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Offerings

Emptiness: Maha Prajna Paramita Hridaya - Gate 2 Paragate Parasamgate Bodhi Svaha - Shunyata - Om Svabhava Shuddho Sarva Dharma Svabhava Shuddho Hum; Offerings: Om Sarva Tathagata-Bodhisattva Shurangama-Shitatapatra, Aryavalokiteshvara Maha Karuna Dharani 42 Hands and Eyes Mantras, Guhyasamajya, Heruka-Chakrasamvara, Vajrayogini-Vajravarahi, Chod, Hayagriva, Mahakala, Chintamani Tara, Hevajra, Yamantaka-Vajrabhairava-Manjushri, Kalachakra, Manjushri-Nama-Samgiti, Kalarupa, Bhaisajyaguru-Akshobhkya, Shakyamuni-Vajrasattva-Vairochana, Amitabha-Amitayus-Vajradharma, Ratnasambhava, Amoghasiddhi, Vajrapani, Ksitigarbha, Samantabhadra, Mahabala-Mahastamaprapta, Maitreya, Bhaisajyaraja-Bhaisajyasamudgata, Akashagarbha, Vajrakilaya, Vajra Claws Dhakini Ucchushma, ADD TANTRIC Vairochana Sambodhi Sutra and Matrix ———, Maha Vaipulya Buddha Avatamsaka Sutra, Saddharampundarika Sutra, Sanghata Sutra Dharma Paryaya, Maha Prajna Paramita Hridaya Sutra, Vajra-Cchedika Prajna Paramita Sutra, Vimalkirti Sutra, Ksitigarbha Maha Pranidhana Sutra, Bhaisajyaguru Maha Pranidhana Sutra, Bhaisajyaraja Bhaisajyasamudgata Maha Pranidhana Sutra, Srimala Devi Sutra, Maha Parinirvana Sutra, Sutra in 42 Sections, Shantideva Bhodhisattva Charya Vatara, Hui Neng Sutra, Padmasambhava, Ashwagosha-Nagarjuna-Aryadeva-Chandrakirti-Chandragomin-Asanga-Vasubhanda-Atisha-Tsongkhapa Shastras and all of the Buddha-Dharma-Sangha Tathagata Bodhisattva Guru Deva-Devi Dhaka-Dhakini Arya Yogi-Yogini Bhikshu-Bhikshuni Dasha-Drika-Loka-Pala-Dharma-Pala Sangha-Pala Saparivara Arghyam Padyam Pushpe Dupe Aloke Gandhe Navidya Shubdha Praticha Hum Svaha. Om Sarva Ratna-Trayaya Saparivara Om Ah Hum. Om Ah Hum Ha Ho Hri. Idam-Guru-Ratna-Mandalakam-Nirayata-yami. Offerings to the Lineage Gurus: Om Ah Hum to the Guhyasamaja Mandala Mahasiddhas ——- To the Vajrayogini Mandala Mahasiddhas Ghantapa, Rupalshab, Jallandarava, Nagpochopa, Guhyapa, Namgyalshab, Tilopa, Maha Pandita Naropa, Pamtingpa brothers … Sakya Pandita, Losang Ensapa, Losang Chokyi Gyaltsen, Tsongkhapa ADD HIS MANTRA, Om Tare Tuttare Ture Arya Shi Fu ShenKai-ShengRenShi-Rahula-Shantideva-Huineng as Vajradhara Akshobya BhaisajyaGuru, Samuel Bodhisattva, Da Sheng Shr, Da Share Shr, Da Xing Fa Shr, Vajra Guru Anitya Dharma-Pala Kaliyana-Mitra Da Xing De Ben Shr Di Zang Wang Pusa Radha Ajahn Mun, Da Xin Puti Shr, Rinpoches Nyingma Penor, Bakula, Dagri, Kirti Tsenshab, Geshe Lama Kongchog Tulku Tenzin Phuntsok, Longchen Rapjampa - Bhaisajyaguru Amitabha Vajra Guru H.E. Gosok Rinpoche, Vajra Guru Hsuan Hua Sheng Ren Shi, Amitabha Yamantaka Kalchakra Vajra Guru Jetsun Jamphal Ngawang Losang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso HH Dalai Lama Nama Mantra: Om Ah Guru Vajra Dhara Vagindra Sumati Shasana Dhara Samudra Shri Bhadra Sarva Siddhi Hum Hum, Varja Guru Hevajra Pitara HH Sakya Trizin, Hevajra Ratna Vajra Rinpoche, ADD Sakya Trizin Sister, Dechen Nyingpo Phabongkha Rinpoche, Patrul Rinpoche, Rime Tradition Master _____Jamyang Kongtrul_____, Ling Rinpoche, Trijang Rinpoche, Khensur Losang Tenzin Rinpoche, Shitata Patra Devi Heruka Tara Vaishravana Tsongkhapa Yamantaka-Vajrabhairava Sahasra Buja Chakshur Avalokiteshvara Hevajra Sarva Kriya-Charya Tantra Mantra Akshobhya Vajra Guru Bodhisattva Shila Upadhyaya Choden Rinpoche, Sveta Tara Arapachana-Manjushri Guhyasamaja Vajrayogini Vajravarahi Chod Ksitigarbha Hayagriva Rakta Tara Vajra Master Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Chitamani Tara Vajra Guru Khensur Rinpoche Losang Tsephel, Amitabha Vajra Guru Dhakpa Tritul Rinpoche, ADD Alameda Master Sahasra Buja Chakshur Avalokiteshvara Vajra Guru Mingyur Rinpoche, Ajahn Sumedho, Ajahn Chah, VajraGuru Padmasambhava H.E. Garchen Rinpoche, Arya Geshe Ngawang Dakpa, Sveta Tara Vajra Guru Shramanera Upadhyaya Geshe Losang Jamphal, Geshe Sopa Rinpoche, Mahakala Vajra Guru Kagyupa Lama Lodu Rinpoche, Nyingma Lama Tarchin Rinpoche, Kagyupa 17th Karmapa Urgyen Trinley Dorje, Kagyupa Tai Situ Rinpoche, Arya Shamatha-Vipashina Upasaka S.N. Goenka-Ji Saparivara Arghyam Padyam Pushpe Dupe Aloke Gandhe Navidya Shubdha Praticha Hum Svaha. Om Sarva Ratna-Trayaya Saparivara Om Ah Hum. Om Ah Hum Ha Ho