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 +
 +======= Necklace of Learned Explanations Jetsun Chokyi Gyaltsen ======
 +
 +
 +
 +====== Part 1 Explaining the Accumulation of Exalted Wisdom ======
 +
 +
 +[note: In this section we include two parts of this text by Jetsun Chokyi Gyaltsen specifically studied during ​
 +the March/April 2003 module and translated for that purpose by our visiting tutor Bill Magee. Part 2 
 +(Positing our own System) was actually studied first and then Part 1. The full text, translated by Jampa 
 +Ignyen for a previous module, is included in the Appendices section of this package] ​
 +A Necklace of Learned Explanations ​
 +A presentation of Grounds and Paths 
 +by Jetsun Chokyi Gyaltshan Pal Zangpo ​
 +Translated by Bill Magee in March 2003  ​
 +for the use of Chenrezig Institute Buddhist Studies Programme  ​
 + 
 +Explaining the Accumulation of Exalted Wisdom ​
 +[In The Ornament of Clear Realization,​] it says, “In that there is the accumulation ​
 +of exalted wisdom and…” ​ So, of the seventeen accomplishments of accumulation,​ why 
 +explain the accumulation of exalted wisdom in particular? ​ There is a reason for the 
 +accumulation of exalted wisdom is difficult to realize and if realized, carries great 
 +benefits and virtues. ​ And thus it is explained in particular. ​ This text arose in order to 
 +explain it. 
 +Here, we have five [sections:] 1. Setting out the individual systems of the Middle ​
 +Way and Mind-Only ​ 2. Proving the reasonableness of the Middle Way system ​ 3. 
 +Abandoning grounds for disputing that  4. Refuting the Mind-Only system 5. The reasons ​
 +for not explaining the other divisions of exalted wisdom. ​
 +1. Setting out the individual systems of the Middle Way and Mind-Only ​
 +  The Mind-Only maintains that a truly established emptiness – which is the 
 +apprehended form and apprehending consciousness being empty of being different ​
 +substances – is the assessed object of the Arya’s meditative equipoise. ​ The Middle Way 
 +maintains that emptiness, which is all phenomena’s being empty of true existence, is the 
 +assessed object of that [Arya’s meditative equipoise.] ​ For, in the rgyan snang, it says, “If 
 +asked, ‘What is the focus of this non-conceptual exalted wisdom?’ some would maintain, ​
 +‘it is emptiness.’ Others would maintain that it focuses on an emptiness of the very entity ​
 +of all phenomena.” ​  
 +2. Proving the reasonableness of the Middle Way system ​  
 +  Which of those two systems is logically acceptable? ​ It is the Middle Way system ​
 +that is logically acceptable, because it has correct reasons that prove it.  So, what are 
 +they?  The Great Commentary gives a syllogism of nature, ‘This is reasonable because ​
 +whatever is consciousness focuses on [a dharma whose nature is] emptiness, the nature of 
 +all phenomena. ​ Take for instance, that which focuses on the emptiness entity such as a 
 +dream elephant or a dream horse. ​ This non-conceptual exalted wisdom, which is the 
 +object in question, is also a consciousness.’ ​  
 +  The syllogism, “‘If the focus is not directly perceivable,​ that which sees its object ​
 +is not a thoroughly established,​’ is not a non-established syllogism. ​ Since it exists in the 
 +concordant class, it is not an excluding [proof]. ​   Since the nature of all phenomena ​
 +existing as suchness is later refuted, it is not an indeterminate [proof] either.” ​  
 +  As for what that means: ​ Some say, ‘If a thing is consciousness,​ its object is 
 +necessarily emptiness of true existence. For instance, like the consciousness to which a 
 +dream horse or dream elephant appear. ​ Non-conceptual exalted wisdom is also like this.”  ​
 +Is this proof statement a correct reason of nature [of the type] being explicitly taught in 
 +this context? ​ Well, [if it were, a person could object by saying:​] ​ It follows that 
 +consciousness is a correct reason of nature that proves the object of non-conceptual ​
 +exalted wisdom is empty of true existence because the assertion is logically acceptable.  ​
 +But that cannot be maintained because its predicate is a non-affirming negative. ​
 +  Our system [would say:] “If something is a consciousness it necessarily focuses ​
 +on an object that is empty of true existence. ​ For instance, take the consciousness to 
 +which a dream horse or dream elephant appears. ​ Non-conceptual exalted wisdom is also 
 +like this.” ​ This proof statement is the [type of] proof statement being explicitly taught in 
 +this context. ​ Thus, the definition of the accumulation of exalted wisdom being explicitly ​
 +taught in this context is: 
 +  an exalted knower of a Mahayanist who has realized emptiness. ​
 +  If that is divided, there are the three that are paths of accumulation,​ the one that is 
 +a path of preparation,​ one for each of the seven impure grounds, two each for each of the 
 +three pure grounds and three that are grounds of a Buddha, and thus there are twenty. ​  
 +3. Abandoning grounds for disputing that 
 +Someone might say, “The subject emptiness of true existence does exist truly 
 +because it is a focus. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that the subject, a sprout’s lack of true 
 +existence, does not exist because it does not exist truly. ​ Yet, this is an objection made by 
 +a system that does not understand the crucial points of the two [types of] negation. ​ It 
 +follows that there is no pervasion to that because, just as killing Yajana, who killed ​
 +Devadatta, does not resurrect Devadatta, refuting the true establishment of a sprout’s lack 
 +of true existence does not resurrect the sprout’s true establishment. ​  
 +4. Refuting the Mind-Only system ​
 +A refutation of the Mind-Only system: [The Mind-Only system says,] “The ​
 +emptiness that is apprehended and apprehender being empty of being different substances ​
 +is both truly established and the final mode of being.” ​ It follows that the subject, [the 
 +emptiness that is apprehended and apprehender being empty of being different ​
 +substances],​ is substantially established because it is truly established. ​ If that is accepted, ​
 +it follows that valid cognition that apprehends the apprehended is either a single ​
 +substance or different substances because that is what they maintain. ​ Yet, that cannot be 
 +maintained because that [emptiness that is apprehended and apprehender being empty of 
 +being different substances] is neither a single substance nor is it different substances. ​ If 
 +[they respond by saying,] ‘The first is not established’,​ then it follows that the subject is a 
 +thing because the first is not established. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that the 
 +obscurations are not purified through meditation in which a Learner’s exalted wisdom of 
 +meditative equipoise focuses on it, because it is not a thing. ​ If [they respond by saying,​] ​
 +‘The latter is not established’,​ it follows that the subject is not the mode of being of the 
 +valid cognition that apprehends the apprehender because the latter is not established. ​
 +5. The reasons for not explaining the other divisions of exalted wisdom. ​
 +The reason for not explaining the other divisions such as the exalted wisdom of 
 +the dharmadhatu here is that we maintain that this brief presentation resolves the 
 +accomplishment of the accumulation of exalted wisdom, one of the seventeen ​
 +accomplishments of accumulation. ​ “As for the accumulation of the grounds, a ground ​
 +extends until that ground’s thorough training [eg. thorough purification] ​ is completed.  ​
 +Know that once that is completed, it is another ground.” ​  
 +“’What is the reason for explaining the accumulation of grounds from among the 
 +seventeen accomplishments of accumulation in particular? ​ There are many texts that 
 +speak of it and many meanings to what is said and thus, understanding that it is difficult ​
 +to realize, it has been explained.’ And thus this text has come about to extensively explain ​
 +the divisions of the accumulation of grounds, the ten thorough trainings…” ​  
 +There are three sub-sections: ​ Refutation, Positing and Abandoning ​
 +A. Refutation ​
 +[1] A person says, ‘A clear realization that acts as a basis for many good 
 +qualities is the definition of ground.’ ​ It follows that the subject, a Mahayana path of 
 +accumulation,​ is that definiendum [i.e. a ground] because that is its definition. ​ If that is 
 +accepted, it follows that it is hard and solid because it is a ground. ​ Such would 
 +necessarily be the case because it says in the Abdhidharmakosha,​ ‘Those which are hard, 
 +moist, warm and moving, are functional.’ ​  
 +[2] A person says, ‘Such a clear realization is the definition of a ground from 
 +within the two-fold division of grounds and paths.’ ​ It follows that is not logically ​
 +acceptable, because if something is a ground from within the two-fold division of 
 +grounds and paths, it must be a path.  If something is a clear realization,​ it does not need 
 +to be a path.  If [we say,] ‘The latter is not established,​’ [they respond by saying,] ‘it 
 +follows that it is, because there are clear realizations in the continuum of persons who 
 +have not entered a path.  That follows because there are teachings of realization in such a 
 +continuum.’ ​ But that is not necessarily the case.   
 +[3] A person says, ‘A clear realization in the continuum of a person who has 
 +entered such a path is the definition of a ground from within the two-fold division of 
 +grounds and paths.’ ​ It follows that the subject, the path of seeing’s uninterrupted path of 
 +a Mahayanist in one-pointed equipoise on the suchness of a vase, conforms to that 
 +definition because it is that definiendum. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that it is the basis 
 +for many good qualities because that is what they have maintained. ​ If that is accepted, it 
 +follows that if [a person] lacks that, they necessarily lack many good qualities, because ​
 +that is what has been maintained. ​ If they accept, then it is easy. 
