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 +** [[Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute]] of [[Medicine Buddha Healing Center]] **
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 +Part of the List of [[Dharma Terms]] from the [[Buddhist Ayurveda]] Course ([[HUM108]] and [[SKT220]]) on [[Sanskrit Terms]] of [[Ayurveda]],​ [[Tibetan Medicine]] and [[Dharma]] and helpful for patients in [[CLN301|Consultations]]
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 +[[Buddhism Distance Learning]] | [[Ayurveda Distance Learning]]
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 +======= Part 2 of 6 of A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous ======= ​
 +
 +Return to [[List of Indian Sanskrit Canon of Buddhist Dharma Texts]] from the List of [[Buddhist Texts]] of the [[Tripitaka]]
 +
 +Return to [[Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms William Soothill Table of Contents]]
 +
 +[98]
 +
 +女情 Sexual desire.
 +
 +女根 Yoni. The female sex-organ.
 +
 +女犯 The woman offence, i.e. sexual immorality on the part of a monk.
 +
 +女病 Woman as a disease; feminine disease.
 +
 +女色 Female beauty— is a chain, a serious delusion, a grievous calamity. The 智度論 14 says it is better to burn out the eyes with a red-hot iron than behold woman with unsteady heart.
 +
 +女賊 Woman the robber, as the cause of sexual passion, stealing away the riches of religion, v. 智度論 14.
 +
 +女鏁 Woman as chain, or lock, the binding power of sex. 智度論 14.
 +
 +子 kumāra; son; seed; sir; 11-1 midnight.
 +
 +子合國 Kukyar, Kokyar, or Kukejar, a country west of Khotan, 1,000 li from Kashgar, perhaps Yarkand.
 +
 +子斷 The seed 種子 cut off, i.e. the seed which produces the miseries of transmigration.
 +
 +子果 Seed and fruit; seed-produced fruit is 子果, fruit-produced seed is 果子. The fruit produced by illusion in former incarnation is 子果, which the Hīnayāna arhat has not yet finally cut off. It is necessary to enter Nirvāṇa without remnant of mortality to be free from its "​fruit",​ or karma.
 +
 +子滿果 The fruit full of seeds, the pomegranate.
 +
 +子璿 A famous learned monk Zixuan, of the Song dynasty whose style was 長水 Changshui, the name of his district; he had a large following; at first he specialized on the Śūraṃgama 楞嚴經; later he adopted the teaching of 賢首 Xianshou of the 華嚴宗 Huayan school.
 +
 +子縛 The seed bond, or delusion of the mind, which keeps men in bondage.
 +
 +子院 Small courts and buildings attached to central monastery.
 +
 +寸 An inch.
 +
 +寸絲不掛 Questioned as to what he did with his day, 陸亙日 Lu Xuanri replied "one does not hang things on an inch of thread"​.
 +
 +小 Small, little; mean, petty; inferior.
 +
 +小乘 Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni'​s death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "​turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations;​ if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood,​ seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas,​ and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi;​ and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha'​s adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity;​ while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni,​ when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha,​ to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha'​s nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva'​s sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā,​ the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "​twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya,​ 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ,​ 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ,​ and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部.
 +
 +[99]
 +
 +小乘三印 The three characteristic marks of all Hīnayāna sūtras: the impermanence of phenomena, the unreality of the ego, and nirvāṇa.
 +
 +小乘九部 The nine classes of works belonging to the Hīnayāna, i.e. the whole of the twelve discourses; the Vaipulya, or broader teaching; and the Vyākaraṇa,​ or prophesies.
 +
 +小乘二部 The 上座部 Sthaviravādin,​ School of Presbyters, and 大衆部 Sarvāstivādin,​ q.v.
 +
 +小乘偏漸戒 The Hīnayāna partial and gradual method of obeying laws and commandments,​ as compared with the full and immediate salvation of Mahāyāna.
 +
 +小乘十八部 A Chinese list of the "​eighteen"​ sects of the Hīnayāna, omitting Mahāsāṅghikāḥ,​ Sthavira, and Sarvāstivādah as generic schools: I. 大衆部 The Mahāsāṅghikāḥ is divided into eight schools as follows: (1) 一說部 Ekavyavahārikāḥ;​ (2) 說出世部 Lokottaravādinaḥ;​ (3) 雞胤部 Kaukkuṭikāḥ (Gokulikā);​ (4) 多聞部 Bahuśrutīyāḥ;​ (5) 說假部 Prajñāptivadinaḥ;​ (6) 制多山部 Jetavaniyāḥ,​ or Caityaśailāḥ;​ (7) 西山住部 Aparaśailāḥ;​ (8) 北山住部 Uttaraśailāḥ. II. 上坐部 Āryasthavirāḥ,​ or Sthāviravādin,​ divided into eight schools: (1) 雪山部 Haimavatāḥ. The 說一切有部 Sarvāstivādaḥ gave rise to (2) 犢子部 Vātsīputrīyāḥ,​ which gave rise to (3) 法上部 Dharmottarīyāḥ;​ (4) 賢冑部 Bhadrayānīyāḥ;​ (5) 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ;​ and (6) 密林山 Saṇṇagarikāḥ;​ (7) 化地部 Mahīśāsakāḥ produced (8) 法藏部 Dharmaguptāḥ. From the Sarvāstivādins arose also (9) 飮光部 Kāśyaḥpīyā and (10) 經量部 Sautrāntikāḥ. v. 宗輪論. Cf Keith, 149-150. The division of the two schools is ascribed to Mahādeva a century after the Nirvāṇa. Under I the first five are stated as arising two centuries after the Nirvāṇa, and the remaining three a century later, dates which are unreliable. Under II, the Haimavatāḥ and the Sarvāstivādaḥ are dated some 200 years after the Nirvāṇa; from the Sarvāstivādins soon arose the Vātsīputrīyas,​ from whom soon sprang the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth; then from the Sarvāstivādins there arose the seventh which gave rise to the eighth, and again, nearing the 400th year, the Sarvāstivādins gave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth. In the list of eighteen the Sarvāstivādah is not counted, as it split into all the rest.
 +
 +小乘四門 Tiantai'​s division of Hīnayāna into four schools or doctrines: (1) 有門 Of reality, the existence of all phenomena, the doctrine of being (cf. 發智六足論,​ etc.); (2) 空門 of unreality, or non-existence (cf. 成實論); (3) 亦有亦空門 of both, or relativity of existence and non-existence (cf. 毘勒論); (4) 非有非空 of neither, or transcending existence and non-existence (cf. 迦旃延經).
 +
 +小乘外道 Hīnayāna and the heretical sects; also, Hīnayāna is a heretical sect.
 +
 +小乘戒 The commandments of the Hīnayāna, also recognized by the Mahāyāna: the five, eight, and ten commandments,​ the 250 for the monks, and the 348 for the nuns.
 +
 +[100]
 +
 +小乘經 The Hīnayāna sūtras, the four sections of the Āgamas 阿含經 v. 小乘九部.
 +
 +小乘論 The Hīnayāna śāstras or Abhidharma.
 +
 +小乘阿毗達磨 The philosophical canon of the Hīnayāna, now supposed to consist of some thirty-seven works, the earliest of which is said to be the Guṇanirdeśa śāstra, tr. as 分別功德論 before A.D. 220. "The date of the Abhidharma"​ is "​unknown to us" (Keith).
 +
 +小五條 The robe of five patches worn by some monks in China and by the 淨土宗 Jōdo sect of Japan; v. 掛.
 +
 +小使 To urinate; also 小行. Buddhist monks are enjoined to urinate only in one fixed spot.
 +
 +小劫 antarā-kalpa,​ or intermediate kalpa; according to the 倶舍論 it is the period in which human life increases by one year a century till it reaches 84,000 with men 8,400 feet high; then it is reduced at the same rate till the life-period reaches ten years with men a foot high; these two are each a small kalpa; the 智度論 reckons the two together as one kalpa; and there are other definitions.
 +
 +小千世界 (小千) A small chiliocosm, consisting of a thousand worlds each with its Mt. Sumeru, continents, seas, and ring of iron mountains; v. 三千大千世界.
 +
 +小參 Small group, a class for instruction outside the regular morning or evening services; also a class in a household.
 +
 +小參頭 The leader of a small group.
 +
 +小品 A summarized version.
 +
 +小品般若波羅蜜經 (小品經) Kumārajīva'​s abbreviated version, in ten juan, of the Mahā-prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra.
 +
 +小宗 The sects of Hīnayāna.
 +
 +小師 A junior monk of less than ten years full ordination, also a courtesy title for a disciple; and a self-depreciatory title of any monk; v. 鐸 dahara.
 +
 +小律儀 The rules and regulations for monks and nuns in Hīnayāna.
 +
 +小念 To repeat Buddha'​s name in a quiet voice, opposite of 大 |.
 +
 +小本 A small volume; Tiantai'​s term for the (小) 阿彌陀經;​ the large sūtra being the 無量壽經.
 +
 +小根 小機 Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine.
 +
 +小機 小根; Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine.
 +
 +小樹 Small trees, bodhisattvas in the lower stages, v. 三草二木.
 +
 +小水穿石 A little water or "​dripping water penetrates stone";​ the reward of the religious life, though difficult to attain, yields to persistent effort.
 +
 +小法 The laws or methods of Hīnayāna.
 +
 +小煩惱地法 upakleśabhūmikāh. The ten lesser evils or illusions, or temptations,​ one of the five groups of mental conditions of the seventy-five Hīnayāna elements. They are the minor moral defects arising from 無明 unenlightenment;​ i.e. 忿 anger, 覆 hidden sin, 慳 stinginess, 嫉 envy, 惱 vexation, 害 ill-will, 恨 hate, 謟 adulation, 誑 deceit, 憍 pride.
 +
 +小王 The small rājās, called 粟散王 millet scattering kings.
 +
 +小界 A small assembly of monks for ceremonial purposes.
 +
 +小白華 One of the four divine flowers, the mandāra-flower,​ v. 曼.
 +
 +小目連 The small Maudgalyāyana,​ one of six of that name, v. 目.
 +
 +小祥忌 An anniversary (sacrifice).
 +
 +小空 The Hīnayāna doctrine of the void, as contrasted with that of Mahāyāna.
 +
 +小經 v. 小本; also styled 小彌經.
 +
 +小聖 The Hīnayāna saint, or arhat. The inferior saint, or bodhisattva,​ as compared with the Buddha.
 +
 +[101]
 +
 +小草 Smaller herbs, those who keep the five commandments and do the ten good deeds, thereby attaining to rebirth as men or devas, v. 三草二木.
 +
 +小行 The practice, or discipline of Hīnayāna; also, urination.
 +
 +小赤華 Mañjūṣaka. 量殊沙華;​ 量殊顏 Explained by 柔軟 pliable. Rubia cordifolia, yielding the madder (munjeeth) of Bengal.
 +
 +小遠 The monk 慧遠 Huiyuan of the Sui dynasty. There was a 晉 Chin dynasty monk of the same name.
 +
 +小阿師 A junior monk ordained less than ten years.
 +
 +小院 A junior teacher.
 +
 +小食 The small meal, breakfast, also called 點心.
 +
 +尸 A corpse: to manage: u. f. 尸羅.
 +
 +尸利 Sri. 師利; 室利; 室離; 室哩; 修利; 昔哩; 悉利 (1) Fortune, prosperity; high rank, success, good fortune, virtues, these four are named as its connotation. (2) The wife of Viṣṇu. (3) An honorifc prefix or affix to names of gods, great men, and books. (4) An exclamation at the head of liturgies. (5) An abbreviation for Mañjuśrī.
 +
 +尸利佛逝 Śrībhuja, i. e. Mālaya.
 +
 +尸利夜 Śrīyaśas , a god who bestows good luck.
 +
 +尸利沙 尸利灑; 舍利沙; 夜合樹 śirīṣa. acacia sirissa. The marriage tree 合婚樹. The 尸利沙 is described as with large leaves and fruit; another kind the 尸利駛 with small leaves and fruit. Also called 沙羅樹.
 +
 +尸利沙迦 Śirīṣaka. Name of a monk.
 +
 +尸利毱多 尸利崛多;​ 室利毱多 Śrīgupta, an elder in Rājagṛha,​ who tried to kill the Buddha with fire and poison; v. 尸利毱多長者經.
 +
 +尸利蜜多羅 屍黎密 Śrīmitra, an Indian prince who resigned his throne to his younger brother, became a monk, came to China, translated the 灌頂 and other books.
 +
 +尸半尸 To kill a person by the 毘陀羅 vetala method of obtaining magic power by incantations on a dead body; when a headless corpse, or some part of the body, is used it is 半尸; when the whole corpse it is 尸.
 +
 +尸城 Kuśinagara or Kuśigramaka. 拘尸那城;​ 拘尸那揭羅;​ 拘夷那竭;​ 拘尸城 Explained by 九土生地 the birthplace of nine scholars. An ancient kingdom and city, near Kasiah, 180 miles north of Patna; the place where Śākyamuni died.
 +
 +尸多婆那 Śītavana, see 尸陀林.
 +
 +尸摩舍那 (or 尸摩賖那) śmaśāna, aśmaśāyma,​ a cemetery, idem 尸陀林.
 +
 +尸梨伽那 Śrīguṇa,​ 厚德 abundantly virtuous, a title of a Buddha.
 +
 +尸棄 Śikhin, 式棄; 式詰; 尸棄那 (or 尸棄佛); 罽那尸棄;​ crested, or a fame; explained by 火 fire; 刺那尸棄 Ratnaśikhin occurs in the Abhidharma. In the 本行經 it is 螺髻 a shell like tuft of hair. (1) The 999th Buddha of the last kalpa, whom Śākyamuni is said to have met. (2) The second of the seven Buddhas of antiquity, born in Prabhadvaja 光相城 as a Kṣatriya. (3) A Maha-brahma,​ whose name Śikhin is defined as 頂髻 or 火災頂 having a flaming tuft on his head; connected with the world-destruction by fire. The Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 describes Śikhin as 火 or 火首 fame, or a flaming head and as the god of fire, styled also 樹提 Suddha, pure; he observed the 火定 Fire Dhyāna, broke the lures of the realm of desire, and followed virtue.
 +
 +尸棄毘 A deva of music located in the East.
 +
 +尸毘迦 Śivi, 尸毘伽; 尸毘略; also wrongly 濕鞞; one of Śākyamuni'​s former incarnations,​ when to save the life of a dove he cut off and gave his own flesh to an eagle which pursued it, which eagle was Śiva transformed in order to test him. 智度論 35.
 +
 +尸羅 Sila, 尸; 尸怛羅 intp. by 淸凉 pure and cool, i.e. chaste; also by 戒 restraint, or keeping the commandments;​ also by 性善 of good disposition. It is the second pāramitā, moral purity, i. e. of thought, word, and deed. The four conditions of śīla are chaste, calm, quiet, extinguished,​ i. e. no longer perturbed by the passions. Also, perhaps śīla, a stone, i. e. a precious stone, pearl, or coral. For the ten śīlas or commandments v. 十戒, the first five, or pañca-śīla 五戒, are for all Buddhists.
 +
 +尸羅不淸淨 If the śīla, or moral state, is not pure, none can enter samādhi.
 +
 +尸羅婆羅蜜 śīla-pāramitā. Morality, the second of the pāramitās.
 +
 +尸羅幢 A curtain made of chaste precious stones.
 +
 +尸羅拔陀提 戒賢 Śīlabhadra,​ a prince mentioned in 賢 愚 經 6.
 +
 +[102]
 +
 +尸羅淸淨 Moral purity, essential to enter into samadhi.
 +
 +尸羅跋提 Sravasti, idem 舍衞.
 +
 +尸羅跋陀羅 Śīlabhadra. A learned monk of Nalanda, teacher of Hsumzang, A. D. 625.
 +
 +尸羅達磨 Śīladharma,​ a śramaṇa of Khotan.
 +
 +尸羅鉢頗 Śīlaprabha. the Sanskrit name of a learned monk.
 +
 +||阿迭多 Śīladitya,​ son of Pratapaditya and brother of Rajyavardhana. Under thc spiritual auspices of Avalokiteśvara,​ he became king of Kanyakubja A. D. 606 and conquered India and the Punjab. He was merciful to all creatures, strained drinking water for horses and elephants, was a most liberal patron of Buddhism, re-established the great quinquennial assembly, built many stūpas, showed special favour to Śīlabhadra and Xuanzang, and composed the 八大靈塔梵讚 Aṣṭama-hāśrī -caitya-saṃskṛta-stotra. He reigned about forty years.
 +
 +尸棄尼 Also 識 (or 瑟 or 式) 匿. Chavames accepts the identification with Chighnan, a region of the Pamirs (Documents sur les Tou-kiue Occidentaux,​ p. 162).
 +
 +尸賴底 Hiranyavati,​ M003296 離刺拏伐底;​ 阿利羅伐底;​ the gold river, a river of Nepal, now called the Gandaki, near which Śākyamuni is said to have entered nirvāṇa. The river is identifed with the Ajitavati.
 +
 +尸迦羅 越 said to be Sujāta, son of an elder of Rājagṛha and the same as 須闍陀.
 +
 +尸陀 (林) Śītavana, 尸林; 尸陀婆; 尸多婆那;​ 屍陀 cold grove 寒林, i. e. a place for exposing corpses, a cemetery. It is also styled 恐毘林, 安陀林, 晝暗林; also v. 尸摩賖那 or 深摩舍那 śmaśāna.
 +
 +山 A hill, mountain; a monastery.
 +
 +山世 '​Mountain world' i. e. monasteries.
 +
 +山僧 (1) 'Hill monk', self-deprecatory term used by monks. (2) A monk dwelling apart from monasteries.
 +
 +山外 A branch of the Tiantai School founded by 晤恩 Wu En (d. A. D. 986) giving the '​shallower'​ interpretation of the teaching of this sect; called Shan-wai because it was developed in temples away from the Tiantai mountain. The '​Profounder'​ sect was developed at Tien-tai and is known as 山家宗 'the sect of the mountain family ' or home sect.
 +
 +山家 The '​mountain school',​ the ' profounder ' interpretation of Tiantai doctrines developed by 四明 Ssu-ming; v. last entry.
 +
 +山斤 The weight of a mountain, or of Sumeru— may be more readily ascertained than the eternity of the Buddha.
 +
 +山毫 Writing brushes as numerous as mountains, or as the trees on the mountains (and ink as vast as the ocean).
 +
 +山水衲 ' Mountain and water robe, ' the name of a monastic garment during the Sung dynasty; later this was the name given to a richly embroidered dress.
 +
 +山海如來 Sāgara-varadhara-buddhi-vikiditā-bhijñā. 山海慧 (or 惠) 自在通王如來. The name under which Ānanda is to reappear as Buddha, in Anavanamita-vaijayanta,​ during the kalpa Manojna-sabdabhigarjita,​ v. 法華經.
 +
 +山海空市 '​Mountains,​ seas, the sky, the (busy) market place' cannot conceal one from the eye of 無常 Impermanence,​ the messenger of death, a phrase summing up a story of four brothers who tried to use their miraculous power to escape death by hiding in the mountains, seas, sky, and market places. The one in the market place was the first to be reported as dead, 法句經 2.
 +
 +山王 The king of the mountains, i. e. the highest peak.
 +
 +山門 The gate of a monastery; a monastery.
 +
 +川 A stream, a mountain stream; Ssu-ch'​uan province.
 +
 +川施餓鬼 Making offerings at the streams to the ghosts of the drowned.
 +
 +工 Work, a period of work, a job.
 +
 +工夫 Time, work, a term for meditation; also 功夫.
 +
 +工巧明 Śilpasthana-vidyā. 巧業明 One of the five departments of knowledge dealing with the arts, e. g. the various crafts, mechanics, natural science (yin-yang), calculations (especially for the calendar and astrology), etc.
 +
 +工伎鬼 Nata, a dancer; the skilful or wily one, i. e. the heart or mind.
 +
 +己 Self, personal, own.
 +
 +己利 Personal advantage, or profit.
 +
 +己心 One's own heart.
 +
 +[103]
 +
 +己心法門 己心中所行法門 The method of the self-realization of truth, the intuitive method of meditation, 止觀 1.
 +
 +己界 The buddha-kāya,​ or realm of Buddha in contrast with the realm of ordinary beings.
 +
 +己證, 自證 Self-attained assurance of the truth, such as that of the Buddha.
 +
 +己身彌陀唯心淨土 Myself (is) Amitābha, my mind (is) the Pure Land. All things are but the one Mind, so that outside existing beings there is no Buddha and no Pure Land. Thus Amitābha is the Amitābha within and the Pure Land is the Pure Land of the mind. It is an expression of Buddhist pantheism— that all is Buddha and Buddha is all.
 +
 +已 Already, past; end, cease.
 +
 +已今當 Past, present, future, 過去, 現在, 未來.
 +
 +已今當往生 Those born into the '​future life, ' (of the Pure Land) in the past, in the present, and to be born in the future.
 +
 +已生 部多 bhūta. Become, the moment just come into existence, the present moment; being, existing; a being, ghost, demon; a fact; an element, of which the Hindus have five— earth, water, fire, air, ether; the past.
 +
 +已知根 ājñendriya. The second of the 三無漏根 q. v. One who already knows the indriya or roots that arise from the practical stage associated with the Four Dogmas, i. e. purpose, joy, pleasure, renunciation,​ faith, zeal, memory, abstract meditation, wisdom.
 +
 +已過大德 A monk far advanced in religion; an arhat.
 +
 +已還 Already returned, or, begun again, e. g. the recommencement of a cycle, or course.
 +
 +已離欲者 Those who have abandoned the desire-realm;​ divided into two classes, 異生 ordinary people who have left desire, but will be born into the six gati; 聖者 the saints, who will not be reborn into the desire-realm;​ e. g. non-Buddhists and Buddhists.
 +
 +干 A shield; a stem, or pole; to offend; to concern; to seek.
 +
 +干栗馱 干栗太; 乾栗馱; 訖利多 hṛd, hṛdaya, the physical heart.
 +
 +干闍那 建折那 kāñcana, golden; i. e. a tree, a shrub of the same type, with golden hue, described as of the leguminous order; perhaps the Kunjara. Wrongly written 于 (or 那) 于闍羅 and 千闍那.
 +
 +弓 Dhanus. A bow; a bow's length, i. e. the 4, 000th part of a yojana. Seven grains of wheat 麥 make 1 finger-joint 指節; 24 finger-joints make 1 elbow or cubit 肘; 4 cubits make 1 bow; or 1 foot 5 inches make 1 elbow or cubit: 4 cubits make 1 bow; 300 bows make 1 li; but the measures are variously given.
 +
 +弓槃茶 Kumbhāṇḍa demons, v. 鳩.
 +4. FOUR STROKES
 +
 +不 No, not, none. (Sanskrit a, an. ).
 +
 +不一不異 Neither unity nor diversity, or doctrine of the 中論, v. 八不.
 +
 +不久 Not long (in time).
 +
 +不久詣道場 Not long before he visits the place of enlightenment or of Truth, i. e. soon will become a Buddha.
 +
 +不了 Not to bring to a finish, not to make plain, not plain, not to understand, incomprehensible.
 +
 +不了義經 Texts that do not make plain the Buddha'​s whole truth, such as Hīnayāna and 通敎 or intermediate Mahāyāna texts.
 +
 +不了佛智 The incomprehensible wisdom of Buddha.
 +
 +不二 advaya. No second, non-duality,​ the one and undivided, the unity of all things, the one reality、 the universal Buddha-nature. There are numerous combinations,​ e. g. 善惡不二 good and evil are not a dualism: nor are 有 and 空 the material and immaterial, nor are 迷 and 悟 delusion and awareness— all these are of the one Buddha-nature.
 +
 +不二不異 neither plural nor diverse, e. g. neither two kinds of nature nor difference in form.
 +
 +不二之法 The one undivided truth, the Buddha-truth. Also, the unity of the Buddha-nature.
 +
 +不二法門 is similar to 不二之法;​ also the cult of the monistic doctrine; and the immediacy of entering into the truth.
 +
 +不但空 ' Not only the void '; or, non-void; śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas see only the '​void',​ bodhisattvas see also the non-void, hence 不但空 is the 中道空 the '​void'​ of the '​mean'​. It is a term of the 通敎 Intermediate school.
 +
 +不來 Not coming (back to mortality), an explanation of 阿那含 anāgāmin.
 +
 +不來不去 anāgamana-nirgama. Neither coming into nor going out of existence, i. e. the original constituents of all 法 things are eternal; the eternal conservation of energy, or of the primal substance.
 +
 +不來迎 Without being called he comes to welcome; the Pure-land sect believes that Amitābha himself comes to welcome departing souls of his followers on their calling upon him, but the 淨土眞宗 (Jōdo Shin-shu sect) teaches that belief in him at any time ensures rebirth in the Pure Land, independently of calling on him at death.
 +
 +[104]
 +
 +不修外道 One of the ten kinds of ' heresies'​ founded by Sañjayin Vairāṭīputra,​ v. 删, who taught that there is no need to 求道 seek the right path, as when the necessary kalpas have passed, mortality ends and nirvana naturally follows.
 +
 +不偸盜 adinnādāna-veramaṇī;​ the second of the ten commandments,​ Thou shalt not steal.
 +
 +不共 Not in the same class, dissimilar, distinctive,​ each its own.
 +
 +不共三昧 asakṛt-samādhi;​ a samādhi in more than one formula, or mode.
 +
 +不共不定 One of the six 不定因 indefinite statements of a syllogism, where proposition and example do not agree.
 +
 +不共中共 The general among the particulars,​ the whole in the parts.
 +
 +不共業 Varied, or individual karma; each causing and receiving his own recompense.
 +
 +不共法 āveṇika-buddhadharma. The characteristics,​ achievements,​ and doctrine of Buddha which distinguish him from all others. See 十八不共法.
 +
 +十八不共法 the eighteen distinctive characteristics as defined by Hīnayāna are his 十力, 四無畏, 三念住 and his 大悲; the Mahāyāna eighteen are perfection of body; of speech; of memory; impartiality or universality;​ ever in samādhi; entre self-abnegation;​ never diminishing will (to save); zeal; thought; wisdom; salvation; insight into salvation; deeds and mind accordant with wisdom; also his speech; also his mind; omniscience in regard to the past; also to the present; and to the future.
 +
 +不共無明 Distinctive kinds of unenlightenment,​ one of the two kinds of ignorance, also styled 獨頭無明;​ particular results arising from particular evils.
 +
 +不共相 Dissimilarity,​ singularity,​ sui generis.
 +
 +不共般若 The things special to bodhisattvas in the 般若經 in contrast with the things they have in common with śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas.
 +
 +不共變 Varied, or individual conditions resulting from karma; every one is his own transmigration;​ one of the 四變.
