texts) of Bhutan is regarded as the immediate reincarnation of Longchenpa.
 +
 +==Works==
 +Longchenpa is widely considered the single most important writer on the [[Dzogchen]] teachings. He is credited with more than 250 works, both as author and compiler, among which are the famous ''​[[Seven Treasuries|Seven Treasures]]''​ (mdzod bdun), the ''​[[Trilogy of Natural Freedom]]''​ (rang grol skor gsum), the ''​[[Trilogy of Natural Ease]]''​ (ngal gso skor gsum), his ''​[[Trilogy of Dispelling Darkness]]'',​ and his compilation - plus commentaries - of the ''​[[Nyingtig Yabshi]].''​ He is also a commentator of the ''​[[Kunyed Gyalpo Tantra]]''​ (Tib., kun byed rgyal po'i rgyud; "The King Who Creates Everything"​),​ a text belonging to the [[Mind Class]] (Tib., sems sde) of the [[Ati Yoga]] [[Inner Tantras]]. As scholar Jacob Dalton summarizes,
 +
 +{{quote|His foremost writings were gathered into several collections:​ The ''​Mdzod bdun''​ (Seven Treasuries) are his most famous works, presenting the whole of Buddhist thought from a snying thig viewpoint; the ''​Ngal gso skor gsu''​m (Resting at Ease Trilogy) and the ''​Rang grol skor gsum''​ (Natural Freedom Trilogy) provide in-depth introductions to ''​Rdzogs chen'';​ the ''​Mun sel skor gsum''​ (Dispelling the Darkness Trilogy) are three commentaries on the [[Guhyagarbha Tantra]]; and the ''​Snying thig ya bzhi''​ (Seminal Quintessence in Four Parts) is a redaction of his three ''​snying thig''​ commentaries together with their predecessors,​ the ''​Vima snying thig''​ and the ''​Mkha’ ’gro snying thig''​.<​ref>​Dalton,​ Jacob. "Klong chen pa (Longchenpa)." ​ ''​Encyclopedia of Buddhism Vol II''​. Edited by Robert Buswell. pg 425</​ref>​}}
 +
 +Longchenpa combined the teachings of the [[Vima Nyingtig]] lineage with those of the [[Khandro Nyingtig]], thus preparing the ground for the fully unified system of teachings that became known as the [[Longchen Nyingthig]] (by [[Jigme Lingpa]]).
 +
 +Longchenpa first lived as a free yogi, until he realized the enlightenment. He then worked as a spiritual master and developed the doctrine of the three great satisfactions. It is good to live as a [[yogi]] and quick come to enlightenment. It's good to be an enlightened master, because you can help spiritually many people. And it is well to die enlightened,​ because then you live forever in the light ([[Nirvana]]).
 +
 +==Translations in English==
 +*Dowman, Keith, ''​Old Man Basking In the Sun: Longchenpa'​s Treasury of Natural Perfection'',​ Vajra Publications,​ 2006
 +*Guenther, H.V., ''​Kindly Bent to Ease Us''​ [trans. of The Trilogy of Finding Comfort and Ease (Ngal-gso-skor-gsum)],​ vols. 1-3, Dharma Publishing, 1975-6
 +*Guenther, H.V. and the Yeshe De Translation Group, ''​Now That I Come to Die''​ [trans. of the parting injunctions (zhal-chems gnad-kyi me-long)], Dharma Publishing, 2007
 +*Klong-chen rab-'​byams-pa,​ ''​Looking Deeper: A Swan's Questions and Answers'',​ translated by [[Herbert V. Guenther]], Timeless Books, 1983
 +*Rabjam, Longchen (Longchenpa) (2000). ''​You Are the Eyes of the World''​. (trans of ''​[[kun byed rgyal po]]''​ by Kennard Lipman & Merrill Peterson and with an introduction by [[Namkhai Norbu]]). Snow Lion Publications;​ Revised Edition. ISBN 1559391405; ISBN 978-1559391405 ​
 +*Longchen Rabjampa, '''​The Four-Themed Precious Garland: An Introduction to Dzogchen'',​ with commentaries by Dudjom Rinpoche and [[Beru Khyentse Rinpoche]]; translated by [[Alexander Berzin (scholar)|Alexander Berzin]], LTWA, 1978