 +[4] A person says, ‘A clear realization of an Arya bodhisattva that is 
 +influenced by great compassion and the wisdom realizing emptiness is the definition ​
 +of a bodhisattva ground.’ ​ It follows that the subject, the Mahayana path of preparation, ​
 +conforms to that definition because it is that definiendum. ​ If [they say] it is not 
 +established,​ it follows that is it because it is the ground of a bodhisattva’s devoted ​
 +conduct. ​ That follows because the awakening mind in the continuum of one on the 
 +bodhisattva ground of preparation is an awakening mind of devoted conduct. ​ In the 
 +Ornament of Sutra it was said,  ​
 +‘On the grounds, that awakening mind  ​
 +is held to be other than devotion, the highest pure intention and the fruitional. ​
 +That [occurs once] the obscurations have been abandoned.’ ​
 +Furthermore,​ it follows that is a bodhisattva ground because it is the hearer path of 
 +preparation,​ a Hearer ground. ​ That follows because the presentation of the eight lower 
 +grounds is logically admissible. ​ He says, ‘It follows that the one on the bodhisattva path 
 +of preparation is a person who abides on a ground of a bodhisattva because the 
 +bodhisattva’s path of preparation is a ground of a bodhisattva. ​ If that is accepted, it 
 +follows that he is a bodhisattva who abides on the grounds because that is what you 
 +maintain. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that he is an Arya bodhisattva because that is 
 +what you maintain.’ ​ The root [assertion] does not pervade,1
 + ​because then it would follow ​
 +that an Arya Buddha is a person who has entered the Hearer path because the exalted ​
 +knower that perceptually realizes selflessness of person in its continuum is a Hearer path.  ​
 +That pervasion is accepted. ​
 +Furthermore,​ ‘It follows that the Bodhisattva path of seeing is not the first 
 +bodhisattva ground because the bodhisattva path of preparation is a bodhisattva ground.’ ​
 +There is no pervasion [that is, just because the bodhisattva path of preparation is a 
 +bodhisattva ground does not mean the Bodhisattva path of seeing is not the first 
 +bodhisattva ground]. ​
 +                                                 
 +1
 + In other words, just because the bodhisattva’s path of preparation is a ground of a bodhisattva does not 
 +mean the person who attains it is a person who abides on a ground of a bodhisattva  ​
 +[5] A person says, ‘A clear realization influenced by great compassion and the 
 +wisdom [perceptually] realizing emptiness is the definition of an arya bodhisattva ​
 +ground.’ ​ It follows that the subject, the Mahayana path of preparation that was preceded ​
 +by the realization of a Hearer arhat who had perceptually realized emptiness, is the 
 +definiendum because it conforms to that definition. ​ Both the reason and the predicate are 
 +established because there is such a subject. ​  
 +[6] A person says, ‘That which is an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise in 
 +one-pointed meditative equipoise on suchness and which acts a an actual antidote to 
 +the acquired apprehension of true existence is the definition of the first ground’s ​
 +uninterrupted path.’ ​ It follows that the subject the first ground’s uninterrupted path of the 
 +path of meditation conforms to that definition because it is that definiendum. ​ The reason ​
 +is proven below. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that it has not abandoned the acquired ​
 +apprehension of true existence because that is what you maintain. ​ Yet that cannot be 
 +maintained because there is such a subject. ​  
 +[7] A person says, ‘That is the definition of the first ground’s uninterrupted path 
 +of the path of seeing.’ ​ It follows that the subject, an uninterrupted path of the Mahayana ​
 +path of seeing that is the cause of the acquired apprehension of true existence conforms to 
 +that definition because it is that definiendum. ​ The reason is established because that 
 +[uninterrupted path of the Mahayana path of seeing that is the cause of the acquired ​
 +apprehension of true existence] exists. ​ [It exists] because the acquired apprehension of 
 +true existence that apprehends that to be truly existent exists. ​ If that is accepted, it 
 +follows that is the actual antidote to the acquired apprehension of true existence because ​
 +that is what you maintain. ​ If that is accepted, It follows that is an agent that damages that 
 +because that is what you maintain. ​ Yet that cannot be maintained because that is an agent 
 +that benefits that.  That follows because that is its cause. ​  
 +[8] A person says, ‘That which is an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise in 
 +one-pointed meditative equipoise on suchness and which acts a an actual antidote to 
 +the greatest great innate apprehensions of true existence is the definition of the 
 +smallest small Mahayana path of meditation.’ ​ It follows that the subject, the first 
 +ground’s uninterrupted path of the path of meditation conforms to that definition because ​
 +it is that definiendum. ​ The reason is established because in the Abdhidharma-
 +samucchaya, it is said, ‘Having clearly realized truths, on the ten grounds on the path of 
 +meditation, bodhisattvas meditate on paths that are antidotes to the obscurations to 
 +knowledge.’ ​ If that is accepted, it follows that the second ground’s uninterrupted path 
 +has abandoned that greatest great innate apprehensions of true existence because that is 
 +what you maintain. ​ Yet that cannot be maintained because that is that’s actual antidote.  ​
 +That follows because it is the second ground’s uninterrupted path. 
 +[9] A person says, ‘That which is an uninterrupted path of the first ground ​
 +and which acts as an actual antidote to the greatest great innate apprehensions of 
 +true existence that are of the same continuum as it is the definition of the first 
 +ground’s uninterrupted path of the path of meditation.’ ​ It follows that the subject, the 
 +first ground’s uninterrupted path of the path of meditation conforms to the latter part of 
 +that definition because it is that definiendum. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that the 
 +second ground’s uninterrupted path has abandoned the greatest great innate ​
 +apprehensions of true existence that are of the same continuum as the first ground’s ​
 +uninterrupted path of the path of meditation because that is what you maintain. ​ If that is 
 +accepted, it follows that has abandoned the greatest great innate apprehensions of true 
 +existence because you maintain that and if that is so, it must be of the same continuum as 
 +that.   
 +[10] A person says, ‘An exalted wisdom of the first ground that acts as a basis 
 +for many good qualities in the continuum of the person who has it in his continuum ​
 +is the definition of the first ground Very Joyful.’ ​ It follows that the subject, the exalted ​
 +wisdom of the first ground conforms to that definition because it is that definiendum.  ​
 +That follows because it is that subject. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that it is the basis for 
 +the qualities of realization on the continuum of the person who has it in his continuum ​
 +because that is what you maintain. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that it is the cause of the 
 +qualities of realization in the continuum of the one on the first ground because that is 
 +what you maintain. ​ Yet that cannot be maintained because the two of them are 
 +simultaneous. ​ That follows because the exalted wisdom of the first ground and the first 
 +ground are simultaneous. ​
 +[11] A person says, ‘That which is an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise ​
 +in one-pointed equipoise on emptiness and which [occurs once] the acquired ​
 +apprehensions of true existence have been abandoned is the definition of the first 
 +ground’s path of release.’ ​ It follows that the subject, an exalted wisdom of meditative ​
 +equipoise of the first ground that engages in one-pointed meditative equipoise on 
 +emptiness once again after having arisen from the first ground’s path of release, conforms ​
 +to that definiendum because that is its definition. ​ The reason is established because such 
 +a thing exists. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that it exists [at the time of] the uninterrupted ​
 +path of the first ground’s path of seeing that is of the same session of equipoise as it 
 +because that is what you maintain. ​ Yet that cannot be maintained because of the subject. ​  
 +[12] A person says, ‘An exalted wisdom of the first ground in which the 
 +acquired apprehension of true existence has been abandoned is its definition.’ ​ It 
 +follows that that the Mahayana path of seeing’s exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment ​
 +is that definiendum because it fits that definition. ​ Similarly, it follows that the subject, ​
 +relative bodhicitta in the continuum of a person on the Mahayana path of seeing’s path of 
 +release is that definiendum because it fits that definition. ​ If that is accepted, it follows ​
 +that it is an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise because that is what you maintain. ​
 +[13] A person says, ‘That which is an exalted wisdom of the first ground that 
 +is a conceptual knower2
 + that apprehends words and objects as suitable to be mixed 
 +after having arisen from an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the first 
 +ground and which has arisen to become manifest in the continuum of the person ​
 +who has it in their continuum is the definition of the exalted wisdom of subsequent ​
 +attainment of the first ground.’ ​ It follows that if something is an exalted wisdom of 
 +subsequent attainment in the continuum of a learner it must be a conceptual ​
 +consciousness because that follows on3
 + from the definition. ​ Yet that cannot be 
 +maintained because there is a common locus between it and non-conceptual ​
 +consciousness. ​ In the Path Tika it says,  ​
 +‘Accomplishment occurs even in the period of subsequent attainment on the path  ​
 +of meditation ​
 +  Dependent arisings clearly appear to be like illusions, ​
 +                                                 
 +2
 + zhen rig also ‘determinative knower’ ​
 +3
 + ​‘thad pa more literally, logically admissible or coherent or acceptable ​
 +  Free from the conceptions that apprehend the word and object as suitable to be 
 +mixed.’ ​
 +This inquiry should be done in the context of the path of seeing. ​
 +  [14] A person says, ‘When moving from the first ground to the second ground, a 
 +person moves from subsequent attainment to meditative equipoise.’ ​ That is not logically ​
 +acceptable because when a person moves from the first to the second ground, he or she 
 +moves from meditative equipoise to meditative equipoise. ​ That follows because when 
 +moving in such a way, the person moves from an uninterrupted path to a path of release.  ​
 +That follows because when a person moves from the tenth ground to the Buddha ground ​
 +they move in such a way. 
