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paramita [2018/02/26 18:12] (current)
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 +** [[Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute]] of [[Medicine Buddha Healing Center]] **
 +** [[Nalanda University]] of [[Ayurveda]] and [[Buddhism]] **
  
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 +
 +Part of the List of [[Ayurveda Terms]] from the [[Buddhist Ayurveda]] Course ([[AYR108]] and [[SKT220]]) on [[Sanskrit Terms]] of [[Ayurveda]],​ [[Tibetan Medicine]] and [[Dharma Terms]] and [[CLN301|Consultations]]
 +----
 +
 +[[Buddhism Distance Learning]] | [[Ayurveda Distance Learning]]
 +
 +[[Recent Changes]] | [[Ayurveda Terms]] ([[Ayurvedic Chinese Western Medicine Terms from Marma Points of Ayurveda]] | [[Dharma Terms]] | [[Dharma Teachers]]
 +
 +
 +====== Ten Paramitas ======
 +
 +The [[Ten Perfections]] or [[Dasha Paramita]] or [[Ten Paramitas]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +
 +The **ten paramitas** (Skt. //daśa pāramitā//;​ Tib. [[ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་བཅུ་]],​ [[Wyl.]] //pha rol tu phyin pa bcu//) are:
 +
 +**The [[six paramitas]]**
 +
 +
 +[[Image:​Bodhisattva.JPG]]
 +
 +Bodhisattva [[sangha]] from the [[Longchen Nyingtik]] [[field of merit]]
 +
 +The **six [[paramitas]]** or '​transcendent [[perfections]]'​ (Skt. //​ṣaṭpāramitā//;​ Tib. [[ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུག་]],​ //parol tu chinpa druk//; [[Wyl.]] //pha rol tu phyin pa drug//) comprise the training of a [[Bodhisattva]],​ which is [[bodhichitta|in action]]. ​
 +
 +===== Written Sources =====
 +
 +==== Sutras ====
 +  * //​[[Fortunate Aeon Sutra]]//<​ref>​See //The Fortunate Aeon: How the Thousand Buddhas Became Enlightened//​ (Berkeley: [[Dharma Publishing]],​ 1986), Vol. One, pages 97-477.</​ref>​
 +
 +==== Shastras ====
 +The six paramitas are mentioned and explained in many of the most important Indian [[Shastra]] sources, such as 
 +  * [[Nagarjuna]]’s //[[Letter to a Friend]]//, ​
 +  * [[Chandrakirti]]’s //​[[Introduction to the Middle Way]]// and 
 +  * [[Shantideva]]’s //​[[Bodhicharyavatara]]//​.
 +
 +===== Further Reading =====
 +  * [[Dzogchen Ponlop]], //Rebel Buddha// (Boston: [[Shambhala]],​ 2010), pages 124-132.
 +  * [[Geshe Sonam Rinchen]], //The Six Perfections//,​ translated by [[Ruth Sonam]] (Ithaca: [[Snow Lion]], 1998)
 +  * [[Khenpo Ngawang Pelzang]], //[[A Guide to the Words of My Perfect Teacher]]// (Boston & London: Shambhala, 2004), pages 181-219.
 +  * [[Patrul Rinpoche]], //[[The Words of My Perfect Teacher]]// (Boston: Shambhala, Revised edition, 1998), pages 234-261.
 +
 +===== References =====
 +
 +===== Internal Links =====
 +  * [[Ten paramitas]]
 +
 +===== Categories =====
 +
 +[[Category:​Key Buddhist Terms]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Bodhichitta]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Paramitas]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Enumerations]]
 +
 +[[Category:​06-Six]]
 +
 +
 +**plus:​** ​
 +
 +  - 7.  [[Skillful means]] (Skt. //​[[upāyakauśalapāramitā]]//;​ Tib. [[ཐབས་ལ་མཁས་པ་]],​ //[[Tap la khepa]]//; Wyl. //[[thabs la mkhas pa]]//​), ​
 +  - 8.  [[Strength]] (Skt. //​[[balapāramitā]]//;​ Tib. [[སྟོབས་]],​ //​[[Top]]//;​ Wyl. //​[[stobs]]//​),​
 +  - 9.  [[Vows]] or [[Aspiration prayers]] (Skt. //​[[praṇidhānapāramitā]]//;​ Tib. [[སྨོན་ལམ་]],​ //​[[Mönlam]]//;​ Wyl. //[[smon lam]]//) and
 +  - 10. [[Primordial wisdom]] (Skt. //​[[jñānapāramitā]]//;​ Tib. [[ཡེ་ཤེས་]],​ //​[[Yeshe]]//;​ Wyl. //[[ye shes]]//​). ​
 +
 +These last four [[paramita]]s are **aspects** of the sixth paramita — the paramita of [[wisdom]] — and are not added to the first six. The way of dividing the paramitas into ten is particularly related to the teachings on the [[bhumi]]s ([[ten grounds]]) which describe the progression of a [[bodhisattva]] where each of the paramitas are successively perfected on each of the [[ten bhumis]]. ​
 +
 +===== 1. Dana Paramita =====
 +
 +1. [[Dana Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Generosity]] ​
 +
 +see [[benefit others]], [[Seva]], [[charity]]
 +
 +  - [[Generosity]] (Skt. //​[[dāna]]//;​ Tib. [[སྦྱིན་པ་]],​ //​Jinpa//​): ​ to cultivate the attitude of generosity.  ​
 +
 +
 +----
 +
 +===== 2. Shila Paramita - Perfection of Morality =====
 +
 +2. [[Shila Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Morality]] ​
 +
 +see [[Five Precepts]] and [[Yama]], [[morality]],​ [[do no harm]], [[ahimsa]])
 +
 +  - [[Discipline]] (Skt. //​[[śīla]]//;​ Tib. [[ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་]],​ //​[[Tsultrim]]//​):​ refraining from harm.