 +
 +不分別 The indivisible,​ or middle way 中道.
 +
 +不動 acala; niścala; dhruva. The unmoved, immobile, or motionless; also 無動 the term is used for the unvarying or unchanging, for the pole-star, for fearlessness,​ for indifference to passion or temptation. It is a special term of Shingon 異言 applied to its most important Bodhisattva,​ the 不動明王 q. v.
 +
 +不動佛 不動如來;​ 阿閦鞞 or 阿閦婆, Akṣobhya, one of the 五智如來 Five Wisdom, or Dhyāni-Buddhas,​ viz., Vairocana, Akṣobhya, Ratnasambhava,​ Amitābha, and Amoghasiddhi. He is especially worshipped by the Shingon sect, as a disciple of Vairocana. As Amitābha is Buddha in the western heavens, so Akṣobhya is Buddha in the eastern heaven of Abhirati, the realm of joy, hence he is styled 善快 or 妙喜, also 無瞋恚 free from anger. His cult has existed since the Han dynasty, see the Akṣobhya-Tathāgatasya-vyūha. He is first mentioned in the prajnapāramitā sutra, then in the Lotus, where he is the first of the sixteen sons of Mahābhijñā-jñānabhibhu. His dhyāni-bodhisattva is Vajrapāṇi. His appearance is variously described, but he generally sits on a lotus, feet crossed, soles upward, left hand closed holding robe, right hand fingers extended touching ground calling it as color is pale gold, some say blue a vajra is before him. His esoteric word is Hum; his element the air, his human form Kanakamuni, v. 拘. Jap. Ashuku, Fudo, and Mudo; Tib. mi-bskyod-pa,​ mi-'​khrugs-pa (mintug-pa);​ Mong. Ülü küdelükci. v. 不動明王.
 +
 +不動供 Offerings to 不動明王.
 +
 +不動使者 The messengers of Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛.
 +
 +不動咒 不動慈救咒;​ 不動慈護咒;​ 不動陀羅尼;​ 不動使者祕密法;​ 不動使者陀羅尼祕密法. Prayers and spells associated with Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛 and his messengers.
 +
 +不動地 The eighth of the ten stages in a Buddha'​s advance to perfection.
 +
 +不動安鎭法 Prayers to 不動明王 to protect the house.
 +
 +不動定 The samādhi, or abstract meditation, in which he abides.
 +
 +不動明王 不動尊 Aryacalanatha 阿奢羅曩 tr. 不動尊 and 無動尊 and Acalaceta, 阿奢囉逝吒 tr. 不動使者. The mouthpiece or messenger, e. g. the Mercury, of the Buddhas; and the chief of the five Ming Wang. He is regarded as the third person in the Vairocana trinity. He has a fierce mien overawing all evil spirits. He is said to have attained to Buddhahood, but also still to retain his position with Vairocana. He has many descriptive titles, e. g. 無量力神通無動者;​ 不動忿怒王,​ etc. Five different verbal signs are given to him. He carries a sharp wisdom-sword,​ a noose, a thunder-bolt. The colour of his images is various—black,​ blue, purple. He has a youthful appearance; his hair falls over his left shoulder; he stands or sits on a rock; left eye closed; mouth shut, teeth gripping upper lip, wrinkled forehead, seven locks of hair, full-bodied,​ A second representation is with four faces and four arms, angry mien, protruding teeth, with fames around him. A third with necklaces. A fourth, red, seated on a rock, fames, trident, etc. There are other forms. He has fourteen distinguishing symbols, and many dharanis associated with the realm of fire, of saving those in distress, and of wisdom. He has two messengers 二童子 Kimkara 矜羯羅 and Cetaka 制吒迦, and, including these, a group of eight messengers 八大童子 each with image, symbol, word-sign, etc. Cf. 不動佛.
 +
 +不動法 Prayer for the aid of 不動明王 to end calamity and cause prosperity.
 +
 +[105]
 +
 +不動無爲 One of the six 無爲 kinds of inaction, or laissez aIIer, the state of being unmoved by pleasure or pain.
 +
 +不動解脫 liberation from being disturbed (by the illusions of life).
 +
 +不動阿羅漢 an arhat who has attained to the state of the immovable liberation 不動解脫.
 +
 +不動生死 Immortality,​ nirvana.
 +
 +不動義 Immobility, one of the ten meanings of the void.
 +
 +不動講 An assembly for preaching and praising the virtues of 不動尊.
 +
 +不動金剛明王 The 不動尊 as the vajra representative,​ or embodiment, of Vairocana for saving all sentient beings.
 +
 +不卽不離 Neither the thing itself nor something apart, e. g. the water and the wave; similar to 不一不異.
 +
 +不取正覺願 Amitābha'​s vow of not taking up his Buddhahood till each of his forty-eight vows is fulfilled, an affix to each of the vows.
 +
 +不受一切法 Free from the receptivity,​ or sensation, of things, emancipated from desire.
 +
 +不受三昧 In the Lotus Sutra, cap. 25, the bodhisattva 無盡意 obeying the Buddha'​s command, offered Guanyin a jewel-garland,​ which the latter refused saying he had not received the Buddha'​s command to accept it. This attitude is attributed to his 不受 samādhi, the samādhi of 畢竟空 utter '​voidness',​ or spirituality.
 +
 +不可 May not, can not: unpermissible,​ for-bidden; unable. Buke, the name of a monk of the 靈妙寺 Ling Miao monastery in the Tang dynasty, a disciple of Subha-karāṣimha,​ and one of the founders of 眞言 Shingon.
 +
 +不可得 ampalabhya; alabhya. Beyond laying hold of, unobtainable,​ unknowable, unreal, another name for 空 the void. See 三世心不可得.
 +
 +三世心不可得 The mind or thought, past, present, future, cannot be held fast; the past is gone, the future not arrived, the present does not stay.
 +
 +不可得空 One of the eighteen 空; it is the 言亡慮絕之空,​ the '​void'​ that is beyond words or thought.
 +
 +不可思議 Beyond thought or description,​ v. 不思議.
 +
 +言亡慮絕之空 The '​void'​ that is beyond words or thought.
 +
 +四不可思議 The four indescribables,​ v. 增一阿含經 18, are the worlds; living beings; dragons (nagas); and the size of the Buddha-lands.
 +
 +五不可思議 The five indescribables,​ of the 智度論 30, are: The number of living beings; all the consequences of karma; the powers of a state of dhyāna; the powers of nagas; the powers of the Buddhas.
 +
 +不可思議尊 不可思議光如來 The ineffable Honoured One; the Tathāgata of ineffable light; titles of Amitābha.
 +
 +不可思議解脫經 A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.
 +
 +不可思議經 A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra. The full title is also a name for the 維摩經 Vimalakīrti-sūtra.
 +
 +不可思議解脫法門 The samādhi, or liberation of mind, that ensures a vision of the ineffable.
 +
 +不可有 The existence of those who do the 不可, or forbidden, i. e. the hells.
 +
 +不可棄 Not to be cast away— said to be the name of the founder of the Mahīśāsakah,​ or 化地 school, cast into a well at birth by his mother, saved by his father, at first brahman, afterwards a Buddhist; v. 文殊問經,​ but probably apocryphal.
 +
 +不可稱智 The Buddha wisdom that in its variety is beyond description.
 +
 +不可見有對色 invisible, perceptible,​ or material things, e. g. sound, smell, etc.
 +
 +不可見無對色 Invisible, imperceptible,​ or immaterial things.
 +
 +不可說 Unmentionable,​ indefinable;​ truth that can be thought but not expressed.
 +
 +不可說佛 Gaṇendra; the 733rd of the Buddhas of the present kalpa 賢劫, in which 1,000 Buddhas are to appear, of whom four have appeared.
 +
 +不可越守護 Two guardians of the Law on the right of Mañjuśrī in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala,​ named 難持 and 難勝.
 +
 +不和合性 unharmonizing natures, one of the 五法.
 +
 +不善 Not good; contrary to the right and harmful to present and future life, e. g. 五逆十惡.
 +
 +不善律儀 idem 非律儀, i. e. 不法 or 非善戒.
 +
 +不喞M066116 Ignorant, rustic: immature or ignorant.
 +
 +不坐高廣大牀 anuccaśayanāmahāśayana. Not to sit on a high, broad, large bed, the ninth of the ten commandments.
 +
 +不增不減 Neither adding nor subtracting;​ nothing can be added or taken away. In referenc to the absolute 實相之空理 nothing can be added or taken away; vice versa with the relative.
 +
 +不增減眞如 the unvarying 眞如 bhūtatathatā,​ one of the ten 眞如; also the eighth of the 十地.
 +
 +不壞 avināśya; indestructible,​ never decaying, eternal.
 +
 +不壞句 A term in 眞言 Shingon for the magic word 阿 '​a',​ the indestructible embodiment of Vairocana.
 +
 +不壞四禪 The four dhyāna heavens, where the samādhi mind of meditation is indestructible,​ and the external world is indestructible by the three final catastrophes.
 +
 +不壞法 Two kinds of arhats practice the 白骨觀 skull meditation, the dull who consider the dead as ashes, the intelligent who do not, but derive supernatural powers from the meditation.
 +
 +[106]
 +
 +不壞金剛 Vairocana the indestructible,​ or eternal.
 +
 +不壞金剛光明心殿 The luminous mind-temple of the eternal 大日 Vairocana, the place in the Vajradhātu,​ or Diamond realm, of Vairocana as teacher.
 +
 +不如蜜多 The twenty-sixth patriarch, said to be Puryamitra (Eitel), son of a king in Southern India, labored in eastern India, d. A. D. 388 by samādhi.
 +
 +不妄語 musāvādā-veramaṇī,​ the fourth commandment,​ thou shalt not lie; no false speaking.
 +
 +不婬慾 abrahamacaryā-veramaṇī,​ the third commandment,​ thou shalt not commit adultery, i. e. against fornication and adultery for the lay, and against all unchastity for the clerics.
 +
 +不學 aśaikṣa; no longer studying, graduated, one who has attained.
 +
 +不定 Unfixed, unsettled, undetermined,​ uncertain.
 +
 +不定受業 One of the 'four karma' — aniyata or indefinite karma; opposite of 定業.
 +
 +不定地法 One of the six mental conditions, that of undetermined character, open to any influence good or evil.
 +
 +不定性 (不定種性) Of indeterminate nature. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school divides all beings into five classes according to their potentialities. This is one of the divisions and contains four combinations:​ (1) Bodhisattva-cum-śrāvaka,​ with uncertain result depending on the more dominant of the two; (2) bodhisattva-cum-pratyekabuddha;​ (3) śrāvaka-cum-pratyekabuddha;​ (4) the characteristcs of all three vehicles intermingled with uncertain results; the third cannot attain Buddhahood, the rest may.
 +
 +不定性聚 不定聚 One of the three Tiantai groups of humanity, the indeterminate normal class of people, as contrasted with sages 定性聚 whose natures are determined for goodness, and the wicked 邪定性聚 whose natures are determined for evil.
 +
 +不定教 Indeterminate teaching. Tiantai divides the Buddha'​ s mode of teaching into four; this one means that Buddha, by his extraordinary powers of 方便 upāya-kauśalya,​ or adaptability,​ could confer Mahāyāna benefits on his hearers out of his Hīnayāna teaching and vice versa, dependent on the capacity of his hearers.
 +
 +不定觀 (不定止觀) Direct insight without any gradual process of samādhi; one of three forms of Tiantai meditation.
 +
 +不害 ahiṃsā. Harmlessness,​ not injuring, doing harm to none.
 +
 +不審 A term of greeting between monks. i. e. I do not take the liberty of inquiring into your condition.
 +
 +不廻 Anagamin. He who does not return; one exempt from transmigration.
 +
 +不律儀 Practices not in accord with the rule: immoral or subverted rules, i. e. to do evil, or prevent good; heretical rules and practices.
 +
 +不忘禪 The meditation against forgetfulness.
 +
 +不思議 acintya. 阿軫帝也 Beyond thought and words, beyond conception, baffling description,​ amazing.
 +
 +不思議乘 The ineffable vehicle, Buddhism.
 +
 +不思議慧童子 The youth of ineffable wisdom, one of the eight youths in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +不思議智 acintya-jñāna,​ inconceivable wisdom, the indescribable Buddha-wisdom.
 +
 +不思議業相 Inexpressible karma-merit always working for the benefit of the living.
 +
 +不思議界 acintyadhātu. The realm beyond thought and words, another name for the bhūtatathatā,​ 眞如.
 +
 +不思議眞言相道法 The practice of the presence of the invisible Dharmakāya in the esoteric word.
 +
 +不思議空 第一義空 The Void beyond thought or discussion, a conception of the void, or that which is beyond the material, only attained by Buddhas and bodhisattvas.
 +
 +不思議空智 The wisdom thus attained which removes all distresses and illusions.
 +
 +不思議經 The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.
 +
 +不思議解脫經 The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.
 +
 +不思議薰 The indescribable vāsanā, i. e. suffusion, or '​fuming',​ or influence of primal 無明 ignorance, on the 眞如 bhūtatathatā,​ producing all illusion. v 起信論 Awakening of Faith.
 +
 +不思議變 The indescribable changes of the bhūtatathatā in the multitudinous forms of all things.
 +
 +不思議易生死 Ineffable changes and transmigrations,​ i. e. to the higher stages of mortality above the traidhātuka or trailokya 三界.
 +
 +不悅 Unhappy, uneasy, the disturbing influence of desire.
 +
 +不惜身命 The bodhisattva virtue of not sparing one's life (for the sake of bodhi).
 +
 +不懺舉 The excommunication of an unrepentant monk; one of the 三舉.
 +
 +不才淨 Neither clever nor pure— a term of rebuke.
 +
 +[107]
 +
 +不拜 Lay Buddhists may not pay homage to the gods or demons of other religions; monks and nuns may not pay homage to kings or parents.
 +
 +不捉持生像金銀寶物 jātarūpa-rajata-pratigrahaṇād vaira maṇī (virati). The tenth commandment,​ not to take or possess uncoined or coined gold and silver, or jewels.
 +
 +不捨誓約 Amitābha'​s vow of non-abandonment,​ not to enter Buddhahood till all were born into his Paradise.
 +
 +不放逸 No slackness or looseness; concentration of mind and will on the good.
 +
 +不斷 Without ceasing, unceasing.
 +
 +不斷光 The unceasing light (or glory) of Amitābha.
 +
 +不斷光佛 One of the twelve shining Buddhas.
 +
 +不斷常 Unceasing continuity.
 +
 +不斷念佛 Unceasing remembrance,​ or invocation of the Buddha.
 +
 +不斷相應染 One of the 六染心.
 +
 +不斷讀經 Unceasing reading of the sutras.
 +
 +不斷經 Unceasing reading of the sutras.
 +
 +不斷輪 Unceasing turning of the wheel, as in a monastery by relays of prayer and meditation.
 +
 +不時解脫 The sixth, or highest of the six types of arhats; the other five groups have to bide their time and opportunity 時解脫 for liberation in samādhi, the sixth can enter immediately.
 +
 +不更惡趣願 The second of Amitābha'​s forty-eight vows, that those born in his kingdom should never again enter the three evil lower paths of transmigration.
 +
 +不染世間法 Unsullied by the things of the world (e. g. the lotus).
 +
 +不染汚無知 Uncontaminated ignorance.
 +
 +不染著諸法三昧 The samādhi which is uncontaminated by any (evil) thing, the samādhi of purity; i. e. Mañjuśrī in samādhi holding as symbol of it a blue lotus in his left hand.
 +
 +不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽 nāṭya-gīta-vāditra-viśūkadarśanād-vairamaṇī (virati). The seventh commandment against taking part in singing, dancing, plays, or going to watch and hear them.
 +
 +不正食 Not strict food, not exactly food, things that do not count as a meal, e. g. fruit and nuts.
 +
 +不死 Undying, immortal.
 +
 +不死甘露 Sweet dew of immortality,​ a baptismal water of 眞言 Shingon.
 +
 +不死藥 Medicine of immortality,​ called shāhē 裟訶, which grows on 雪山 the Himālayas and bestows on anyone seeing it endless and painless life.
 +
 +不死覺 One of the eight 覺, the desire for long life.
 +
 +不死門 The gate of immortality or nirvana, i. e. Mahāyāna.
 +
 +不殺生 prāṇātipātād vairamaṇī (virati). The first commandment,​ Thou shalt not kill the living.
 +
 +不法 Not in accordance with the Buddha law, wrong, improper, unlawful.
 +
 +不活畏 The fear of giving all and having nothing to keep one alive: one of the five fears.
 +
 +不滅 anirodha, not destroyed, not subject to annihilation.
 +
 +不滅不生 anirodhānupāda,​ neither dying nor being reborn, immortal, v. 不生.
 +
 +不淨 Unclean, common, vile.
 +
 +不淨忿怒 不淨金剛;​ 鳥樞沙摩明王 or 鳥芻沙摩明王;​ 觸金剛 Ucchuṣma, a bodhisattva connected with 不動明王 who controls unclean demons.
 +
 +不淨施 '​Unclean'​ almsgiving, i. e. looking for its reward in this or the next life.
 +
 +不淨肉 '​Unclean',​ flesh, i. e. that of animals, fishes, etc., seen being killed, heard being killed, or suspected of being killed; Hīnayāna forbids these, Mahāyāna forbids all flesh.
 +
 +不淨行 非梵行 Ignoble or impure deeds, sexual immorality.
 +
 +不淨觀 The meditation on the uncleanness of the human body of self and others, e. g. the nine stages of disintegration of the dead body 九想 q.v.; it is a meditation to destroy 貪 desire; other details are: parental seed, womb, the nine excretory passages, the body's component parts, worm-devoured corpse — all unclean.
 +
 +不淨觀經 A sutra of Dharmatrata.
 +
 +不淨說法 邪命說法 '​Unclean'​ preaching, i. e. to preach, whether rightly or wrongly, from an impure motive, e. g. for making a living.
 +
 +不淨輪 One of the three 輪: impermanence,​ impurity, distress 無常, 不淨, 苦.
 +
 +不生 anutpatti; anutpāda. Non-birth: not to be reborn, exempt from rebirth; arhan is mistakenly interpreted as 'not born', meaning not born again into mortal worlds. The '​nir'​ in nirvana is also erroneously said to mean 'not born'; certain schools say that nothing ever has been born, or created, for all is eternal. The Shingon word '​a'​ is interpreted as symbolizing the uncreated. The unborn or uncreated is a name for the Tathāgata, who is not born, but eternal ; hence by implication the term means "​eternal"​. ādi, which means"​at first, " "​beginning","​primary",​ is also interpreted as 不生 uncreated.
 +
 +[108]
 +
 +不生斷 One of the 三斷, when illusion no longer arises the sufferings of being reborn in the evil paths are ended.
 +
 +不生不滅 v. 不滅 '​Neither (to be) born nor ended' is another term for 常住 permanent, eternal; nothing having been created nothing can be destroyed; Hīnayāna limits the meaning to the state of nirvana, no more births and deaths; Mahāyāna in its Mādhyamika form extends it universally,​ no birth and death, no creation and annihilation,​ see 中論.
 +
 +四不生 Nothing is produced (1) of itself; (2) of another, i. e. of a cause without itself; (3) of both; (4) of no-cause.
 +
 +不疑殺 Not in doubt that the creature has been killed to feed me, v. 不淨肉.
 +
 +不相應心 The non-interrelated mind, see 起信論.
 +
 +不相應行 Actions non-interrelated (with mind).
 +
 +不空 Amogha, Amoghavajra. 不空三藏;​ 智藏; 阿目佉跋折羅 Not empty (or not in vain) vajra. The famous head of the Yogācāra school in China. A Singhalese of northern brahmanic descent, having lost his father, he came at the age of 15 with his uncle to 東海, the eastern sea, or China, where in 718 he became a disciple of 金剛智 Vajrabodhi. After the latter'​s death in 732, and at his wish, Eliot says in 741, he went to India and Ceylon in search of esoteric or tantric writings, and returned in 746, when he baptized the emperor Xuan Tsung. He was especially noted for rain-making and stilling storms. In 749 he received permission to return home, but was stopped by imperial orders when in the south of China. In ?756 under Su Tsung he was recalled to the capital. His time until 771 was spent translating and editing tantric books in 120 volumes, and the Yogacara 密教 rose to its peak of prosperity. He died greatly honoured at 70 years of age, in 774, the twelfth year of Tai Tsung, the third emperor under whom he had served. The festival of feeding the hungry spirits 孟蘭勝會 is attributed to him. His titles of 智藏 and 不空三藏 are Thesaurus of Wisdom and Amogha Tripitaka.
 +
 +不空供養菩薩 Āryāmogha-pūrṇamaṇi,​ also styled 如意金剛 'At will vajra';​ in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala,​ the fifth on the south of the 悉地 court.
 +
 +不空如來藏 不空眞如 The realm of phenomena; in contrast with the universal 眞如 or 法身 dharmakāya,​ unmingled with the illusion of phenomena.
 +
 +不空成就如來 Amoghasiddhi. The Tathāgata of unerring performance,​ the fifth of the five wisdom or dhyāni-buddhas of the diamond-realm. He is placed in the north; his image is gold-colored,​ left hand clenched, right fingers extended pointing to breast. Also, 'He is seated in '​adamantine'​ pose (legs closely locked) '​(Getty),​ soles apparent, left hand in lap, palm upwards, may balance a double vajra, or sword; right hand erect in blessing, fingers extended. Symbol, double vajra; color, green (Getty); word, ah!; blue-green lotus; element, earth; animal, garuḍa; Śakti (female personification),​ Tārā; Mānuṣi-Buddha (human or savior Buddha), Maitreya. T., dongrub; J., Fukū jō-jū.
 +
 +不空羂索 An unerring lasso. See 不空羂索菩薩.
 +
 +不空羂索菩薩 (不空羂索觀音 or 不空羂索王);​ Amoghapāśa 阿牟伽皤賖. Not empty (or unerring) net, or lasso. One of the six forms of Guanyin in the Garbhadhātu group, catching deva and human fish for the bodhi-shore. The image has three faces, each with three eyes and six arms, but other forms have existed, one with three heads and ten arms, one with one head and four arms. The hands hold a net, lotus, trident, halberd, the gift of courage, and a plenipotentiary staff; sometimes accompanied by 'the green Tārā, Sudhana-Kumāra,​ Hayagrīva and Bhṛkuṭī (Getty). There are numerous sutras, etc.
 +
 +不空見菩薩 Amoghadarśin,​ the unerringly seeing Bodhisattva,​ shown in the upper second place of Titsang'​s court in the Garbhadhātu;​ also 普觀金剛.
 +
 +不空金剛菩薩 Amoghavajra-bodhisattva. 阿目佶跋折羅 A Bodhisattva in the 蘇悉地 court of the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +不空鉤觀音 Amoghāṅkuśa. 央倶捨 Guanyin of the '​Unerring hook', similar to 不空羂索觀音;​ also styled 淸淨蓮華明王央倶捨;​ in the court of the empyrean.
 +
 +不立文字 (不立文字教) The 禪 ch'an or intuitive School does 'not set up scriptures';​ it lays stress on meditation and intuition rather than on books and other external aids: cf. Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra.
 +
 +不輕 Never Despise, 常不輕菩薩 a previous incarnation of the Buddha, as a monk whose constant greeting to all he met, that they were destined for Buddhahood, brought him much persecution;​ see the chapter of this title in the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +不輕行 The practice of 'Never Despise'​. See 不輕.
 +
 +不綺語 Unrefined, indecent, improper, or smart speech.
 +
 +不著香華鬘不香塗身 mālā-gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūṣaṇasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The eighth commandment against adorning the body with wreaths of fragrant fowers, or using fragrant unguents.
 +
 +[109]
 +
 +不聞惡名願 The sixteenth of Amitābha'​s forty-eight vows, that he would not enter final Buddhahood as long as anyone of evil repute existed.
 +
 +不臘次 (or 不臈次) Not in order of age, i. e. clerical age; disorderly sitting; taking a seat to which one is not entitled.
 +
 +不自在 Not independent,​ not one's own master, under governance.
 +
 +不與取 adattādāna. Taking that which is not given, i. e. theft; against this is the second commandment.
 +
 +不苦不樂受 one of the 三受, the state of experiencing neither pain nor pleasure, i. e. above them. Also styled 捨受 the state in which one has abandoned both.
 +
 +不蘭迦葉 Pūraṇa-kāśyapa. 富蘭那迦葉 One of the six heretics, or Tirthyas, opposed to Śākyamuni.
 +
 +不虛妄性 Not of false or untrue nature; true, sincere; also 眞實性.
 +
 +不行而行 Without doing yet to do, e. g. 無爲而爲.
 +
 +不覺 Unenlightened,​ uncomprehending,​ without '​spiritual'​ insight, the condition of people in general, who mistake the phenomenal for the real, and by ignorance beget karma, reaping its results in the mortal round of transmigration;​ i. e. people generally.
 +
 +不覺現行位 The first two of the 十地 of the saint, in which the illusion of mistaking the phenomenal for the real still arises.
 +
 +不說四衆過罪戒 The prohibition of mentioning the errors and sins of other disciples, cleric or lay.
 +
 +不請 Not to request; uninvited; voluntary.
 +
 +不請之友 The uninvited friend, i. e. the Bodhisattva.
 +
 +不請法 Uninvited preaching or offering of the Law, i. e. voluntarily bestowing its benefits.
 +
 +不變易性 Unchanging nature, immutable, i. e. the bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +不變眞如 The immutable bhūtatathatā in the absolute, as compared with 隨緣眞如,​ i. e. in relative or phenomenal conditions.
 +
 +不變隨緣 The conditioned immutable, i. e. immutable as a whole, but not in its parts, i. e. its phenomenal activity.
 +
 +不起法忍 The stage of endurance, or patient meditation, that has reached the state where phenomenal illusion ceases to arise, through entry into the realization of the Void, or noumenal; also 生法忍 (or 起法忍) .
 +
 +不退 (不退轉) avaivartika,​ or avinivartanīya. Never receding, always progressing,​ not backsliding,​ or losing ground; never retreating but going straight to nirvana; an epithet of every Buddha.
 +
 +三不退 Never receding from 位 position attained; from a right course of 行 action; from pursuing a right line of 念 thought, or mental discipline. These are duties of every bodhisattva,​ and have numerous interpretations.
 +
 +四不退 The four kinds of non-backsliding,​ which includes three kinds of non-backsliding 三不退, on top of which the Pure Land sect adds another 處 place or abode, i. e. that those who reach the Pure Land never fall away, for which five reasons are given termed 五種不退. The 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect makes their four 信, 位, 證, and 行, faith, position attained, realization,​ and accordant procedure.