 +  Furthermore,​ it follows that when moving from the first ground to the second, the 
 +person moves from an uninterrupted path to a path of release because there is an 
 +uninterrupted path of the first ground that is the produced in the final moment of the first 
 +ground. That follows because there is an uninterrupted path of the tenth ground that is the 
 +produced in the final moment of the tenth ground. ​ If [someone says] that is not 
 +established,​ it follows that it is because there is an uninterrupted path at the end of the 
 +continuum [as a sentient being]. ​  
 +  Furthermore,​ it follows that when moving from the first ground to the second, the 
 +person moves in such a way because the person on the first ground has abandoned the 
 +obscurations corresponding to the first ground at the same time as he moves from the first 
 +ground to the second. ​ That follows because that person completes the first ground’s ​
 +thorough training at the same time he moves to the second ground. ​ That follows, because ​
 +it says in The Great Commentary, ‘A ground lasts for as long as the dharmas that are the 
 +thorough trainings of that ground have not been completed. ​ Know that once they have 
 +been thoroughly completed, it is another ground.’ ​
 +  Furthermore,​ it follows that there is an uninterrupted path produced in the final 
 +moment of the first ground because there is an uninterrupted path produced in the final 
 +moment of the seventh ground. ​  That follows because there is one obscuration that the 
 +seventh grounder him or herself has not abandoned that the eight grounder him or herself ​
 +has abandoned. ​ That follows because there is one obscuration the  seventh grounder has 
 +not purified yet the eighth grounder has purified. ​ That follows because there is a positer ​
 +who posits the exalted wisdom of the seventh ground to be an impure ground and the 
 +exalted wisdom of the eighth ground to be a pure ground. ​ That follows because there is 
 +an obscuration posited as the following feature: there are stains while the seventh ​
 +grounder is in the mother’s womb, yet the eight grounder is without those. ​ For in The 
 +Sublime Continuum, it says,  ​
 +  The Seventh has a stained support; ​
 +  The feature of stains in the womb. 
 +  Similar to separating from [such a] womb, is the non-conceptual ​
 +Exalted wisdom of maturation like that. 
 +  Furthermore,​ It follows that there is an uninterrupted path of the first ground ​
 +produced in the final moment of the first ground because there is a path of release ​
 +produced in the first moment of the second ground. ​ If [someone says] that is not 
 +established,​ it follows that if something is a path of release of the second ground it has 
 +necessarily arisen from the uninterrupted path of the second ground that is its substantial ​
 +cause because that is what you maintain. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that if something ​
 +is an uninterrupted path of the second ground, it must have a path of release of the second ​
 +ground that has arisen from its having acted as the substantial cause because that is what 
 +you maintain. ​ If that is accepted, if something is an uninterrupted path of the tenth 
 +ground, it must have a path of release of the tenth ground that has arisen from its having ​
 +acted as the substantial cause because that is what you maintain. ​ If that is accepted, it 
 +follows that the uninterrupted path at the end of the continuum is that because it is.  If that 
 +is accepted it follows that there is a path of release of the tenth ground in the continuum ​
 +of an Arya Buddha because that is what you maintain. ​
 +  Having acted so, he says, ‘It follows that if something is a path of release of the 
 +second ground it must have an uninterrupted path of the second ground that is its 
 +substantial cause because the first ground has such a thing.’ ​ There is no pervasion. ​
 +  Furthermore,​ [the person says,] ‘it follows that if something is an uninterrupted ​
 +path of the first ground, the path of release of the first ground that arises from its acting as 
 +its substantial cause exists because if something is the first ground’s uninterrupted path of 
 +the path of seeing the first ground’s path of release of the path of seeing that arises from 
 +its acting as its substantial cause exists.’ ​ That is not necessarily so.  For, it follows that if 
 +something is an uninterrupted path of the tenth ground, such a thing [the path of release ​
 +of the tenth ground that arises from its acting as its substantial cause must exist. ​ The 
 +pervasion is accepted. ​  
 +  Furthermore,​ it follows that if something is an exalted wisdom of subsequent ​
 +attainment in the continuum of a bodhisattva on the path of accumulation,​ it must 
 +necessarily have arisen from an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the 
 +bodhisattva path of accumulation that is its substantial cause because if something is a 
 +path of release of the second ground it necessarily arose from the uninterrupted path of 
 +the second ground that is its substantial cause. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that the 
 +subject, relative bodhicitta in the continuum of a bodhisattva in the first moment of the 
 +path of accumulation and who has not previously entered lower paths, is that [something ​
 +that has arisen from an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the bodhisattva path of 
 +accumulation that is its substantial cause] because it is that [an exalted wisdom of 
 +subsequent attainment in the continuum of a bodhisattva on the path of accumulation].  ​
 +The reason is established because that relative bodhicitta is manifest. ​ If that is accepted, ​
 +it follows that there is an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the Mahayana path 
 +of accumulation in the continuum of a person who has not entered a path because that is 
 +what you maintain. ​
 +  Furthermore,​ it follows that the first grounder abandons the obscurations ​
 +corresponding to the uninterrupted path of the first ground that is produced in the final 
 +moment of the first ground at the same time he or she moves to the second ground ​
 +because that [first grounder] abandons the exhaustion the faults of the first ground at the 
 +same time he moves to the second ground. ​ It follows that it is so because that [first ​
 +grounder] completes the thorough purification of the first ground at the same time he 
 +moves to the second ground. ​ Such is necessarily the case because the completion of the 
 +first ground’s thorough purification is posited to [occur] when the first ground’s faults ​
 +have been exhausted and its qualities thoroughly complete. ​ It follows that it is so because ​
 +there is this meaning of its completion of thorough purification. ​ Having said that, he 
 +says, ‘it follows that a first ground’s path of release of the path of meditation exists ​
 +because a first ground’s uninterrupted path of the path of meditation exists.’ ​ There is no 
 +pervasion. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that first ground’s uninterrupted path of the path 
 +of meditation is not an exalted wisdom produced in the final moment of the first ground, ​
 +because that is what you maintain. ​ He says, ‘it follows that if something is a smallest ​
 +small path of release of a Mahayana path of meditation, it must be an exalted wisdom of 
 +the second ground because there is no path of release of the path of meditation of the first 
 +ground. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that if something is a smallest small of a Mahayana ​
 +path of meditation, it must be an exalted wisdom of the second ground, because that is 
 +what you maintain.’ No pervasion. ​
 +  [15] A person says, ‘the uninterrupted path produced in the final moment of the 
 +first ground and the smallest small of the Mahayana path of meditation are mutually ​
 +inclusive. ​ The uninterrupted path of the second ground and the middle small of the 
 +Mahayana path of meditation are mutually inclusive. ​ The uninterrupted path of the third 
 +ground and the great small of the Mahayana path of meditation are mutually inclusive.  ​
 +Likewise, the uninterrupted paths of the fourth, fifth and sixth grounds are mutually ​
 +inclusive with and the three cycles of the middle of the Mahayana path of meditation.  ​
 +The uninterrupted path of the seventh ground and the smallest great of the Mahayana path 
 +of meditation are mutually inclusive. ​ The uninterrupted path of the eighth ground and the 
 +middle great of the Mahayana path of meditation are mutually inclusive. ​ Within the 
 +greatest great of the Mahayana path of meditation there are two; the greatest great of the 
 +Mahayana path of meditation that is the actual antidote to the smallest small 
 +apprehensions of true existence and the greatest great of the Mahayana path of meditation ​
 +that is the actual antidote to most subtle of subtle ones.  The first is mutually inclusive ​
 +with the uninterrupted path produced in the final moment of the ninth ground, while the 
 +second is mutually inclusive with the exalted wisdom at the end of the continuum.’ ​  
 +  Well, then, it follows that the statement in the Path Tika, ‘Since [all paths] from 
 +the second moment of the first ground until being placed on the path of meditation are 
 +included within the smallest small of the path of meditation, there is no fault of the 
 +number of paths of meditation being set at nine,’ is not logically admissible. ​ [It is not 
 +logically admissible] because the uninterrupted path [produced] in the final moment of 
 +the first ground is mutually inclusive with the smallest small of the Mahayana path of 
 +meditation. ​  
 +  Furthermore,​ [he says,] ‘it follows that there is an uninterrupted path of the ninth 
 +ground that is the actual antidote to the smallest small apprehensions of true existence ​
 +because [the above] assertion is logically admissible. ​ Yet that cannot be maintained ​
 +because if that were so, it would necessarily be an uninterrupted path at the end of the 
 +continuum.’ ​ The reason is dismissed. ​ He says, ‘it follows that the first grounder does not 
 +complete the thorough purification of the first ground because he completes that at the 
 +same time he moves to the second ground. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that he 
 +completes it because he attains it.’ ​ No pervasion. ​  
 +He says, ‘it follows that he completes it because he attains the completion of the 
 +first ground’s qualities. ​ It follows that it is so because the tenth grounder attains the 
 +completion of the tenth ground’s qualities. ​ It follows that it is so because that exalted ​
 +wisdom of the tenths ground is a bodhisattva’s final yoga.’ ​ Well then, it follows that the 
 +tenth grounder abandons the exhaustion of the tenth ground faults because he attains the 
 +completion of its qualities. ​ If that is accepted, it follows that [tenth grounder] abandons ​
 +the exhaustion of the tenth ground faults because that is what you maintain. ​  