 +*Longchen Rabjam (author), [[Richard Barron]] (trans): ''​The Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena (Chöying Dzöd)''​. Padma Publishing
 +*Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans):''​ A Treasure Trove of Scriptural Transmission:​ A Commentary on the Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena''​. Padma Publishing (2001) ISBN 1881847306
 +*Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): ''​Precious Treasury of the Way of Abiding''​. Padma Publishing (1998) ISBN 1881847098
 +*Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): ''​The Precious Treasury of Philosophical Systems (Drupta Dzöd)'':​ Padma Publishing (2008) ISBN 1881847446
 +*Longchen Rabjam (author), Richard Barron (trans): ''​The Precious Treasury of Pith Instructions (Man-ngak Dzöd)'':​ Padma Publishing (2007). ISBN 188184742X
 +*Longchen Rabjam, ''​The Practice of Dzogchen'',​ translated by [[Tulku Thondup]], Snow Lion, 2002
 +
 +==References==
 +{{reflist}}
 +
 +==External links==
 +*[http://​www.dzogchenproject.com/​Longchenpabibliography.html Dzogchen Project] Extensive bibliography with information regarding available translations
 +*[http://​lotsawahouse.org/​longchenpa.html Lotsawa House] ​ - Featuring translations of several texts by Longchenpa.
 +
 +{{Buddhism topics}}
 +
 +[[Category:​1308 births]]
 +[[Category:​1360s deaths]]
 +[[Category:​Buddhist philosophers]]
 +[[Category:​Lamas]]
 +[[Category:​Nyingma]]
 +[[Category:​Tulkus]]
 +
 +[[de:​Longchen Rabjam]]
 +[[nl:​Longchenpa]]
 +[[pl:​Longczenpa]]
 +[[ru:​Лонгченпа]]
 +[[zh:​龍欽巴]]
 +
 +
 +
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 +====== Fair Use Bibliographic Sources ======
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 +http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Longchen_Rabjam
 +Primary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: [[Ron Epstein]], Ph.D, compiler, [[Buddhism A to Z]], Burlingame, [[California]],​ [[Buddhist Text Translation Society]], 2003, p. 
 +[[ISBN 0881393533]] ​ Paperback: 284 pages. ​ http://​www.BTTSOnline.org ​    ​www.Amazon.com ​  
 +http://​www.bttsonline.org/​product.aspx?​pid=118
 +http://​www.amazon.com/​gp/​product/​0881393533/​ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20
 +and many other sources (see [[Bibliography]]).
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 +
 +These [[Good and Wise Advisors]] ([[Kaliyanamitra]]) [[Dharma Master]] teachers include [[Arya]] [[Venerable]]s [[Om Tare Tuttare Ture]] [[Om Ah Hum]] and [[Namo]] to [[Jivaka]], [[Charaka]],​ [[Lao Zi]] - [[Mahakashapa]],​ [[Ashwagosha]],​ [[Shantideva]] - [[Hui Neng]] - [[Shen Kai]] [[Sheng Ren Shr]], [[Bodhidharma]],​ the 16 [[Nalanda Acharyas]] 1. [[Nagarjuna]]-[[Manjushri]],​ 2. [[Arydeva]],​ 3. [[Buddhapalita]],​ 4. [[Bhavaviveka]],​ 5. [[Chandrakirti]] and [[Chandragomin]],​ 6. [[Shantideva]],​ 7. [[Shantarakshita]],​ 8. [[Kamalashila]],​ 9. [[Asanga]]-[[Maitreya]],​ 10. [[Vasubhandu]],​ 11. [[Dignaga]],​ 12. [[Dharmakirti]],​ 13. [[Vimuktisena]],​ 14. [[Haribhadra]],​ 15. [[Gunaprabha]],​ 16. [[Shakyaprabha]];​ [[Dharmarakshita]],​ [[Atisha]], [[Tsong Khapa]], [[Thogme Zangpo]], [[Nyingma]] [[Padmasambhava]],​ [[Yeshe Tsogyel]], [[Machig Lapdron]], [[Tilopa]], [[Naropa]], [[Milarepa]],​ [[Sakya Pandita]], [[Kumarajiva]],​ [[Xuan Zang]], [[Baozhi]], [[Hui Yuan]], ​ [[Daosheng]],​ [[Changzhi]],​ [[Fazang]], [[Han Shan]], [[Shi