User Tools

Site Tools


obesity
Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Next revision
Previous revision
obesity [2016/02/01 07:51]
127.0.0.1 external edit
obesity [2018/02/26 18:12] (current)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +'''​Obesity'''​ is a medical classification regarding an extreme level of excessive body weight. It is a more serious classification on the [[Body Mass Index]] (BMI) scale than the ''​overweight''​ classification is. From a medical perspective,​ an [[obese]] person has accumulated enough body fat that it can negatively impact health.
  
----- +If an adult'​s weight ​is at least 20% higher than his ideal weight ​(which is based upon the person'​s height), he is generally considered obese. An adult with a Body Mass Index (BMIbetween 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. A BMI is 30 or over is considered obese.<ref>http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/obesity/</​ref> ​
-[[Ayurveda Dharma]] ​is distributed [[copyleft]] via this [[GNU Free Documentation License]] ​(FDL) and/or under [[Creative Commons License]] Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States +
----- +
-http://ayurveda-tcm.com/ayurvedic-chinese-medicine-distance-learning/doku.php?​id=obesity+
  
-http://correspondencecourse.ayurveda-distancelearning.com/wiki/Obesity+Because ideal weights vary by age and gender, childhood obesity is normally determined using a modified BMI table. The [[Center for Disease Control]] (CDC) publishes a set of tables used to determine BMI percentages children and teens. In these tables, children whose weight is equal to or greater than the 95% bracket are considered obese.<​ref>​[http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/​assessing/​bmi/​childrens_bmi/​about_childrens_bmi.html About BMI for Children and Teens]</ref>
  
 +In addition, the term obese can be used in a more general way to simply mean the "​excessive accumulation and storage of fat in the body"​.<​ref>​[http://​www.merriam-webster.com/​dictionary/​obesity?​show=0&​t=1293887890 Definition of obesity]</​ref>​
  
 +== Causes of obesity ==
  
 +See: [[Causes of obesity]] and [[Bariatric science]]
  
-10. [[obesity]]+Two of the major risk factors for becoming [[obesity|obese]] according to the [[Mayo Clinic]] are poor dietary choices and inactivity.<​ref>​http://​www.mayoclinic.com/​health/​obesity/​DS00314/​DSECTION=causes</​ref>​ Most individuals are overweight due to their dietary and exercise habits.<​ref>​ 
 +*[http://​www.mayoclinic.com/​health/​obesity/​DS00314/​DSECTION=causes Causes of obesity] - [[Mayo Clinic]] 
 +*[http://​www.motleyhealth.com/​fitness/​how-much-exercise-is-needed-to-get-fit-and-lose-weight How much exercise is needed to get fit and lose weight] 
 +*[http://​www.hsph.harvard.edu/​obesity-prevention-source/​obesity-causes/​genes-and-obesity/​ Genes Are Not Destiny] - [[Harvard University]] School of Public health 
 +*[http://​www.forbes.com/​sites/​alicegwalton/​2013/​09/​04/​the-6-weight-loss-tips-that-science-actually-knows-work/​ The 6 Weight-Loss Tips That Science Actually Knows Work] - ''​Forbes'',​ April 9, 2013 
 +*[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​16002825 Long-term weight loss maintenance],​ ''​American Journal of Clinical Nutrition'',​ 2005 July; 82(1 Suppl):​222S-225S. 