 +[16] A person says, ‘an exalted knower that realizes selflessness is the definition ​
 +of path.  An exalted knower that realizes the meaning of selflessness in a general manner ​
 +is the definition of the path of accumulation. ​ An exalted knower that has primarily arisen ​
 +through meditation and realizes the meaning of selflessness in a general manner is the 
 +definition of the path of preparation. ​ An exalted knower that newly and perceptually ​
 +realizes selflessness is the definition of the path of seeing. ​ An exalted knower that acts to 
 +gain familiarity after having already perceptually realized selflessness is the definition of 
 +the path of meditation. ​ An exalted knower of the final perceptual realization of 
 +selflessness is the definition of the path of no-more-learning.’ ​
 + It follows that the subject, relative bodhicitta in the continuum of a bodhisattva ​
 +on the path of accumulation conforms to the second definition because it is that 
 +definiendum of that.  Yet that cannot be maintained because it is that subject. ​
 +Furthermore,​ it follows that a clairvoyance that knows the mind of others in the 
 +continuum of a bodhisattva on the path of preparation who has not previously entered ​
 +lower paths conforms to the third definition because it is the definiendum of that.  The 
 +reason is established because such a thing exists. If that is accepted, take that subject, it 
 +follows there is a phenomenon that is realized via the medium of a generic image by it 
 +because that is what you maintain. ​ Yet that cannot be maintained because it is 
 +clairvoyance [and clairvoyance is necessarily perceptual]. ​ The faults apply to the others. ​
 + 
 + 
 +
 +
 +====== Part 2 Presenting our own System ======
 +
 +[note: In this section we include two parts of this text by Jetsun Chokyi Gyaltsen specifically studied during ​
 +the March/April 2003 module and translated for that purpose by our visiting tutor Bill Magee. Part 2 
 +(Positing our own System) was actually studied first and then Part 1. The full text, translated by Jampa 
 +Ignyen for a previous module, is included in the Appendices section of this package] ​
 +A Necklace of Learned Explanations ​
 +by Jetsun Chokyi Gyaltshan Pal Zangpo ​
 +Translated by Bill Magee in March 2003  ​
 +Positing Our Own System ​
 +From among the two, presentation of grounds and presentation of paths, this is 
 +the first [presentation of grounds]. From among the three, definitions,​ divisions, ​
 +and the meaning of the terms, this is the first [definitions].  ​
 +1. Presentation of Grounds ​
 +1. Definitions ​
 +The definition of a ground from within a division of grounds and paths is:  ​
 +[1] a clear realization of one who has entered a path that serves as a 
 +basis for the many good qualities that are its effect.  ​
 +When grounds are divided there are two: HÐnayåna grounds and Mahåyåna ​
 +grounds. ​
 +1. HÐnayåna Grounds ​
 +1. Hearer Grounds ​
 +The definition of a HÐnayåna ground is:  ​
 +[2] a clear realization of one who has entered a HÐnayåna path that 
 +serves as a basis for the many good qualities that are its effect.  ​
 +When these are divided eight exist: ground of lineage, ground of eight, ground of 
 +seeing, ground of diminishment,​ ground free from attachment, ground realizing ​
 +the produced, ground of Hearers, ground of Solitary Realizers. Other [grounds], ​
 +such as the ground of seeing white [actions as its] aspect are similar. Also, when 
 +these are condensed they are condensed into two, because they are condensed ​
 +into the two grounds of Hearers and Solitary Realizers. ​
 +The definition of the ground of a Hearer is:  ​
 +[3] a clear realization of a Hearer which serves as a basis for the many 
 +good qualities which are its effect.  ​
 +When these are divided there are two: the ground of a Hearer ordinary being and 
 +the ground of a Superior Hearer. ​
 +The definition of the Ground of a Hearer ordinary being is:  ​
 +[4] [a clear realization of a Hearer which serves as a basis for the many 
 +good qualities which are its effect] and a clear realization which is 
 +included in the continuum of a Hearer ordinary being.  ​
 +When these are divided there are two, the Hearer path of accumulation and the 
 +Hearer path of preparation.  ​
 +From among these, the definition of a Hearer path of accumulation is:  ​
 +[5] a clear realization of doctrine of a Hearer. ​
 +The definition of [a Hearer] path of preparation is:  ​
 +[6] a clear realization of the meaning of that (ie., of a Hearer). ​
 +When the first [the Hearer path of accumulation] is divided there are three: great, ​
 +middling and small. When the second [the Hearer path of preparation] is divided ​
 +there are four: heat, and so forth [ie., peak, forbearance,​ and supreme mundane ​
 +quality]. The first three [divisions] of  the path of preparation each have three — 
 +great, middling, and small — making nine.  ​
 +The definition of the ground of a Hearer Superior is:  ​
 +[7] a clear realization of a Hearer Superior which serves as the basis for 
 +the many good qualities which are its effect.  ​
 +When this is divided there are three: a Hearer'​s path of seeing, a Hearer'​s path of 
 +meditation, and a Hearer'​s path of no more learning. ​
 +The definition of a Hearer path of seeing is:  ​
 +[8] a clear realization of the truth  of a Hearer which arises after the 
 +completion of a path of preparation of a Hearer which is its own cause 
 +and which is produced before the path of meditation of a Hearer which is 
 +its own effect.  ​
 +When this is divided there are three: the exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise ​
 +of a Hearer path of seeing, the exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment [of a 
 +Hearer path of seeing], and a Hearer path of seeing which is neither of these.  ​
 +The definition of an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of a Hearer path 
 +of seeing is:  ​
 +[9] a clear realization of a Hearer'​s truth which is a meditative equipoise ​
 +focused one-pointedly on selflessness which is its object.  ​
 +When this is divided there are three: ​ the uninterrupted path of a Hearer path of 
 +seeing, the path of release of a Hearer path of seeing, and the exalted wisdom of 
 +meditative equipoise of a Hearer path of seeing which is neither of these. ​
 +The definition of an uninterrupted path of a Hearer path of seeing is:  ​
 +[10] a clear realization of the truth of a Hearer which is in meditative ​
 +equipoise one-pointedly on the selflessness of persons and which 
 +serves as the actual antidote for the acquired afflictive obstructions ​
 +which are the objects of abandonment which correspond to it.  ​
 +When this is divided there are the eight forbearances of a Hearer path of seeing ​
 +[the four doctrinal forbearances and the four subsequent forbearances]. ​
 +The definition of a path of release of a Hearer path of seeing is:  ​
 +[11] a clear realization of the truth of a Hearer in meditative equipoise ​
 +one-pointedly on the selflessness of persons and which is actually ​
 +released from the acquired afflictive obstructions which are the objects ​
 +to be abandoned corresponding to the uninterrupted path which induces ​
 +it.  ​
 +When this is divided there are the eight knowledges of a Hearer [the four 
 +doctrinal knowledges and the four subsequent knowledges]. ​
 +The exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the path of seeing [of a 
 +Hearer] which is neither of these two [ie. neither the uninterrupted path of a 
 +Hearer path of seeing or the path of release of a Hearer path of seeing] is, for 
 +instance, the exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the path of seeing of a 
 +Hearer in one-pointed meditative equipoise on emptiness and the exalted ​
 +wisdom of meditative equipoise of the path of seeing of a Hearer in one-pointed ​
 +meditative equipoise on the emptiness of duality. ​
 +The definition of an exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment of a Hearer ​
 +path of seeing is:  ​
 +[12] a clear realization of the truth of a Hearer who has arisen from the 
 +path of release of the path of seeing of a Hearer and which is manifestly ​
 +in the continuum of a person who possesses that in her continuum. ​
 +That which is neither of these two roots [ie., neither an exalted wisdom of 
 +meditative equipoise nor an exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment] refers to 
 +the four immeasurables in the continuum of one on the uninterrupted path of a 
 +Hearer path of seeing and the path of release of the Hearer path of seeing, and 
 +an awareness which seeks liberation, and a knower realizing the direct ​
 +perception of emptiness in the continuum of one having subsequent attainment of 
 +a Hearer path of seeing, and a knower ​ realizing the direct perception of the 
 +emptiness of duality [in the continuum of one having subsequent attainment of a 
 +Hearer path of seeing]. ​
 +The definition of a Hearer path of meditation is:  ​
 +[13] a subsequent clear realization which arises following the completion ​
 +of a path of seeing of a Hearer which is it cause and which is produced ​
 +before the path of no more learning of a Hearer which is its effect.  ​
 +When this is divided there are three: the two, the exalted wisdom of meditative ​
 +equipoise and the exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment, and the path of 
 +meditation which is neither of these two. Other [divisions] are of similar type. 
 +The definition of a Hearer path of no more learning is:  ​
 +[14] a clear realization of a Hearer which is at the end of the progression ​
 +of paths of a Hearer. ​
 +2. Solitary Realizer Grounds ​
 +The definition of the ground of a Solitary Realizer is:  ​
 +[15] a clear realization of one who has entered the path of a Solitary ​
 +Realizer which serves as the basis for the many good qualities which 
 +are its effect.  ​
 +When this is divided there are grounds of Solitary Realizer ​ ordinary beings and 
 +grounds of Solitary Realizer Superiors. ​
 +The first is similar to Hearer [ordinary beings]. The second, the definition of 
 +ground of a Solitary Realizer Superior is:  ​
 +[16] a clear realization of a Solitary Realizer Superior which serves as 
 +the basis of the many good qualities which are its effect.  ​
 +When this is divided there are the three, the path of seeing and so forth [ie., the 
 +paths of meditation and no more learning of a Solitary Realizer Superior]. ​
 +The definition of a Solitary Realizer path of seeing is:  ​
 +[17] a clear realization of the truth of a Solitary Realizer which arises ​
 +after completing the path of preparation of a Solitary Realizer which is its 
 +cause and which is produced before the path of meditation of a Solitary ​
 +Realizer which is its effect.  ​
 +When divided there are the three: the meditative equipoise of a Solitary Realizer ​
 +path of seeing, the exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment of a Solitary ​
 +Realizer path of seeing, and a Solitary Realizer path of seeing which is neither of 
 +these two. 