De]], [[Yunmen]], [[Nichiren]],​ [[Honen]], [[Shinran]],​ [[Kukai]], [[Dogen]], [[Hakuin]], [[Jamgon Kongtrul]], [[Nyingma]] [[Penor Rinpoche]], [[Bakula Rinpoche]], [[Dagri Rinpoche]], [[Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche]], [[Geshe Lama Kongchog]], [[Longchen Rapjampa]] - [[Gosok Rinpoche]], [[Phabongkha Rinpoche]], [[Patrul Rinpoche]], [[Tenzin Gyatso]] the [[Dalai Lama]], [[Sakya Trizin]], [[Hsu Yun]], [[Hsuan Hua]], [[Lama Zopa Rinpoche]], [[Choden Rinpoche]], [[Garchen Rinpoche]], [[Karmapa]],​ [[Mingyur Rinpoche]], [[Geshe Ngwang Dakpa]], [[Geshe Sopa Rinpoche]], [[Seung Sahn]], [[Thich Nhat Hanh]], [[Ajahn Chah]], [[Ajahn Sumedho]], [[S. N. Goenka]], [[Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha]], making [[offerings]] and [[b [[bowing]] at your feet I make [[request]]s. Please bestow on me the [[two attainments]] of [[Maha]] [[Punya]] and [[Maha]] [[Prajna Paramita]]. And [[Om Ah Hum]] thanks to other [[modern day masters]]. ​ We consider them to be in accord with [[Tripitaka Master]] [[Hsuan Hua]]’s "​[[Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers]]"​
 +
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 +
 +
 +Secondary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: The [[Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism]], 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://​www.budaedu.org.tw
 +
 +Secondary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, [[Digital Dictionary of Buddhism]] [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007:  Username is "​guest",​ with no password.
 +http://​buddhism-dict.net/​ddb - Based in large part on the [[Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms]] with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by [[Soothill]] and Hodous) Delhi, India: [[Motilal Banarsidass]],​ 1997.
 +
 +Secondary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The [[Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen]], Boston, Massachusetts:​ [[Shambhala Publications]],​ 1991.  296 pages. ​ ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 ​ http://​www.Shambhala.com,​
 +http://​www.amazon.com/​gp/​product/​0877735204/​ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20,​
 +http://​www.shambhala.com/​html/​catalog/​items/​isbn/​978-0-87773-520-5.cfm
 +Secondary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: [[Vaidya]] [[Vasant Lad]], [[Textbook of Ayurveda]], [[Ayurvedic Press]], 2002; 
 +[[Vasant Lad]], [[BAMS]], [[MAsc]], [[Ayurvedic Institute Gurukula Notes]], [[Ayurvedic Institute]],​ 1994-2006; ​
 +
 +----
 +NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under [[Shastra tradition]] and "​[[Fair Use]]" by an [[Anonymous]] [[Buddhist Monk]] [[Redactor]] (Compiler) of this Online [[Buddhist Encyclopedia]] Compilation) ​
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 +[[Medicine Buddha Mantra]]: [[Om]] [[Namo]] [[Bhagavate]] [[Bhaisajya]] [[Guru]] [[Vaidurya]] [[Prabaha]] [[Rajaya]] [[Tathagataya]] [[Arhate]] [[Samyamsambodhi]] [[Tadyata]] [[Om]] [[Bhaisajye]] Bhaisajye [[Bhaisajya]] [[Samudgate]] [[Svaha]]. ​
 +[[Medicine King Bodhisattva]] [[Jeweled Ax Mantra]] 16 (Line 64 of the 
 +[[Great Compassion Mantra]] of [[Avalokiteshvara]]) of the [[42 Hands and Eyes Mantras]]: ​
 +[[Syi lu seng e mu chywe ye Nan Wei la ye Wei la ye Sa wa he]].
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longchen_rapjampa.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:12 (external edit)