Hri. Idam-Guru-Ratna-Mandalakam-Nirayata-yam - Prostrations - Refuge - Offerings - Om-Ah-Hum to you all, Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha. Bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two powerful attainments of Maha Punya (Merit) and Maha Prajna Paramita (Wisdom-Bliss). And the ancient Masters: Om Tare Tuttare Ture Om Ah Hum to Arya Rahula-Jivaka-Charaka-Ashwagosha and Seventeen Nalanda Vihara Panditas: Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Buddhapalita, Bhavaviveka, Chandrakirti-Chandragomin, Shantideva-Huineng, Shantarakshita, Kamalashila, Asanga, Vasubandhu, Dignaga, Dharmakirti, Vimuktisena, Haribhadra, Gunaprabha, Shakyaprabha, and Atisha; all great Dharma Translators such as Vairochana, Shurangama Sutra Shramana Paramiti, Kumarajiva, Hsuan-Tsang, Tian-Tai Master Zhi Yi Saparivara Arghyam Padyam Pushpe Dupe Aloke Gandhe Navidya Shubdha Praticha Hum Svaha. Om Sarva Ratna-Trayaya Saparivara Om Ah Hum. Om Ah Hum Ha Ho Hri. Idam-Guru-Ratna-Mandalakam-Nirayata-yam - Prostrations - Refuge - Offerings - Om-Ah-Hum to you all, Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha. Bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two powerful attainments of Maha Punya (Merit) and Maha Prajna Paramita (Wisdom-Bliss). Om Tare Tuttare Ture Namo Lama Tsong Khapa (1357-1417) Mig Me Tsé Wai Ter Chhen CHÄN RÄ ZIG, DRI ME KHYEN PÄI WANG PO JAM PÄL YANG, DÜ PUNG MA LÜ JOM DZÄ SANG WÄI DAG, GANG CHHÄN KHÄ PÄI TSUG GYÄN TSONG KHA PA, LO ZANG DRAG PÄI ZHAB LA SÖL WA DEB, Aryavalokiteshvara, great treasure of non-objectifying compassion; Manjushri, master of stainless wisdom; Vajrapani, destroyer of the entire host of maras, Tsong Khapa, crown jewel of the sages of the land of snow; To Losang Dragpa (Tsong Khapa), Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha - Saparivara Arghyam Padyam Pushpe Dupe Aloke Gandhe Navidya Shubdha Praticha Hum Svaha. Om Sarva Ratna-Trayaya Saparivara Om Ah Hum. Om Ah Hum Ha Ho Hri. Idam-Guru-Ratna-Mandalakam-Nirayata-yam - Prostrations - Refuge - Offerings - Om-Ah-Hum to you all, Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha. Bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two powerful attainments of Maha Punya (Merit) and Maha Prajna Paramita (Wisdom-Bliss). Om Tare Tuttare Ture Om Ah Hum to Namo Longchen Rapjampa - H.E. Gosok Rinpoche, Chod Guru Bhikshuni Machig Labkyi Dronma, Gyalwa Ensapa, Thogme Zangpo, Pabongkha Rinpoche, H.H. Ganden Tri Rinpoche, H.H. Penor Rinpoche, Konchok Rinpoche, Dagri Rinpoche Pari Dorje Chang Tulku, FPMT Lineage Masters Vajra Master H.H. Tenzin Gyatso the Dalai Lama, HH Ling Rinpoche, HH Trijang Rinpoche, Tsenshab Serkong Rinpoche, HH Chobgye Trichen Rinpoche, HH Ling Rinpoche, Trulshik Rinpoche, Vajra Master HH Sakya Trizin, HH Zong Rinpoche, Geshe Rabten Rinpoche, Khensur Denma Locho Rinpoche, Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche, Geshe Sopa Rinpoche, Ribur Rinpoche, Vajra Master Choden Rinpoche, Bakula Rinpoche, Vajra Master Ven Dhakpa Tritul Rinpoche, Khyongla Rato Rinpoche and all the rest of the FPMT Masters, all the Arya Masters of Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu, Sakya, and Gelukpa lineages Saparivara Arghyam Padyam Pushpe Dupe Aloke Gandhe Navidya Shubdha Praticha Hum Svaha. Om Sarva Ratna-Trayaya Saparivara Om Ah Hum. Om Ah Hum Ha Ho Hri. Idam-Guru-Ratna-Mandalakam-Nirayata-yam - Prostrations - Refuge - Offerings - Om-Ah-Hum to you all, Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha. Bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two powerful attainments of Maha Punya (Merit) and Maha Prajna Paramita (Wisdom-Bliss). To all of these above Gurus and to all Sages throughout time - With Samantabhadra Conduct, I and all living beings bow, take eternal refuge, receive precepts, vows, initiations, samaya, predictions, 1. worship and respect, 2. makes praises, 3. practice profoundly the giving of offerings, 4. repent and reform all karmic hindrances, 5. rejoice and follow in merit and virtue, 6. request that the Dharma Wheel be turned, 7. request that the Buddhas remain in the world, 8. follow the Buddhas' teaching always, 9. constantly accord with all living beings, 10. transfer all merit and virtue universally;