 +The definition of an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of a Solitary ​
 +Realizer path of seeing is:  ​
 +[18] a clear realization of the truth of a solitary realizer which is a 
 +meditative stabilization one-pointedly on the selflessness which is its 
 +own object.  ​
 +When divided there are three: the uninterrupted path of a Solitary Realizer ​
 +path of seeing, the path of release of a Solitary Realizer path of seeing, and a 
 +Solitary Realizer path of seeing which is neither of these two.  ​
 +The definition of an uninterrupted path of a Solitary Realizer path of seeing is:  ​
 +[19] a clear realization of the truth of a solitary realizer which is a 
 +meditative equipoise one-pointedly on the emptiness of duality and 
 +which serves as the actual antidote to the acquired conception ​
 +apprehending forms to be external objects which is the object of 
 +abandonment corresponding to it.  ​
 +When this is divided there are the eight forbearances. ​
 +The definition of a path of release of a Solitary Realizer path of seeing is:  ​
 +[20] a clear realization of the truth  of a Solitary Realizer which is in 
 +meditative equipoise one-pointedly on the emptiness of duality and 
 +which has actually abandoned the objects of abandonment which 
 +correspond to the uninterrupted path which induces it.  ​
 +When divided there are the eight knowledges of the path of seeing.  ​
 +The other [definitions and divisions] are of similar type. 
 +2. Mahåyåna Grounds ​
 +The explanation of Mahåyåna Grounds has five parts: definitions,​ how 
 +[Mahåyåna Grounds] are produced [text corrected from "​divisions"​],​ method of 
 +moving from ground to ground, distinguishing features, and the meaning of the 
 +words. ​
 +1. Definitions ​
 +The definition of a Mahåyåna ground is:  ​
 +[21] a clear realization of one who has entered the path of the 
 +Mahåyåna which serves as a basis for the many good qualities which 
 +are its effect.  ​
 +When this is divided there are Bodhisattva grounds and Buddha grounds. ​
 +The definition of Bodhisattva ground is:  ​
 +[22] a clear realization of a Bodhisattva which [serves as] the basis for 
 +that which is similar to it [ie., the many good qualities which are its 
 +effect].  ​
 +When divided there are the grounds of Bodhisattva ordinary beings and the 
 +grounds of Bodhisattva Superiors. ​
 +The definition of the ground of a Bodhisattva ordinary being is:  ​
 +[23] a clear realization of an ordinary Bodhisattva which [serves as a 
 +basis for that which] is similar [ie., the many good qualities which are its 
 +effect].  ​
 +When this is divided there are the two, the path of accumulation and the path of 
 +preparation. ​
 +The definition of a Bodhisattva path of accumulation is:  ​
 +[24] a clear realization of doctrine of a Bodhisattva.  ​
 +When divided there are three: small, middling, and great. ​
 +The definition of a Bodhisattva path of preparation is:  ​
 +[25] a clear realization of the meaning of a Bodhisattva.  ​
 +When divided there are four: heat, and so forth [ie., peak, forbearance supreme ​
 +mundane quality]. Each of these has three divisions: small, middling, and great, ​
 +making twelve. ​
 +The definition of a ground of a Bodhisattva Superior is:  ​
 +[26] a clear realization of a Bodhisattva Superior which is conjoined with 
 +great compassion and the wisdom that realizes emptiness in direct ​
 +perception.  ​
 +When divided there are ten: the first ground "Very Joyful,"​ the second ground ​
 +"​Stainless,"​ the third ground "​Radiant,"​ the fourth ground "​Shining,"​ the fifth 
 +ground "​Difficult to Tame," the sixth ground "​Manifest,"​ the seventh ground "​Gone ​
 +Afar," the eighth ground "​Immovable,"​ the ninth ground "Good Intelligence,"​ and 
 +the tenth ground, "Cloud of Dharma." ​
 +If someone says, "the definition of the first ground is: an exalted wisdom of 
 +the first ground that is governed by the higher perfection of generosity,"​ this is 
 +incorrect because such an exalted wisdom of the first ground does not exist. This 
 +follows because a person of the first ground who has attained the perfection of 
 +generosity does not exist. This follows because a perfection of generosity on the 
 +paths of learning does not exist. ​
 +Therefore, the definition of the first ground, the Very Joyful is:  ​
 +[27] an exalted wisdom of the first ground which has not attained the 
 +higher practice of the perfection of ethics and above but which has 
 +attained the higher practice of the perfection of generosity from within ​
 +the ten perfections. ​
 +Having applied the ten perfections from the second ground to the tenth 
 +ground, the last is conjoined with higher practice of the perfection of exalted ​
 +wisdom. Hence, it is of similar type to "​thoroughly differentiated exalted wisdom ​
 +of the tenth ground."​ [check this translation.] ​
 +When the first ground, Very Joyful, is divided, there are three: the 
 +uninterrupted path of the first ground, the path of release of the first ground, and 
 +an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the first ground which is neither of 
 +these two.  ​
 +The definition of an uninterrupted path of the first ground is:  ​
 +[28] an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the first ground which 
 +is in meditative equipoise one-pointedly on suchness and serves as the 
 +actual antidote to the apprehension of true existence which corresponds ​
 +to it.  ​
 +When divided there are two: the uninterrupted path of the path of seeing and the 
 +uninterrupted path of the path of meditation. ​
 +The definition of an uninterrupted path of a path of seeing of the first ground ​
 +is:  ​
 +[29] that which is an uninterrupted path of the first ground and which 
 +serves as an actual antidote to the acquired apprehension of true 
 +existence which corresponds to it.  ​
 +When these are divided there are eight forbearances. This [uninterrupted path of 
 +a path of seeing of the first ground] and the uninterrupted Mahåyåna path of 
 +seeing are mutually inclusive. ​
 +The definition of an uninterrupted path of a path of meditation of the first 
 +ground is:  ​
 +[30] that which is an uninterrupted path of the first ground and which 
 +serves as an actual antidote to the innate apprehension of true 
 +existence which corresponds to it.  ​
 +[Uninterrupted path of a path of meditation of the first ground] and uninterrupted ​
 +path of a path of meditation of the first ground which is generated at the last 
 +moment of the first ground are mutually inclusive. ​
 +The definition of a path of release of the first ground is:  ​
 +[31] that which is an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise one-pointedly on suchness and an exalted wisdom of the first ground which 
 +has abandoned the obstructions corresponding to the uninterrupted path 
 +which arose in the same session of meditative equipoise with it.  ​
 +When divided there are the eight knowledges of the path of seeing of the 
 +Mahåyåna. ​
 +That [exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the first ground] which is 
 +neither of these two [ie., neither the uninterrupted path of the first ground nor the 
 +path of release of the first ground] is for instance a path of seeing of the 
 +Mahåyåna which is in one-pointed meditative equipoise on the selflessness of 
 +the person and a path of seeing of the Mahåyåna which is in one-pointed ​
 +meditative equipoise on the emptiness of duality and an exalted wisdom of the 
 +first ground which is in meditative equipoise one-pointedly on emptiness which is 
 +subsequent again to the exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment of the 
 +Mahåyåna path of seeing. ​
 +The definition of an exalted wisdom ​ of subsequent attainment of the first 
 +ground is:  ​
 +[32] a clear realization of the truth of the Mahåyåna which has arisen ​
 +from a path of release of the first ground and which has become ​
 +manifest in the continuum of a  person who possesses that in her 
 +continuum.  ​
 +[An exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment of the first ground] and an 
 +exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment of the Mahåyåna path of seeing are 
 +mutually inclusive. A Mahåyåna path of seeing which is neither an exalted ​
 +wisdom of meditative equipoise nor an exalted wisdom of subsequent attainment ​
 +is for instance a conventional mind of enlightenment in the continuum of one who 
 +is on the uninterrupted path of the Mahåyåna path of seeing and an exalted ​
 +wisdom that realizes in direct perception the selflessness of the person in the 
 +continuum of [one who is on the uninterrupted path of the Mahåyåna path of 
 +seeing] and an exalted knower realizing emptiness in direct perception in the 
 +continuum of a bodhisattva abiding in the exalted wisdom of subsequent ​
 +attainment of the Mahåyåna path of seeing.  ​
 +2. How [Mahåyåna Grounds] Are Produced ​
 +An exalted wisdom of the great supreme mundane quality of the path of 
 +preparation of the Mahåyåna that is a meditative equipoise one-pointedly on 
 +suchness and an uninterrupted path of the path of seeing of the Mahåyåna and a 
 +path of release of the path of seeing of the Mahåyåna are generated in one 
 +session of meditative equipoise. Following that, the exalted wisdom of 
 +subsequent attainment of the path of seeing of the Mahåyåna is generated. ​
 +Following that, the exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the first ground ​
 +which is neither of the two, the uninterrupted path of the first ground or the path 
 +of release [of the first ground] is generated. Following that, the uninterrupted path 
 +of the path of meditation of the first ground is generated. ​
 +That and the path of release of the second ground are generated in one 
 +session of meditative equipoise. Following that, the exalted wisdom of 
 +subsequent attainment of the second ground is generated. Following that, the 
 +exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the second ground which is neither of 
 +the two, the uninterrupted path of the second ground or the path of release [of the 
 +second ground] is generated. Following that, the uninterrupted path of the last 
 +moment of the second ground is generated. Through this, extend the reasoning ​
 +to the remaining [grounds]. ​
 +3. Method of Moving from Ground to Ground ​
 +Movement is from meditative equipoise to meditative equipoise because one 
 +moves from an uninterrupted path to a path of release. This is because at the 
 +time of moving from the first ground to the second ground one moves from the 
 +uninterrupted path of the first ground to the path of release of the second ground ​
 +and similarly at the time of moving from the seventh ground to the eighth ground ​
 +[one moves from the uninterrupted path of the seventh ground to the path of 
 +release of the eighth ground]. This follows because it is like this even at the time 
 +of moving from the tenth ground to the Buddha ground. Therefore, an 
 +uninterrupted path that is generated in the last moment of the tenth ground exists ​
 +and similarly also a path of release that is generated in the beginning of the ninth 
 +ground exists.  ​
 +4. Distinguishing Features ​
 +[There are five:] distinguishing the method [for attaining] the higher perfections, ​
 +distinguishing [the method] for increasing the number of qualities, distinguishing ​
 +the method for taking fruitional birth, distinguishing the method for abandoning ​
 +the objects of abandonment,​ and distinguishing [the method] for thorough ​