 +*[http://​www.simplefitnesssolutions.com/​articles/​weight_loss.htm Strength Training For Weight Loss Success] by Deborah L. Mullen, CSCS 
 +*[http://​www.mayoclinic.org/​healthy-living/​weight-loss/​in-depth/​weight-loss/​art-20047752 Weight loss strategies for success] - Mayo Clinic 
 +</​ref>​ 
 + 
 +=== Genetics === 
 + 
 +Although many people attempt to excuse away their overweight condition on their [[genetics|genetic]] makeup rather than exercise self-discipline when it comes to their diet and exercise habits, according to the [[Harvard University]] School of Public Health, most people can maintain a healthy weight through the establishment of healthy habits and maintaining an environment conducive to good health (emptying their refrigerator and cupboards of junk foods, etc.).<​ref>​[http://​www.hsph.harvard.edu/​obesity-prevention-source/​obesity-causes/​genes-and-obesity/​ Obesity - Genes are not destiny]</​ref>​ 
 + 
 +The [[Harvard University]] School of Public Health declares in their article ''​[[Gene]]s are not destiny'':​ 
 +{{cquote|...it’s important to remember that overall, the contribution of genes to obesity risk is small, while the contribution of our toxic food and activity environment is huge. As one scientist wrote, “Genes may co-determine who becomes obese, but our environment determines how many become obese.” That’s why obesity prevention efforts must focus on changing our environment to make healthy choices easier choices, for all.<​ref>​[http://​www.hsph.harvard.edu/​obesity-prevention-source/​obesity-causes/​genes-and-obesity/​ Obesity - Genes are not destiny]</​ref>​}} 
 + 
 +=== Internet and computer usage === 
 + 
 +In 2009, an Australian university study was done concerning the association between leisure time internet and computer use with being overweight/​obese and also sedentary.<​ref>​http://​www.jmir.org/​2009/​3/​e28/</​ref>​ The study concluded: "These findings suggest that, apart from nutritional and physical activity interventions,​ it may also be necessary to decrease time spent in sedentary behaviors, such as leisure-time Internet and computer use, in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity."<​ref>​http://​www.jmir.org/​2009/​3/​e28/</​ref>​ 
 + 
 +=== Worldview === 
 + 
 +See also: [[Atheism and obesity]] and [[Sports performance:​ Religious faith vs. atheism]] 
 + 
 +In the journal article ''​Religion,​ self-regulation,​ and self-control:​ Associations,​ explanations,​ and implications'',​ psychologists McCullough and Willoughby theorize that many of the positive links of religiousness with health and social behavior may be caused by religion'​s beneficial influences on [[self-control]]/​self-regulation.<​ref>​[http://​www.psy.miami.edu/​faculty/​mmccullough/​Papers/​Relig_self_control_bulletin.pdf Religion, Self-Regulation,​ and Self-Control:​ Associations,​ Explanations,​ and Implications]</​ref><​ref>​http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​19210054</​ref>​ Furthermore,​ a 2012 Queen'​s University study published in ''​Psychological Science''​ found that religion replenishes self-control.<​ref>​[http://​pss.sagepub.com/​content/​early/​2012/​05/​02/​0956797611431987.abstract ''​Religion Replenishes Self-Control'',​ ''​Psychological Science'',​ June 2012 vol. 23 no. 6 635-642, Kevin Rounding, Albert Lee, Jill A. Jacobson and Li-Jun Ji at Queen’s University]</​ref><​ref>​[http://​www.eurekalert.org/​pub_releases/​2012-01/​qu-qsf012412.php Study finds religion helps us gain self-control]</​ref> ​ Also, numerous studies indicate that those who engage in regular spiritual practices have lower mortality rates.<​ref>​[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​10868765 Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. McCullough ME, Hoyt WT, Larson DB, Koenig HG, Thoresen C., Health Psychol. 2000 May;​19(3):​211-22.]</​ref>​ <​ref>​[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pmc/​articles/​PMC1305900/​ ''​The role of spirituality in health care'',​ roc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 October; 14(4): 352–357.]</​ref>​ 
 + 
 +According to the [[Gallup poll|Gallup Inc.]], "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."<​ref>​http://​www.gallup.com/​poll/​145379/​Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx</​ref>​ 
 + 
 +For more information,​ please see: [[Atheism and obesity]] 
 + 
 +=== Medical causes of obesity === 
 + 
 +Although obesity is usually the result of overeating and lack of exercise, in a small percentage of cases excess weight gain is a symptom of a [[disease]] such as hypothyroidism or Cushing'​s syndrome.<​ref>​[http://​www.webmd.com/​diet/​medical-reasons-obesity Medical causes of obesity], WebMD</​ref>​ 
 +=== Causes: additional information === 
 + 
 +Obesity has many causal factors. It can also be caused by improper hormone production or other malfunctions of various brain structures, including in particular the [[hypothalamus]] (site of the reward pathways, [this action=release of serotonin=feeling of pleasure]) and [[thyroid]] gland. A 2003 Duke University study shows a possible relationship between the number of children a person has and an increased risk of obesity. A woman'​s risk of obesity is raised 7% with each child; a man's risk is raised by 4%.<​ref>​[http://​www.liebertonline.com/​doi/​abs/​10.1089/​154099904322836492 Number of Children Associated with Obesity in Middle-Aged Women and Men: Results from the Health and Retirement Study]</​ref>​ 
 + 
 +Obesity is most dangerous among the children and the elderly, whose bones, ​[[liver]]s, and [[lung]]s are too weak to deal with the excess weight and fat. Obesity can significantly shorten a person'​s lifespan. 