offerings*

“Why should one make offerings to the Three Jewels? It is because the Three Jewels provides a place for one to plant Blessings. If you would like to seek Blessings, you must perform meritorious acts before the Three Jewels.” (DFS II 288)

“One might think, 'Why should one make offerings to the Three Jewels? Wouldn't it be better if the Three Jewels made offerings to me?'

“You may think it's a bargain, but you would really be getting the short end. Why now do you have such poor luck? It's because in the past you didn't make offerings to the Three Jewels. Why are you always short of money–no money for some nice clothes or a decent place to live? It's because you didn't make offerings to the Three Jewels. As a consequence , day by day your Blessings grow thinner. If you make offerings to the Three Jewels, your Blessings will grow day by day. The Three Jewels is the field … where living beings can plant Blessings.” (DFS IX 1700-1701)

The ten kinds of offerings

“1) incense.The finest, most expensive incense should be offered to the Buddha. If you were to buy old incense which shopkeepers were about to discard and bring it as an offering to the Buddha, your heart would be lacking in sincerity. On the other hand, if you were to offer gosirsa-canDana (ox-head sandalwood) incense, your gift, involving considerable sacrifice on your part, could be considered sincere. “Ox-headincense is often mentioned in the Buddha's teachings. The Shurangama Sutra explains that this incense was so fragrant that it could be detected within a radius of thirteen miles when it was being burned in the city of Sravasti during the Buddha's Dharma-assemblies. The Brahman woman in the Sutra of the past vows]] of Earth Store Bodhisattva (Ksitigarbha) sold her house and sacrificed her wealth in order to make a Great offering to enlightenment Flower Samadhi selfexistent King Tathagata. Her sincerity was so Great that she sold the very roof over her head in order to make the very best offerings to the Buddha.