 +purification. ​
 +1. Distinguishing the method [for attaining] the higher perfections ​
 +[The method for attaining the higher perfections] is that one ranges from the 
 +attainment of the higher practice of the perfection of generosity on the first 
 +ground to the attainment of the higher practice of the perfection of exalted ​
 +wisdom on the tenth ground.  ​
 +2. Distinguishing [the method] for increasing the number of qualities ​
 +In one moment of subsequent attainment of the first ground (1) one sees a 
 +hundred Buddhas, (2) one attains knowledge of their blessing, (3) one is able to 
 +go to a hundred Buddha Lands, (4) one is able to illuminate a hundred of these 
 +lands, (5) one is able to vibrate a hundred different worldly realms, (6) one is able 
 +to live for a hundred eons, (7) one engages in seeing with perfect exalted wisdom ​
 +a hundred past and future eons, (8) one is able to have a meditative absorption in 
 +a hundred different meditative stabilizations,​ (9) one is able to open a hundred ​
 +different doors of doctrine, (10) one is able to bring to fruition a hundred sentient ​
 +beings, (11) one is able to emanate a hundred of one's own bodies, and (12) one 
 +is able to gather as a retinue for each  of one's [emanated] bodies a hundred ​
 +Bodhisattva Superiors. ​
 +Ranging from this [number of qualities], on the second ground one attains a 
 +thousand qualities for each of the twelve attainments,​ on the third ground one 
 +attains a hundred thousand qualities for each of the twelve attainments,​ on the 
 +fourth ground one attains a hundred ten million qualities for each of the twelve ​
 +attainments,​ on the fifth ground one attains a thousand ten million qualities for 
 +each of the twelve attainments,​ on the sixth ground one attains a hundred ​
 +thousand ten million qualities for each of the twelve attainments,​ on the seventh ​
 +ground one attains a hundred thousand ten trillion qualities for each of the twelve ​
 +attainments,​ on the eighth ground one attains a number of qualities equal to the 
 +number of subtle particles of the  Three Thousand for each of the twelve ​
 +attainments,​ on the ninth ground one attains a number of qualities equal to the 
 +number of subtle particles of a million Three Thousands for each of the twelve ​
 +attainments,​ and on the tenth ground one attains a number of qualities equal to 
 +the number of subtle particles of an inexpressible number of an inexpressible ​
 +number of Buddha lands for each of the twelve attainments. ​
 +3. Distinguishing the method for taking fruitional birth 
 +A person on the first ground takes birth as a wheel-turning king ruling the world. ​
 +A person on the second ground takes birth [as ruler] of the four worlds. A person ​
 +on the third ground takes birth in the heaven of the thirty-three. A person on the 
 +fourth ground takes birth in the abode free from conflict. A person on the fifth 
 +ground takes birth in Tushita heaven. A person on the sixth ground takes birth in 
 +the heaven of Joy in Emanations. A person on the seventh ground takes birth in 
 +the heaven of Having Power Over Others'​ Emanations. A person on the eighth ​
 +ground takes birth as Great Brahmå, Lord of the First Thousand. A person on the 
 +ninth ground takes birth as Great Brahmå, Lord of the Second Thousand. A 
 +person on the tenth ground takes birth as the Great Lord, Son of the Gods of the 
 +Highest Pure Land. 
 +4. Distinguishing the method for abandoning the objects of abandonment ​
 +On the occasion of the path of seeing, a hundred and twelve afflictive ​
 +obstructions to be abandoned [by the path of] seeing are abandoned and a 
 +hundred and eight obstructions to omniscience to be abandoned [by the path of] 
 +seeing are abandoned. Regarding this, one-hundred twelve afflictive obstructions ​
 +to be abandoned [by the path of] seeing exist because forty afflictive obstructions ​
 +to be abandoned [on the path of] seeing which are including in the grounds of the 
 +desire realm which are those [ie., which observe the four noble truths] exist and 
 +because seventy-two afflictive obstructions to be abandoned [on the path of] 
 +seeing which are included in the grounds of the higher realms exist. ​
 +The first [that there are forty afflictive obstructions to be abandoned on the 
 +path of seeing which are including in the grounds of the desire realm] is 
 +established because there are ten afflictive obstructions to be abandoned [on the 
 +path of] seeing [observing] true sufferings including in the grounds of the desire ​
 +realm which is that and there are ten afflictive emotions to be abandoned [on the 
 +path of] seeing [observing] true origins and there are ten of those that [observe] ​
 +true cessations and ten of those that [observe] true paths, making forty. ​
 +The first [that there are ten afflictive obstructions to be abandoned on the path 
 +of seeing observing true sufferings including in the grounds of the desire realm] is 
 +established because there are  desire, anger, pride, afflicted ignorance, afflicted ​
 +doubt, views of the transitory collection, wrong views, views apprehending an 
 +extreme, apprehending [wrong] views as supreme, and apprehending [faulty] ​
 +ethics and modes of conduct as supreme. Extend the reasoning to the others. ​
 +This is spoken of in the Ornament for Illumination: ​
 + Here also, in the desire realm, desire, anger, pride, afflicted ignorance, ​
 +afflicted doubt, views of the transitory collection, wrong views, views 
 +apprehending an extreme, apprehending [wrong] views as supreme, ​
 +and apprehending [faulty] ethics and modes of conduct as supreme ​
 +come to be forty through the divisions of the four noble truths. ​
 +The second [that there are seventy-two afflictive obstructions to be 
 +abandoned on the path of seeing which are included in the higher grounds, is 
 +established] because there are thirty-six included within the grounds of the form 
 +realm and thirty-six included within the grounds of the formless realm. ​  
 +The first [that there are thirty-six included within the grounds of the form 
 +realm] is established because there are the nine: desire that is an affliction to be 
 +abandoned [on the path of] seeing [observing] true sufferings of those [formless ​
 +realms], pride, afflicted ignorance, afflicted doubt, views of the transitory ​
 +collection, wrong views, views apprehending an extreme, apprehending [wrong] ​
 +views as supreme, and apprehending [faulty] ethics and modes of conduct as 
 +supreme. Similarly also, the latter [three noble truths] each have nine, [making ​
 +thirty-six]. Extend the reasoning to the formless realm. ​
 +This is spoken of in the Ornament for Illumination: ​
 +Similarly, in the form and formless realms, those objects to be 
 +abandoned by [the path of seeing observing] these four noble truths — 
 +omitting the eight that are anger — are seventy-two. In general, when 
 +added up there are a hundred and twelve afflictions to be abandoned by 
 +[the path] of seeing that are abandoned. ​
 +  The second root reason [that there are a hundred and eight the obstructions to 
 +omniscience to be abandoned by the path of seeing] is established because ​
 +there are a hundred and eight obstructions to omniscience that are to be 
 +abandoned by [the path of] seeing of the  Mahåyåna. This is because there are 
 +thirty six obstructions to omniscience to be abandoned [on the path of] seeing ​
 +which are included in the grounds of the  desire realm which is that [ie., which 
 +observe the four noble truths] and there are thirty six [obstructions to 
 +omniscience to be abandoned on the path of seeing which are included in the 
 +grounds of the] form and formless realms.  ​
 +The first [that there are thirty six obstructions to omniscience to be abandoned ​
 +on the path of seeing which are included in the grounds of the desire realm] is 
 +established because there are nine conceptions of objects that are isolates of the 
 +obstructions to omniscience that are abandoned [on the path of] seeing included ​
 +in the grounds of the desire realm  and nine conceptions engaging objects, and 
 +nine conceptions apprehending substantial existence, and nine conceptions ​
 +apprehending imputed existence. The latter [ie., the form and formless realms] ​
 +have similar reasoning. ​
 +Secondly, regarding that which is to be abandoned [on the path of] 
 +meditation, from within the two, afflictive obstructions and obstructions to 
 +omniscience,​ the first has sixteen because regarding the afflictions to be 
 +abandoned [on the path of] meditation which are objects to be abandoned ​
 +corresponding to the uninterrupted path of the path of meditation of the first 
 +ground, there are six affliction included in the grounds of the desire realm and ten 
 +that are included in the higher realms. ​
 +The first [that there are six affliction included in the grounds of the desire ​
 +realm] is established because there are the six: desire that is included in the 
 +grounds of the desire realm which are to be abandoned [on the path of] 
 +meditation of the Mahåyåna, anger, pride, ignorance, the view of the transitory ​
 +collection, and the view apprehending an extreme. ​
 +The second [that there are ten that are included in the higher realms] is 
 +established because there are five included in the grounds of the form realm 
 +which are those and five included in the grounds of the formless realm. ​
 +The first [that there are five included in the grounds of the form realm] is 
 +established because there is desire which is included in the grounds of the 
 +formless realm, pride, ignorance, the view of the transitory collection, and the 
 +view apprehending an extreme. The reasoning can be extended to the second. ​
 +This is spoken of in the Ornament for Illumination: ​
 +Due to that, the first moment of the first ground is the path of seeing. ​
 +Other than that, from the second moment and so forth, up to the 
 +uninterrupted path called Vajra-like, immediately following which is the 
 +attainment of the All Radiant ground of a Buddha, is called the path of 
 +meditation. This is because all these are realized individually by 
 +differentiating phenomena as the supreme meaning and so forth. ​
 +Moreover, any of the sixteen afflictions are abandoned serially. Thus, 
 +attachment, anger, pride, ignorance, the view of the transitory collection, ​
 +and the view apprehending an extreme are the six active in the desire ​
 +realm. From among these, excepting anger, ten are active in the form 
 +and formless realms. ​
 +The second is established because it says in the Ornament for Illumination: ​
 +Through differentiating the phenomena of thorough purification for the 
 +paths of seeing and meditation, there is a presentation of the ten 
 +grounds of the Very Joyful and so forth. ​
 +Regarding those obstructions to omniscience which are to be abandoned [by the 
 +path of] meditation of the Mahåyåna, there are a hundred and eight because ​
 +there are thirty-six obstructions to omniscience which are to be abandoned [by 
 +the path of] meditation included in the grounds of the desire realm which are that, 
 +and there are thirty-six [obstructions to omniscience which are to be abandoned ​
 +by the path of meditation] included in the grounds of the form realm which are 
 +that, and there are thirty-six [obstructions to omniscience which are to be 
 +abandoned by the path of meditation] included in the grounds of the formless ​
 +realm which are that. 