 +
 +不退住 The seventh of the 十住, the stage of never receding, or continuous progress.
 +
 +不退土 The Pure Land, from which there is no falling away.
 +
 +不退地 The first of a bodhisattva'​s 十地; it is also interpreted by right action and right thought.
 +
 +不退相 One of the nine 無學 aśaikṣa, i. e. the stage beyond study, where intuition rules. Name of one of the twenty-seven sages.
 +
 +不退菩薩 A never receding bodhisattva,​ who aims at perfect enlightenment.
 +
 +不退輪 (不退轉法輪) The never-receding Buddha vehicle, of universal salvation.
 +
 +不還 Not to return, never returning. Cf. 不退.
 +
 +不還向 The third of the 四向 four directions or aims, see 阿那含 anāgāmin, not returning to the desire-world,​ but rising above it to the 色界 or the 無色界 form-realm, or even formless realm.
 +
 +不還果 The fruits, fruition, or rewards of the last. Various stages in the final life of parinirvāṇa are named, i. e. five, six, seven, eight, nine, or eleven kinds.
 +
 +不釐務侍者 A nominal assistant or attendant, an attendant who has no responsibilities.
 +
 +[110]
 +
 +不非時食 Vikāla-bhojanād vairamaṇī (virati); part of the sixth of the ten commandments,​ i. e. against eating out of regulation hours, v. 不食肉.
 +
 +不顧論宗 One of the 因明四宗,​ a philosophical school, whose rule was self-gratification,​ 'not caring for' others.
 +
 +不飮酒 surā-maireya-madya-pramādasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The fifth of the ten commandments,​ i. e. against alcohol.
 +
 +不食肉 vikālabhojana;​ part of the sixth of the ten commandments,​ i. e. against eating flesh; v. 不非時食.
 +
 +中 madhya. Middle, central, medium, the mean, within; to hit the centre. v. also 三諦.
 +
 +中乘 The middle vehicle to nirvana, includes all intermediate or medial systems between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. It also corresponds with the state of a pratyekabuddha,​ who lives chiefly for his own salvation but partly for others, like a man sitting in the middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others. It is a definition made by Mahayanists unknown to Hīnayāna.
 +
 +中價衣 Another name for the uttarā saṅghāṭī,​ the middle garment of price, or esteem.
 +
 +中元 The fifteenth of the seventh moon; see 孟蘭盆.
 +
 +上元 The fifteenth of the first moon. See 孟蘭盆.
 +
 +下元 The fifteenth of the tenth moon; cf. 孟蘭盆.
 +
 +中劫 Middling kalpa, a period of 336, 000, 000 years.
 +
 +中千界 (中千世界) A middling chiliocosm, see 三千大千世界.
 +
 +中印 Central India, i. e. of the 五印 five Indies, as mentioned by Xuanzang in the 西域記.
 +
 +中含 The middle Agama 阿含經.
 +
 +中品 Middle rank or class.
 +
 +中唄 Chanting of 梵唄 Buddhist hymns is divided into three kinds 初, 中, and 後.
 +
 +中因 An arrangement by the esoteric sect of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas,​ Vairocana being the first in position, Akṣobhya east, and so on.
 +
 +中國 Madhyadesa. 中天 (中天竺);​ 中梵 The middle kingdom, i. e. Central North India, v. 中印.
 +
 +中士 medium disciples, i. e. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas,​ who can gain emancipation for themselves, but cannot confer it on others: cf. 下士 and 上士.
 +
 +中天 (中天竺) Central North India, idem 中國.
 +
 +中天竺寺 A monastery on the 飛來 Feilai peak at Hangchow.
 +
 +中宗 The school or principle of the mean, represented by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, which divides the Buddha'​s teaching into three periods, the first in which he preached 有 existence, the second 空 non-existence,​ the third 中 neither, something '​between'​ or above them, e. g. a realm of pure spirit, vide the 深密經 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra and the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +中宿依 A monk's inner garment, i. e. the five-patch garment; also 中着依.
 +
 +中實 idem 中道實相.
 +
 +中尊 The central honored one— in any group of Buddhas, e. g. 不動尊 among the five 明王.
 +
 +中心 idem 忠心經.
 +
 +中悔 Repenting or recanting midway, i. e. doubting and falling away.
 +
 +中有 One of the 四有, i. e. the antarā-bhāva or intermediate state of existence between death and reincarnation;​ hence 中有之旅 is an unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation;​ v. 中陰.
 +
 +中有之旅 An unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation;​ v. 中陰.
 +
 +中根 Medium capacity, neither clever nor dull, of each of the six organs 六根; there are three powers of each organ 上根, 中根, and 下根.
 +
 +中梵 Central North India, idem 中國.
 +
 +[111]
 +
 +中洲 Each of the four great continents at the foot of Mount Sumeru has two middling continents.
 +
 +中流 In the midst of the stream, i. e. of 生死 mortality, or reincarnations.
 +
 +中胎 (中胎藏) The central figure of the eight-petalled group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala;​ i. e. the phenomenal Vairocana who has around him four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas,​ each on a petal. From this maṇḍala spring the four other great maṇḍalas.
 +
 +中臺 The name of a Buddha in the center of lotus.
 +
 +中臺八葉院 The Court of the eight-petaled lotus in the middle of the Garbhadhātu,​ with Vairocana in its center and four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the eight petals. The lotus is likened to the human heart, with the Sun-Buddha 大日 at its center. The four Buddhas are E. Akṣobhya, S. Ratnasambhava,​ W. Amitābha, N. Amoghasiddhi;​ the four bodhisattvas are S. E. Samantabhadra,​ S. W. Mañjuśrī,​ N. W. Avalokiteśvara,​ and N. E. Maitreya.
 +
 +中般 One of the five kinds of those who never recede but go on to parinirvāṇa,​ cf. 不還.
 +
 +中草 Medium-sized herbs, medium capacity, v. 三草.
 +
 +中觀 Meditation on the Mean, one of the 三觀; also meditation on the absolute which unites all opposites. There are various forms of such meditation, that of the 法相宗, the 三論宗, the 天台宗. v. 中論.
 +
 +中論 中觀論 Prāñnyāya-mūla-śāstra-ṭīkā,​ or Prāṇyamula-śāstra-ṭīkā;​ the Mādhyamika-śāstra,​ attributed to the bodhisattvas Nāgārjuna as creator, and Nīlacakṣus as compiler; tr. by Kumārajīva A. D. 409. It is the principal work of the Mādhyamika,​ or Middle School, attributed to Nāgārjuna. Versions only exist in Chinese and Tibetan; an English translation by Miyamoto exists and publication is promised; a German version is by Walleser. The 中論 is the first and most?? important of the 三論 q. v. The teaching of this School is found additionally in the 順中論; 般若燈論釋大乘中觀釋論 and 中論疏. Cf. 中道. The doctrine opposes the rigid categories of existence and non-existence 假 and 空, and denies the two extremes of production (or creation) and nonproduction and other antitheses, in the interests of a middle or superior way.
 +
 +中論性教 The Mādhyamika school, which has been described as a system of sophisiic nihilism, dissolving every proposition into a thesis and its antithesis, and refuting both; but it is considered by some that the refuting of both is in the interests of a third, the 中 which transcends both.
 +
 +中諦 The third of the 三諦 three postulates of the Tiantai school, i. e. 空, 假, and 中 q. v.
 +
 +中輩 The middle stage of the 三輩 referred to in the 無量壽經 i. e. the middle class of those in the next life; also 中輩生.
 +
 +中輩觀 the meditation on the condition of 中輩.
 +
 +中道 The '​mean'​ has various interpretations. In general it denotes the mean between two extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism, or eternal substantial existence and annihilation;​ this '​mean'​ is found in a third principle between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit beyond the terminology of 有 or 無, substance or nothing, or, that which has form, and is therefore measurable and ponderable, and its opposite of total non-existence. See 中論. The following four Schools define the term according to their several scriptures: the 法相 School describes it as the 唯識, v. 唯識中道;​ the 三論 School as the 八不 eight negations, v. 三論; the Tiantai as 實相 the true reality; and the Huayan as the 法界 dharmadhātu. Four forms of the Mean are given by the 三論玄義.
 +
 +中道卽法界 The doctrine of the '​mean',​ is the dharmadhātu,​ or '​spiritual ' universe.
 +
 +中道宗 The third period of the Buddha'​s teaching, according to the 法相宗, giving the via media between the two extremes, the absolute as not confined to the phenomenal or the noumenal; also called 中道教.
 +
 +中道實相 The reality of the '​mean'​ is neither 有 substance or existent, nor 空 void or non-existent,​ but a reality which is neither, or a mean between the two extremes of materialism and nihilism; also 中實.
 +
 +中道應本 The '​mean'​ as the basic principle in the 別 and 圓 schools of the doctrine of the 應化身 '​transformation body'.
 +
 +中道第一義 The '​mean'​ is the first and chief of all principles, nothing is outside it.
 +
 +中道觀 One of the Tiantai 三觀 three meditations,​ i. e. on the doctrine of the Mean to get rid of the illusion of phenomena.
 +
 +[112]
 +
 +中邊論 A treatise by Vasubandhu, translated by Xuanzang in three chuan and by 陳眞諦Chen Zhen-ti in two fascicles. It is an explanation of the 辨中邊論頌 Madhyānta-vibhāga-śāstra,​ said to have been given by Maitreya to Asaṅga.
 +
 +中間定 An intermediate dhyāna stage between two dhyāna-heavens;​ also 中間三昧;​ 中間靜慮.
 +
 +中陰 The intermediate existence between death and reincarnation,​ a stage varying from seven to forty-nine days, when the karma-body will certainly be reborn; v. 中有.
 +
 +中陰法事 The means used (by the deceased'​ s family) for ensuring a favorable reincarnation during the intermediate stage, between death and reincarnation.
 +
 +中食 The midday meal, after which nothing whatever may be eaten.
 +
 +中體 The central Buddha in a group.
 +
 +丹 Red, cinnabar color; a remedy, drug, elixir.
 +
 +丹田 The pubic region, 2 1/2 inches below the navel.
 +
 +云 To say, speak.
 +
 +云云 Continuing to speak; they say, people say; as follows, and so on, etc.
 +
 +云何 Why?
 +
 +云何唄 The opening stanza of the Nirvana sutra 3.
 +
 +互 Interlock, dovetail-mutual.
 +
 +互用罪 The fault of transferring from one object of worship over to another a, gift, or duty, e. g. using gilt given for an image of Śākyamuni to make one for Maitreya; or '​robbing Peter to pay Paul'.
 +
 +互跪 Kneeling with both knees at once, as in India; in China the left knee is first placed on the ground; also 互胡跪.
 +
 +互裟伽藍 Haṃsa saṃghārāma,​ 'Wild goose monastery, ' on Mount Indraśailaguhā,​ whose inmates were once saved from starving by the self-sacrifice of a wild goose; also 僧裟伽藍 (or 僧鷹伽藍) .
 +
 +井 A well.
 +
 +井中撈月 Like ladling the moon out of the well; the parable of the monkeys who saw the moon fallen into a well, and fearing there would be no more moonlight, sought to save it; the monkey-king hung on to a branch, one hung on to his tail and so on, but the branch broke and all were drowned.
 +
 +井河 'Like the well and the river',​ indicating the impermanence of life. The 'well ' refers to the legend of the man who running away from a mad elephant fell into a well; the 'river ' to a great tree growing on the river bank yet blown over by the wind.
 +
 +井華 The flower of the water, i. e. that drawn from the well in the last watch of the night, at which time the water is supposed not to produce animal life.
 +
 +五 pañca, five.
 +
 +五三八二 Five, three, eight, two, a summary of the tenets of the 法相 school, 五法, 三性, 八識, and 二無我 q. v.
 +
 +五上分結 The five higher bonds of desire still existing in the upper realms, i. e. in both the form and formless realms.
 +
 +五下分結 The five bonds in the lower desire-realms,​ i. e. desire, dislike, self, heretical ideals, doubt 貪, 瞋, 我, 邪戒, 疑.
 +
 +五不可思議 The five inconceivable,​ or thought-surpassing things. v. 不可思議.
 +
 +五不正食 Five improper things for a monk to eat— twigs, leaves, flowers, fruit, powders.
 +
 +五不還天 idem 五淨居天.
 +
 +五不還果 idem 五種阿那含.
 +
 +五乘 The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments;​ (2) 天乘 among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas;​ pratyekabuddhas;​ śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas,​ śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas;​ bodhisattvas;​ and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas;​ bodhisattvas:​ and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas,​ with wind; and bodhisattvas,​ with 空 the '​void'​.
 +
 +五乘齊入 All the different classes will obtain an entrance into the Pure Land by the vow of Amitābha.
 +
 +五事妄語 The five things fallaciously explained by Mahādeva, as stated in the Kathāvatthu.
 +
 +[113]
 +
 +五五百年 The five periods each of 500 years. In the tenth chapter of the 大集月藏經 the Buddha is reported as saying that after his death there would be five successive periods each of 500 years, strong consecutively in power (1) of salvation, (2) of meditation, (3) of learning, (4) of stūpa and temple building, and finally (5) of dissension.
 +
 +五五菩薩 The twenty-five Bodhisattvas 二十五菩薩.
 +
 +五人說經 v. 五種說人.
 +
 +五住地 (五住) The five fundamental condition of 煩惱 the passions and delusions: wrong views which are common to the trailokya; clinging, or attachment, in the desire-realm;​ clinging, or attachment, in the form-realm; clinging, or attachment, in the formless realm which is still mortal: the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in the trailokya 三界 which is the root-cause of all distressful delusion, Also 五住地惑.
 +
 +五佛 The Five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu;​ v. 五智如來.
 +
 +五佛五身 A Shingon term for the five Buddhas in their five manifestations:​ Vairocana as eternal and pure dharmakāya;​ Akṣobhya as immutable and sovereign; Ratnasaṃbhava as bliss and glory; Amitābha as wisdom in action; Śākyamuni as incarnation and nirmāṇakāya. ​
 +
 +五佛子 Five classes of Buddhists; also idem 五比丘 q. v.
 +
 +五佛寶冠 五佛冠; 五智冠 (五智寶冠) ; 五寶天冠;​ 寶冠 A Buddha-crown containing the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas. The five Buddhas 'are always crowned when holding the śakti, and hence are called by the Tibetans the '​crowned Buddhas'​ (Getty). Vairocana in the Vajradhātu wears a crown with five points indicative of the five qualities of perfect wisdom, etc., as represented by the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas.
 +
 +五佛性 The five characteristics of a Buddha'​ s nature: the first three are the 三因佛性 q. v., the fourth is 果佛性 the fruition of perfect enlightenment,​ and the fifth 果果佛性 the fruition of that fruition, or the revelation of parinirvāṇa. The first three are natural attributes, the two last are acquired.
 +
 +五佛羯磨印 The manual signs by which the characteristic of each of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas is shown in the Diamond-realm group, i. e. Vairocana, the closed hand of wisdom; Akṣobhya, right fingers touching the ground, firm wisdom; Ratnasaṃbhava,​ right hand open uplifted, vow-making sign; Amitābha, samādhi sign, right fingers in left palm, preaching and ending doubts; and Amoghasiddhi,​ i. e. Śākyamuni,​ the karma sign, i. e. final nirvana. These mūdra, or manual signs, are from the 瑜祇經 but other forms are common.
 +
 +五佛頂 (五佛頂尊);​ 五頂輪王 Five bodhisattvas sometimes placed on the left of Śākyamuni,​ indicative of five forms of wisdom: (1) 白傘佛頂輪王 (白蓋佛頂輪王);​ 白 M027897佛頂,​ Sitāta-patra,​ with white parasol, symbol of pure mercy, one of the titles of Avalokiteśvara;​ (2) 勝佛頂 Jaya, with sword symbol of wisdom, or discretion; (3) 最勝佛頂 (一字最勝佛頂輪王);​ 金輪佛頂 (最勝金輪佛頂);​ 轉輪王佛頂 Vijaya, with golden wheel symbol of unexcelled power of preaching; (4) 火聚佛頂;​ 光聚佛頂 (or 放光佛頂 or 火光佛頂) ; 高佛頂 Tejorāṣi,​ collected brilliance, with insignia of authority 如意寶 or a fame; (5) 捨除佛頂;​ 除障佛頂;​ 摧碎佛頂;​ 除業佛頂;​ 除蓋障佛頂;​ 尊勝, etc. Vikīrṇa, scattering and destroying all distressing delusion, with a hook as symbol.
 +
 +五佛頂法 The forms, colors, symbols, etc., of the 五佛頂.
 +
 +五佛頂經 Abbreviation for— 一字佛頂輪王經. There is also a 五佛頂三昧陀羅尼經 translated by Bodhiruci circa A. D. 503.
 +
 +五佛灌頂 Baptism with five vases of perfumed water, symbol of Buddha-wisdom in its five forms.
 +
 +五作業根 The five working organs: the mouth, hands, feet, sex organ, and anus.
 +
 +五位 The five categories, or divisions; there are several groups, e. g. (1) Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna have groupings of all phenomena under five heads, i. e. Hīnayāna has 75 法 which are 11 色法, 1 心法, 46 心所法, 14 不相離法,​ and 3 無爲法; Mahāyāna has 100 法 which are 8 心, 51 心所, 11 色, 24 不相因, and 6 無爲法. (2) The five divisions of 唯識 are 資糧位, 加行位, 通達位, 修習位, and 究竟 or 佛位. (3) The five evolutions in the womb are: kalalaṃ, embryo-initiation;​ arbudaṃ, after 27 days; peśī, 37; ghana, 47; praśākha, 57 days when form and organs are all complete. (4) Certain combinations of the 八卦 Eight Diagrams are sometimes styled 五位君臣 five positions of prince and minister.
 +
 +五位三昧 五種三昧 The five kinds of samādhi: (1) On mortality, the 四禪 and 八定; (2) śrāvaka on the four axioms; (3) pratyekabuddha on the twelve nidānas; (4) bodhisattva on the 六度 and the 萬行; (5) Buddha on the one Buddha-vehicle,​ which includes all others; v. 五乘.
 +
 +五供養 The five kinds of offerings— unguents, chaplets, incense, food, and lamps (or candles).
 +
 +五使者 The five messengers of Mañjuśrī,​ 丈殊五使者,​ 五種金剛使;​ they are shown on his left in his court in the Garbhadhātu group; their names are (1) Keśīnī 髻設尼 (or 計設尼) ; 繼室尼. (2) Upakeśīnī 鄔波髻設尼;​ 烏波髻施儞 (or 烏波髻施尼);​ 優婆計設尼. (3) Citrā 質多羅 (or 質怛羅). (4) Vasumatī, tr. 慧 and 財慧; 嚩蘇磨 底. (5) Ākarṣaṇī,​ tr. 請召 , 釣召 and 招召 ;​阿羯沙尼.
 +
 +[114]
 +
 +五倶倫 The five comrades, i. e. Śākyamuni'​s five old companions in asceticism and first converts, v. 五比丘. Also 五拘鄰.
 +
 +五條袈裟 (五條) The monk' s robe of five patches or lengths, also termed 下衣 as the lowest of the grades of patch-robes. It is styled 院内道行雜作衣 the garment ordinarily worn in the monastery, when abroad and for general purposes; also written 五帖袈裟、五條衣.
 +
 +五停四念 idem 五停心觀 and 四念處 i. e. the five meditations for settling the mind and ridding it of the five errors of desire, hate, ignorance, the self, and a wayward or confused mind; the five meditations are 不淨觀, 慈悲觀, 因緣觀, 界分別觀 and 數息觀 i. e. the vileness of all things, pity for all, causality, right discrimination,​ breathing; some substitute meditation on the Buddha in place of the fourth; another division puts breathing first, and there are other differences.
 +
 +五八 Five eights, i. e. forty.
 +
 +五八十具 All the five, eight, and ten commandments,​ i. e. the three groups of disciples, laity who keep the five and eight and monks who keep the ten.
 +
 +五八尊 The forty forms of Guanyin, or the Guanyin with forty hands: the forty forms multiplied by the twenty-five things 二十五有 make 1, 000, hence Guanyin with the thousand hands.
 +
 +五八識 The five sense perceptions and the eighth or ālaya vijñāna, the fecundating principle of consciousness in man.
 +
 +五具足 The five complete utensils for worship— two flower vases, two candlesticks,​ and a censer.
 +
 +五刀 The 'five swords'​ or slayers who were sent in pursuit of a man who fled from his king, e. g. the five skandhas 五蘊.
 +
 +五分 idem 五分法身 and 五部大論.
 +
 +五分律 五分戒本 The Mahīśāsaka Vinaya, or five divisions of the law according to that school.
 +
 +五分法身 pañca-dharmakāya,​ the five attributes of the dharmakāya or '​spiritual'​ body of the Tathāgata, i. e. 戒 that he is above all moral conditions; 定 tranquil and apart from all false ideas; 慧 wise and omniscient; 解脫 free, unlimited, unconditioned,​ which is the state of nirvana; 解脫知見 that he has perfect knowledge of this state. These five attributes surpass all conditions of form, or the five skandhas; Eitel interprets this by exemption from all materiality (rūpa); all sensations (vedana); all consciousness (saṃjñā);​ all moral activity (karman); all knowledge (vijñāna). The esoteric sect has its own group. See also 五種法身.
 +
 +五分香 The five kinds of incense, or fragrance, corresponding with the 五分法身,​ i. e. the fragrance of 戒香, 定香, etc.
 +
 +五利使 Five of the ten '​runners 'or lictors, i. e. delusions; the ten are divided into five 鈍 dull, or stupid, and five 利 sharp or keen, appealing to the intellect; the latter are 身見, 邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁取見.
 +
 +五劫思惟 The five kalpas spent by Amitābha thinking out and preparing for his vows.
 +
 +五力 pañcabalāni,​ the five powers or faculties — one of the categories of the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika dharma 三十七助道品;​ they destroy the 五障 five obstacles, each by each, and are: 信力 śraddhābala,​ faith (destroying doubt); 精進力 vīryabala, zeal (destroying remissness);​ 念 or 勤念 smṛtibala,​ memory or thought (destroying falsity); 正定力 samādhibala,​ concentration of mind, or meditation (destroying confused or wandering thoughts); and 慧力 prajñābala,​ wisdom (destroying all illusion and delusion). Also the five transcendent powers, i. e. 定力 the power of meditation; 通力 the resulting supernatural powers; 借識力 adaptability,​ or powers of '​borrowing'​ or evolving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by beings above the second dhyāna heavens; 大願力 the power of accomplishing a vow by a Buddha or bodhisattva;​ and 法威德力 the august power of Dharma. Also, the five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, 五大明王.
 +
 +五功德門 The five effective or meritorious gates to Amitābha'​s Pure Land, i. e. worship of him, praise of him, vows to him, meditation on him, willingness to suffer for universal salvation.
 +
 +五十三佛 Fifty-three past Buddhas, of which the lists vary.
 +
 +五十三尊 The fifty-three honored ones of the Diamond group, i. e. the thirty-seven plus sixteen bodhisattvas of the present kalpa.
 +
 +五十三智識 五十三參 The fifty-three wise ones mentioned in the 入法界 chapter of the Huayan Sutra.
 +
 +[115]
 +
 +五十二位 The fifty-two stages in the process of becoming a Buddha; of these fifty-one are to bodhisattvahood,​ the fifty-second to Buddhahood. They are: Ten 十信 or stages of faith; thirty of the 三賢 or three grades of virtue i. e. ten 十住, ten 十行, and ten 十廻向; and twelve of the three grades of 聖 holiness, or sainthood, i. e. ten 地, plus 等覺 and 妙覺. These are the Tiantai stages; there are others, and the number and character of the stages vary in different schools.
 +
 +五十二衆 五十二類 The fifty-two groups of living beings, human and not-human, who, according to the Nirvana-sutra,​ assembled at the nirvana of the Buddha.
 +
 +五十二種供物 The fifty-two kinds of offerings of the 五十二衆.
 +
 +五十二身像 The maṇḍala of Amitābha with his fifty-two attendant Bodhisattvas and Buddhas. Also known as 阿彌陀佛五十菩薩像 or 五十 ニ 尊 or 五通曼荼羅;​ said to have been communicated to 五通菩薩 in India at the 鷄頭磨寺.
 +
 +五十五善知識 similar to 五十三智識. 五十八戒 The ten primary commands and the forty-eight secondary commands of the 梵綱經. 五十六億七千萬歳 The perod to elapse between Śākyamuni'​s nirvana and the advent of Maitreya, 56, 070, 000 years.
 +
 +五十天供 The fifty (or fify-two) objects of worship for suppressing demons and pestilences,​ and producing peace, good harvests, etc.; the lists differ.
 +
 +五十字門 The Sanskrit alphabet given as of fifty letters.
 +
 +五十小劫 The fifty minor kalpas which, in the 涌出 chapter of the Lotus, are supernaturally made to seem as but half a day.
 +
 +五十展轉 The fiftieth turn, i. e. the great-ness of the bliss of one who hears the Lotus Sutra even at fiftieth hand: how much greater that of him who hears at first hamd ! 五十功德 idem 五十展轉 and 五十轉五十惡 The fifty evils produced by the five skandhas, i. e. 色 seventeen, 受 eight, 想 eight, 行 nine, 識 eight.
 +
 +五十法 Fifty modes of meditation mentioned in the 大品般若;​ i. e. the 三十七品 bodhi paksika dharma, the 三三昧, four 禪, four 無量心, four 無色定, eight 背捨, eight 勝處, nine 次第定, and eleven 切處.
 +
 +五千上慢 The five thousand supremely arrogant (i. e. Hīnayāna) monks who left the great assemibly, refusing to hear the Buddha preach the new doctrine of the Lotus Sutra; see its 方便 chapter.
 +
 +印 (度) The five Indias, or five regions of India, idem 五天竺 q. v.
 +
 +參 Worship on the four fives, i. e. the fifth, tenth, twentieth, and twenty-fifth days of the month; also ||上堂.
 +
 +叉地獄 The hell in which the sufferers are dismembered with five-pronged forks.
 +
 +取蘊 The five tenacious bonds, or skandhas, attaching to mortality.
 +
 +五受 The five vedanas, or sensations; i. e. of sorrow, ofjoy; of pain, of pleasure; of freedom from them all; the first two are limited to mental emotions, the two next are of the senses, and the fifth of both; v. 唯識論 5.