“The reward for offering incense to the Buddha is that in the future your body will be fragrant. A rare scent constantly issued from Shakyamuni Buddha's mouth and from every pore on his body. An ordinary person's body has such a foul odor it can be detected for miles. If you don't believe that, just consider how a police dog is able to trace a human scent at a distance of Three to five miles. However, if you make offerings of incense to the Buddha with the hope of gaining a fragrant body, then you have missed the point. You should not seek for it. When your Merit and virtue are sufficient, you body will quite naturally be fragrant. The Gods, for example, have fragrant bodies because they made offerings of incense to the Buddha in former lives. Until your Merit and virtue are sufficient, you will continue to have a common stinKing body no matter how much you strive to attain a fragrant odor.

2) Flowers. The finer the Flowers that you offer to the Buddha, the Greater the Merit and virtue you receive from the offering. Do not spend all your money for good things to eat; save a little for an offering to the Buddha. The reward for offerings of Flowers is that you will have perfect features and be very beautiful or extremely handsome in your next life. people will fall in love with you at first sight. women will be strongly attracted to you if you are a man; and men will be unable to resist your beauty if you are a woman. 'That is too much trouble,' you may say. 'I don't want to get involved with that.'

“If you don't want that kind of trouble, so much the better. Shakyamuni Buddha had perfect features as a result of offering incense and Flowers to Buddhas in former lives. If you fear the trouble a perfect appearance might bring, you can imitate Patriarch Bodhidharma who had a ragged beard and ugly features! It is up to you. However, you like it, you can have it that way.

3) Lamps. If you light lamps before the Buddha, next life your eyes will be bright. You will be able to see things other people cannot see and know things other people cannot know. You will be able to obtain the penetration of the Five Eyes: The heavenly eye, the Buddha eye, the Dharma Eye, the wisdom eye, and the flesh eye. . . .

4) necklaces. rare Jewels and gems may be placed before the Buddha as offerings.

5) Jeweled parasols. Items used to adorn the Buddha hall are also an acceptable offering.

6) banners and canopies. banner made of cloth which has been painted or stitched with adornments, or wooden plaques which have been carved with inscriptions, are offerings appropriate to place before the Buddha. You may also hang canopies like the Great Brahma Heaven King's net Canopy, which is circular and adorned with Jewels.

7) clothes. When you make or buy fine clothes, you may place them on the altar before the Buddha prior to wearing them. Only upper garments should be offered. Although the Buddha cannot wear the clothes, the offering is a gesture to express the sincerity of your heart.

8) fruit and food. food should be placed before the Buddha prior to being eaten. This offering as well is a gesture of respect.

9) Music. making Temple music includes beating the wooden fish, playing the drum and bell, ringing the small bells, striKing the Gong, and singing praises. Music such as this is an offering to the Buddha.

10) Joined palms. The tenth kind of offering is simple and does not expend any energy. This is merely placing your palms together as an offering.” (VS 105-107)

The Merit or Blessings derived from an offering depend on a number of factors, including: 1) the sincerity and intentions of the donor, 2) the kind of offering, 3) the recipient, and 4) the result of the offering. In the Sutra in Forty-Two Sections the Buddha discusses the recipient:

giving food to a hundred bad people does not Equal giving food to a single good person. giving food to a thousand good people does not Equal giving food to one person who holds the Five Precepts.

giving food to ten thousand people who hold the Five Precepts does not Equal giving food to a single Srotaapanna [streamwinner, or First Stage Arhat. giving food to a million Srotaapannas does not Equal giving food to a single sakridagamin Once-Returner, or Second Stage Arhat.

giving food to ten million sakridagamins does not Equal giving food to a single anagamin [Never-Returner, or Third Stage Arhat. giving food to a hundred million anagamins does not Equal giving food to a single fourth stage Arhat.

giving food to ten billion Arhats does not Equal giving food to a single Pratyekabuddha. giving food to a hundred billion Pratyekabuddhas does not Equal giving food to a Buddha of the Three periods of time.

giving food to ten tril[[Lion Buddhas of the Three periods of time does not Equal giving food to a single one who is without thoughts, without Dwelling, without cultivation, and without accomplishment.