 + 
 +Many in the medical establishment consider ​obesity ​to be an illness<​ref>​[http://​www.medicalnewstoday.com/​articles/​4650.php Is Obesity a Disease?] Medical News Today</​ref>,​ in the sense that it is a serious medical condition, but disagree about the root causes of non-hormone related obesity. The medical world is nearly unanimously agreed that obesity is a big problem in the Western world, and in fact becoming a problem world wide.<​ref>"​... when it comes to obesity—which dominates nutrition problems even in some of the poorest countries of the world—it is the calories that count."​ [http://​www.sciam.com/​article.cfm?​id=eating-made-simple Eating Made Simple] - Scientific American</​ref>​  
 + 
 +[[Liberal|Liberals'​]] answer to this problem has been to shift responsibility from those who are overeating (not including people with medical factors that cause the problems), to regulating how much fat can be in foods, what foods can be served at what restaurants,​ and trying to put financial penalties on restaurants that serve "​fatty"​ foods. 
 + 
 +== Weight loss methods and medical science == 
 + 
 +[[Bariatric science]] is the branch of [[medical science]] that deals with the causes, prevention, treatment/​control of obesity and its allied diseases.<​ref>​[http://​dictionary.reference.com/​browse/​bariatric Definition of the bariatric]</​ref>​ 
 + 
 +For more information on weight loss methods, please see: [[Bariatric science]] 
 + 
 +== Weight loss methods and spiritual support == 
 + 
 +See: [[Overcoming obesity with the aid of Christian faith]] 
 + 
 +== Physical and mental health related problems associated with obesity == 
 + 
 +''​See also:''​ [[Health risks linked to obesity]] 
 + 
 +Some of the medical conditions associated with obesity include: type 2 [[diabetes]],​ [[high blood pressure]], high [[cholesterol]] and [[triglyceride]]s,​ coronary artery disease (CAD), [[stroke]], [[arthritis]],​ [[cancer]], sleep apnea, [[reproduction|reproductive problems]] in women and varicose veins. Diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol,​ and CAD are most closely associated with unhealthy diets, while arthritis comes from the stress extra weight places on the body. Stokes, cancer, and reproductive problems less closely correlate with obesity. <ref>  
 +*[http://​www.webmd.com/​diet/​tc/​obesity-health-risks-of-obesity] 
 +*[http://​www.surgeongeneral.gov/​topics/​obesity/​calltoaction/​fact_consequences.htm] 
 +*[http://​www.cancer.gov/​cancertopics/​factsheet/​Risk/​obesity] 
 +*[http://​stanfordhospital.org/​clinicsmedServices/​COE/​surgicalServices/​vascularSurgery/​patientEducation/​varicose.html]</​ref> ​ In addition, [[medical science]] research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.<​ref>​ 
 +*[http://​pn.psychiatryonline.org/​content/​41/​18/​25.1.full] 
 +*[http://​health.usnews.com/​health-news/​family-health/​brain-and-behavior/​articles/​2009/​08/​25/​as-waistlines-widen-brains-shrink.html] 
 +*[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​21167850] 
 +*[http://​www.sciencedaily.com/​releases/​2010/​07/​100714112832.htm] 
 +*[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pmc/​articles/​instance/​2568718/​]</​ref>​ 
 +[[File:​Cerebellum.png|right|thumb|240px|[[Medical science]] research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.<​ref>​ 