 +
 +五同緣意識 One of the four kinds of 意識 q. v.; the mental concept of the perceptions of the five senses. 五味 The five flavours, or stages of making ghee, which is said to be a cure for all ailments; it is a Tiantai illustration of the five periods of the Buddha'​s teaching: (1) M000190 |ksira, fresh milk, his first preaching, i. e. that of the 華嚴經 Avatamsaka, for śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas;​ (2) 酪 |dadhi, coagulated milk, cream, the 阿含經 Agamas, for Hīnayāna generally; (3) 生酥 | navanita, curdled, the 方等經 Vaipulyas, for the Mahāyāna 通經(4) 涅槃經 |ghola, butter, the 般若經 Prajna, for the Mahāyāna 別教; (5) 醍醐 |sarpirmandla,​ clarified butter, ghee, the 法華 Lotus and 涅槃經 Nirvana sutras, for the Mahāyāna 圓教; see also 五時教, and v. 涅槃經 14. Also, the ordinary five flavours -sour, bitter, sweet, pungent, and salty.
 +
 +[116]
 +
 +五味禪 Five kinds of concentration,​ i. e. that of heretics, ordinary people, Hīnayāna, Mahāyāna, and 最上乘 the supreme vehicle, or that of believers in the fundamental Buddha-nature of all things; this is styled 如來滿淨禪;​ 一行三昧,;​ 眞如三昧.
 +
 +五味粥 The porridge of five flavors made on the eighth day of the twelfth moon, the anniversary of the Buddha'​s enlightenment.
 +
 +五周因果 The five circuits or areas of cause and effect, i. e. the five main subjects of the Huayan sutra.
 +
 +五品 A division of the disciples, in the Lotus Sutra, into five grades— those who hear and rejoice; read and repeat; preach; observe and meditate; and transform self and others.
 +
 +五唯 (五唯量) pañcatanmātrāṇi,​ the five subtle or rudimentary elements out of which rise the five sensations of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell. They are the fourth of the 二十五諦.
 +
 +五善 The five good (things), i. e. the first five commandments.
 +
 +五因 The five causes, v. 倶舍論 7. i. e. (1) 生因 producing cause; (2) 依因supporting cause; (3) 立因 upholding or establishing cause; (4) 持因 maintaining cause; (5) 養因 nourishing or strengthening cause. These all refer to the four elements, earth, water, fire, wind, for they are the causers or producers and maintainers of the infinite forms of nature. Another list from the Nirvana-Sutra 21 is (1) 生因 cause of rebirth, i. e. previous delusion; (2) 和合因 intermingling cause, i. e. good with good, bad with bad, neutral with neutral; (3) 住因 cause of abiding in the present condition, i. e. the self in its attachments;​ (4) 增長因 causes of development,​ e. g. food, clothing, etc.; (5) 遠因 remoter cause, the parental seed.
 +
 +五堅固 idem 五五百年.
 +
 +五執 The five planets, see 五星.
 +
 +五境 The objects of the five senses, corresponding to the senses of form, sound, smell, taste, and touch.
 +
 +五塵 The objects of the five senses, which being dusty or earthly things can taint the true nature; idem 五境.
 +
 +五壇法 The ceremonies before the 五大明王.
 +
 +五夢 The five bad dreams of King Ajātaśatru on the night that Buddha entered nirvana— as the moon sank the sun arose from the earth. the stars fell like rain, seven comets appeared, and a great conflagration filling the sky fell on the earth.
 +
 +五大 The five elements— earth, water, fire, wind, and space. v. also 五行 the five agents. In the esoteric cult the five are the physical manifestation,​ or garbhadhātu,​ v. 胎; as being in all phenomena they are called 五輪 the five evolvers; their phonetic embryos 種子 are those of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas of the five directions, v. 五佛.
 +
 +五大使者 五天使者 The five dūta, i. e. great lictors, or deva-messengers— birth, old age, disease, death, earthly laws and punishments— said to be sent by Māra as warnings.
 +
 +五大力菩薩 The five powerful Bodhisattvas,​ guardians of the four quarters and the centre.
 +
 +五大尊 idem 五大明王.
 +
 +五大形 The symbols of the five elements— earth as square, water round, fire triangular, wind half-moon, and space a combination of the other four.
 +
 +五大施 The five great gifts, i. e. ability to keep the five commandments.
 +
 +五大明王 The five Dharmapālas,​ or Law-guardians of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas,​ of whom they are emanations or embodiments in two forms, compassionate and minatory. The five kings are the fierce aspect, e. g. Yamantaka, or the 六足尊金剛 Six-legged Honoured One is an emanation of Mañjuśrī,​ who is an emanation of Amitābha. The five kings are 不動, 降三世, 軍荼梨, 六足尊, and 淨身, all vajra-kings.
 +
 +五大色 The five chief colours— yellow for earth, white for water, red for fire, black for wind, azure for space (or the sky). Some say white for wind and black for water.
 +
 +五大觀 The meditation on the five elements 五大.
 +
 +五大院 The fifth of the thirteen great courts of the Garbhadhātu-maṇḍala,​ named 持明院, the court of the five Dharmapālas 五大明王.
 +
 +五大龍王 五類龍王 The five great dragon-kings of India.
 +
 +五天 (五天子) Five devas in the Garbhadhātumaṇḍala located in the north-east. Also 五乘居天 (or 五乘居衆 ); 五那含天子.
 +
 +五天 五天竺; The five regions of India, north, south, east, west, and central; v. 西域記.
 +
 +五如來 The five Tathāgatas,​ or Dhyāni-Buddhas,​ in their special capacity of relieving the lot of hungry ghosts; i. e. Ratnasambhava. Akṣobhya, Amoghasiddhi,​ Vairocana, and Śākyamuni;​ v. 五智如來. '
 +
 +[117]
 +
 +五妙 The five wonders, i. e. of purified or transcendental sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch in the Pure-land.
 +
 +五妙境界樂 The joys in the Pure land.
 +
 +五妙欲 The five creature desires stimulated by the objects of the five earthly senses.
 +
 +五學處 idem 五戒.
 +
 +五官 The five controlling powers, v. 五大使, birth, old age, sickness, death, and the (imperial) magistrate.
 +
 +五官王 The fourth of the 十王 judges of the dead, who registers the weight of the sins of the deceased.
 +
 +五宗 The five great schools of Mahāyāna, i. e. 天台, 華嚴法相,​ 三論, and 律宗. There are other classes, or groups.
 +
 +五家七宗 (五家) Division in China of the 禪 Ch'an, Intuitive or Meditative School. It divided into northern and southern schools under 神秀 Shenxiu and 慧能 Huineng respectively. The northern school continued as a unit, the southern divided into five or seven 宗, viz. 潙仰宗, 臨濟宗, 曹洞宗, 雲門宗, and 法眼宗; the two others are 黃龍 and 揚岐.
 +
 +五家所共 What the five classes, i. e. rulers, thieves, water, fire, and prodigal sons, have as their common prey, the wealth struggled for by others.
 +
 +五寶 The five precious things, syn. all the precious things. There are several groups, e. g. — gold, silver, pearls, cowries, and rubies; or, coral, crystal, gold, silver, and cowries; or, gold, silver, pearls, coral, and amber; etc.
 +
 +五專 The five special things, or five devotions, observance of any one of which, according to the Japanese 眞宗 Shin sect, ensures rebirth in the Pure Land; they are 專禮, 專讀, 專觀, 專名, or 專讚嘆 either worship, reading, meditation, invocation, or praise.
 +
 +五居 idem 五淨居天.
 +
 +五山 Five mountains and monasteries:​ (1) in India, sacred because of their connection with the Buddha: 鞞婆羅跋怒 Vaibhāra-vana;​ 薩多般那求呵 Saptaparṇaguhā;​ 因陀羅勢羅求呵 Indraśailaguhā;​ 薩簸恕魂直迦鉢婆羅 Sarpiṣ kuṇḍikā-prāgbhāra;​ 耆闍崛 Gṛdhrakūṭa;​ (2) in China, established during the Five Dynasties and the Southern Sung dynasty, on the analogy of those in India; three at Hangzhou at 徑山 Jingshan, 北山 Beishan, and 南山 Nanshan and two at Ningbo at 阿育王山 King Aśoka Shan and 太白山 Taiboshan. Later the Yuan dynasty established one at 全陵 Chin Ling, the 天界大龍翔隻慶寺 which became chief of these under the Ming dynasty.
 +
 +五師 The five masters or teachers, i. e. respectively of the sutras, the vinaya, the śāstras, the abhidharma, and meditation. A further division is made of 異世五師 and 同世五師. The first, i. e. of different periods, are Mahākāśyapa,​ Ānanda, Madhyāntika,​ Śāṇavāsa,​ and Upagupta; another group connected with the Vinaya is Upāli, Dāsaka, Sonaka, Siggava, and Moggaliputra Tissva. The 同世 or five of the same period are variously stated: the Sarvāstivādins say they were the five immediate disciples of Upagupta, i. e. Dharmagupta,​ etc.; see 五部.
 +
 +五師子 The five lions that sprang from the Buddha'​s five fingers; 涅槃經 16.
 +
 +五年大會 pañca-vārṣika-pariṣad,​ or mokṣa-mahā-parisad,​ v. 般. The ancient quinquennial assembly for confession and exhortation,​ ascribed by some to Aśoka.
 +
 +五度 The five means of transportation over the sea of mortality to salvation; they are the five pāramitās 五波羅蜜— almsgiving, commandment-keeping,​ patience under provocation,​ zeal, and meditation.
 +
 +五律 The doctrines of the 五部 q. v.
 +
 +五德 The five virtues, of which there are various definitions. The five virtues required in a confessor at the annual confessional ending the rainy retreat are: freedom from predilections,​ from anger, from fear, not easily deceived, discernment of shirkers of confession. Another group is the five virtues for a nurse of the sick, and there are others.
 +
 +五心 The five conditions of mind produced by objective perception: 卒爾心 immediate or instantaneous,​ the first impression; 尋求心attention,​ or inquiry; 決定心conclusion,​ decision; 染淨心the effect, evil or good; 等流心the production therefrom of other causations.
 +
 +[118]
 +
 +五忍 The five stages of bodhisattva-kṣānti,​ patience or endurance according to the 別教: (1) 伏忍the causes of passion and illusion controlled but not finally cut off, the condition of 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (2) 信忍 firm belief, i. e. from the 初地 to the 三地; (3) 順忍 patient progress towards the end of all mortality, i. e. 四地 to 六地; (4) 無生忍 patience for full apprehension,​ of the truth of no rebirth, 七地 to 九地; and (5) 寂滅忍 the patience that leads to complete nirvana, 十地 to 妙覺; cf. 五位.
 +
 +五忿怒 The five angry ones, idem 五大明王.
 +
 +五念門 The five devotional gates of the Pure-land sect: (1) worship of Amitābha with the 身 body; (2) invocation with the 口 mouth; (3) resolve with the 意 mind to be reborn in the Pure-land; (4) meditation on the glories of that land, etc.; (5) resolve to bestow one's merits, e. g. works of supererogation,​ on all creatures.
 +
 +五性 The five different natures as grouped by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect; of these the first and second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it; the fifth will be reborn as devas or men: (1) śrāvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabuddha-hood;​ (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas;​ (3) bodhisattvas;​ (4) indefinite; (5) heretics.
 +
 +五性宗 idem 法相宗.
 +
 +五怖畏(五畏) The five fears of beginners in the bodhisattva-way:​ fear of (1) giving away all lest they should have no means of livelihood; (2) sacrificing their reputation; (3) sacrificing themselves through dread of dying; (4) falling into evil; (5) addressing an assembly, especially of men of position.
 +
 +五悔 The five stages in a penitential service. Tiantai gives: (1) confession of past sins and forbidding them for the future; (2) appeal to the universal Buddhas to keep the law-wheel rolling; (3) rejoicing over the good in self and others; (4) 廻向 offering all one's goodness to all the living and to the Buddha-way; (5) resolve, or vows, i. e. the 四弘誓. The Shingon sect 眞言宗 divides the ten great vows of Samantabhadra 普賢 into five 悔, the first three vows being included under 歸命 or submission; the fourth is repentance; the fifth rejoicing; the sixth, seventh, and eighth appeal to the Buddhas; the ninth and tenth, bestowal of acquired merit.
 +
 +五惑 The five delusions, idem 五鈍使.
 +
 +五情 The feelings, or passions, which are stirred by the 五根 five senses.
 +
 +五惡 The five sins— killing, stealing, adultery, lying, drinking intoxicants. Cf. 五戒.
 +
 +五惡見 idem 五見.
 +
 +五惡趣 idem 五趣 and 五道.
 +
 +五慳 The five kinds of selfishness,​ or meanness: monopolizing (1) an abode; (2) an almsgiving household; (3) alms received; (4) praise; (5) knowledge of the truth, e. g. of a sutra.
 +
 +五戒 pañca-veramaṇī;​ the first five of the ten commandments,​ against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. 不殺生; 不偸盜; 不邪婬; 不妄語; 不飮酒 They are binding on laity, male and female, as well as on monks and nuns. The observance of these five ensures rebirth in the human realm. Each command has five spirits to guard its observer 五戒二十五神.
 +
 +五所依土 The five Buddha-kṣetra,​ or dependencies,​ the realms, or conditions of a Buddha. They are: (1) 法性土 his dharmakāya-kṣetra,​ or realm of his '​spiritual nature',​ dependent on and yet identical with the 眞如 bhutatathata;​ (2) 實 with its five immortal skandhas, i. e. his glorified body for his own enjoyment;. (3) 色相土 the land or condition of his self-expression as wisdom; (4) 他受用土 his saṃbhogakāya realm for the joy of others; (5) 變化土 the realm on which his nirmāṇakāya depends, that of the wisdom of perfect service of all, which results in his relation to every kind of condition.
 +
 +五扇提羅 idem 五闡提羅.
 +
 +五拔刀賊 The five skandhas, idem 五刀.
 +
 +五攝論 A śāstra of Asaṅga 無著, also translated as the 攝大乘論,​ giving a description of Mahāyāna doctrine; Vasubandhu prepared a summary of it; tr. by 無性 Wuxiang. Translations were also made by Paramārtha and Xuanzang; other versions and treatises under various names exist.
 +
 +[119]
 +
 +五支作法 (or 五分作法) The five parts (avayava) of a syllogism: 立宗 pratijñā, the proposition;​ 辯因 hetu, the reason; 引喩 udāharaṇa,​ the example; 合 upanaya, the application;​ and 結 nigamana, the summing up, or conclusion. These are also expressed in other terms, e. g. 立義; 因; 譬如; 合譬;, and 決定.
 +
 +五支戒 The five moral laws or principles arising out of the idea of the mahā-nirvāṇa in the 大涅槃經 11.
 +
 +五教 The five division of Buddhism according to the Huayan School, of which there are two That of 杜順 Dushun down to 賢首 Xianshou is (1) 小乘教 Hīnayāna which interprets nirvana as annihilation;​ (2) 大乘始教 the primary stage of Mahāyāna, with two sections the 相始教 and 空 始教 or realistic and idealistic, (3) 大乘終教 Mahāyāna in its final stage, teaching the 眞如 and universal Buddhahood; (4) 頓教 the immediate, direct, or intuitive school, e. g. by right concentration of thought, or faith, apart from '​works';​ (5) 圓教 the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayan, combining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now differentiated into 十宗 ten schools. The other division, by 圭峯 Guifeng of the same school, is (1) 人天教 rebirth as human beings for those who keep the five commandments and as devas those who keep the 十善 as 相始教 above; (4) 大乘破相教 as 空始教 above; and (5) 一乘顯性教 the one vehicle which reveals the universal Buddha-nature;​ it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also 五時教.
 +
 +五教章 The work in three juan by 法藏 Fazang of the Tang dynasty, explaining the doctrines of the Five Schools.
 +
 +五方五智 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the five regions; see the esoteric 五大.
 +
 +五方便 An abbreviation for 五五才便,​ i. e. 二十五才便;​ also the Tiantai 五方便念佛門.
 +
 +五族如來 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu.
 +
 +五旬 pañca-bhijñā. The five supernatural or magical powers; six is the more common number in Chinese texts, five is the number in Ceylon; v. 五神通.
 +
 +五更 The five night watches; also the fifth watch.
 +
 +五明 pañca-vidyā,​ the five sciences or studies of India: (1) śabda, grammar and composition;​ śilpakarmasthāna,​ the arts and mathematics;​ cikitsā, medicine; hetu, logic; adhyātma, philosophy, which Monier Williams says is the '​knoowledge of the supreme spirit, or of ātman',​ the basis of the four Vedas; the Buddhists reckon the Tripiṭṭaka and the 十二部教 as their 内明, i. e. their inner or special philosophy.
 +
 +五星 The five planets, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus, and Mercury; also 五執.
 +
 +五時八教 A Tiantai classification of the Buddha'​s teaching into five periods and eight kinds of doctrine, which eight are subdivided into two groups of four each, 化儀四教 and 化法四教.
 +
 +五時 (五時教) The five periods or divisions of Śākyamuni'​s teaching. According to Tiantai they are (1) 華嚴時 the Avataṃsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment,​ when he preached the content, of this sutra; (2) 鹿苑時 the twelve years of his preaching the Āgamas 阿含 in the Deer Park; (3) 方等時 the eight years of preaching Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) 般若時 the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajñā or wisdom sutras; (5) 法華涅槃時 the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are (1) 三乘別教 the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the 四諦 Four Noble Truths for śrāvakas, the 十二因緣 Twelve Nidānas for pratyekabuddhas,​ and the 六度 Six Pāramitās for bodhisattvas;​ (2) 三乘通教 the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the 般若經; (3) 抑揚教 the teaching of the 維摩經, the 思益梵天所問經,​ and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that for śrāvakas; (4) 同歸教 the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) 常住教 the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also called 有相; 無相; 抑揚; 曾三歸—;​ and 圓常. According to 劉虬 Liu Chiu of the 晉 Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into 頓 immediate and 漸 gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called 五時教 similar to those of the Tiantai group. According to 法寶 Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) 小乘; (2) 般着 or 大乘; (3) 深密 or 三乘; (4) 法華 or 一乘; (5) 涅槃 or 佛性教.
 +
 +[120]
 +
 +五智 The five kinds of wisdom of the 眞言宗 Shingon School. Of the six elements 六大 earth, water, fire, air (or wind), ether (or space) 曇空, and consciousness (or mind 識 ), the first five form the phenomenal world, or Garbhadhātu,​ the womb of all things 胎藏界, the sixth is the conscious, or perceptive, or wisdom world, the Vajradhātu 金剛界, sometimes called the Diamond realm. The two realms are not originally apart, but one, and there is no consciousness without the other five elements. The sixth element, vijñāna, is further subdivided into five called the 五智 Five Wisdoms: (1) 法界體性智 dharmadhātu-prakṛti-jñāna,​ derived from the amala-vijñāna,​ or pure 識; it is the wisdom of the embodied nature of the dharmadhātu,​ defined as the six elements, and is associated with Vairocana 大日, in the centre, who abides in this samādhi; it also corresponds to the ether 空 element. (2) 大圓鏡智 adarśana-jñāna,​ the great round mirror wisdom, derived from the ālaya-vijñāna,​ reflecting all things; corresponds to earth, and is associated with Akṣobhya and the east. (3) 平等性智 samatā-jñāna,​ derived from mano-vijñāna,​ wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally;​ corresponds to fire, and is associated with Ratnasaṃbhava and the south. (4) 妙觀察智 pratyavekṣaṇa-jñāna,​ derived from 意識, wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination,​ for exposition and doubt-destruction;​ corresponds to water, and is associated with Amitābha and the west. (5) 成所作智 kṛtyānuṣṭhāna-jñāna,​ derived from the five senses, the wisdom of perfecting the double work of self-welfare and the welfare of others; corresponds to air 風 and is associated with Amoghasiddhi and the north. These five Dhyāni-Buddhas are the 五智如來. The five kinds of wisdom are the four belonging to every Buddha, of the exoteric cult, to which the esoteric cult adds the first, pure, all-refecting,​ universal, all-discerning,​ and all-perfecting.
 +
 +五智如來 五智五佛;​ 五佛; 五如來 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas,​ or Wisdom-Tathāgatas of the Vajradhātu 金剛界, idealizations of five aspects of wisdom; possibly of Nepalese origin. The Wisdom Buddha represents the dharmakāya or Buddha-mind,​ also the Dharma of the triratna, or trinity. Each evolves one of the five colours, one of the five senses, a Dhyani-bodhisattva in two forms one gracious, the other fierce, and a Mānuṣi-Buddha;​ each has his own śakti, i. e. feminine energy or complement; also his own bīja, or germ-sound 種子 or 印 seal, i. e. 眞言 real or substantive word, the five being for 大日 aṃ, for 阿閦 hūṃ, for 寶生 ? hrīḥ, for 彌陀 ? aḥ, for 不 空 ? āḥ. The five are also described as the emanations or forms of an Ādi-Buddha,​ Vajrasattva;​ the four are considered by others to be emanations or forms of Vairocana as the Supreme Buddha. The five are not always described as the same, e. g. they may be 藥師 (or 王) Bhaiṣajya,​ 多寶 Prabhūtaratna,​ Vairocana, Akṣobhya, and either Amoghasiddhi or Śākyamuni. Below is a classified list of the generally accepted five with certain particulars connected with them, but these differ in different places, and the list can only be a general guide. As to the Dhyāni-bodhisattvas,​ each Buddha evolves three forms 五佛生五菩薩,​ 五金剛, 五忿怒, i. e. (1) a bodhisattva who represents the Buddha'​s dharmakāya,​ or spiritual body; (2) a vajra or diamond form who represents his wisdom in graciousness;​ and (3) a fierce or angry form, the 明王 who represents his power against evil. (1) Vairocana appears in the three forms of 轉法輪菩薩 Vajra-pāramitā Bodhisattva,​ 遍照金剛 Universally Shining Vajrasattva,​ and 不動明王 Ārya-Acalanātha Rāja; (2) Akṣobhya'​s three forms are 虛空藏 Ākāśagarbha,​ 如意 complete power, and 軍荼利明王 Kuṇḍalī-rāja;​ (3 ) Ratnasaṃbhava'​s are 普賢 Samantabhadra,​ 薩埵 Sattvavajra,​ and 孫婆 or 降三世明王 Trailokyavijayarāja;​ (4) Amitābha'​s are 觀世音 Avalokiteśvara,​ 法金剛 Dharmarāja,​ and 馬頭明王 Hayagrīva, the horse-head Dharmapāla;​ (5) Amoghasiddhi'​s are 彌勒 Maitreya, 業金剛 Karmavajra, and 金剛夜叉 Vajrayakṣa. The above Bodhisattvas differ from those in the following list: —
 +Table 1
 +'
 +Name Chinese Position Element Sense Color
 +Vairocana 大日 centre ether sight white
 +Akṣobhya 阿閦 east earth sound blue
 +Ratnasaṃbhava 寶生 south fire smell yellow
 +Amitābha 彌陀 west water taste red
 +Amoghasiddhi 不空 north air touch green
 +Table 2
 +Germ Animal Dhyani-Bodhisattva Buddha
 +aṃ lion Samantabhadra 普賢 Krakucchanda
 +hūṃ elephant Vajrapāṇi 金剛力士 Kanakamuni
 +? aḥ horse Ratnapāṇi 寶手 Kāśyapa
 +? hrīḥ goose or peacock Avalokiteśvara 觀音 Śākyamuni
 +? āḥ garuḍa Visvapāṇi ? Maitreya
 +'
 +
 +五智寶冠 idem 五佛寶冠.
 +
 +五智所生三身 Each of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas is accredited with the three forms which represent his 身業 body, 口業 speech, and 意業 mind, e. g. the embodiment of Wisdom is Vairocana, his preaching form is 普賢, and his will form is 不動明王;​ the embodiment 身 of the mirror is Akṣobhya, his 口 is Mañjuśrī,​ his 意 is 降三世金剛;​ and so on; v. 五智如來.
 +
 +五會念佛 Five ways of intoning '​Amitābha'​ established by 法照 Fazhao of the Tang dynasty, known as 五曾法師 from his brochure 五曾法事讚.
 +
 +[121]
 +
 +五果 The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e. g. I. (1) 異熟果 fruit ripening divergently,​ e. g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories; present organs accord in pain or pleasure with their past good or evil deeds; (2) 等流果 fruit of the same order, e. g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) 土用果 present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives; (4) 增上果 superior fruit, or position arising from previous earnest endeavor and superior capacity: (5) 離繋果 fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or rebirth: (1) 識 conception (viewed psychologically);​ (2) 名色 formation mental and physical; (3) 六處 the six organs of perception complete; (4) 觸 their birth and contact with the world; (5) 受 consciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff-like (as pine seeds), and with pods.
 +
 +五根 pañcendriyāṇi. (1) The five roots, i. e. the five organs of the senses: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body as roots of knowing. (2) The five spiritual organs pr positive agents: 信 faith, 精進 energy, 念 memory, 定 visionary meditation, 慧 wisdom. The 五力 q. v. are regarded as negative agents.
 +
 +五根色 see 五色.
 +
 +五根本 They are the six great kleśa, i. e. passions, or disturbers, minus 見 views, or delusions; i. e. desire, anger, stupidity (or ignorance), pride, and doubt.
 +
 +五業 The five kinds of karma: of which the groups are numerous and differ.
 +
 +五樂 The pleasures of the five senses, v. 五欲.
 +
 +五欲 The five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drink,​ fame, and sleep.
 +
 +五正色 idem 五色.
 +
 +五正行 五種正行 The five proper courses to ensure the bliss of the Pure Land: (1) Intone the three sutras 無量壽經,​ 觀無量壽經,​ and 阿彌陀經;​ (2) meditate on the Pure Land; (3) worship solely Amitābha; (4) invoke his name; (5 ) extol and make offerings to him. Service of other Buddhas, etc., is styled 五 (種) 雜行.
 +
 +五正食 半者蒲膳尼 pañcabhojanīya. The five foods considered proper for monks in early Buddhism: boiled rice, boiled grain or pease, parched grain, flesh, cakes.
 +
 +五股 (五股杵 or 五股金剛);​ also 五鈷, 五古, or 五M029401 The five-pronged vajra or thunderbolt emblem of the 五部 five groups and 五智 five wisdom powers of the vajradhātu;​ doubled it is an emblem of the ten pāramitās. In the esoteric cult the 五股印 five-pronged vajra is the symbol of the 五智 five wisdom powers and the 五佛 five Buddhas, and has several names 五大印, 五智印, 五峯印; 金剛慧印,​ 大羯印, and 大率都婆印,​ and has many definitions.
 +
 +五比丘 The first five of Buddha'​s converts, also called 五佛子, Ājñāta-Kauṇḍinya 憍陳如, Aśvajit 額鞞, Bhadrika 拔提, Daśabala-Kāśyapa 十力迦葉,​ and Mahānāma-Kulika 摩男拘利,​ i. e. but there are numerous other forms of their names.