 +
 +----
 +
 +===== 3. Kshanti Paramita - Perfection of Patience =====
 +
 +  - [[Patience]] (Skt. //​[[kṣānti]]//;​ Tib. [[བཟོད་པ་]],​ //Zöpa//): the ability not to be perturbed by anything.
 +
 +3. [[Kshanti Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Patience]]
 +
 +  - [[Patience]] (Skt. //​[[kṣānti]]//;​ Tib. [[བཟོད་པ་]],​ //Zöpa//): the ability not to be perturbed by anything.
 +
 +----
 +
 +===== 4. Virya Paramita - Perfection of Joyful Perseverance ======
 +
 +4. [[Virya Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Joyful Perseverance]]
 +
 +  - [[Diligence]] ([[Perseverance]]) ​ (Skt. //vīrya//; Tib. [[བརྩོན་འགྲུས་]],​ //​[[tsöndrü]]//​):​ to find joy in what is virtuous, positive or wholesome.
 +
 +
 +see [[Virya]], [[Qi]], [[Energy]], [[Ojas]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +===== 5. Dhyana Paramita - Perfection of Meditation ======
 +
 +5. [[Dhyana Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Meditation]]
 +
 +  - [[Meditative concentration]] (Skt. //​[[dhyāna]]//;​ Tib. [[བསམ་གཏན་]],​ //​[[Samten]]//​): ​ not to be distracted.
 +
 +see [[meditation]],​ [[mindfulness]],​ [[passive choiceless awareness]],​ [[relaxed focused awareness]],​ [[Shamatha]],​ [[calm abiding]], [[Dhyana]], [[Dhyan]], [[Chan]], [[Zen]], [[Vipashina]],​ [[Vipassana]],​ [[Dzogchen]],​ [[Mahamudra]],​ [[stop thinking and end your problems]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +===== 6.  Prajna Paramita - Perfection of Wisdom =====
 +
 +6.  [[Prajna Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Wisdom]]
 +
 +  - [[Wisdom]] (Skt. //​[[prajñā]]//;​ Tib. [[ཤེས་རབ་]],​ //​[[Sherab]]//​): ​ the perfect discrimination of phenomena, all [[knowable thing]]s.
 +
 +see [[Maha Prajna Paramita]], [[no death]], [[no birth]], ​ [[wisdom]], [[wisdom realizing emptiness]],​ [[wisdom realizing interdependence]],​ [[interdependent]],​ [[emptiness]],​ [[empty]], [[void]], [[emptiness of inherent existence]],​ [[the path of words is cut off]], [[merely labeled]], [[non-inherent existence]],​ [[merely posited on a base]], [[Tao Te Ching Chapter 1]], [[pratityasamutpada]],​ [[dependent origination]],​ [[twelve links]], [[no self]], [[anatma]], [[no me]], [[no others]], [[na sattva]], [[no you]], [[no life]], [[na jiva]], [[no living beings]], [[no lifespan]], [[no soul]], [[na pudgala]], [[no personality]],​ [[no beautiful]],​ [[no atoms]], [[Two Truths]], [[relative truth]] or [[conventional truth]] or [[provisional truth]] and the [[ultimate truth]]), [[Diamond Sutra]] or [[Vajra Sutra]] or [[Vajra Cchedika Prajna Paramita Sutra]] or [[Diamond Cutter Sutra]] - [[no giver no giving no gift no receiver]] - [[no sattva no rajas no tamas]] - [[the observer is the observed]] - [[you are the World and the World is you]].
 +
 +----
 +The first five paramitas correspond to the accumulation of **[[merit]]**,​ and the sixth to the accumulation of **[[wisdom]]**. The [[sixth paramita]] can be divided into four, resulting in [[ten paramitas]].