(S42 25)


1) Chinese: gung , gung yang ; Sanskrit: puja, 3) Pali puja.

See Also: Merit, Six Paramitasgiving, Sanghafield of blessing.

BTTS References: DFS II 288-289; DFS IX 1700-1701; VS 105-107; S42 23-27; UW ; Nirvana Sutra lecture 10-27-85.


Fair Use Symbolic offerings to the Triple Gem are often made prior to meditation. In front of the Buddha are placed the offerings, which may be just seven bowls of water symbolising the eight hospitalities offered to a guest. Another preferred style of offerings contains illumination, flowers, incense, fruit, music and water for washing and drinking. Each represents another aspect of Buddhist teachings and also the five senses. The flowers for example are a symbol of Anicca (everything is impermanent) and Samsara (the cycle of birth, death and rebirth), due to their short life span; unless evergreen is used to show eternity. The candles symbolise enlightenment and the sense of sight while the incense is used to show that Buddhist teachings can be spread across the world just like the smell of the incense, which also purifies the air. As water is a necessity of life, a pure sample is also placed on the shrine to show respect and reverence for life. To show the interdependence of all things and gratitude for that fruit is offered—also as a symbol of taste. A bell is used to indicate when to begin and end puja and to stimulate hearing but also demonstrates the belief of cause and effect and karma. It stimulates hearing and is placed on a lotus shaped cushion once again symbolising enlightenment and the cycle of rebirth, as it flowers and seeds at the same time.

at Wat Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, Thailand|thumb]]

In Buddhism, symbolic offerings are made to the Triple Gem, giving rise to contemplative gratitude and inspiration.<ref>See, for instance, Harvey (1990), pp. 172-3.</ref> Typical material offerings involve simple objects such as a lit candle or oil lamp,<ref>Indaratana (2002), pp. iv, v; Kapleau (1989), p. 193; Khantipalo (1982); Lee & Thanissaro (1998).</ref> burning incense,<ref>Indaratana (2002), pp. 11-12.</ref> flowers,<ref>See, for instance, Indaratana (2002), pp. 11-12. Harvey (1990), p. 173, and Kariyawasam (1995), chapter 1, both maintain that flowers are the most common form of offering.</ref> food, fruit, water or drinks.<ref>Kapleau (1989), p. 193; Khantipalo (1982); and, Harvey (1990), p. 175, particularly in regards to Northern Buddhism.</ref>

Contemporary Western practitioners often find the making of offerings to be occasions for gracious mindfulness.<ref>Such an appreciation might be experienced, for instance, by those practicing in the style of Thich Nhat Hanh.</ref> Within the traditional Buddhist framework of karma and rebirth, offerings also lead to: :* a better rebirth in the cycle of birth and death (Pali: vattagamini-kusala) :* progress towards release from suffering (Pali: vivattagamini-kusala).<ref>Lee & Thanissaro (1998). See also Harvey (1990), p. 173, who in discussing “offerings” states: “Such acts consequently generate 'merit'.”</ref>

These offerings often act as preparation for meditation.<ref>See, for instance, Indaratana (2002), p. v; Kapleau (1989), pp. 191ff.; and Khantipalo (1982).</ref>

Theravada practices

Material offerings nurture generosity (Pali:dāna) and virtue (Pali: sīla).<ref>See, for instance, Lee & Thanissaro (1998).</ref> The act further honors the Triple Gem (the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha), deepening one's commitment to the Buddha's path. For instance, traditional chants (in English and Pali) when offering lit candles (padīpa pūjā) and incense (sugandha pūjā) to an image of the Buddha are: <center>

With lights brightly shining<br> Abolishing this gloom<br> I adore the Enlightened One,<br> The Light of the three worlds.<br> &nbsp;<br> With perfumed incense<br> And fragrant smoke<br> I worship the Exalted One,<br> Who is great and worthy of worship.<ref>Indaratana (2002), p. 11. See also Harvey (1990), p. 175, who translates the light-offering verse in part as describing the Buddha as “the lamp of the three worlds, dispeller of darkness.”</ref>