 +
 +五法 pañcadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows: I. 相名五法 The five categories of form and name: (1) 相 appearances,​ or phenomena; (2) 名 their names; (3) 分別 sometimes called 妄想 ordinary mental discrimination of them— (1) and (2) are objective, (3) subjective; (4) 正智 corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last: (5) 如如 the 眞如 Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the 如理智 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. 事理五法 The five categories into which things and their principles are divided: (1) 心法 mind; (2) 心所法 mental conditions or activities; (3) 色法 the actual states or categories as conceived; (4) 不相應法 hypothetic categories, 唯識 has twenty-four,​ the Abhidharma fourteen; (5) 無爲法 the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things; the first four are the 事 and the last the 理. III. 理智五法 cf. 五智; the five categories of essential wisdom: (1) 眞如 the absolute; (2) 大圓鏡智 wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things; (3) 平等性智 wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of all beings; (4) 妙觀察智 wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and doubt; (5) 成所作智 wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. 提婆五法 The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abstain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc.
 +
 +五法人 Followers of the five ascetic rules of Devadatta, the enemy of the Buddha.
 +
 +五法成身 idem 五相成身.
 +
 +五法身 idem 五分法身.
 +
 +五波羅密 The five pāramitās (omitting the sixth, wisdom), i. e. dāna, almsgiving: śīla, commandment-keeping;​ kṣānti, patience (under provocation):​ vīrya, zeal; and dhyāna, meditation.
 +
 +五海 The five '​seas'​ or infinities seen in a vision by Puxian, v. 舊華嚴經 3, viz., (1) all worlds, (2) all the living, (3) universal karma, (4) the roots of desire and pleasure of all the living, (5) all the Buddhas, past, present, and future.
 +
 +[122]
 +
 +五淨 The five '​clean'​ products of the cow, its pañca-gavya,​ i. e. urine, dung, milk, cream (or sour milk), and cheese (or butter); cf M. W.
 +
 +五淨居天,​ 五不還天 Cf. 色界. The five pure-dwelling heavens in the fourth dhyāna heaven, into which arhats are finally born: 無煩天 Avṛhās, the heaven free from all trouble; 無熱天 Atapās, of no heat or distress; 善現天 Sudṛsās, of beautiful presentation;​ 善見天 Sudarśanās,​ beautiful; and 色究竟天 Akaniṣṭhās,​ the highest heaven of the form-realm.
 +
 +五淨食, 五種淨食 idem 五正食.
 +
 +五濁 五滓; 五渾 The five kaṣāya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of decay; they are accredited to the 住 kalpa, see 四劫, and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) 劫濁 the kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing form; (2) 見濁 deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) 煩惱濁 the passions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) 衆生濁 in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) 命濁 human life time gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the 濁 itself and the fourth and fifth its results.
 +
 +五濁增時 The period of increasing turbidity or decay; see 五濁.
 +
 +五燒 The five burnings, or 五痛 five pains, i. e. infraction of the first five commandments leads to state punishment in this life and the hells in the next.
 +
 +五無量 The five infinites, or immeasurables — body, mind, wisdom, space, and all the living— as represented respectively by the five Dhyāni Buddhas, i. e. 寶生, 阿閦, 無量壽, 大日, and 不空.
 +
 +五無間 The uninterrupted,​ or no-interval hell, i. e. avīci hell, the worst, or eighth of the eight hells. It is ceaseless in five respects— karma and its effects are an endless chain with no escape; its sufferings are ceaseless; it is timeless; its fate or life is endless; it is ceaselessly full. Another interpretation takes the second, third, and fifth of the above and adds that it is packed with 罪器 implements of torture, and that it is full of all kinds of living beings.
 +
 +五無間業 or 五無間罪 The five karma, or sins, leading to the avīci hell v. 五逆 and 五無間.
 +
 +五燈錄 The five Teng-lu are (1) 傳燈錄 A. D 1004-8; (2) 廣燈錄; (3) 讀燈錄; (4) 聯燈錄, and (5) 普燈錄; the 燈錄會元 and 燈錄嚴統 are later collections.
 +
 +五甁 The five vases used by the esoteric school for offering flowers to their Buddha, the flowers are stuck in a mixture of the five precious things, the five grains and the five medicines mingled with scented water.
 +
 +五甁智水 The five vases are emblems of the five departments of the Vajradhātu,​ and the fragrant water the wisdom of the five. Wisdom— Buddhas.
 +
 +五甁灌頂 Baptism with water of the five vases 五甁 representing the wisdom of the five Buddhas 五佛.
 +
 +五生 Five rebirths, i. e. five states, or conditions of a bodhisattva'​s rebirth: (1) to stay calamities, e. g. by sacrificing himself; (2) in any class that may need him; (3) in superior condition, handsome, wealthy, or noble; (4) in various grades of kingship; (5) final rebirth before Buddhahood; v. 瑜伽論 4.
 +
 +五畏 idem 五怖畏.
 +
 +五痛 idem 五燒.
 +
 +五百 pañcaśata. Five hundred, of which there are numerous instances, e. g. 500 former existences; the 500 disciples, etc.
 +
 +五百世 or 五百生 500 generations.
 +
 +五百世無手 A disciple who even passes the wine decanter to another person will be reborn without hands for 500 generations;​ v. 梵網經下.
 +
 +五百羅漢 (五百大羅漢) 500 great arhats who formed the synod under Kaniṣka and are the supposed compilers of the Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā-śāstra,​ 400 years after Buddha entered nirvana (阿毗達磨大毗婆娑論),​ tr. by Xuanzang (A. D. 656-9). The 500 Lohans found in some monasteries have various definitions.
 +
 +五百戒 The 'five hundred ' rules for nuns, really 348, viz. 8 波羅夷, 17 僧殘, 30 捨墮, 178 單提, 8 提捨尼, 100 衆學, and 7 滅諍.
 +
 +五百生 idem 五百世.
 +
 +五百部 五百小乘;​ 五百異部 The 500 sects according to the 500 years after the Buddha'​s death; 智度論 63.
 +
 +五百問 (五百問事) The 500 questions of Mahā-maudgalyāyana to the Buddha on discipline.
 +
 +五百由旬 The 500 yojanas of difficult and perilous journey to the Land of Treasures: v. the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +五盛陰苦 The mental and physical sufferings arising from the full-orbed activities of the skandhas 五陰, one of the eight sufferings; also 五陰盛 (五陰盛苦).
 +
 +[123]
 +
 +五眼 The five kinds of eyes or vision: human; deva (attainable by men in dhyāna); Hīnayāna wisdom; bodhisattva truth; and Buddha-vision or omniscience. There are five more relate to omniscience making 十眼 ten kinds of eyes or vision.
 +
 +五相 idem 五相成身 and 五衰.
 +
 +五相成身 (五相成身觀) A contemplation of the five stages in Vairocana Buddhahood— entry into the bodhi-mind; maintenance of it; attainment of the diamond mind; realization of the diamond embodiment; and perfect attainment of Buddhahood. It refers also to the 五智 of the Vairocana group; also 五轉成身 (or 五法成身) .
 +
 +五知根 The five indriyas or organs of perception— eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. v. 五根.
 +
 +五礙 idem 五障.
 +
 +五神通 (or 五神變) pañcabhijñā;​ also 五通 (力) the five supernatural powers. (1 ) 天眼通 (天眼智證通) divyacakṣus ; deva-vision,​ instantaneous view of anything anywhere in the form-realm. (2) 天耳通 (天耳智證通) divyaśrotra,​ ability to hear any sound anywhere. (3) 他心通 (他心智證通) paracitta-jñāna,​ ability to know the thoughts of all other minds. (4) 宿命通 (宿命智證通) pūrvanivāsānusmṛti-jñāna,​ knowledge of all formed existences of self and others. (5) 神通 (神通智證通) 通; 神足通; 神如意通 ṛddhi-sākṣātkriyā,​ power to be anywhere or do anything at will. See 智度論 5. Powers similar to these are also attainable by meditation, incantations,​ and drugs, hence heterodox teachers also may possess them.
 +
 +五祖 The five patriarchs. Those of the Huayan (Kegon) sect are 終南杜順;​ 雲華智儼;​ 賢首法藏;​ 淸涼澄觀,​ and 圭峯宗密. The Pure-land sect five patriarchs are 曇鸞; 道綽; 善導; 懷感 and 少康. The 蓮社 (白蓮社) Lianshe sect has 善導; 法照; 少康; 省常, and 宗賾.
 +
 +五禁 idem 五戒.
 +
 +五祕密 (五祕) The five esoteric or occult ones, i. e. the five bodhisattvas of the diamond realm, known as Vajrasattva in the middle; 欲 desire on the east; 觸 contact, south; 愛 love, west; and 慢 pride, north. Vajrasattva represents the six fundamental elements of sentient existence and here indicates the birth of bodhisattva sentience; desire is that of bodhi and the salvation of all: contact with the needy world for its salvation follows; love of all the living comes next; pride or the power of nirvana succeeds.
 +
 +五祕密曼荼羅 or 十七尊曼荼羅 The maṇḍala of this group contains seventeen figures representing the five above named, with their twelve subordinates.
 +
 +五種 The five kinds; but frequently the 種 is omitted, e. g. for 五種正食 see 五正食.
 +
 +五種三歸 The five modes of trisarana, or formulas of trust in the Triratna, taken by those who (1) 翻邪 turn from heresy; (2) take the five commandments;​ (3) the eight commandments;​ (4) the ten commandments;​ (5) the complete commandments.
 +
 +五種不女 The five kinds of sexually incomplete females, 螺, 筋, 鼓, 角, and 脉. v. 大藏法數 32.
 +
 +五種不男 The five kinds of 般荼迦 paṇḍakas,​ i. e. eunuchs, or impotent males: by birth; emasculation;​ uncontrollable emission; hermaphrodite;​ impotent for half the month; they are known as 扇搋 Sandha; 留拏 ? Runda; 伊梨沙掌拏 Irṣyāpaṇḍaka;​ 半擇迦 Paṇḍaka;​ 博叉 Pakṣapaṇḍaka;​ there are numerous subdivisions.
 +
 +五種不翻 The five kinds of terms which Xuanzang did not translate but transliterated— the esoteric (such as 陀羅尼); those with several meanings (such as 薄伽梵); those without equivalent in China (such as 閻浮樹); old-established terms (such as 阿耨菩提);​ and those which would be less impressive when translated.
 +
 +五種不還 The five kinds of anāgāmins 那含, who never return to the desire-realm:​ (1) 中般 the anāgāmin who enters on the intermediate stage between the realm of desire and the higher realm of form; (2) 生般 who is born into the form world and soon overcomes the remains of illusion; (3) 有行般 who diligently works his way through the final stages; (4) 無行般 whose final departure is delayed through lack of aid and slackness; (5) 上流般 who proceeds from lower to higher heavens into nirvana. Also 五種那含 and 五種般 the 般 being '​Parinirvāṇa'​.
 +
 +五種修法 Five kinds of esoteric ceremonial, i. e. (1) 扇底迦 śāntika, for stopping calamities; (2) 布瑟徵迦 or 補瑟徵迦 pauṣṭika,​ for success or prosperity; (3) 阿畏遮迦 abhicāraka,​ for suppressing,​ or exorcising; (4) 阿羯沙尼 ākarṣaṇī,​ for calling, or attracting (good beings, or aid); (5) 伐施迦囉軌 vaśīkaraṇa,​ for seeking the aid of Buddhas and bodhisattvas;​ also 五部尊法 and cf. 五種灌頂.
 +
 +[124]
 +
 +五種印 The signs of the five kinds of vision, v. 五眼.
 +
 +五種唯識 The five kinds of weishi, or idealistic representation in the sutras and śāstras as summed up by Cien 慈恩 of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school: (1) 境唯識 wisdom or insight in objective conditions; (2) 教唯識 in interpretation;​ (3) 理唯識 in principles; (4) 行唯識 in meditation and practice; (5) 果唯識 in the fruits or results of Buddhahood. The first four are objective, the fifth subject.
 +
 +五種壇法 The five kinds of maṇḍala ceremonials,​ v. 五部尊法.
 +
 +五增上緣 (種增上緣) ; 五緣 Five excellent causes, e.g. of blessedness:​ keeping the commandments;​ sufficient food and clothing; a secluded abode; cessation of worry; good friendship. Another group is: riddance of sin; protection through long life; vision of Buddha (or Amitābha, etc. ); universal salvation (by Amitābha); assurance of Amitābha'​s heaven.
 +
 +五種布施 The five kinds of almsgiving or dānas— to those from afar, to those going afar, to the sick, the hungry, and those wise in Buddhist doctrine.
 +
 +五種性 The five germ-natures,​ or roots of bodhisattva development:​ (1) 習種性 the germ nature of study of the 空 void (or immaterial),​ which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the 十住 stage; (2) 性種性 that of ability to discriminate all the 性 natures of phenomena and transform the living; the 十行 stage; (3) 道種性(the middle-) way germ-nature,​ which attains insight into Buddha-laws;​ the 十廻向; (4) 聖種性 the saint germ-nature which produces holiness by destroying ignorance; the 十廻向 which the bodhisattva leaves the ranks of the 賢 and becomes 聖; (5) 等覺種性 the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood, i. e. 等覺.
 +
 +五種惡病 Five epidemics in Vaiśālī during the Buddha'​s lifetime— bleeding from the eyes, pus from the ears, nose-bleeding,​ lockjaw, and astringent taste of all food.
 +
 +五種散亂 The five kinds of mental aberration: (1) the five senses themselves not functioning properly; (2) external distraction,​ or inability to concentrate the attention; (3) internal distraction,​ or mental confusion; (4) distraction caused by ideas of mean and mine, personality,​ possession, etc. (5) confusion of thought produced by Hīnayāna ideas.
 +
 +五種比量 The five inferences in (Indian) logic: (1) 相比量 from appearance, e. g. fire from smoke; (2) 體比量 from the corporeal, e. g. two or more things from one; (3) 業比量 from action, e. g. the animal from its footmark; (4) 法比量 from recognized law, old age from birth; (5) 因果比量 from cause and effect, that a traveler has a destination.
 +
 +五種法師 The five kinds of masters of the Law, v. Lotus Sutra, 法師品— one who receives and keeps; reads; recites; expounds; and copies the sutra.
 +
 +五種法界 The Huayan school'​s five forms of dharmadhātu:​ (1) 有爲法界 or 事世界 the phenomenal realm; (2) 無爲法界 or 理世界 the dependent and interactive;​ the inactive, quiescent, or noumenal realm; (3) 亦有爲亦無爲世界 or 事理無礙世界,​ both, i.e., interdependent and interactive;​ (4) 非有爲非無爲世界 either active nor inactive, but it is also 事理無礙世界,​ e. g. water and wave, wave being water and water wave; (5) 無障礙世界 or 事事無礙世界 the unimpeded realm, the unity of the phenomenal and noumenal, of the collective and individual.
 +
 +五種法身 The five kinds of a Buddha'​s dharmakāya. There are four groups. I. (1) 如如智法身 the spiritual body of bhūtatathatā-wisdom;​ (2) 功德法身 of all virtuous achievement;​ (3) 自法身 of incarnation in the world; (4) 變化法身 of unlimited powers of transformation;​ (5) 虛空法身 of unlimited space; the first and second are defined as saṃbhogakāya,​ the third and fourth as nirmāṇakāya,​ and the fifth as the dharmakāya,​ but all are included under dharmakāya as it possesses all the others. II. The esoteric cult uses the first four and adds as fifth 法界身 indicating the universe as pan-Buddha. III. Huayan gives (1) 法性生身 the body or person of Buddha born from the dharma-nature. (2) 功德生身 the dharmakāya evolved by Buddha virtue, or achievement;​ (3) 變化法身 the dharmakāya with unlimited powers of transformation;​ (4) 實相法身 the real dharmakāya;​ (5) 虛 空法身 the universal dharmakāya. IV. Hīnayāna defines them as 五分法身 q. v.
 +
 +[125]
 +
 +五種灌頂 The five abhiṣecanī baptisms of the esoteric school— for ordaining ācāryas, teachers, or preachers of the Law: for admitting disciples: for putting an end to calamities or suffering for sins; for advancement,​ or success; and for controlling (evil spirits ) or getting rid of difficulties,​ cf. 五種修法. Also, baptism of light: of sweet dew (i. e. perfume): of the '​germ-word'​ as seed; of the five baptismal signs of wisdom made on the forehead, shoulders, heart, and throat, indicating the five Dhyāni-Buddhas;​ and of the ' true word' on the breast.
 +
 +五種藏 The five '​stores',​ or the five differentiations of the one Buddha-nature;​ (1) 如來藏 the Tathāgata-nature,​ which is the fundamental universal nature possessed by all the living: (2) 正法藏 the source or treasury of all right laws and virtues: (3) 法身藏 the storehouse of the dharmakāya obtained by all saints: (4) 出世藏 the eternal spiritual nature, free from earthly errors; (5) 自性淸淨藏 the storehouse of the pure Buddha-nature. Another similar group is 如來藏, 法界藏, 法身藏, 出世間上上藏,​ and 自性淸淨藏.
 +
 +五種般 see 五種不還.
 +
 +五種行 The acts of the 五種法師 q. v.; also idem 五正行.
 +
 +五種說人 The five kinds of those who have testified to Buddhism; also 五人說經;​ 五說; i. e. the Buddha,. his disciples, the ṛṣis, devas, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, sages, devas, supernatural beings, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, bodhisattvas,​ śrāvakas, men, and things. See 五類說法.
 +
 +五種通 Five kinds of supernatural power: (1) 道通 of bodhisattvas through their insight into truth; (2) 神通 of arhats through their mental concentration;​ (3) 依通 supernatural or magical powers dependent on drugs, charms, incantations,​ etc.; (4) 報通 or 業通 reward or karma powers of transformation possessed by devas, nāgas, etc.; (5) 妖通 magical power of goblins, satyrs, etc.
 +
 +五種那含 v. 五種不還.
 +
 +五種鈴 The five kinds of bells used by the Shingon sect in Japan, also called 金剛鈴, i. e. 五鈷鈴, 賣鈴, 一鈷. 三鈷鈴, 塔鈴; the different names are derived from their handles; the four first named, beginning with the five-pronged one, are placed each at a corner of the altar, the last in the middle.
 +
 +五種雜行 see 五正行.
 +
 +五種魔 The five māras associated with the five skandhas; also 五蘊魔; 五陰魔, 五衆魔.
 +
 +五箭 The five arrows, i. e. the five desires 五欲.
 +
 +五納衣 A monk's garment of patches.
 +
 +五結 The five bonds to mortality: 貧 desire, 恚 hata, 慢 pride, 嫉 envy, 慳 grudging.
 +
 +五結樂子 One of Indra'​s musicians who praised Buddha on a crystal lute; v. 中阿含經 33.
 +
 +五繫 The five suspended corpses, or dead snakes, hanging from the four limbs and neck of Mara as Papiyan; v. Nirvana sutra 6.
 +
 +五翳 The five films, or interceptors of the light of sun and moon— smoke, cloud dust, fog, and the hands of asuras.
 +
 +五聲 idem 五音.
 +
 +五臺山 Pañcaśirsha,​ Pancaśikha. Wutai Shan, near the northeastern border of Shanxi, one of the four mountains sacred to Buddhism in China. The principal temple was built A. D. 471-500. There are about 150 monasteries,​ of which 24 are lamaseries. The chief director is known as Changjia Fo (the ever-renewing Buddha). Mañjuśrī is its patron saint. It is also styled 淸涼山.
 +
 +五色 The five primary colors, also called 五正色 (or 五大色): 靑 blue, 黃 yellow, 赤 red, 白 white, 黑 black. The 五間色 or compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown. The two sets correspond to the cardinal points as follows: east, blue and green; west, white, and crimson; south, red and scarlet; north, black and purple; and center, yellow and brown. The five are permutated in various ways to represent various ideas.
 +
 +五間色 five compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown.
 +
 +五根色: faith, white; zeal, red; memory yellow; meditation, blue; and wisdom, black. These are represented inter alia in the 五色線 (or 五色縷, or 五色綖, or 五色繩) the five-colored emblematic cord; this cord is also a brahman'​s sign worn on the shoulder and forbidden by the Buddha.
 +
 +[126]
 +
 +五苦 The five forms of suffering: I. (1) Birth, age, sickness, death; (2) parting with those loved; (3) meeting with the hated or disliked; (4) inability to obtain the desired; (5) the five skandha sufferings, mental and physical. II. Birth, age, sickness, death, and the shackles (for criminals). III. The sufferings of the hells, and as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, and human beings.
 +
 +五菩提 The five bodhi, or stages of enlightenment:​ (1) 發心菩提 resolve on supreme bodhi; (2) 伏心菩提 mind control, i. e. of the passions and observance of the pāramitās:​ (3) 明心菩提 mental enlightenment,​ study, and increase in knowledge and in the prajñāpāramitā:​ (4) 出到菩提 mental expansion, freedom from the limitations of reincarnation and attainment of complete knowledge; (5) 無上菩提 attainment of a passionless condition and of supreme perfect enlightenment;​.
 +
 +五蓋 The five covers, i. e. mental and moral hindrances— desire, anger, drowsiness, excitability,​ doubt.
 +
 +五葷 idem 五辛.
 +
 +五蘊 The five skandhas, pañca-skandha:​ also 五陰; 五衆; 五塞犍陀 The five cumulations,​ substances, or aggregates, i. e. the components of an intelligent being, specially a human being: (1) 色 rūpa, form, matter, the physical form related to the five organs of sense; (2) 受 vedana, reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things; (3) 想 saṃjñā, conception, or discerning; the functioning of mind in distinguishing;​ (4) 行 saṃskāra,​ the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc.; (5) 識 vijñāna, mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities; (2), (3), and (4) are associated with mental functioning,​ and therefore with 心所; (5) is associated with the faculty or nature of the mind 心王 manas. Eitel gives— form, perception, consciousness,​ action, knowledge. See also Keith'​s Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91.
 +
 +五蘊世間 (or 五陰世間 or 五衆世間) The worlds in which the five skandhas exist.
 +
 +五蘊宅 The abode of the five skandhas— the human body.
 +
 +五蘊論 大乘五蘊論 A śāstra by Vasubandhu on the Mahāyāna interpretation of the five skandhas, tr. by Xuanzang; 1 chuan. Other works are the 五蘊皆空經 tr. by Yijing of the Tang dynasty. 五蘊譬喩經 tr. by 安世高 An Shih Kao of the Han dynasty: both are in the 雜阿含經 2 and 10 respectively;​ also 五蘊論釋 a commentary by Vinītaprabha.
 +
 +五蘊魔 The Mara of the skandhas, v. 五種魔.
 +
 +五處供養 The five to be constantly served — father, mother, teacher, religious director, the sick.
 +
 +五處加持 Ceremonial touching of the five places on the body— brow, right and left shoulders, heart, and throat.
 +
 +五處眞言 has similar reference to 五處加持. v. 五種灌頂.
 +
 +五衆 idem 五蘊. Also, the five groups, i. e. monks, nuns, nun-candidates,​ and male and female novices.
 +
 +五行 The five lines of conduct. I. According to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith they are almsgiving; keeping the commandments;​ patience under insult; zeal or progress; meditation. II. According to the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra they are saintly or bodhisattva deeds; arhat, or noble deeds; deva deeds; children'​s deeds (i. e. normal good deeds of men, devas, and Hinayanists);​ sickness conditions, e. g. illness, delusion, etc.; — into all these lines of conduct and conditions a Bodhisattva enters. III. The five elements, or tanmātra— wood, fire, earth, metal, and water; or earth, water, ire, air, and ether (or space) as taught by the later Mahāyāna philosophy; idem 五大.
 +
 +五衍 The five Yanas or Vehicles, idem 五乘.
 +
 +五衣 The five garments worn by a nun are the three worn by a monk: with two others.
 +
 +五衰 The five signs of decay or approaching death, of which descriptions vary. e. g. uncontrolled discharges, flowers on the head wither. unpleasant odor, sweating armpits, uneasiness (or anxiety); Nirvana Sutra 19.
 +
 +五見 The five wrong views: (1) 身見 satkāya-dṛṣṭi,​ i. e. 我見 and 我所見 the view that there is a real self, an ego, and a mine and thine: (2) 邊見 antar-grāha,​ extreme views. e. g. extinction or permanence; (3) 邪見 mithyā, perverse views, which, denying cause and effect, destroy the foundations of morality; (4) 見取見 dṛṣṭi-parāmarśa,​ stubborn perverted views, viewing inferior things as superior, or counting the worse as the better; (5) 戒禁取見 śīla-vrata-parāmarśa,​ rigid views in favour of rigorous ascetic prohibitions,​ e. g. covering oneself with ashes. Cf. 五利使.
 +
 +[127]
 +
 +五覺 The five bodhi, or states of enlightenment,​ as described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith; see also 五菩提 for a different group. (1) 本覺 Absolute eternal wisdom, or bodhi; (2) 始覺 bodhi in its initial stages, or in action, arising from right observances;​ (3) 相似覺 bodhisattva. attainment of bodhi in action, in the 十信; (4) 隨分覺 further bodhisattva-enlightenment according to capacity, i. e. the stages 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (5) 究竟覺 final or complete enlightenment,​ i. e. the stage of 妙覺, which is one with the first, i. e. 本覺. The 本覺 is bodhi in the potential, 始覺 is bodhi in the active state, hence (2), (3), (4), and (5) are all the latter, but the fifth has reached the perfect quiescent stage of original bodhi.
 +
 +五觀 The five meditations referred to in the Lotus Sutra 25: (1) 眞 on the true, idem 空觀, to meditate on the reality of the void or infinite, in order to be rid of illusion in views and thoughts; (2) 淸淨觀 on purity, to be rid of any remains of impurity connected with the temporal, idem 假觀; (3) 廣大智慧觀 on the wider and greater wisdom, idem 中觀, by study of the '​middle'​ way; (4) 悲觀 on pitifulness,​ or the pitiable condition of the living, and by the above three to meditate on their salvation; (5) 慈觀 on mercy and the extension of the first three meditations to the carrying of joy to all the living.
 +
 +五解脫輪 The five wheels of liberation, or salvation, i. e. the five maṇḍalas in which are the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas,​ see 五智如來;​ also called五大月輪 and五輪塔婆.
 +
 +五說 idem 五種說人.
 +
 +五論 It idem 五部大論.
 +
 +五調子 idem 五音.
 +
 +五諦 The five axioms: (1) 因諦 the cause, which is described as 集諦 of the Four Noble Truths; (2) 果諦 the effect as 苦諦; (3) 智諦 or 能知諦 diagnosis as 道諦; (4) 境諦 or 所知諦 the end or cure as 滅諦; to these add (5) 勝諦 or 至諦, the supreme axiom, i. e. the 眞如; v. 四諦.