 +
 +----
 +
 +===== 7. Upaya Paramita - Perfection of Skillful Means =====
 +
 +7. [[Upaya Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Skillful Means]]
 +
 +see [[skillful means]], [[skillful]],​ [[expedient]],​ [[expediency]],​ [[everything is a medicine everything is a poison]]
 +----
 +
 +===== 8. Pranidhana Paramita - Perfection of Vows =====
 +
 +8. [[Pranidhana Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Vows]]
 +
 +see [[Vows]], [[Pranidhana]],​ [[I give you my Word]], [[Commitment]],​ [[Samaya]], [[engagement]],​ [[agreement]],​ [[wp>​contract]],​ [[Resolve]],​ [[Great Resolve]], [[Great Vows Bodhisattva]],​ [[Benefit others more than yourself]], [[Bodhichitta]],​ [[Bodhi chitta]], [[Bodhicitta]],​ [[Bodhi Resolve]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +===== 9. Bala Paramita - Perfection of Power =====
 +
 +9. [[Bala Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Power]]
 +
 +see [[Great Strength]], [[Bala]], [[Maha Bala]], [[Maha Stamaprapta]],​ [[Great Power]], [[With great power comes great responsibility]])
 +
 +----
 +
 +===== 10. Adwaitya Paramita or Maha Prajna Paramita - Perfection of Non-Duality =====
 +
 +10. [[Adwaitya Paramita]] or [[Maha Prajna Paramita]] - [[Perfection of Non-Duality]]
 +
 +see [[nondual]],​ [[noduality]],​ [[non-dual]],​ [[non-duality]],​ [[advaitya]],​ [[adwaitya]],​ [[union of bliss and emptiness]],​ [[Ultimate Truth]], [[Union of Heruka and Vajrayogini]],​ [[Union of Shiva and Shakti]], [[Ultimate Vajra and Bell]]
 +
 +
 +----
 +----
 +
 +[[Paramita]]
 +
 +"​[[Paramita]],​ a [[Sanskrit]] [[word]], [[literal]]ly [[means]] '​having arrived at the [[other]]
 +[[shore]]'​. It [[means]] to finish [[complete]]ly whatever you do. If you decide to
 +[[become]] a [[Buddha]], then the [[realization]] of [[Buddhahood]] is [[Paramita]]. If you
 +want to go to a university and get a Ph.D., obtaining the degree is
 +[[Paramita]]. If you're [[hungry]] and want to eat, then when you have eaten your
 +full, that is [[Paramita]]. If you're [[sleep]]y, then [[Paramita]] is when you lie
 +down and fall a[[sleep]]. The [[Sanskrit]] [[word]] [[Paramita]] is transliterated into
 +[[Chinese]] as bwo lwo mi. Bwo lwo is [[Chinese]] for [[Pine]]apple,​ and mi [[means]]
 +'​[[honey]]'​. And so the [[fruit]] of [[Paramita]] is said to be [[sweet]]er than [[Pine]]apple
 +or [[honey]]."​ ([[SS]] 9-10)
 +
 +What is meant by [[Paramita]]?​ It is a [[Sanskrit]] [[word]] which in our [[language]]
 +[[means]] '​having arrived at the [[other]] [[shore]]',​ and is explained as '​[[being]] apart
 +from [[coming into being]] and ceasing to be'. When one is [[attached]] to [[state]]s of
 +[[existence]],​ [[coming into being]] and ceasing to be [[arise]] like waves on [[water]].
 +That is what is meant by 'this [[shore]]'​. To be apart from [[state]]s of [[existence]],​
 +with no [[coming into being]] or ceasing to be, is to be like freely flowing
 +[[water]]. That is what is meant by 'the [[other]] [[shore]]'​. Therefore, it is called
 +'​[[Paramita]]'​."​ ([[PS]] 96)
 +
 +The most well-[[know]]n [[Paramita]]s in [[Buddhism]] are the [[Six Paramitas]] (see that
 +listing) and the [[ten]] [[Paramita]]s.
 +
 +Although the [[Paramita]]s are usually associated with [[Mahayana]] [[teachings]]
 +about the [[practice]]s of the [[Bodhisattva]],​ they are also found in [[Theravada]]
 +[[teachings]]. The [[ten]] Parami concern the "​[[perfect]] [[Exercise]] of the [[ten]] principal
 +[[virtue]]s by a [[Bodhisattva]]"​ ([[PTSD]]).
 +
 +----
 +
 +1) [[Chinese]]:​ bwo lwo mi , du , 2) [[Paramita]],​ 3) [[Pali]] [[Paramita]],​ parami,
 +parami, 4) Alternate [[translation]]s:​ [[perfection]],​ [[Master]]y,​ supremacy, [[supreme]]
 +[[virtue]]s,​ comple[[ten]]ess,​ [[high]]est [[state]], [[cross]]ing to the [[other]] [[shore]].
 +
 +[[See Also]]: [[Six Paramitas]].
 +
 +[[BTTS References]]:​ [[PS]] 96-97; [[VS]] 7; [[SM]] III]] 8; [[SS]] I 9-10.
 +
 +----
 +
 +
 +[[Category:​Bodhichitta]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Paramitas]]
 +
 +[[Category:​Enumerations]]
 +
 +[[Category:​10-Ten]]
 +
 +[[Fair Use]] Source: http://​www.rigpawiki.org/​index.php?​title=Ten_paramitas
paramita.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:12 (external edit)