 +*[http://​pn.psychiatryonline.org/​content/​41/​18/​25.1.full] 
 +*[http://​health.usnews.com/​health-news/​family-health/​brain-and-behavior/​articles/​2009/​08/​25/​as-waistlines-widen-brains-shrink.html] 
 +*[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​21167850] 
 +*[http://​www.sciencedaily.com/​releases/​2010/​07/​100714112832.htm] 
 +*[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pmc/​articles/​instance/​2568718/​]</​ref>​]] 
 +  
 +According to the Mayo Clinic some of the symptoms associated with obesity can include: 
 +{{cquote| 
 +* Difficulty sleeping 
 + 
 +* Snoring 
 + 
 +* Sleep apnea 
 + 
 +* Pain in your back or joints 
 + 
 +* Excessive sweating 
 + 
 +* Always feeling hot 
 + 
 +* Rashes or infection in folds of your skin 
 + 
 +* Feeling out of breath with minor exertion 
 + 
 +* Daytime sleepiness or fatigue 
 + 
 +* Depression<​ref>​http://​www.mayoclinic.com/​health/​obesity/​DS00314/​DSECTION=symptoms</​ref>​}} 
 + 
 +Concerning the issue of depression, [[Atheism and suicide|atheists do have higher rates of suicide than the general population.]] For more information please see: [[Atheism and depression]] and [[Atheism and suicide]]. 
 + 
 +==Obesity in the United States== 
 +The incidence of obesity varies by region within the United States. In 2010, the five leanest states (that is, the states with the lowest rates of obesity) were [[Colorado]],​ [[Connecticut]],​ the [[District of Columbia]], [[Massachusetts]],​ and [[Hawaii]]. The five states with the highest rates of obesity were [[Mississippi]],​ [[Alabama]],​ [[Tennessee]],​ [[West Virginia]],​and [[Louisiana ]]. <​ref>​http://​calorielab.com/​news/​2010/​06/​28/​fattest-states-2010/</​ref>​ A recent study states that in 2010, the only state with less than a 20% obesity rate is Colorado. Twenty years ago, there were no states with an obesity rate higher than 15%.<​ref>​[http://​getbetterhealth.com/​more-bad-news-about-the-obesity-epidemic-in-america/​2011.07.22 More bad news about the obesity epidemic in-America]</​ref>​ 
 + 
 +==World issues on hunger vs. obesity== 
 +It has been noted that world obesity has risen, yet there is still an endless problem with starvation and hunger and malnutrition in both America and the world at large. ​ A growing problem is food being horded and poorly distributed by groups like the United Nations, as well as poor food choices made by the less fortunate who would rather spend limited dollars on treat-like foods than on (admittedly harder to cook and less tasty, but better for you) choices like beans, rice, and canned vegetables. ​ Liberals tend to deny the roles of personal choice and problems like greed in the UN, rather blaming the "​establishment"​ for the entire problem of both hunger and obesity. 
 + 
 +== Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism == 
 + 
 +''​See also:''​ [[Atheism and obesity]] and [[Psychology,​ obesity, religiosity and atheism]] and [[atheism and suicide]] 
 + 
 +According to the [[Gallup Organization]],​ "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."<​ref>​http://​www.gallup.com/​poll/​145379/​Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx</​ref> ​ For more information please see: [[Atheism and obesity]].  