 +
 +五識 The five parijñānas,​ perceptions or cognitions; ordinarily those arising from the five senses, i. e. of form-and-color,​ sound, smell, taste, and touch. The 起信論 Awakening of Faith has a different set of five steps in the history of cognition; (1) 業識 initial functioning of mind under the influence of the original 無明 unenlightenment or state of ignorance; (2) 轉識 the act of turning towards the apparent object for its observation;​ (3) 現識 observation of the object as it appears; (4) 知識 the deductions derived from its appearance; (5) 相續識 the consequent feelings of like or dislike, pleasure or pain, from which arise the delusions and incarnations.
 +
 +五趣 The five gati, i. e. destinations,​ destinies: the hells, hungry ghosts, animals, human beings, devas; cf. 五惡趣 and 五道.
 +
 +五趣生死輪 A series of pictures to show the course of life and death, ascribed in the Sarvāstivāda Vinaya 34 to the Buddha.
 +
 +五身 see 五種法身.
 +
 +五輪 The five wheels, or things that turn: I. The 五體 or five members, i. e. the knees, the elbows, and the head; when all are placed on the ground it implies the utmost respect. II. The five foundations of the world. first and lowest the wheel or circle of space; above are those of wind; of water; the diamond, or earth; on these rest the nine concentric circles and eight seas. III. The esoteric sect uses the term for the 五大 five elements, earth, water, fire, wind, and space; also for the 五解脫輪 q. v. IV. The five fingers (of a Buddha).
 +
 +五輪六大 The five are the 五大 five elements, to which the sixth 大 is added, i. e. the six elements, earth, water, fire, air and space, and 識 intelligence or mind.
 +
 +五輪塔婆 (五輪率塔婆) A stūpa with five wheels at the top; chiefly used by the Shingon sect on graves as indicating the indwelling Vairocana.
 +
 +五輪觀 五輪三摩地 A meditation of the esoteric school on the five elements, earth, water, fire, air, and space, with their germ-words, their forms (i. e. square, round, triangular, half-moon, and spherical), and their colors (i. e. yellow, white, red, black, and blue). The five wheels also represent the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas,​ v. 五智. The object is that 五輪成身 the individual may be united with the five Buddhas, or Vairocana.
 +
 +五輪際 The fifth wheel limit, or world foundation, i. e. that of space.
 +
 +五轉 The five evolutions, or developments;​ (1) resolve on Buddhahood; (2) observance of the rules; (3) attainment of enlightenment;​ (4) of nirvana; (5) of power to aid others according to need.
 +
 +五轉成身 idem 五相成身.
 +
 +五轉色 The above five developments are given the colors respectively of yellow, red, white, black, and blue (or green), each color being symbolic, e. g. yellow of Vairocana, red of Mañjuśrī,​ etc.
 +
 +[128]
 +
 +五辛 The five forbidden pungent roots, 五葷 garlic, three kinds of onions, and leeks; if eaten raw they are said to cause irritability of temper, and if eaten cooked, to act as an aphrodisiac;​ moreover, the breath of the eater, if reading the sutras, will drive away the good spirits.
 +
 +五逆 pañcānantarya;​ 五無間業 The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha'​s or a monk's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas,​ or bodhisattvas;​ (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly,​ and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha'​s stūpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the community; (2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni;​ (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni intending to destroy him thereby.
 +
 +五通 v. 五神通.
 +
 +五通仙 One who by non-Buddhistic methods has attained to the five supernatural powers 五通.
 +
 +五通神 Spirits possessed of the five supernatural powers. They are also identified five bodhisattvas of the 雞頭摩: monastery in India, who, possessed of supernatural powers, went to the Western Paradise and begged the image of Maitreya, whence it is said to have been spread over India.
 +
 +五道 idem 五趣.
 +
 +五道六道 There is difference of statement whether there are five or six gati, i. e. ways or destinies; if six, then there is added the asura, a being having functions both good and evil, both deva and demon.
 +
 +五道冥官 An officer in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades.
 +
 +五道將軍 A general in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades, who keeps the book of life.
 +
 +五道轉輪王 One of the ten kings of Hades who retries the sufferers on their third year of imprisonment.
 +
 +五邉 The five alternatives,​ i. e. (things) exist; do not exist; both exist and non-exist; neither exist nor non-exist: neither non-exist nor are without non-existence.
 +
 +五遍行 The five universal mental activities associated with every thought— the idea, mental contact, reception, conception, perception, 作意, 觸, 受, 想, 思; cf. 五蘊.
 +
 +五那含天 idem 五淨居天.
 +
 +五邪命 (五邪) The five improper ways of gain or livelihood for a monk, i. e. (1) changing his appearance, e. g. theatrically;​ (2) advertising his own powers and virtue; (3) fortuning by physiognomy,​ etc.; (4) hectoring and bullying; (5) praising the generosity of another to induce the hearer to bestow presents.
 +
 +五部 The five classes, or groups I. The 四諦 four truths, which four are classified as 見道 or theory, and 修道 practice, e. g. the eightfold path. II. The five early Hīnayāna sects, see 一切有部 or Sarvastivadah. III. The five groups of the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.
 +
 +五部合斷 To cut off the five classes of misleading things, i. e. four 見 and one 修, i. e. false theory in regard to the 四諦 four truths, and erroneous practice. Each of the two classes is extended into each of the three divisions of past, three of present, and three of future, making eighteen mental conditions.
 +
 +五部大乘經 The five chief Mahāyāna sutras according to Tiantai are: 華嚴經; 大集經; 大品般若經;​ 法華經, and 涅槃經, i. e. Avataṃsaka,​ Mahāsanghāta,​ Mahāprajñāpāramitā,​ Lotus, and Nirvana sutras.
 +
 +五部大論 Asaṅga, founder of the Yogācāra school, is said, by command of Maitreya, to have edited the five great śāstras, 瑜伽師地論,​ 分別瑜伽論,​ 大乘莊嚴經論,​ 辨中邉論頌論,​ and 金剛般若論.
 +
 +五部尊法 五種壇法 (or 五部護摩 or 五部悉地). Ceremonials of the esoteric cult for ridding from calamity; for prosperity; subduing evil (spirits); seeking the love of Buddhas; calling the good to aid; cf. 五種修法.
 +
 +五部座 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas,​ v. 五智如來.
 +
 +五部律 The first five Hīnayāna sects— Dharmagupta,​ Sarvāstivāda,​ Mahīśāsaka,​ Kāśyapīya,​ and Vātsīputrīya;​ see 五師.
 +
 +五部教主 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas v.五 智 如 來.
 +
 +五部法 idem 五部尊法.
 +
 +五部淨 (居 炎 摩 羅) Yama as protector in the retinue of the thousand-hand Guanyin.
 +
 +五部秘藏 idem 五部尊法.
 +
 +[129]
 +
 +五重世界 The five graduated series of universes: (1) 三千大千世界 tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu;​ a universe, or chiliocosm; (2) such chiliocosms,​ numerous as the sands of Ganges, form one Buddha-universe;​ (3) an aggregation of these forms a Buddha-universe ocean; (4) an aggregation of these latter forms a Buddha-realm seed; (5) an infinite aggregation of these seeds forms a great Buddha-universe,​ 智度論 50. Another division is (1) a world, or universe; (2) a Buddha-nature universe, with a different interpretation;​ and the remaining three areas above, the sea, the seed, and the whole Buddha-universe.
 +
 +五重滯 The five heavy blockages, or serious hindrances; see 五鈍使 infra.
 +
 +五重雲 The five banks of clouds or obstructions for a woman, see 五障.
 +
 +五鈍使 pañca-kleśa 五重滯; 五惑 The five dull, unintelligent,​ or stupid vices or temptations:​ 貪 desire, 嗔 anger or resentment, 癡 stupidity or foolishness,​ 慢 arrogance, 疑 doubt. Overcoming these constitutes the pañca-śīla,​ five virtues, v. 尸羅. Of the ten 十使 or agents the other five are styled 五利 keen, acute, intelligent,​ as they deal with higher qualities.
 +
 +五鈷金剛杵 (五股金剛杵,​ 五鈷金剛) The five-armed vajra, 五智金剛杵;​ 五峯金剛杵,​ 五峯光明;​ emblem of the powers of the 五智如來 q. v.
 +
 +五門禪 idem 五停心觀;​ there is also a fivefold meditation on impermanence,​ suffering, the void, the non-ego, and nirvana.
 +
 +五間色 The five compound colours, v. 五色.
 +
 +五闡提羅 The five ṣaṇḍhilās,​ i. e. five bad monks who died, went to the hells, and were reborn as ṣaṇḍhilās or imperfect males; also 五扇提羅.
 +
 +五阿含 (五阿含經) The five Agamas, 五阿笈魔,​ i. e. (1) 長阿含經 Dīrghāgama;​ (2) 中阿含經 Madhyamāgama;​ (3) 僧育多阿含經 Samyuktāgama;​ (4) 鴦掘多羅阿含經 Ekottarikāgama,​ and (5) 屈陀伽阿合經 Kṣudrakāgama.
 +
 +五陰 五衆 see 五蘊. 陰 is the older term.
 +
 +五陰世間 idem 五蘊世間.
 +
 +五陰苦 (五陰盛苦) idem 五盛陰苦.
 +
 +五陰魔 idem 五蘊魔.
 +
 +五障 The five hindrances, or obstacles; also 五礙; 五雲. I. Of women, i. e. inability to become Brahma-kings,​ Indras, Māra-kings,​ Caikravarti-kings,​ or Buddhas. II. The hindrances to the five 五力 powers, i. e. (self-) deception a bar to faith, as sloth is to zeal, anger to remembrance,​ hatred to meditaton, and discontent to wisdom. III. The hindrances of (1) the passion-nature,​ e. g. original sin; (2) of karma caused in previous lives; (3) the affairs of life; (4) no friendly or competent preceptor; (5) partial knowledge.
 +
 +五障三從 The five hindrances to woman, see above, and her three subordinations,​ i. e. to father, husband. and son.
 +
 +五雲 v. 五障.
 +
 +五音 The five musical tones, or pentatonic scale— do, re, mi, sol, la; also 五聲; 五調子.
 +
 +五頂 pañcaśikha,​ the five locks on a boy's head; also used for 五佛頂尊 q. v.
 +
 +五頂輪王 idem 五佛頂尊.
 +
 +五頂山 idem Wu-Tai Shan 五臺.
 +
 +五類天 The five kinds of devas: (1) 上界天 in the upper realms of form and non-form; (2) 虛空天 in the sky, i. e. four of the six devas of the desire-realm;​ (3) 地居天 on the earth, i. e. the other two of the six devas, on Sumeru; (4) 遊虛天空 wandering devas of the sky, e. g. sun, moon, starvas, (5) 地下天 under-world devas, e. g. nāgas, asuras, māras, etc. Of. 五大明王.
 +
 +五類聲 The five groups of five each of the consonants in the syllabary called 悉曇 Siddha.
 +
 +五類說法 The five preachers in the Huayan sutra: the Buddha; bodhisattvas;​ śrāvakas; the devas in their praise songs; and material things, e. g. the bodhi-tree; v. 五種說人.
 +
 +五食 The five kinds of spiritual food by which roots of goodness are nourished: correct thoughts; delight in the Law; pleasure in meditation; firm resolve, or vows of self-control;​ and deliverance from the karma of illusion.
 +
 +五香 The incense composed of five ingredients (sandalwood,​ aloes, cloves, saffron, and camphor) offered by the esoteric sects in building their altars and in performing their rituals. Cf. 五分香.
 +
 +五體 and 五體投地 v. 五輪.
 +
 +[130]
 +
 +五髻 The five cūḍā, topknots or locks, emblems of the 五智 q. v.
 +
 +五髻冠 A five-pointed crown with a meaning similar to 五髻.
 +
 +五髻文殊 Mañjuśrī of the five locks.
 +
 +今 Now, at present, the present.
 +
 +今圓 A Tiantai term indicating the present '​perfect'​ teaching, i. e. that of the Lotus, as compared with the 昔圓 older '​perfect ' teaching which preceded it.
 +
 +今家 The present school, i. e. my school or sect.
 +
 +介 scales, mail: important; resolute, firm; an attendant; petty, small.
 +
 +介爾 A transient thought, see kṣaṇa 刹.
 +
 +仁 Kindness, benevolence,​ virtue.
 +
 +仁者 Kind sir!
 +
 +仁尊 Benevolent and honored, or kindly honored one, i. e. Buddha.
 +
 +仁王 The benevolent king, Buddha; the name Śākya is intp. as 能仁 able in generosity. Also an ancient king, probably imaginary, of the '​sixteen countries'​ of India, for whom the Buddha is said to have dictated the 仁王經, a sutra with two principal translations into Chinese, the first by Kumārajīva styled 仁王般若經 or 佛說仁王般若波羅蜜經 without magical formulae, the second by Amogha (不空) styled 仁王護國般若波羅蜜經,​ etc., into which the magical formulae were introduced; these were for royal ceremonials to protect the country from all kinds of calamities and induce prosperity.
 +
 +仁王供 Service of the 仁王曾 (or 仁王講) the meeting of monks to chant the above incantations.
 +
 +仁王咒 仁王陀羅尼 The incantations made in the 仁王供.
 +
 +仁王尊 The two Vajrapāṇi 阿 and 吽 who act as door guardians of temples, variously known as 密跡菩薩,​ 密修力士,​ 執金剛神,​ and 那羅延金剛.
 +
 +什 A file of ten; sundry, what.
 +
 +什物 Things (in general), oddments.
 +
 +什肇 The 什 is Kumārajīva and the 肇 his disciple 僧肇 Sengzhao.
 +
 +什麽 idem 甚麽 What ? What.
 +
 +允 Sincere, true; to assent.
 +
 +允堪 Yun-k'​an,​ a famous monk of the Sung dynasty.
 +
 +允若 Yun-jo, a famous monk of the Yuan dynasty.
 +
 +元 Beginning, first, original, head; dollar; Mongol (dynasty).
 +
 +元吉樹 The tree of the origin of felicity, i. e. the bodhi-tree or ficus religiosa, also styled 佛樹; 道樹, and 菩提樹.
 +
 +元品無明 Primal ignorance; the original state of avidya, unenlightenment,​ or ignorance; original innocence. Also 根本無明;​ 無始無明.
 +
 +元因 原因 The original or fundamental cause which produces phenomena, e. g. karma, reincarnation,​ etc.; every cause has its fruit or consequences. The idea of cause and effect is a necessary condition of antecedent and consequence;​ it includes such relations as interaction,​ correlation,​ interdependence,​ co-ordination based on an intrinsic necessity.
 +
 +元妙 The original or fundamental marvel or mystery, i. e. the conception of nirvana.
 +
 +元始 Prabhū, 波羅赴; 鉢利部 beginning, in the beginning, primordial. Prabhū is a title of Viṣṇu as a personification of the sun.
 +
 +元心 The original or primal mind behind all things, idem the 一心 of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith, the 森羅萬象之元 source of all phenomena, the mind which is in all things.
 +
 +元明 本明 Original brightness or intelligence;​ the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā as the source of all light or enlightenment.
 +
 +元曉 Yuan-hsiao, a famous Korean monk who traveled, and studied and wrote in China during the Tang dynasty, then returned to Korea; known as 海東師 Hai-tung Shih.
 +
 +元照 Name of 湛然 Chan-jan, the seventh head of the Tiantai School; he died 1116.
 +
 +元祖 The original patriarch, or founder of a sect or school; sometimes applied to the Buddha as the founder of virtue.
 +
 +元藏 The Yuan tripiṭaka,​ compiled by order of Shih Tsu (Kublai), founder of the Yuan dynasty, and printed from blocks; begun in 1277, the work was finished in 1290, in 1, 422 部 works, 6, 017 卷 sections, 558 凾 cases or covers. It contained 528 Mahayanist and 242 Hinayanist sutras; 25 Mahāyāna and 54 Hīnayāna vinaya; 97 Mahāyāna and 36 Hīnayāna śāstras; 108 biographies;​ and 332 supplementary or general works. In size, and generally, it was similar to the Sung edition. The 元藏目錄 or Catalogue of the Yuan tripiṭaka is also known as 大普寧寺大藏經目錄.
 +
 +元辰星 元神星 A star that controls the attainment of honors, and the riddance of sickness and distresses. The star varies according to the year star of the suppliant which is one of the seven stars in Ursa Major.
 +
 +内 Within, inner.
 +
 +内乞 The bhikṣu monk who seeks control from within himself, i. e. by mental processes, as compared with the 外乞 the one who aims at control by physical discipline. e. g. fasting, etc.
 +
 +内供奉 (内供) A title for the monk who served at the alter in the imperial palace, instituted in A. D. 756; also called 供奉.
 +
 +内典 Buddhist scriptures; of. 外典 non-Buddhist scriptures. There are also divisions of internal and external in Buddhist scriptures.
 +
 +[131]
 +
 +內凡 The inner or higher ranks of ordinary disciples as contrasted with the 外凡 lower grades; those who are on the road to liberation; Hīnayāna begins the stage at the 四善根位 also styled 內凡位; Mahāyāna with the 三賢位 from the 十住 upwards. Tiantai from the 相似卽 of its 六卽 q. v.
 +
 +內塵 The inner, or sixth 塵 guṇa associated with mind, in contrast with the other five guṇas, qualities or attributes of the visible, audible, etc.
 +
 +內史 The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內記.
 +
 +內外 Internal and external: subjective and objective.
 +
 +內外兼明 Inner and outer both 'ming '; the first four of the 五明 q. v. are '​outer'​ and the fifth '​inner'​.
 +
 +內外空 Internal organ and external object are both unreal, or not material.
 +
 +內外道 Within and without the religion; Buddhists and non-Buddhists;​ also, heretics within the religion.
 +
 +內學 The inner learning, i. e. Buddhism.
 +
 +內宿 Food that has been kept overnight in a monastic bedroom and is therefore one of the '​unclean'​ foods; v. 內煮.
 +
 +內寺 The Buddhist shrines or temples in the palace, v. 內道塲.
 +
 +內心 The mind or heart within; the red lotus is used in the 大日經 as its emblem.
 +
 +內心曼荼羅 (or 祕密曼荼羅) The '​central heart ' maṇḍala of the 大日經 or the central throne in the diamond realm lotus to which it refers.
 +
 +內我 The antarātman or ego within, one's own soul or self, in contrast with bahirātman 外我 an external soul, or personal, divine ruler.
 +
 +內教 Buddhism, in contrast with 外教 other cults.
 +
 +內明 adhyatmāvidyā,​ a treatise on the inner meaning (of Buddhism), one of the 五明 q. v.
 +
 +內法 Buddhism, as contrasted with other religions.
 +
 +內無爲 Inner quiescence, cf. the six 妙門.
 +
 +內煮 Cooked food in a monastic bedroom, becoming thereby one of the '​unclean'​ foods; v. 內宿食.
 +
 +內界 The realm of mind as contrasted with 外界 that of the body; also the realm of cognition as contrasted with externals, e. g. the 五界 five elements.
 +
 +內祕 The inner mystic mind of the bodhisattva,​ though externally he may appear to be a śrāvaka.
 +
 +內種 The seed contained in the 八識, i. e. ālayavijñāna,​ the basis of all phenomena.
 +
 +內空 Empty within, i. e. no soul or self within.
 +
 +內緣 The condition of perception arising from the five senses; also immediate, conditional,​ or environmental causes, in contrast with the more remote.
 +
 +內薰 Inner censing; primal ignorance, or unenlightenment;​ perfuming, censing, or acting upon original intelligence causes the common uncontrolled mind to resent the miseries of mortality and to seek nirvana; v. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.
 +
 +內胎 The inner garbhadhātu,​ i. e. the eight objects in the eight leaves in the central group of the maṇḍala.
 +
 +內衆 The inner company, i. e. the monks, in contrast with 外俗 the laity.
 +
 +內衣 antaravāsaka,​ one of the three regulation garments of a monk, the inner garment.
 +
 +內記 The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內史.
 +
 +內證 The witness or realization within: one's own assurance of the truth.
 +
 +內識 Internal perception, idem 心識.
 +
 +[132]
 +
 +內道塲 A place for Buddhist worship in the palace, v. 内齋 and 内寺.
 +
 +內門轉 The psychological elements in the 八識, viz. the seventh and eighth categories.
 +
 +內陣 The inner ranks, i. e. the part of a temple near the altar, where the monks sit.
 +
 +內院 The inner court— of the Tusita heaven, where Maitreya dwells and preaches; also 善法堂.
 +
 +內障 Internal, or mental hindrances, or obstacles.
 +
 +內齋 Buddhist ceremonies in the palace on the emperor'​s birthday, v. 內道塲.
 +
 +公 Public, general, official; a duke, grandparent,​ gentleman; just, fair.
 +
 +公案 J. kōan; 因緣 A dossier, or case-record;​ a cause; public laws, regulations;​ case-law. Problems set by Zen masters, upon which thought is concentrated as a means to attain inner unity and illumination.
 +
 +公界 A public place; in public.
 +
 +六 ṣaṭ, ṣaḍ. Six.
 +
 +六事成就 The six things which enable a bodhisattva to keep perfectly the six pāramitās — worshipful offerings, study of the moral duties, pity, zeal in goodness, isolation, delight in the law; these are described as corresponding to the pāramitās seriatim; v. 莊嚴經 12.
 +
 +六住 The sixth of the 十住 q. v.
 +
 +六作 idem 六受.
 +
 +六位 The six stages of Bodhisattva development,​ i. e. 十信位; 十住位; 十廻向位;​ 十地位; 等覺位; 佛地位; these are from the order Huayan jing.
 +
 +六供具 The six articles for worship— flowers, a censer, candles, hot liquid, fruits, tea.
 +
 +六依 The six senses on which one relies, or from which knowledge is received; v. 六情.
 +
 +六入 ṣaḍāyatana;​ 六阿耶怛那 (or 六阿也怛那) the six entrances, or locations, both the organ and the sensation — eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and perception. The six form one of the twelve nidanas, see 十二因緣. The 六根 are the six organs, the 六境 the six objects, and the 六塵 or guṇas, the six inherent qualities. The later term is 六處 q. v.
 +
 +六八弘誓 The forty-eight great or surpassing vows of Amitābha, also 六八超世本願.
 +
 +六决定 v. 六種决定;​ also 七深信.
 +
 +六凡 The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people, as contrasted with the saints 聖者: in the hells, and as hungry: ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas.
 +
 +六到彼岸 The six things that ferry one to the other shore, i. e. the six pāramitās,​ v. 六度.
 +
 +六劍 六箭 The six swords (or arrows), i. e. the six senses, v. 六塵, which are defined as the qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and mind.
 +
 +六十 ṣaṣṭi,​ sixty.
 +
 +六十二見 The sixty-two 見 or views, of which three groups are given: The 大品般若經 in the 佛母品 takes each of the five skandhas under four considerations of 常 time, considered as time past, whether each of the five has had permanence, impermanence,​ both, neither, 5 x 4 = 20; again as to their space, or extension, considered as present time, whether each is finite, infinite, both, neither =20; again as to their destination,​ i. e. future, as to whether each goes on, or does not, both, neither (e. g. continued personality) = 20, or in all 60; add the two ideas whether body and mind 神 are a unity or different = 62. The Tiantai School takes 我見, or personality,​ as its basis and considers each of the five skandhas under four aspects, e. g (1) rūpa, the organized body, as the ego; (2) the ego as apart from the rūpa; (3) rūpa as the greater, the ego the smaller or inferior, and the ego as dwelling in the rūpa; (4) the ego as the greater, rupa the inferior, and the rupa in the ego. Consider these twenty in the past, present, and future = 60, and add 斷 and 常 impermanence and permanence as fundamentals = 62. There is also a third group.
 +
 +六十卷 The 60 rolls: the Tiantai 三大部, or three collections of fundamental texts of that school.
 +
 +六十四書 The sixty-four classes of Indian writing or literature, Brahmi, Kharosthi, etc.
 +
 +六十四梵音 The sixty-four Aryan or noble characteristics of a Buddha'​s tones or voice, e. g. snigdha 流澤聲 smooth; mṛdukā 柔軟聲 gentle, etc.
 +
 +六十四眼 Eighteen lictors in the avīci hell each with sixty-four eyes.
 +
 +六十心 The sixty different mental positions that may occur to the practitioner of Yoga, see 大日經, 住心品; examples of them are desire, non-desire, ire, kindness, foolishness,​ wisdom, decision, doubt, depression, brightness, contention, dispute, non-contention,​ the spirit of devas, of asuras, of nāgas, of humanity, woman (i. e. lust), mastery, commercial, and so on.
 +
 +[133]
 +
 +六卽 The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Tiant 'ai 圓教, i. e. Perfect, or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary six developments of 十信, 十住, 十行, etc., as found in the 別教 Differentiated or Separate school. The Tiantai six are: (1) 理卽 realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature;​ (2) 名字卽 the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha. law and potentially Buddha; (3) 觀行卽 advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as 五品觀行 or 五品弟子位;​ (4) 相似卽 semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the 六根淸淨位,​ i. e. the 十信位; (5) 分證卽 discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i. e. the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地, and 等覺位 of the 別教 known also as the 聖因 cause or root of holiness. (6) 究竟卽 perfect enlightenment,​ i. e. the 妙覺位 or 聖果 fruition of holiness. (1) and (2) are known as 外凡 external for, or common to, all. (1) is theoretical;​ (2) is the first step in practical advance, followed by (3) and (4) styled 内凡 internal for all, and (3), (4), (5), and (6) are known as the 八位 the eight grades.
 +
 +六卽佛 Buddha in six forms; (1) 理佛 as the principle in and through all things, as pan-Buddha— all things being of Buddha-nature;​ (2) 名字佛 Buddha as a name or person. The other four are the last four forms above.
 +
 +六受 The six vedanas, i. e. receptions, or sensations from the 六根 six organs. Also 六作.
 +
 +六合釋 v. 六離釋.
 +
 +六和敬 (六和) The six points of reverent harmony or unity in a monastery or convent: 身 bodily unity in form of worship, 口 oral unity in chanting, 意 mental unity in faith, 戒 moral unity in observing the commandments,​ 見 doctrinal unity in views and explanations,​ and 利, 行, 學, or 施 economic unity in community of goods, deeds, studies, or charity.
 +
 +六和合 The six unions of the six sense organs with the six objects of the senses, the eye with the object seen, etc.
 +
 +六味 The six tastes, or flavors — bitter, sour, sweet, acrid, salt, and insipid.
 +
 +六喩 The six illustrations of unreality Diamond Sutra: a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning. Also 六如.