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<ref name=“Indaratana 2002, p. 12”>Indaratana (2002), p. 12.</ref>

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Similarly, a traditional Pali incense-lighting verse speaks of the Buddha's “fragrant body and fragrant face, fragrant with infinite virtues.”<ref name=“Harvey 1990, p. 175”>Harvey (1990), p. 175.</ref>

By contemplating on an offering, one tangibly sees life's impermanence (Pali: anicca), one of the three characteristics of all things upon which the Buddha encouraged his disciplines to recollect. For instance, the end of a traditional chant (in English and Pali) when offering flowers (puppha pūjā) to an image of the Buddha is: <center>

I worship the Buddha with these flowers;<br> May this virtue be helpful for my emancipation;<br> Just as these flowers fade,<br> Our body will undergo decay.<ref>Indaratana (2002), p. 11. Similarly, see Harvey (1990), p. 173; and, Kariyawasam (1995), ch. 1, sect. 2, “Personal Worship.”</ref>

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<ref name=“Indaratana 2002, p. 12”/>

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Mahayana practices

, 1939|thumb]] Mahayana material offerings might be imbued with the following symbology:

  • the lighting of a candle or an oil lamp represents the light of wisdom illuminating the darkness of ignorance.
  • the burning of incense represents the fragrant scent of morality.
  • flowers represents the aspiration to achieve the body of the Buddha with the thirty-two marks of the Buddha as well as the teaching of impermanence. Alternately, a Zen verse expresses the desire for the mind's “flowers” to “bloom in the springtime of enlightenment.”<ref>Harvey (1990), p. 173.</ref>
  • food, fruit, water, drinks represents the nectar of Dharma and the wish to achieve it.

In Northern Buddhism, sacred images have set before them:

  • water (representing hospitality, to wash the face and feet)
  • scarves (Tib. kha-btags, offering friendship)
  • flowers, incense, lamps, perfume and food (representing one's devoting all their senses to their spiritual practice).<ref name=“Harvey 1990, p. 175”/>

Non-material offerings

In some traditions, two different types of offerings are identified:

  • material or hospitality offerings (Pali: amisa-puja<ref name=“Lee & Thanissaro 1998”>Lee & Thanissaro (1998).</ref> or sakkara-puja<ref>Khantipalo (1982).</ref>)<ref>See also Buddhism regarding the traditional Theravada offering of providing daily alms to bhikkhus.</ref>
  • practice offerings (Pali: patipatti-puja<ref>Khantipalo (1982); Lee & Thanissaro (1998).</ref>)

In this context, material offerings are considered external offerings of “words and deeds.”<ref name=“Lee & Thanissaro 1998”/>

Practice offerings may be manifested by practicing:

  • giving (Pali: dāna)
  • moral conduct (sīla)
  • meditation (samādhi)
  • wisdom (pañña)<ref>Khantipalo (1982); and, Nyanaponika (2000), pp. 298-299. On the other hand, Lee & Thanissaro (1998) identify only meditation as patipatti-puja.</ref>

In the Pali Canon, the Buddha declared practice offerings as “the best way of honoring the Buddha”<ref>Kantipalo (1982), n. 1.</ref> and as the “supreme” offering.<ref name=“Lee & Thanissaro 1998”/> This is primarily an internal offering for mental development (Pali: citta, bhāvanā and samādhi).

See also

Notes

Bibliography

  • Harvey, Peter (1990). An introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, history and practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University. ISBN 0-521-31333-3.
  • Indaratana Maha Thera, Elgiriye (2002). Vandana: The Album of Pali Devotional Chanting and Hymns. Penang, Malaysia:Mahindarama Dhamma Publication. Retrieved 2007-10-22 from “BuddhaNet” at http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/vandana02.pdf.
  • Kapleau, Philip (1989b). Zen: Merging of East and West. NY:Anchor Book. ISBN 0-385-26104-7.
  • Nyanaponika Thera (2000). The Vision of Dhamma: Buddhist Writings of Nyanaponika Thera. Seattle: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-03-7.
offerings.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:12 (external edit)