 +The first [that there are thirty six obstructions to omniscience to be abandoned ​
 +on the path of meditation which are included in the grounds of the desire realm] is 
 +established because there are nine conceptions of objects that are isolates of the 
 +obstructions to omniscience that are abandoned [on the path of] meditation ​
 +included in the grounds of the desire realm and nine conceptions engaging ​
 +objects, and nine conceptions apprehending substantial existence, and nine 
 +conceptions apprehending imputed existence. The latter [ie., the form and 
 +formless realms] have similar reasoning. ​
 +5. Distinguishing [the method] for thorough purification ​
 +The definition of thorough purification in a ground is:  ​
 +[33] the good quality that eliminates the faults of that ground for whoever ​
 +possesses it and which completes the good qualities. ​
 +When this is divided there are nine. 
 +The definition of thorough purification in the first ground is:  ​
 +[34] the good quality of the first ground which eliminates the faults of the 
 +first ground and which completes the good qualities. ​
 +Through this extend the reasoning to the others. ​
 +There is a difference in enumeration of the thorough purifications of the ten 
 +grounds, because the first ground has ten thorough purifications,​ the second has 
 +eight, the third has five, the fourth and fifth have ten each, the sixth has twelve, ​
 +the seventh has twenty, the eighth has eight, and the ninth has twelve. ​
 +Well then, if it is said, "​Isn'​t it the case that the thorough purification of the 
 +tenth ground does not exist?"​ this is not the case, because the exalted wisdom of 
 +the tenth ground which eliminates the faults of the tenth ground and which 
 +completes the good qualities [of the tenth ground] exists. ​
 +On this occasion, there is a reason why the thorough purification of the tenth 
 +ground is not explicitly indicated. This is because after explicitly indicating the 
 +thorough purification of the ninth ground one is able to realize the thorough ​
 +purification of the tenth ground. ​
 +Well then, if it is said, "Is the thorough purification of the tenth ground ​
 +thorough purification for the sake of attaining the good qualities that are not 
 +attained earlier, or is it thorough purification [for the sake of good qualities] that 
 +have already been attained?"​ someone might say: "It is thorough purification for 
 +the sake of attaining that which has not been attained, because, for instance, it is 
 +like a ditch for channelling water." ​  
 +Or someone might say: "[It is thorough purification for the sake of attaining] ​
 +that which has already been attained, because, for instance, it is like sweeping a 
 +clean house." ​
 +The first is not correct because whatever is a good quality of the first ground ​
 +must exist at the time of the first ground. ​
 +5. Meaning of the Terms 
 +[This has two parts:] the general etymology of ground and the etymologies of the 
 +individual grounds. ​
 +1. The general etymology of ground ​
 +The [Sanskrit] equivalent of "​ground"​ is  bhumi. From the point of view of 
 +developing the etymology, there is a reason for saying "​ground"​ for the 
 +Mahåyåna path of seeing and so forth, because such is said because it serves as 
 +a support for fearlessness for trainees regarding the limitless numbers of ghosts ​
 +of the two obstructions and because it acts to increase good qualities to higher ​
 +and higher [levels]. ​
 +The Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras states:  ​
 +Since they are fearless [with respect to] limitless numbers of ghosts ​
 +And since for the sake of limitless numbers [of good qualities] ​
 +Later one moves higher, ​
 +Just these are asserted to be grounds. ​
 +2. The etymologies of the individual grounds ​
 +There is a reason for calling the first ground "Very Joyous"​ because when one 
 +sees from the first ground that one is near to complete enlightenment and the 
 +accomplishment of the welfare of sentient beings, special joy is generated.  ​
 +Just this [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +Since they are near enlightenment ​
 +And see they will accomplish the welfare of sentient beings ​
 +Great joy is generated. ​
 +Therefore it is called "Very Joyful." ​
 +There is a reason for calling the second ground "​Stainless"​ because from the 
 +second [ground] one is free from the stains of faulty ethics and the effort of taking ​
 +the HÐnayåna to mind. 
 +This [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +Since it is free from faulty ethics and the effort [of taking the HÐnayåna ​
 +to mind] 
 +It is called the "​Stainless"​ ground.  ​
 +There is a reason for calling the third  ground "​Radiant"​ because from the third 
 +[ground] one makes effort to seek doctrinal scripture even without looking after 
 +ones body and life and other trainees are gratified by the appearance of doctrine. ​
 +This [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +Since it causes the great appearance of doctrine ​
 +It is called "​Radiant." ​
 +There is a reason for calling the fourth ground "​Shining"​ because on the fourth ​
 +ground one shines a fire-like light of exalted wisdom that burns one'​s ​
 +corresponding two obstructions from the point of view of possessing doctrines ​
 +concordant with enlightenment.  ​
 +This [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +Here, doctrines concordant with enlightenment ​
 +Thoroughly shine like light. ​
 +Due to possessing them, this ground ​
 +Since it burns the two [obstructions],​ possesses shining. ​
 +There is a reason for calling the fifth ground "​Difficult to Tame" because whereas ​
 +for intelligent bodhisattvas on the fourth ground and below it is difficult to bring 
 +sentient beings to fruition and hard to  have patience with the errors of trainees, ​
 +on the fifth ground these [bodhisattvas] are able to tame them. 
 +This [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +Since thoroughly maturing beings and 
 +Protecting ones own mind  ​
 +Is difficult training even for the intelligent, ​
 +It is called "​Difficult to Tame." ​
 +There is a reason for called the sixth ground "​Manifest"​ because meditating on 
 +the arising of the system of [the twelve links of] dependent-origination manifests a 
 +reversal from cyclic existence and meditating on the reversal of the system of 
 +[the twelve links of] dependent-origination manifests nirvana. ​
 +This [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +Since depending on the perfection of wisdom ​
 +Manifests here [the reversal] of cyclic existence ​
 +And nirvana, the two, 
 +It is called the ground of the "​Manifest." ​
 +There is a reason for calling the seventh ground "Gone Afar" because in 
 +dependence on meditating on the path for a long time one relates the two, the 
 +final path having signs and effort with the one path of progress. ​
 +This [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +Since it is related to the one path of progress ​
 +It is asserted to be the ground "Gone Afar." ​
 +There is a reason for calling the eighth ground "​Immoveable"​ because on the 
 +eighth ground both discriminations with signs and discriminations without signs 
 +but with effort do not move [the mind] and are non-existent. ​
 +This [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +Since it is unmoved by the two discriminations ​
 +It is definitely called the "​Immoveable"​ ground. ​
 + There is a reason for calling the  ninth ground "Good Intelligence"​ because one 
 +attains the forbearance called "​Intelligence correctly knowing individual ​
 +[phenomena]." ​
 +This [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +The good awareness correctly knowing individual [phenomena] ​
 +Of this ground is "Good Intelligence." ​
 +There is a reason for calling the tenth ground "Cloud of Doctrine"​ because just as 
 +an great harvest in the world occurs in dependence on rain falling from a 
 +gathering of rain clouds in the sky, so a great marvellous harvest of virtue in the 
 +continua of trainees occurs in dependence on a rain of doctrine from the 
 +gathering of clouds of doctrines regarding forms, meditative stabilization,​ and so 
 +forth in the mental continuum of tenth ground bodhisattvas,​ which is like the sky. 