 +
 +六因 The six causations of the 六位 six stages of Bodhisattva development,​ q. v. Also, the sixfold division of causes of the Vaibhāṣikas (cf. Keith, 177-8); every phenomenon depends upon the union of 因 primary cause and 緣 conditional or environmental cause; and of the 因 there are six kinds: (1) 能作因 karaṇahetu,​ effective causes of two kinds: 與力因 empowering cause, as the earth empowers plant growth, and 不障因 non-resistant cause, as space does not resist, i. e. active and passive causes; (2) 倶有因 sahabhūhetu,​ co-operative causes, as the four elements 四大 in nature, not one of which can be omitted; (3) 同類因 sabhāgahetu,​ causes of the same kind as the effect, good producing good, etc.; (4) 相應因 saṃprayuktahetu,​ mutual responsive or associated causes, e. g. mind and mental conditions, subject with object; Keith gives 'faith and intelligence';​ similar to (2); (5) 遍行因 sarvatragahetu,​ universal or omnipresent cause, i. e. of illusion, as of false views affecting every act; it resembles (3) but is confined to delusion; (6) 異熟因 vipākahetu,​ differental fruition, i. e. the effect different from the cause, as the hells are from evil deeds.
 +
 +六地 Six bodhisattvas in the Dizang group of the garbhadhātu,​ each controlling one of the 六道 or ways of sentient existence. They deal with rebirth in the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas.
 +
 +六垢 (六垢法) Six things that defile: 誑 exaggeration,​ 謟 flattery, 憍 arrogance, 惱 vexation, 恨 hatred, 害 malice.
 +
 +六城部 Ṣaṇṇagarikāḥ,​ 山拖那伽梨柯部;​ or 密林山部. One of the twenty Hīnayāna sects, connected with the Vātsīputtrīyāḥ 犢子部.
 +
 +六境 The six fields of the senses, i. e. the objective fields of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea (or thought); rūpa, form and color, is the field of vision; sound, of hearing; scent, of smelling; the five flavors, of tasting; physical feeling, of touch; and mental presentation,​ of discernment;​ cf. 六入; 六處 and next.
 +
 +[134]
 +
 +六塵 The six guṇas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i. e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea; the organs are the 六根, 六入, 六處, and the perceptions or discernments the 六識; cf. 六境. Dust 塵 is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. Yet 六塵說法 the Buddha made use of them to preach his law.
 +
 +六大 The six great or fundamental things, or elements — earth; water; fire; wind (or air); space (or ether); and 識 mind, or perception. These are universal and creative of all things, but the inanimate 非情 are made only of the first five, while the animate 有情 are of all six. The esoteric cult represents the six elements, somewhat differently interpreted in the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu. Also 六大界.
 +
 +六大法性 The unity in variety of the six elements and their products; ordinary eyes see only the differentiated forms or appearances,​ the sage or philosopher sees the unity.
 +
 +六大無礙 The six elements unimpeded, or interactive;​ or 六大體大 the six elements in their greater substance, or whole. The doctrine of the esoteric cult of tran-substantiation,​ or the free interchangeability of the six Buddha elements with the human, like with like, whereby yoga becomes possible, i. e. the Buddha elements entering into and possessing the human elements, for both are of the same elemental nature.
 +
 +六大煩惱 The six great kleśa, passions, or distressers:​ desire, resentment, stupidity, pride, doubt, and false views.
 +
 +六大神 The spirits of the six elements.
 +
 +六大觀 Meditation on the six elements; in the exoteric cult, that they are unreal and unclean; in the esoteric cult, that the Buddha and human elements are of the same substance and interchangeable,​ see above.
 +
 +六大賊 v. 六賊.
 +
 +六天 The six devalokas, i. e. the heavens with sense organs above Sumeru, between the brahmalokas and the earth, i. e. 四王天; 忉利天; 夜摩天; 兜率天; 樂變化天;​ and 他化自在天. The sixth is the heaven of Mara, v. 六欲天.
 +
 +六夷 The six pārājikas,​ v. 波羅夷.
 +
 +六如 The six '​likes'​ or comparisons,​ like a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning, v. 六喩.
 +
 +六妄 The six misleaders, i. e. the six senses.
 +
 +六妙行 idem 六行觀.
 +
 +六字 The six words or syllables, 南無阿彌陀佛 Namo Amitābha.
 +
 +六字名號 a name for Mañjuśrī. See 六字文殊.
 +
 +六字文殊 The six-word dhāraṇī of Mañjuśrī 闇婆髻駄那麽 (or 闇婆計陀那麽) or 唵縛鷄淡納莫. There are also the esoteric (Shingon) six words connected with the six forms of Guanyin and the 六字法, 六字供, 六字河臨法,​ and六字護摩 ceremonials,​ some connected with Mañjuśrī,​ and all with Guanyin. There are several 六字 dhāraṇīs,​ e. g. the Ṣaḍakṣara-vidyāmantra. The six words generally associated with Guanyin are 安荼詈般茶詈 (or 安荼隸般茶詈). There is also the six word Lamaistic charm oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ 唵?呢叭 M061971 吽.
 +
 +六宗 The six schools, i. e. 三論宗; 法相宗; 華嚴宗; 律宗; 成實宗, and 倶舍宗 q. v.; the last two are styled Hīnayāna schools. Mahāyāna in Japan puts in place of them 天台宗 and 眞言宗 Tendai and Shingon.
 +
 +六師 The six tīrthikas or heterodox teachers— Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa,​ Maskarin, Sañjayin, Ajita-keśakambala,​ Kakuda-Kātyāyana,​ and Nirgrantha; see 外道.
 +
 +六師迦王 Name of the king who, thirteen years after the destruction of the Jetavana vihāra. which had been rebuilt 'five centuries ' after the nirvana, again restored it.
 +
 +六年苦行 The six years of Śākyamuni'​s austerities before his enlightenment.
 +
 +六度 The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of mortality to nirvana, i. e. the six pāramitās 波羅蜜 (波羅蜜多):​ (1) 布施 dāna, charity, or giving, including the bestowing of the truth on others; (2) 持戒 śīla, keeping the command rents; (3) 忍辱 kṣānti, patience under insult; (4) 精進 vīrya, zeal and progress; (5) 闡定 dhyāna, meditation or contemplation;​ (6) 智慧 prajñā; wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth. It is the last that carries across the saṃsāra (sea of incarnate life) to the shores of nirvana. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance. The 唯識論 adds four other pāramitās:​ (7) 方便 upāya, the use of appropriate means; (8) 願 praṇidhāna,​ pious vows; (9) 力 bala, power of fulfillment;​ (10) 智 jñāna knowledge.
 +
 +[135]
 +
 +六度果報 The reward s stimulated by the six pāramitās are 富 enrichment; 具色 all things, or perfection; 力 power; 壽 long life; 安 peace (or calmness); 辯 discrimination,​ or powers of exposition of the truth.
 +
 +六度無極 The six infinite means of crossing the sea of mortality, i. e. the six pāramitās 六度.
 +
 +六德 The six characteristics of a bhagavat, which is one of a Buddha'​s titles: sovereign, glorious, majestic, famous, propitious, honored.
 +
 +六念 (六念法) The six thoughts to dwell upon: Buddha, the Law, the Order, the commands, almsgiving, and heaven with its prospective joys.
 +
 +六念處 The six stages of the six kinds of mindfulness 六念.
 +
 +六情 The emotions arising from the six organs of sense 六根 for which term 六情 is the older interpretation;​ v. 六依.
 +
 +六慧 The six kinds of wisdom. Each is allotted seriatim to one of the six positions 六位 q. v. (1) 聞慧 the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is associated with the 十住; (2) 思慧 of thought with the 十行; (3) 修慧 of observance with the 十廻向; (4) 無相慧 of either extreme, or the mean, with the 十地; (5) 照寂慧 of understanding of nirvana with 等覺慧; (6) 寂照慧 of making nirvana illuminate all beings associated with 佛果 Buddha-fruition. They are a 別教 Differentiated School series and all are associated with 中道 the school of the 中 or middle way.
 +
 +六成就 Six perfections (some say five, some seven) found in the opening phrase of each sutra: (1) '​Thus'​ implies perfect faith; (2) ' have I heard, ' perfect hearing; (3) 'once, 'the perfect time; (4) 'the Buddha, ' the perfect lord or master; (5) 'on Mt. Gṛdhrakūṭa,​ ' the perfect place; (6) 'with the great assembly of bhikṣus, ' the perfect assembly.
 +
 +六方 The six directions— E. W. N. S. above and below.
 +
 +六方禮 The brahman morning act of bathing and paying homage in the six directions; observing the '​well-born'​ do this; the Buddha is said to have given the discourse in the 善生經.
 +
 +六方護念,​ 六方證明 (or 六方證誠) The praises of Amitābha proclaimed by the Buddhas of the six directions.
 +
 +六時 The six '​hours'​ or periods in a day, three for night and three for day, i. e. morning noon, evening; night, midnight, and dawn. Also, the six divisions of the year, two each of spring, summer, and winter.
 +
 +六時懺 six daily periods of worship.
 +
 +六時三昧 six daily periods of meditation.
 +
 +六時不斷 six daily periods of unintermitting devotions.
 +
 +六時禮讚 six daily periods of worship of ceremonial.
 +
 +六染心 The six mental '​taints'​ of the Awakening of Faith 起心論. Though mind-essence is by nature pure and without stain, the condition of 無明 ignorance, or innocence, permits of taint or defilement corresponding to the following six phases: (1) 執相應染 the taint interrelated to attachment, or holding the seeming for the real; it is the state of 執取相 and 名字相 which is cut off in the final pratyeka and śrāvaka stage and the bodhisattva 十住 of faith; (2) 不斷相應染 the taint interrelated to the persisting attraction of the causes of pain and pleasure; it is the 相續相 finally eradicated in the bodhisattva 初地 stage of purity; (3) 分別智相應染 the taint interrelated to the '​particularizing intelligence'​ which discerns things within and without this world; it is the first 智相, cut off in the bodhisattva 七地 stage of spirituality;​ (4) 現色不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint, i. e. of the '​ignorant'​ mind as yet hardly discerning subject from object, of accepting an external world; the third 現相 cut of in the bodhisattva 八地 stage of emancipation from the material; (5) 能見心不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting a perceptive mind, the second 轉相, cut of in the bodhisattva 九地 of intuition, or emancipation from mental effort; (6) 根本業不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting the idea of primal action or activity in the absolute; it is the first 業相, and cut of in the 十地 highest bodhisattva stage, entering on Buddhahood. See Suzuki'​s translation,​ 80-1.
 +
 +六相 The six characteristics found in everything— hole and parts, unity and diversity, entirety and (its) fractions.
 +
 +六根 The six indriyas or sense-organs:​ eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. See also 六入, 六境, 六塵, and 六處.
 +
 +六根五用 Substitution of one organ for another, or use of one organ to do the work of all the others, which is a Buddha'​s power.
 +
 +六根功德 The powers of the six senses, i. e. the achievement by purification of their interchange of function.
 +
 +六根懺悔 A penitential service over the sins of the six senses.
 +
 +六根淸淨 The six organs and their purification in order to develop their unlimited power and interchange,​ as in the case of a Buddha. This full development enables e. g. the eye to see everything in a great chiliocosm from its highest heaven down to its lowest hells and all the beings past, present, and future, with all the karma of each.
 +
 +[136]
 +
 +六根淸淨位 The state of the organs thus purified is defined by Tiantai as the 十信位 of the 別教, or the 相似卽 of the 圓教, v. 六卽.
 +
 +六欲 The six sexual attractions arising from color; form; carriage; voice (or speech); softness (or smoothness);​ and features.
 +
 +六欲天 The devalokas, i. e. the heavens of desire, i. e. with sense-organs;​ the first is described as half-way up Mt. Sumeru, the second at its summit, and the rest between it and the Brahmalokas;​ for list v. 六天. Descriptions are given in the 智度論 9 and the 倶舍論 8. They are also spoken of as 六欲天婬相,​ i. e. as still in the region of sexual desire.
 +
 +六欲四禪 the six heavens where sexual desire continues, and the four dhyāna heavens of purity above them free from such desire.
 +
 +六法戒 The six prohibition rules for a female devotee: indelicacy of contact with a male; purloining four cash; killing animals; untruthfulness;​ food after the midday meal; and wine-drinking. Abbreviated as 六法.
 +
 +六法 is also a term for 六法念.
 +
 +六波 The six pāramitās,​ v. 波羅密.
 +
 +六無常六譬 v. 六喩.
 +
 +六煩惱 v. 六大煩惱.
 +
 +六物 The six things personal to a monk— saṅghāṭī,​ the patch robe; uttarā saṅghāṭī,​ the stole of seven pieces; antara-vaasaka,​ the skirt or inner garment of five pieces; the above are the 三衣 three garments: paatra, begging bowl; ni.siidana, a stool: and a water-strainer:​ the six are also called the 三衣六物.
 +
 +六瑞 The six auspicious indications attributed to the Buddha as a preliminary to his delivery of the Lotus Sutra, see 法華經, 序品: (1) his opening address on the infinite; (2) his samādhi; (3) the rain of flowers; (4) the earthquake; (5) the delight of the beholders; (6) the Buddha-ray.
 +
 +六界 The six elements: earth, water, fire, air (or wind), space, and mind; idem 六大.
 +
 +六界聚 The (human) body, which is composed of the six elements 六界.
 +
 +六畜 The six animals likened to the six organs 六根, v. 六衆生.
 +
 +六神通 The six transcendental,​ or magical, powers, v. 六通.
 +
 +六祖 The six patriarchs of the Ch'an (Zen) school 禪宗, who passed down robe and begging bowl in succession i. e. Bodhidharma,​ Huike, Sengcan, Daoxin, Hongren, and Huineng 達摩, 慧可, 僧璨, 道信, 弘忍, and 慧能.
 +
 +六種住 The six Bodhisattva-stages in the Bodhisattva-bhumi sutra 菩薩地持經 are: (1) 種性住 the attainment of the Buddha-seed nature in the 十住; (2) 解行住 of discernment and practice in the 十行 and 十廻向; (3) 淨心住 of purity by attaining reality in the 初地見道;​ (4) 行道迹住 of progress in riddance of incorrect thinking, in the 二地 to the 七地; (5) 決定住 of powers of correct decision and judgment in the eighth and ninth 地; (6) 究竟住 of the perfect Bodhisattva stage in the tenth 地 and the 等覺位, but not including the 妙覺位 which is the Buddha-stage.
 +
 +六種倶生惑 The six deceivers common to all the living— greed, anger, torpor, ignorance, doubt, and incorrect views.
 +
 +六種決定 The six kinds of certainty resulting from observance of the six pāramitās:​ 財成決定 the certainty of wealth; 生勝決定 of rebirth in honorable families; 不退決定 of no retrogression (to lower conditions);​ 修習決定 of progress in practice; 定業決定 of unfailingly good karma; 無功用決定 of effortless abode in truth and wisdom. 大乘莊嚴論 12.
 +
 +六種印 The six seals, or proofs, i. e. the six pāramitās,​ 六度.
 +
 +六種因 v. 六因.
 +
 +六種外道 The six kinds of ascetics; also 六種苦行外道;​ 六術; v. 六行.
 +
 +六種巧方便 The six able devices of Bodhisattvas:​ (1) preaching deep truths in simple form to lead on people gladly to believe; (2) promising them every good way of realizing their desires, of wealth, etc.; (3) showing a threatening aspect to the disobedient to induce reform; (4) rebuking and punishing them with a like object; (5) granting wealth to induce grateful offerings and almsgiving; (6) descending from heaven, leaving home, attaining bodhi, and leading all to joy and purity. 菩薩地持經 8.
 +
 +[137]
 +
 +六種性 For the first five see 五種道; the sixth is the Buddha stage of 妙覺性. Cf. 六種位.
 +
 +六種觀 The meditation on the six natures 六種性.
 +
 +六種正行 The fifth of the 五種正行 q. v. is expanded into six kinds of proper practice: reading and intoning, studying, worshipping,​ invoking, praising, and making offerings.
 +
 +六種釋 idem 六離合釋.
 +
 +六種震動 The six earthquakes,​ or earth-shakings,​ also 六種動相,​ of which there are three different categories. I, Those at the Buddha'​s conception, birth, enlightenment,​ first preaching, when Māra besought him to live, and at his nirvana; some omit the fifth and after '​birth'​ add '​leaving home '. II. The six different kinds of shaking of the chiliocosm, or universe, when the Buddha entered into the samādhi of joyful wandering, see 大品般若經 1, i. e. east rose and west sank, and so on with w. e., n. s., s. n., middle and borders, borders and middle. III. Another group is shaking, rising, waving, reverberating,​ roaring, arousing, the first three referring to motion, the last three to sounds; see the above 般若經; which in later translations gives shaking, rising, reverberating,​ beating, roaring, crackling.
 +
 +六窗一猿 Six windows and one monkey (climbing in and out), i. e. the six organs of sense and the active mind.
 +
 +六箭 The six arrows, i. e. the six senses; v. 六塵.
 +
 +六結 A cloth or cord tied in six consecutive double loops and knots. The cloth represents the fundamental unity, the knots the apparent diversity. v. 楞伽經 5.
 +
 +六罪人 The six kinds of offender, i. e. one who commits any of the 四重 four grave sins, or destroys harmony in the order, or sheds a Buddha'​s blood.
 +
 +六羅漢 The six arhats i. e. Śākyamuni and his first five disciples, cf. 五羅漢.
 +
 +六群比丘 The six common-herd bhikṣus, to whose improper or evil conduct is attributed the laying down of many of the laws by Śākyamuni;​ also 六衆; different lists of names are given, the generally accepted list indicating Nanda, Upananda, Aśvaka, Punarvasu, Chanda, and Udāyin. Udāyin is probably Kalodayin, a name given in other lists.
 +
 +六自在王 The six sovereign rulers, i. e. the six senses, see 六根.
 +
 +六舟 The six boats, i. e. the six pāramitās 六度 for ferrying to the bank beyond mortality.
 +
 +六般神足 The six supernatural signs; idem 六瑞.
 +
 +六苦行 The heretics of the six austerities are referred to as 六苦行外道;​ v. 六行.
 +
 +六萬藏 The sixty thousand verses of the Buddha-law which Devadatta could recite, an ability which did not save him from the avīci hell.
 +
 +六著心 (六著) The six bonds, or the mind of the six bonds: greed, love, hate, doubt, lust, pride.
 +
 +六蔽 The six sins that smother the six pāramitās:​ grudging, commandment-breaking,​ anger, family attachment, confused thoughts, and stupid ignorance.
 +
 +六處 ṣaḍāyatana. The six places, or abodes of perception or sensation, one of the nidānas, see 十二因緣;​ they are the 六根 or six organs of sense, but the term is also used for the 六入 and 六境 q. v.; also 六塵.
 +
 +六衆 idem 六羣比丘.
 +
 +六衆生 The six senses 六根 are likened to six wild creatures in confinement always struggling to escape. Only when they are domesticated will they be happy. So is it with the six senses and the taming power of Buddha truth. The six creatures are a dog, a bird, a snake, a hyena, a crocodile (śiśumāra),​ and a monkey.
 +
 +六行 Among Buddhists the term means the practice of the 六度 six pāramitās;​ it is referred, among outsiders, to the six austerities of the six kinds of heretics: (1) 自餓 starvation; (2) 投淵 naked cave-dwelling (or, throwing oneself down precipices);​ (3) 赴火 self-immolation,​ or self-torturing by fire; (4) 自坐 sitting naked in public; (5) 寂默 dwelling in silence among graves; (6) 牛狗 living as animals.
 +
 +[138]
 +
 +六行觀 The six meditations,​ also called 厭欣觀; 六妙行 comparing the 下地 lower realms with the 上地 higher, the six following characters being the subject of meditation: the three lower represent 麤 coarseness, 苦 suffering, and 障 resistance; these in meditation are seen as distasteful:​ while the higher are the 靜 calm, 妙 mystic, 離 free, which are matters for delight. By this meditation on the distasteful and the delectable the delusions of the lower realms may be overcome.
 +
 +六術 idem 六種外道;​ see 六行.
 +
 +六衰 The six ruiners, i. e. the attractions of the six senses, idem 六塵, 六賊 q. v.
 +
 +六裁 The six decisions, i. e. the concepts formed through the mental contact of the six senses; later called 六觸.
 +
 +六親 The six immediate relations— father and mother, wife and child, elder and younger brothers.
 +
 +六觀法 (六觀) cf. 六種性 and 六位.
 +
 +六觀音 The six kinds of Guanyin. There are two groups— I. That of Tiantai: 大悲 most pitiful; 大慈 most merciful; 師子無畏 of lion-courage;​ 大光普照 of universal light; 天人丈夫 leader amongst gods and men; 大梵深遠 the great omnipresent Brahma. Each of this bodhisattva'​s six qualities of pity, etc., breaks the hindrances 三障 respectively of the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and devas. II. As thousand-handed;​ the holy one; horseheaded;​ eleven-faced;​ Cundī (or Marīci); with the wheel of sovereign power.
 +
 +六解一亡 'When the six knots are untied the unity disappears. ' The six knots represent the six organs 六根 causing mortality, the cloth or cord tied in a series of knots represents nirvana. This illustrates the interdependence of nirvana and mortality. Cf. 六結; v. 梯伽經 5.
 +
 +六觸 idem 六裁.
 +
 +六論 The six 外道論 vedāṇgas,​ works which are '​regarded as auxiliary to and even in some sense as part of the Veda, their object being to secure the proper pronunciation and correctness of the text and the right employment of the Mantras of sacrifice as taught in the Brāhmaṇas '. M. W. They are spoken of together as the 四皮陀六論 four Vedas and six śāstras, and the six are Sikṣā, Chandas, Vyākarana, Nirukta, Jyotiṣa, and Kalpa.
 +
 +六譬 The six metaphors, v. 六衆生.
 +
 +六諦 The six logical categories of the Vaiśeṣika philosophy: dravya, substance; guṇa, quality; karman, motion or activity; sāmānya, generality; viśeṣa, particularity;​ samavāya, inherence: Keith, Logic, 179. Eitel has '​substance,​ quality, action, existence, the unum et diversum, and the aggregate'​.
 +
 +六賊 The six cauras, or robbers, i. e. the six senses; the 六根 sense organs are the 媒 '​matchmakers',​ or medial agents, of the six robbers. The 六賊 are also likened to the six pleasures of the six sense organs. Prevention is by not acting with them, i. e. the eye avoiding beauty, the ear sound, nose scent, tongue flavors, body seductions, and mind uncontrolled thoughts.
 +
 +六趣 The six directions of reincarnation,​ also 六道: (1) 地獄趣 naraka-gati,​ or that of the hells; (2) 餓鬼趣 preta-gati, of hungry ghosts; (3) 畜生趣 tiryagyoni-gati,​ of animals; (4) 阿修羅趣 asura-gati, of malevolent nature spirits; (5 ) 人趣 manuṣya-gati,​ of human existence; (6) 天趣 deva-gati, of deva existence. The 六趣輪廻經 is attributed to Aśvaghoṣa.
 +
 +六足尊 The six-legged Honored One, one of the five 明王 fierce guardians of Amitābha, i. e. 大威德, who has six heads, faces, arms, and legs; rides on an ox; and is an incarnation of Mañjuśrī. The 六足阿毘曇摩 Jñāna-prasthāna-saṭpādābhidharma is a philosophical work in the Canon.
 +
 +六輪 The six kinds of cakravartī,​ or wheel-kings,​ each allotted to one of the 六位; the iron-wheel king to the 十信位, copper 十住, silver 十行, gold 十廻向, crystal 十地, and pearl 等覺.
 +
 +六通 abhijñā, or ṣaḍ abhijñā. The six supernatural or universal powers acquired by a Buddha, also by an arhat through the fourth degree of dhyāna. The '​southern'​ Buddhists only have the first five, which are also known in China; v. 五神通; the sixth is 漏盡通 (漏盡智證通) āsravakṣaya-jñāna,​ supernatural consciousness of the waning of vicious propensities.
 +
 +[139]
 +
 +六道 The six ways or conditions of sentient existence; v. 六趣; the three higher are the 上三途, the three lower 下三途.
 +
 +六道佛菩薩 The Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the six gati, i. e. the six dizang 六地藏 q. v.; also the 六觀音 q. v.; the six dizang are also styled 六道能化菩薩 Bodhisattvas who can change the lot of those in the six gati.
 +
 +六道四生 The four modes of the six rebirths — womb, egg, moisture, or transformation.
 +
 +六道四聖 The six ways of rebirth, see above, and the four holy ways of rebirth, the latter being respectively into the realms of śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas,​ bodhisattvas,​ and Buddhas; the ten are known as the 十界.
 +
 +六道集經 A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth.
 +
 +六道伽陀經 A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth.
 +
 +六部大乘經 The six works chosen by Cien 慈恩 as authoritative in the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, i. e. 大方廣佛華嚴經 of which there are three translations;​ 解深密經4 tr.; 如來出現功德莊嚴經 untranslated;​ 阿毘達磨經 untranslated;​ 楞伽經 3 tr.; 厚嚴經 (also called 大乘密嚴經).
 +
 +六離合釋 Ṣaṭ-samāsa;​ also 六種釋 (or 六合釋) the six interpretations of compound terms, considered in their component parts or together. (1) 持業釋 or 同依釋 karmadhāraya,​ referring to the equality of dependence of both terms, e. g. 大乘 Mahāyāna, '​great'​ and '​vehicle'​),​ both equally essential to '​Mahāyāna'​ with its specific meaning; (2) 依主釋 (or 六士釋) tatpuruṣa,​ containing a principal term, e. g. 眼識 eye-perception,​ where the eye is the qualifying term; (3) 有財釋 (or 多財釋) bahuvrīhi, the sign of possession, e. g. 覺者 he who has enlightenment;​ (4) 相違釋 dvandva, a term indicating two separate ideas, e. g. 教觀 teaching and meditation; (5) 鄰近釋 avyayībhava,​ an adverbial compound, or a term resulting from '​neighboring'​ association,​ e. g. 念處 thought or remembering place, i. e. memory; (6) 帶數釋 dvigu, a numerative term, e. g. 五蘊 pañcaskandha,​ the five skandhas. M. W. gives the order as 4, 3, 1, 2, 6, and 5.
 +
 +六難 The six difficult things— to be born in a Buddha-age, to hear the true Buddha-law, to beget a good heart, to be born in the central kingdom (India), to be born in human form, and to be perfect; see, Nirvana Sutra 23.
 +
 +六震 idem 六種震.
 +
 +六面尊 idem 六足尊.
