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Ten Paramitas

The Ten Perfections or Dasha Paramita or Ten Paramitas


The **ten paramitas** (Skt. //daśa pāramitā//; Tib. ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་བཅུ་, Wyl. //pha rol tu phyin pa bcu//) are:

**The six paramitas**

Bodhisattva sangha from the Longchen Nyingtik field of merit

The **six paramitas** or 'transcendent perfections' (Skt. //ṣaṭpāramitā//; Tib. ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུག་, //parol tu chinpa druk//; Wyl. //pha rol tu phyin pa drug//) comprise the training of a Bodhisattva, which is in action.

Written Sources

Sutras

 * //[[Fortunate Aeon Sutra]]//See //The Fortunate Aeon: How the Thousand Buddhas Became Enlightened// (Berkeley: [[Dharma Publishing]], 1986), Vol. One, pages 97-477.

Shastras

The six paramitas are mentioned and explained in many of the most important Indian Shastra sources, such as

  • Nagarjuna’s //Letter to a Friend//,
     * [[Chandrakirti]]’s //[[Introduction to the Middle Way]]// and 
     * [[Shantideva]]’s //[[Bodhicharyavatara]]//.
Further Reading

 * [[Dzogchen Ponlop]], //Rebel Buddha// (Boston: [[Shambhala]], 2010), pages 124-132.
 * [[Geshe Sonam Rinchen]], //The Six Perfections//, translated by [[Ruth Sonam]] (Ithaca: [[Snow Lion]], 1998)
 * [[Khenpo Ngawang Pelzang]], //[[A Guide to the Words of My Perfect Teacher]]// (Boston & London: Shambhala, 2004), pages 181-219.
 * [[Patrul Rinpoche]], //[[The Words of My Perfect Teacher]]// (Boston: Shambhala, Revised edition, 1998), pages 234-261.

References

 * [[Ten paramitas]]

Categories

Key Buddhist Terms

Bodhichitta

Paramitas

Enumerations

06-Six

**plus:**

 - 7.  [[Skillful means]] (Skt. //[[upāyakauśalapāramitā]]//; Tib. [[ཐབས་ལ་མཁས་པ་]], //[[Tap la khepa]]//; Wyl. //[[thabs la mkhas pa]]//), 
 - 8.  [[Strength]] (Skt. //[[balapāramitā]]//; Tib. [[སྟོབས་]], //[[Top]]//; Wyl. //[[stobs]]//),
 - 9.  [[Vows]] or [[Aspiration prayers]] (Skt. //[[praṇidhānapāramitā]]//; Tib. [[སྨོན་ལམ་]], //[[Mönlam]]//; Wyl. //[[smon lam]]//) and
 - 10. [[Primordial wisdom]] (Skt. //[[jñānapāramitā]]//; Tib. [[ཡེ་ཤེས་]], //[[Yeshe]]//; Wyl. //[[ye shes]]//). 

These last four paramitas are **aspects** of the sixth paramita — the paramita of wisdom — and are not added to the first six. The way of dividing the paramitas into ten is particularly related to the teachings on the bhumis (ten grounds) which describe the progression of a bodhisattva where each of the paramitas are successively perfected on each of the ten bhumis.

1. Dana Paramita

1. Dana Paramita - Perfection of Generosity

see benefit others, Seva, charity

 - [[Generosity]] (Skt. //[[dāna]]//; Tib. [[སྦྱིན་པ་]], //Jinpa//):  to cultivate the attitude of generosity.  


2. Shila Paramita - Perfection of Morality

2. Shila Paramita - Perfection of Morality

see Five Precepts and Yama, morality, do no harm, ahimsa)

 - [[Discipline]] (Skt. //[[śīla]]//; Tib. [[ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་]], //[[Tsultrim]]//): refraining from harm.


3. Kshanti Paramita - Perfection of Patience

 - [[Patience]] (Skt. //[[kṣānti]]//; Tib. [[བཟོད་པ་]], //Zöpa//): the ability not to be perturbed by anything.

3. Kshanti Paramita - Perfection of Patience

 - [[Patience]] (Skt. //[[kṣānti]]//; Tib. [[བཟོད་པ་]], //Zöpa//): the ability not to be perturbed by anything.


4. Virya Paramita - Perfection of Joyful Perseverance

4. Virya Paramita - Perfection of Joyful Perseverance

 - [[Diligence]] ([[Perseverance]])  (Skt. //vīrya//; Tib. [[བརྩོན་འགྲུས་]], //[[tsöndrü]]//): to find joy in what is virtuous, positive or wholesome.

see Virya, Qi, Energy, Ojas


5. Dhyana Paramita - Perfection of Meditation

5. Dhyana Paramita - Perfection of Meditation

 - [[Meditative concentration]] (Skt. //[[dhyāna]]//; Tib. [[བསམ་གཏན་]], //[[Samten]]//):  not to be distracted.

see meditation, mindfulness, passive choiceless awareness, relaxed focused awareness, Shamatha, calm abiding, Dhyana, Dhyan, Chan, Zen, Vipashina, Vipassana, Dzogchen, Mahamudra, stop thinking and end your problems


6. Prajna Paramita - Perfection of Wisdom
7. Upaya Paramita - Perfection of Skillful Means
8. Pranidhana Paramita - Perfection of Vows
9. Bala Paramita - Perfection of Power
10. Adwaitya Paramita or Maha Prajna Paramita - Perfection of Non-Duality

10. Adwaitya Paramita or Maha Prajna Paramita - Perfection of Non-Duality

see nondual, noduality, non-dual, non-duality, advaitya, adwaitya, union of bliss and emptiness, Ultimate Truth, Union of Heruka and Vajrayogini, Union of Shiva and Shakti, Ultimate Vajra and Bell



Paramita

Paramita, a Sanskrit word, literally means 'having arrived at the other shore'. It means to finish completely whatever you do. If you decide to become a Buddha, then the realization of Buddhahood is Paramita. If you want to go to a university and get a Ph.D., obtaining the degree is Paramita. If you're hungry and want to eat, then when you have eaten your full, that is Paramita. If you're sleepy, then Paramita is when you lie down and fall asleep. The Sanskrit word Paramita is transliterated into Chinese as bwo lwo mi. Bwo lwo is Chinese for Pineapple, and mi means 'honey'. And so the fruit of Paramita is said to be sweeter than Pineapple or honey.” (SS 9-10)

What is meant by Paramita? It is a Sanskrit word which in our language means 'having arrived at the other shore', and is explained as 'being apart from coming into being and ceasing to be'. When one is attached to states of existence, coming into being and ceasing to be arise like waves on water. That is what is meant by 'this shore'. To be apart from states of existence, with no coming into being or ceasing to be, is to be like freely flowing water. That is what is meant by 'the other shore'. Therefore, it is called 'Paramita'.“ (PS 96)

The most well-known Paramitas in Buddhism are the Six Paramitas (see that listing) and the ten Paramitas.

Although the Paramitas are usually associated with Mahayana teachings about the practices of the Bodhisattva, they are also found in Theravada teachings. The ten Parami concern the ”perfect Exercise of the ten principal virtues by a Bodhisattva“ (PTSD).


1) Chinese: bwo lwo mi , du , 2) Paramita, 3) Pali Paramita, parami, parami, 4) Alternate translations: perfection, Mastery, supremacy, supreme virtues, completeness, highest state, crossing to the other shore.

See Also: Six Paramitas.

BTTS References: PS 96-97; VS 7; SM III]] 8; SS I 9-10.


Bodhichitta

Paramitas

Enumerations

10-Ten

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paramita.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:12 (external edit)