 +This [Ornament for the Mahåyåna SÒtras] states:  ​
 +Since the two like clouds ​
 +Pervade the doctrine in the sky, 
 +It is called "Cloud of Doctrine. ​
 +When the meaning is condensed, there is  a reason that the subject, clear 
 +realizations of one who has entered ​ a path, are called grounds, because they 
 +serve as the basis for the many good qualities that are its effect. ​
 +2. Section on Paths  ​
 +The second has five aspects: definitions,​ divisions, the enumeration of terms, ​
 +etymology, explanation of how they arise. ​
 +The first [definitions]:  ​
 +The definition of path is  ​
 +[35] an exalted knower which is influenced by the uncontrived intention ​
 +definitely to emerge. ​
 +The second, divisions. If [paths] are divided in terms of objects, there are the five, 
 +the path of accumulation and so forth. If [paths] are divided in terms of periods ​
 +there are three: the two, meditative equipoise and subsequent attainment, and 
 +the path that is neither of those two. If [paths] are divided in terms of support, ​
 +there are the three, Hearers, Solitary Realizers, and Bodhisattvas.  ​
 +The definition of the path of accumulation is:  ​
 +[36] a clear realization of the doctrine. ​
 +That has the three, Hearer, Solitary Realizer and Mahåyåna paths of 
 +accumulation. ​
 +The definition of a Hearer path of accumulation is:  ​
 +[37] a clear realization of a Hearer'​s doctrine. ​
 +That has three: small, middling, and great. Each of those has three: direct ​
 +perception, inferential cognition, and subsequent cognitions which are those 
 +[clear realizations of a Hearer'​s doctrine]. The first [direct perception] is for 
 +instance the first five higher knowledges in the continuum of a person on the 
 +Hearer'​s path of accumulation. The second [inferential cognition] is for instance ​
 +the awareness the newly realizes selflessness of persons in dependence on a 
 +sign in such a continuum. The third [subsequent cognition] is for instance the 
 +ascertaining consciousness which ascertains selflessness of persons in such a 
 +continuum. Therefore, apply the reasoning ​ also to Solitary Realizer paths of 
 +accumulation. ​
 +The distinctive feature for Solitary Realizers is for instance an awareness ​
 +realizing emptiness of duality or the ascertaining consciousness that ascertains ​
 +the emptiness of duality in the continuum of a person on the path of 
 +accumulation. Therefore, apply this reasoning also to the Mahåyåna path of 
 +accumulation. The distinctive feature for the Mahåyåna is to apply emptiness ​
 +instead of selflessness. ​
 +The definition of a path of preparation is:  ​
 +[38] a clear realization of the meaning. ​
 +When this is divided there are the three, Hearer path of preparation,​ and so 
 +forth. The definition of a Hearer path of preparation is:  ​
 +[39] a clear realization of a Hearer'​s meaning. ​
 +When divided there are four, heat and so forth. The first three have small, ​
 +middling, and great, whereas the supreme mundane quality does not because it 
 +is the final moment at that time. That follows because the Abhidharmakosa says: 
 +That is a single moment, just like Supreme Mundane Quality. ​
 +If divided in another way there are three, direct perception, inferential ​
 +cognition, and subsequent cognition. Illustrations are as above. Extend the 
 +reasoning to Solitary Realizers. Distinctive features are as above. ​
 +The definition of a Mahåyåna path of preparation is:  ​
 +[40] a clear realization of the Mahåyåna meaning. ​
 +If that is divided there are four, such as heat. Each of these is also divided ​
 +into three, small, middling and great, making twelve. If that is divided in another ​
 +way there are three, such a direct perception, inferential cognition, and 
 +subsequent cognition. Illustrations are as before.  ​
 +The definition of the path of seeing is:  ​
 +[41] a clear realization of the truth. ​
 +If that is divided there are three: Hearer'​s path of seeing, and so forth.  ​
 +The definition of a Hearer'​s path of seeing is:  ​
 +[42] a clear realization of a Hearer'​s truth. ​
 +The divisions and so forth have already been explained.  ​
 +The definition of a doctrinal forbearance of sufferings related to a Hearer path 
 +of seeing is:  ​
 +[43] that which is an uninterrupted path of a Hearer'​s path of seeing and 
 +which acts as the actual antidote to the seeing-abandonments1
 + ​[related ​
 +to] sufferings included in the paths of the desire realm which are its 
 +corresponding objects of abandonment. ​
 +The definition of a subsequent forbearance of sufferings related to a Hearer path 
 +of seeing is: 
 +[44] that which is an uninterrupted path of a Hearer'​s path of seeing and 
 +which acts as the actual antidote to  the afflictive obstructions that are 
 +seeing-abandonments [related to] sufferings included in the paths of the 
 +higher realms which are its corresponding objects of abandonment. ​
 +That reasoning can be applied to the others. ​
 +There is simultaneous production of the eight forbearances of the Hearer'​s ​
 +path of seeing because they are produced in that way in the continuum of a 
 +candidate for stream enterer who [abandons] objects of abandonment all at once. 
 +There is gradual production because they are produced in that way in the 
 +                                                           
 +1
 + "​Seeing-abandonment"​ (mthong spang) ​ refers to objects of abandonment abandoned on the path of 
 +seeing. ​
 +continuum of she who [abandons] the objects of abandonment in stages. ​
 +That reasoning can be applied to Solitary Realizers. ​
 +The definition of Mahåyåna path of seeing is:  ​
 +[45] a clear realization of the truth of the Mahåyåna. ​
 +The divisions have already been explained. ​
 +The definition of the path of meditation is:  ​
 +[46] a subsequent clear realization. ​
 +When divided there are three, the Hearer path of meditation and so forth. ​
 +The definition of the Hearer path of meditation is:  ​
 +[47] a Hearer'​s subsequent clear realization. ​
 +The definition of an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of a Hearer path 
 +of meditation is: 
 +[48] The subsequent clear realization of a Hearer in one-pointed ​
 +meditative equipoise on the selflessness that is its object. ​
 +When this is divided there are the three: the uninterrupted path of the 
 +Hearer'​s path of meditation, the path of release of the Hearer'​s path of meditation ​
 +and the exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the Hearer'​s path of 
 +meditation that is neither of those. ​
 +The definition of the uninterrupted path of a Hearer path of meditation is:  ​
 +[49] that which is a subsequent clear realization of a Hearer in one-pointed meditative equipoise on selflessness of persons and which acts 
 +as the actual antidote to the afflictive obstructions abandoned on the 
 +path of meditation which are its corresponding objects of abandonment. ​
 +When that is divided there are nine ranging from the small of the small of the 
 +Hearer'​s [uninterrupted path of the] path of meditation to the great of the great. ​
 +The definition of a path of release of a Hearer path of meditation is:  ​
 +[50] a subsequent clear realization of a Hearer in one-pointed meditative ​
 +equipoise on selflessness that has been released from the obstructions ​
 +that correspond to the uninterrupted path of a Hearer'​s path of 
 +meditation produced in the same session of meditative equipoise as it 
 +and which is its substantial cause. ​
 +When that is divided there are nine ranging from the small of the small of the 
 +Hearer'​s path of release of the path of meditation to the great of the great. That 
 +reasoning can be applied to Solitary realizers. ​
 +The definition of a Mahåyåna path of meditation is:  ​
 +[51] a subsequent clear realization of the Mahåyåna. ​
 +If that is divided there are three, such as the exalted wisdom of meditative ​
 +equipoise of the Mahåyåna path of meditation. The first, the definition of the 
 +exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of a Mahåyåna path of meditation is:  ​
 +[52] that which is a subsequent clear realization of a Mahåyånist in one-pointed meditative equipoise on the selflessness that is its object and 
 +which has arisen to become manifest in the continuum of a person who 
 +possesses that in her continuum. ​
 +When that is divided there are three such as the uninterrupted path of the 
 +Mahåyåna path of meditation. ​
 +The definition of the first [the uninterrupted path of a Mahayana path of 
 +meditation] is:  ​
 +[53] that which is a subsequent clear realization of a Mahåyånist in one-pointed meditative equipoise on suchness and which acts as the actual ​
 +antidote to the innate apprehension of true existence which corresponds ​
 +to it. 
 +When divided there are the three of the small cycle, the three of the middling ​
 +cycle, and the three of the great cycle. ​
 +The definition of the smallest small uninterrupted path of a Mahåyåna path of 
 +meditation is:  ​
 +[54] that which is an uninterrupted path of the Mahåyåna path of 
 +meditation and which acts as the actual antidote to the greatest great 
 +apprehensions of true existence corresponding to it. 
 +If divided there are two, the first ground'​s uninterrupted path of the path of 
 +meditation and the second ground'​s uninterrupted path of the path of meditation. ​
 +The middling small uninterrupted path of the Mahåyåna path of meditation is 
 +mutually inclusive with the third ground'​s uninterrupted path. That reasoning can 
 +be applied to the others. ​
 +The definition of a path of release of a Mahåyåna path of meditation is:  ​
 +[55] that which is an exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise of the 
 +Mahåyåna path of meditation and which is a Mahåyåna subsequent ​
 +clear realization which has been released from the apprehension of true 
 +existence that corresponds to the uninterrupted path produced in the 
 +same session of meditative equipoise as it. 
 +When divided there are nine. The smallest small of the path of release of a 
 +Mahåyåna path of meditation is mutually inclusive with the second ground'​s path 
 +of release of the path of meditation. ​
 +The definition of the path of no more learning is:  ​
 +[56] an exalted knower that has abandoned the afflictive obstructions. ​
 +When divided there are three, the Hearer'​s path of no more learning and so 
 +forth. ​
 + 
 + 
 + 
necklace_of_learned_explanations_chokyi_gyaltsen_source_text.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:12 (external edit)