 + 
 +Many people overeat in response to negative [[emotion]]s such as [[depression]],​ [[anxiety]] and boredom.<​ref>​http://​www.obesitypsychiatry.com/​id2.html</​ref>​  
 +Concerning [[Atheism and Mental and Physical Health|atheism and mental and physical health]], there is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that [[theism]] is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism. For example, atheists have [[Atheism and suicide|higher rates of suicide than the general population]]. ​ For more information,​ please see: [[Atheism and obesity]]. 
 + 
 + 
 +==See also== 
 +*[[Physical and mental health related problems associated with obesity]] 
 +*[[Pet obesity]] 
 + 
 +== External links == 
 + 
 +=== Weight loss resources and tips === 
 + 
 + 
 +[[File:​Jogging with dog at Carcavelos Beach.jpg|thumbnail|200px|The 20% of overweight people who are able to achieve permanent weight loss typically report doing it through engaging in high levels of physical activity, eating a low-calorie,​ low-fat diet, eating breakfast regularly, self-monitoring weight, and maintaining a consistent eating pattern across weekdays and weekends.<​ref>​[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​16002825 Long-term weight loss maintenance],​ ''​American Journal of Clinical Nutrition'',​ 2005 July; 82(1 Suppl):​222S-225S.</​ref>​ 
 +<br /><br /> 
 +Overweight individuals may need to decrease their computer and internet usage.<​ref>​http://​www.jmir.org/​2009/​3/​e28/</​ref>​]] 
 +'''​Below are some resources related to weight loss:'''​ 
 + 
 + 
 +'''​General weight loss tips:'''​ 
 + 
 +*[http://​www.mayoclinic.com/​health/​obesity/​DS00314/​DSECTION=causes Causes of obesity] - [[Mayo Clinic]] 
 +*[http://​www.motleyhealth.com/​fitness/​how-much-exercise-is-needed-to-get-fit-and-lose-weight How much exercise is needed to get fit and lose weight] 
 +*[http://​www.hsph.harvard.edu/​obesity-prevention-source/​obesity-causes/​genes-and-obesity/​ Genes Are Not Destiny] - [[Harvard University]] School of Public health 
 +*[http://​www.forbes.com/​sites/​alicegwalton/​2013/​09/​04/​the-6-weight-loss-tips-that-science-actually-knows-work/​ The 6 Weight-Loss Tips That Science Actually Knows Work] - ''​Forbes'',​ April 9, 2013 
 +*[http://​www.simplefitnesssolutions.com/​articles/​weight_loss.htm Strength Training For Weight Loss Success] by Deborah L. Mullen, CSCS 
 +*[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​16002825 Long-term weight loss maintenance],​ ''​American Journal of Clinical Nutrition'',​ 2005 July; 82(1 Suppl):​222S-225S. 
 +*[http://​www.mayoclinic.org/​healthy-living/​weight-loss/​in-depth/​weight-loss/​art-20047752 Weight loss strategies for success] - Mayo Clinic 
 + 
 + 
 +'''​Weight loss resources and tips:'''​ 
 + 
 +*[http://​www.faithandhealthconnection.org/​obesity-fat-and-faith-in-god/​ Obesity and an F grade in fat - A need for faith in God] 
 +*[http://​www.mayoclinic.com/​health/​weight-loss/​WT00018 Weight-loss goals: 10 tips for success] by [[Mayo Clinic]] 
 +*[http://​www.zonediet.com/​ Zone Diet] 
 +*[http://​www.mayoclinic.com/​health/​mediterranean-diet/​CL00011 Mediterranean diet] by [[Mayo Clinic]] 
 +*[http://​www.mayoclinic.com/​health/​glycemic-index-diet/​MY00770 Glycemic index diet: Losing weight with blood sugar control] by [[Mayo Clinic]] 
 + 
 + 
 +'''​Strength training and cardio exercise:'''​ 
 + 
 +*[http://​healthpsych.psy.vanderbilt.edu/​Web2007/​ExerciseComp.htm Weight loss: Cardio Exercise vs. Weight Training - Vanderbilt University, Health Psychology Home Page] 
 + 
 + 
 +Other resources on how much exercise is needed to lose weight and importance of one day of rest per week: 
 + 
 +*[http://​www.livestrong.com/​article/​93704-body-workout-tips/​ Workout tips and giving your body one day of rest a week] 
 +*[http://​www.livestrong.com/​article/​326666-how-many-times-a-week-should-you-work-out-a-body-part/​ Exercise and recovery time] 
 +*[http://​www.livestrong.com/​article/​75544-muscle-recovery-time-after-weight-lifting/​ Muscle recovery time and weight lifting]  
 +*[http://​www.webmd.com/​diet/​guide/​lose-weight-fast-how-to-do-it-safely Lose weight fast: How to do it safely] by WebMD 
 + 
 + 
 +'''​Documentary on weight loss:'''​  
 + 
 +*[http://​www.hulu.com/​watch/​289122/​fat-sick-and-nearly-dead Fat, sick and nearly dead] 
 + 
 + 
 +'''​Supplements:'''​ 
 + 
 +Irvingia gabonensis:  
 + 
 +*[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​19254366 IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation] - Lipids Health Dis. 2009 Mar 2;​8:​7,​Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, Mbofung CM, Oben JE. 
 +*[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pmc/​articles/​PMC1168905/​ The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon] -  Lipids Health Dis. 2005; 4: 12, Judith L Ngondi, Julius E Oben, Samuel R Minka 
 +*[http://​www.webmd.com/​vitamins-supplements/​ingredientmono-1252-IRVINGIA%20GABONENSIS.aspx?​activeIngredientId=1252&​activeIngredientName=IRVINGIA%20GABONENSIS IRVINGIA GABONENSIS - WebMD] 
 + 
 + 
 +'''​Spiritual support:'''​ 
 + 
 +*[[Overcoming obesity with the aid of Christian faith]] 
 + 
 + 
 +'''​Bariatric surgery:'''​  
 + 
 +*[http://​www.mayoclinic.org/​tests-procedures/​bariatric-surgery/​basics/​definition/​prc-20019138 Bariatric surgery] - [[Mayo Clinic]] 
 +*[http://​circ.ahajournals.org/​content/​123/​15/​1683.full.pdf Bariatric Surgery and Cardiovascular Risk Factors] - A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association 
 +<br /> 
 + 
 +==References== 
 + 
 +{{reflist}} 
 + 
 +[[Category : Obesity]] 
 +[[Category : Diseases]] 
 + 
 + 
 +----
  
 [[sign]]s and [[symptom]]s]]:​ [[obesity]] means having too much [[body]] [[fat]] (adi[[pose]] [[tissue]]). [[obesity]] generally is de[[term]]ined by calcu[[Latin]]g your [[body]] [[mass]] index ([[BM]]I), which measures w[[eight]] for h[[eight]] and is stated in [[numb]]ers. ​ A [[BM]]I of 30 or [[high]]er is conside[[red]] [[obese]] in [[adult]]s -- you are at a [[high]]er risk for certain [[health]] problems than those with a [[lower]] [[BM]]I. As [[BM]]I [[increase]]s,​ your risk of [[health]] problems [[increase]]s. [[sign]]s and [[symptom]]s]]:​ [[obesity]] means having too much [[body]] [[fat]] (adi[[pose]] [[tissue]]). [[obesity]] generally is de[[term]]ined by calcu[[Latin]]g your [[body]] [[mass]] index ([[BM]]I), which measures w[[eight]] for h[[eight]] and is stated in [[numb]]ers. ​ A [[BM]]I of 30 or [[high]]er is conside[[red]] [[obese]] in [[adult]]s -- you are at a [[high]]er risk for certain [[health]] problems than those with a [[lower]] [[BM]]I. As [[BM]]I [[increase]]s,​ your risk of [[health]] problems [[increase]]s.
obesity.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:12 (external edit)