 +
 +六麤 The six '​coarser'​ stages arising from the 三細 or three finer stages which in turn are produced by original 無明, the unenlightened condition of ignorance; v. Awakening of Faith 起信論. They are the states of (1) 智相 knowledge or consciousness of like and dislike arising from mental conditions; (2) 相續相 consciousness of pain and pleasure resulting from the first, causing continuous responsive memory; (3) 執取相 attachment or clinging, arising from the last; (4) 計名字相 assigning names according to the seeming and unreal with fixation of ideas); (5) 起業 the consequent activity with all the variety of deeds; (6) 業繋苦相 the suffering resulting from being tied to deeds and their karma consequences.
 +
 +六齋 The six monthly poṣadha, or fast days: the 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. They are the days on which the Four Mahārājas 四天王 take note of human conduct and when evil demons are busy, so that great care is required and consequently nothing should be eaten after noon, hence the '​fast',​ v. 梵王經 30th command. The 智度論 13 describes them as 惡日 evil or dangerous days, and says they arose from an ancient custom of cutting of the flesh and casting it into the fire.
 +
 +切 To cut, carve; a whole; urgent; the 反切 system of spelling, i. e. the combination of the initial sound of one Chinese word with the final sound of another to indicate the sound of a third, a system introduced by translators of Buddhist works; v. 反.
 +
 +切勝 A title of Aśvaghoṣa.
 +
 +分 To divide. separate; a fractional part: a share: a duty.
 +
 +分位 avasthaa; defined as 時分 time and 地位 position; i. e. a state, e. g. the state of water disturbed into waves, waves being also a state of water; a dependent state.
 +
 +分別 vibhajya, or vibhaaga; parikalpana;​ vikalpa; divide, discriminate,​ discern, reason; to leave. See also 三分別.
 +
 +三分別 three forms of discrimination (1) 自性分別 natural discrimination,​ e. g. of present objects; (2) 計度分別 calculating discrimination (as to future action); (3) 隨念分別 discriminating by remembrance of affairs that are past.
 +
 +分別事識 The third of the three kinds of perception 識, i. e. real (or abstract), manifest, and reasoned (or inferred); it includes all the eight 識 except the ālayavijñāna.
 +
 +分別智 viveka. Differentiating knowledge, discrimination of phenomena, as contrasted with 無分別智 the knowledge of the fundamental identity of all things.
 +
 +[140]
 +
 +分別智相應染 The taint on mind following upon the action of discriminating,​ i. e. one of the six 染心; v. Awakening of Faith 起信論.
 +
 +分別經 There are several sutras and śāstras with various 分別 titles.
 +
 +分別說三 The One Vehicle discriminated as '​three'​ for the sake of the ignorant.
 +
 +分別說部 The Vibhajyavādins. A school the origin of which is obscure. The meaning of the term, not necessarily limited to this school, is the method of particularization in dealing with questions in debate. It is suggested that this school was established to harmonize the differences between the Sthavirās and Mahāsāṅghikas. The Abhidharma Pitaka 'as we have it in the Pali Canon, is the definite work of this school ', Keith, 153.
 +
 +分別識 The discriminating perception, i. e. of 意 mind, the sixth 根 organ.
 +
 +分別起 Delusions arising from reasoning and teaching, in contrast with 倶生起 errors that arise naturally among people.
 +
 +分喩 A metaphor only correct in part, e. g. a face like the moon.
 +
 +分散 visarj. To dismiss, scatter, separate, as an assembly.
 +
 +分析 To divide, separate, leave the world, v. 析.
 +
 +分歲 New Year's eve, the dividing night of the year, also styled 歲夜.
 +
 +分段 bhāgya. Lot, dispensation,​ allotment, fate.
 +
 +分段生死,​ 分段死, 分段身, 分段三道 all refer to the mortal lot, or dispensation in regard to the various forms of reincarnation.
 +
 +分段同居 Those of the same lot, or incarnation,​ dwelling together, e. g. saints and sinners in this world.
 +
 +分段輪廻 The wheel of fate, or reincarnation.
 +
 +分段變易 Includes (1) 分段生死,​ the condition and station resulting from good or bad karma in the three realms (desire, form, and formlessness) and in the six paths; (2) 變易生死 the condition and station resulting from good karma in the realms beyond transmigration,​ including arhats and higher saints.
 +
 +分相門 The doctrine which differentiates the three vehicles from the one vehicle; as 該攝門 is that which maintains the three vehicles to be the one.
 +
 +分眞卽 idem 分證卽.
 +
 +分衛 piṇḍapāta,​ 賓荼波多;​ 儐荼夜 food given as alms; piṇḍapātika means one who lives on alms; it is also interpreted as 團墮 lumps (of food) falling (into the begging bowl); the reference is to the Indian method of rolling the cooked food into a bolus for eating, or such a bolus given to the monks.
 +
 +分證卽 One of the Tiantai 六卽 q. v. Also 分眞卽.
 +
 +分身 Parturition:​ in Buddhism it means a Buddha'​s power to reproduce himself ad infinitum and anywhere.
 +
 +分那柯 pūrṇaka, i. e. 滿 full; name of a yakṣa, or demon.
 +
 +分陀利迦 (also see 分陀利) puṇḍarīka,​ 芬陀; 分荼利迦,​ 分荼利華,​ 奔荼利迦,​ 奔荼利華;​ 本拏哩迦;​ the 白蓮花 white lotus (in full bloom). It is also termed 百葉華 (or 八葉華) hundred (or eight) leaf flower. For Saddharma-puṇḍarīka,​ the Lotus Sutra, v. 妙法蓮華經. The eighth and coldest hell is called after this flower, because the cold lays bare the bones of the wicked, so that they resemble the whiteness of this lotus. It is also called 隨色花; when a bud, it is known as 屈摩羅; and when fading, as 迦摩羅.
 +
 +屈摩羅 the budding phase of the white lotus (puṇḍarīka).
 +
 +迦摩羅 the fading phase of the white lotus (puṇḍarīka) .
 +
 +勿 Not; do not; translit. m and v.
 +
 +勿伽 mudga; '​phaseolus mungo (both the plant and its beans),'​ M. W.; intp. as 胡豆 and 綠豆 kidney beans by the Fanyi mingyi.
 +
 +勿伽羅子 Maudgalyāyana or Maudgalaputra,​ idem Mahāmaudgalyāyana 目蓮.
 +
 +勿力伽難提 Mṛgānandi,​ or 蜜利伽羅 Mṛgala; rejoicing deer; a śramaṇa called 鹿杖 Lu-chang, who was satisfied with the leavings of other monks; also a previous incarnation of Śākyamuni,​ and of Devadatta, who are both represented as having been deer.
 +
 +勿哩訶婆跋底 B.rhaspati, Jupiter-lord,​ 木星 Jupiter.
 +
 +勾 A hook to entangle, inveigle, arrest; a tick, mark.
 +
 +勾當 An employee in a monastery, especially of the Shingon sect. In Japan, the second rank of official blind men.
 +
 +化 To transform, metamorphose:​ (1) conversion by instruction,​ salvation into Buddhism; (2) magic powers 通力 of transformation,​ of which there are said to be fourteen mental and eight formal kinds. It also has the meaning of immediate appearance out of the void, or creation 無而忽起;​ and of giving alms, spending, digesting, melting, etc.
 +
 +[141]
 +
 +化主 The lord of transformation,​ or conversion, i. e. a Buddha; also one who exhorts believers to give alms for worship: also an almsgiver.
 +
 +化人 A deva or Buddha transformed into human shape.
 +
 +化女 is 化人 in female form.
 +
 +化他 To save others.
 +
 +化他壽 A Buddha'​s long or '​eternal'​ life spent in saving others; implying his powers of unlimited salvation.
 +
 +化佛 nirmāṇabuddha,​ an incarnate, or metamorphosed Buddha: Buddhas and bodhisattvas have universal and unlimited powers of appearance, v. 神通力.
 +
 +化作 To transform (into), create, make.
 +
 +化俗結緣 For the sake of converting the people.
 +
 +化儀 The rules or methods laid down by the Buddha for salvation: Tiantai speaks of 化儀 as transforming method, and 化法 q. v. as transforming truth; its 化儀四教 are four modes of conversion or enlightenment:​ 頓 direct or sudden, 漸 gradual, 祕密 esoteric, and 不定 variable.
 +
 +化制二教 The twofold division of the Buddha'​s teaching into converting or enlightening and discipline, as made by the Vihaya School, v. 化行.
 +
 +化前 In the Amitābha cult the term means before its first sutra, the 觀無量壽經,​ just as 爾前 in the Lotus School means '​before the Lotus.'​
 +
 +化前序 the preface to the 觀經疏 by 善導 Shandao of the Tang dynasty.
 +
 +化前方便 All the expedient, or partial, teaching suited to the conditions before the Wuliangshou jing 無量壽經.
 +
 +化功歸己 The merit of converting others becomes one's own in increased insight and liberation);​ it is the third stage of merit of the Tiantai five stages of meditation and action 觀行五品位.
 +
 +化土 one of the 三土 three kinds of lands, or realms; it is any land or realm whose inhabitants are subject to reincarnation;​ any land which a Buddha is converting, or one in which is the transformed body of a Buddha. These lands are of two kinds, pure like the Tusita heaven, and vile or unclean like this world. Tiantai defines the huatu or the transformation realm of Amitābha as the Pure-land of the West, but other schools speak of huatu as the realm on which depends the nirmāṇakāya,​ with varying definitions. ​
 +
 +化地部 Mahīśāsakah,​ 磨醯奢婆迦部;​ 彌喜捨婆阿;​ 彌婆塞部,​ 正地部 an offshoot from the 說一切有部 or Sarvāstivāda school, supposed to have been founded 300 years after the nirvana. The name Mahisasakah is said to be that of a ruler who '​converted his land' or people; or 正地 '​rectified his land'. The doctrines of the school are said to be similar to those of the 大衆部 Mahāsāṅghika;​ and to have maintained, inter alia, the reality of the present, but not of the past and future; also the doctrine of the void and the non-ego; the production of taint 染 by the five 識 perceptions;​ the theory of nine kinds of non-activity,​ and so on. It was also called 法無去來宗 the school which denied reality to past and future.
 +
 +化城 The magic, or illusion city, in the Lotus Sutra; it typifies temporary or incomplete nirvana, i. e. the imperfect nirvana of Hīnayāna.
 +
 +化境 The region, condition, or environment of Buddha instruction or conversion: similar to 化土.
 +
 +化壇 The altar of transformation,​ i. e. a crematorium.
 +
 +化宮殿 The magical palace, or, palace of joy, held in the fortieth left hand of: Guanyin of the thousand hands; the hand is styled 化宮殿手 or 寶殿手.
 +
 +化導 To instruct and guide.
 +
 +三輪化導 three sovereign powers for converting others are those of 神變 supernatural transformation (i. e. physical 身); 記心 memory or knowledge of all the thoughts of all beings (i. e. mental 意 ); and 教誠 teaching and warning (i. e. oral 口).
 +
 +化導力 Power to instruct and guide, one of the 三力.
 +
 +化尼 The power of a Buddha, or bodhisattva,​ to be transformed into a nun.
 +
 +化屬 The converted followers— of a Buddha, or bodhisattva.
 +
 +化度 To convert and transport, or save.
 +
 +[142]
 +
 +化心 The mind in the transformation body of a Buddha or bodhisattva,​ which apprehends things in their reality.
 +
 +化教 see 化行二教.
 +
 +化樂天 Nirmāṇarati,​ 樂變化天 the fifth of the six desire-heavens,​ 640, 000 yojanas above Meru; it is next above the Tuṣita, or fourth deva. loka; a day is equal to 800 human years; life lasts for 8, 000 years; its inhabitants are eight yojanas in height, and light-emitting;​ mutual smiling produces impregnation and children are born on the knees by metamorphosis,​ at birth equal in development to human children of twelve— hence the '​joy-born heaven'​.
 +
 +化法 Instruction in the Buddhist principles, as 化儀 is in practice, Tiantai in its 化法四教 divides the Buddha'​s teaching during his lifetime into the four periods of 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 Pitaka, Interrelated,​ Differentiated,​ and Complete, or All-embracing.
 +
 +化源 The fount of conversion, or salvation, the beginning of the Buddha'​s teaching.
 +
 +化現 Metamorphosis and manifestation;​ the appearance or forms of a Buddha or bodhisattva for saving creatures may take any form required for that end.
 +
 +化理 The law of phenomenal change— which never rests.
 +
 +化生 aupapādaka,​ or aupapāduka. Direct metamorphosis,​ or birth by transformation,​ one of the 四生, by which existence in any required form is attained in an instant in full maturity. By this birth bodhisattvas residing in Tuṣita appear on earth. Dhyāni Buddhas and Avalokiteśvara are likewise called 化生. It also means unconditional creation at the beginning of a kalpa. Bhuta 部多 is also used with similar meaning. There are various kinds of 化生, e. g. 佛菩薩化生 the transformation of a Buddha or bodhisattva,​ in any form at will, without gestation, or intermediary conditions: 極樂化生,​ birth in the happy land of Amitābha by transformation through the Lotus; 法身化生 the dharmakāya,​ or spiritual body, born or formed on a disciple'​s conversion.
 +
 +化疏 A subscription list, or book; an offering burnt for ease of transmission to the spirit-realm.
 +
 +化相 The transformation form or body (in which the Buddha converts the living).
 +
 +化相三寶 The nirmāṇakāya Buddha in the triratna forms; in Hīnayāna these are the human 16-foot Buddha, his dharma as revealed in the four axioms and twelve nidānas, and his sangha, or disciples, i. e. arhats and pratyekabuddhas.
 +
 +化米 Rice obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction,​ similarly化炭 charcoal and化茶 tea; sometimes used with larger connotation.
 +
 +化炭 charcoal obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction.
 +
 +化茶 tea obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction.
 +
 +化緣 The cause of a Buddha'​s or bodhisattva'​s coming to the world, i. e. the transformation of the living; also, a contribution to the needs of the community.
 +
 +化色 A Buddha'​s or bodhisattva'​s metamorphoses of body, or incarnations at will.
 +
 +化菩薩 A Buddha or bodhisattva transformed:​ into a (human) bodhisattva;​ or a bodhisattva in various metamorphoses.
 +
 +化行 (化行二教) The two lines of teaching: i. e. in the elements, for conversion and admission, and 行教 or 制教 in the practices and moral duties especially for the Order, as represented in the Vinaya; cf. 化制.
 +
 +化誘 To convert and entice (into the way of truth).
 +
 +化身 nirmāṇakāya,​ 應身, 應化身; 變化身 The third characteristic or power of the trikāya 三身, a Buddha'​s metamorphosic body, which has power to assume any shape to propagate the Truth. Some interpret the term as connoting pan-Buddha, that all nature in its infinite variety is the phenomenal 佛身 Buddha-body. A narrower interpretation is his appearance in human form expressed by 應身, while 化身 is used for his manifold other forms of appearances.
 +
 +化生 q. v. means direct '​birth'​ by metamorphosis. It also means the incarnate avaatara of a deity.
 +
 +化生八相 The eight forms of a Buddha from birth to nirvana, v. 八相.
 +
 +化轉 To transform, convert (from evil to good, delusion to deliverance).
 +
 +化迹 The traces or evidences of the Buddha'​s transforming teaching; also 教迹.
 +
 +[143]
 +
 +化道 The way of conversion, transformation,​ or development;​ also 教道.
 +
 +午 Noon.
 +
 +午供 The noon offering (of incense).
 +
 +反 To turn over, turn or send back; contrary; to rebel.
 +
 +反出生死 One of the seven kinds of mortality, i. e. escape from it into nirvana.
 +
 +反切 The system of indicating the initial and final sounds of a character by two others, ascribed to Sun Yen 孫炎 in the third century A D., arising out of the translit. of Sanskrit terms in Buddhist translation.
 +
 +反叉合掌 One of the twelve forms of folded hands, i. e. with interlocking fingers.
 +
 +太 very, great.
 +
 +太子 Kumaararāja. Crownprince. An epithet of Buddhas, and of Mañjuśrī.
 +
 +太子和休經 太子刷護經 There are several 太子, etc. 經. One named the Subaahu-parip.rcchaa was translated under the first title between 265-316 A. D., four leaves; under the second title by Dharmarakṣa during the same period.
 +
 +太孤危生 Life perilous as the (unscaleable) top of the loneliest peak.
 +
 +太虛空 Space, where nothing exists; also 頑空; 偏空.
 +
 +太麤生 A ruffian, a rough fellow.
 +
 +夫 A man; a sage, officer, hero; a husband, mate; a fellow; a particle, i. e. for, so, etc.
 +
 +夫人 A wife; the wife of a king, i. e. a queen, devi.
 +
 +凡夫 The common people, the unenlightened,​ hoi polloi, a common fellow.
 +
 +天 Heaven; the sky; a day; cf. dyo, dyaus also as 提婆 a deva, or divine being, deity; and as 素羅 sura, shining, bright.
 +
 +三種天 The three classes of devas: (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyeka-buddhas. 智度論 7.
 +
 +四種天 The four classes of devas include (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyekabuddhas,​ and (4) 義天 all bodhisattvas above the ten stages 十住. The Buddhas are not included; 智度論 22.
 +
 +五種天 (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyekabuddhas,​ and (4) 義天 all bodhisattvas above the ten stages 十住, and (5) 第一義天 a supreme heaven with bodhisattvas and Buddhas in eternal immutability;​ 涅槃經 23. Cf. 天宮.
 +
 +天上 The heavens above, i. e. the six devalokas 六欲天 of the region of desire and the rupalokas andarupalokas,​ i. e. 色 and 無色界.
 +
 +天上天下唯我獨尊 The first words attributed to Śākyamuni after his first seven steps when born from his mother'​s right side: 'In the heavens above and (earth) beneath I alone am the honoured one. 'This announcement is ascribed to every Buddha, as are also the same special characteristics attributed to every Buddha, hence he is the 如來 come in the manner of all Buddhas. In Mahayanism he is the type of countless other Buddhas in countless realms and periods.
 +
 +天中天 devaatideva:​ deva of devas. The name given to Siddhartha (i. e. Śākyamuni) when, on his presentation in the temple of 天王 Maheśvara (Siva), the statues of all the gods prostrated themselves before him.
 +
 +天主 Devapati. The Lord of devas, a title of Indra.
 +
 +天主教法 Devendra-samaya. Doctrinal method of the lord of devas. A work on royalty in the possession of a son of Raajabalendraketu.
 +
 +天乘 devayāna. The deva vehicle— one of the 五乘 five vehicles; it transports observers of the ten good qualities 十喜 to one of the six deva realms of desire, and those who observe dhyāna meditation to the higher heavens of form and non-form.
 +
 +天人 devas and men; also a name for devas.
 +
 +天人師 `saastaa devamam.syaanaam 舍多提婆摩菟舍喃,​ teacher of devas and men, one of the ten epithets of a Buddha, because he reveals goodness and morality, and is able to save.
 +
 +天人散花身上 The story of the man who saw a disembodied ghost beating a corpse which he said was his body that had led him into all sin, and further on an angel stroking and scattering: lowers on a corpse, which he said was the body he had just left, always his friend.
 +
 +天人道師 idem 天人師.
 +
 +天仙 deva-ṛṣi,​ or devas and rsis, or immortals. Nāgārjuna gives ten classes of ṛṣis whose lifetime is 100, 000 years, then they are reincarnated. Another category is fivefold: 天仙 deva-ṛṣis in the mountains round Sumeru: 神仙 spirit-ṛṣis who roam the air: 人仙 humans who have attained the powers of immortals; 地仙 earth ṛṣis, subterranean;​ 鬼仙 pretas, or malevolent ṛṣis.
 +
 +天使 Divine messengers, especially those of Yama; also his 三天使 three messengers, or lictors— old age, sickness, death; and his 五天使 or 五大使, i. e. the last three together with rebirth and prisons or punishments on earth.
 +
 +天界力士 (天力士) idem 那羅延 Narayana.
 +
 +[144]
 +
 +天冠 A deva-crown, surpassing human thought.
 +
 +天口 The mouth of Brahma, or the gods, a synonym for fire, as that element devours the offerings; to this the 護摩 homa, or fire altar cult is attributed, fire becoming the object of worship for good fortune. Fire is also said to speak for or tell the will of the gods.
 +
 +天台山 The Tiantai or Heavenly Terrace mountain, the location of the Tiantai sect; its name is attributed to the 三台 six stars at the foot of Ursa Major, under which it is supposed to be, but more likely because of its height and appearance. It gives its name to a xian 縣 in the Zhejiang taizhou 浙江台州 prefecture, south-west of Ningbo. The monastery, or group of monasteries,​ was founded there by 智顗 Zhiyi, who is known as 天台大師.
 +
 +天台三教 The three modes of Śākyamuni'​s teaching as explained by the Tiantai sect: (1) the sudden, or immediate teaching, by which the learner is taught the whole truth at once 頓教; (2) the gradual teaching 漸教; (3) the undetermined or variable method-whereby he is taught what he is capable of receiving 不定. Another category is 漸 gradual, 頓 direct, and 圓 perfect, the last being found in the final or complete doctrine of the 法華經 Lotus Sutra. Another is: (1) 三藏教 the Tripiṭaka doctrine, i. e. the orthodox Hīnayāna; (2) 通教 intermediate,​ or interrelated doctrine, i. e. Hīnayāna-cum-Mahāyāna;​ (3) 別教 differentiated or separated doctrine, i. e. the early Mahāyāna as a cult or development,​ as distinct from Hīnayāna.
 +
 +天台九神 The nine patriarchs of the Tiantai sect: 龍樹 Nāgārjuna;​ 慧文 Hui-wen of the 北齊 Northern Qi dynasty; 慧思 Huici of 南嶽 Nanyue; 智者 (or 智顗) Zhizhe, or Zhiyi; 灌頂 Guanding of 章安 Changan; 法華 Fahua; 天宮 Tiangung; 左溪 Zuoxi; and 湛然 Zhanran of 荊溪. The ten patriarchs 十祖 are the above nine with 道邃 Daosui considered a patriarch in Japan, because he was the teacher of Dengyo Daishi who brought the Tendai system to that country in the ninth century. Some name Huiwen and Huici as the first and second patriarchs of the school of thought developed by Zhiyi at Tiantai; v. 天台宗.
 +
 +天台八教 八教 The 化法四教 or four periods of teaching, i. e. 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 Hīnayāna, Interrelated,​ Differentiated,​ and Complete or Final; the 化儀四教 q, v. are the four modes of teaching, direct, gradual, esoteric, and indefinite.
 +
 +天台四教 The four types each of method and doctrine, as defined by Tiantai; see 天台八教.
 +
 +天台大師 The actual founder of the Tiantai '​school'​ 智顗 Zhiyi; his 字 was 德安 De-an, and his surname 陳 Chen, A. D. 538-597. Studying under 慧思 Huici of Hunan, he was greatly influenced by his teaching; and found in the Lotus Sutra the real interpretation of Mahayanism. In 575 he first came to Tiantai and established his school, which in turn was the foundation of important Buddhist schools in Korea and Japan.
 +
 +天台宗 The Tiantai, or Tendai, sect founded by 智顗 Zhiyi. It bases its tenets on the Lotus Sutra 法華經 with the 智度論, 涅盤經, and 大品經; it maintains the identity of the Absolute and the world of phenomena, and attempts to unlock the secrets of all phenomena by means of meditation. It flourished during the Tang dynasty. Under the Sung, when the school was decadent, arose 四明 Ciming, under whom there came the division of 山家 Hill or Tiantai School and 山外 the School outside, the latter following 悟恩 Wuen and in time dying out; the former, a more profound school, adhered to Ciming; it was from this school that the Tiantai doctrine spread to Japan. The three principal works of the Tiantai founder are called 天台三部,​ i. e. 玄義 exposition of the deeper meaning of the Lotus; 文句 exposition of its text; and 止觀 meditation; the last was directive and practical; it was in the line of Bodhidharma,​ stressing the 'inner light'​.
 +
 +天台律 The laws of the Tiantai sect as given in the Lotus, and the ten primary commandments and forty-eight secondary commandments of 梵網經 the Sutra of Brahma'​s Net 梵網經 (Brahmajāla);​ they are ascribed as the 大乘圓頓戒 the Mahāyāna perfect and immediate moral precepts, immediate in the sense of the possibility of all instantly becoming Buddha.
 +
 +天台韶國師 Tiantai Shao guoshi, a Chekiang priest who revived the Tiantai sect by journeying to Korea, where the only copy of Zhiyi'​s works existed, copied them, and returned to revive the Tiantai school. 錢俶 Qianshu (A. D. 960 -997), ruler of 吳越 Wuyue, whose capital was at Hangchow, entitled him Imperial Teacher.
 +
 +天后 Queen of Heaven, v. 摩利支.
 +
 +天地鏡 The mirror of heaven and earth, i. e. the Prajñāpāramitā-sūtra,​ see 般若經.
 +
 +天堂 The mansions of the devas, located between the earth and the Brahmalokas;​ the heavenly halls; heaven. The Ganges is spoken of as 天堂來者 coming from the heavenly mansions.
 +
 +天堂地獄 The heavens and the hells, places of reward or punishment for moral conduct.
 +
 +天女 devakanyā; apsaras; goddesses in general; attendants on the regents of the sun and moon; wives of Gandharvas, the division of the sexes is maintained throughout the devalokas 六 天.
 +
 +[145]
 +
 +天子 A son of Heaven. The Emperor-Princes,​ i. e. those who in previous incarnations have kept the middle and lower grades of the ten good qualities 十善 and, in consequence,​ are born here as princes. It is the title of one of the four mara, who is 天主 or lord of the sixth heaven of desire; he is also known as 天子魔 (天子業魔) and with his following opposes the Buddha-truth.
 +
 +天宮 devapura; devaloka; the palace of devas, the abode of the gods, i. e. the six celestial worlds situated above the Meru, between the earth and the Brahmalokas. v. 六天.
 +
 +天宮寳藏 A library of the sutras. The treasury of all the sutras in the Tuṣita Heaven in Maitreya'​s palace. Another collection is said to be in the 龍宮 or Dragon'​s palace, but is associated with Nāgārjuna.
 +
 +天尊 The most honoured among devas, a title of a Buddha, i. e. the highest of divine beings; also used for certain maharāja protectors of Buddhism and others in the sense of honoured devas. Title applied by the Daoists to their divinities as a counterpart to the Buddhist 世尊.
 +
 +天師 Preceptor of the emperor, a title of the monk 一行 Yixsing, and of the so-called Daoist Pope.
 +
 +天帝 King, or emperor of Heaven, i. e. 因陀羅 Indra, i. e. 釋 (釋迦); 釋迦婆; 帝 (帝釋); Śakra, king of the devaloka 忉利天, one of the ancient gods of India, the god of the sky who fights the demons with his vajra, or thunderbolt. He is inferior to the trimūrti, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, having taken the place of Varuṇa, or sky. Buddhism adopted him as its defender, though, like all the gods, he is considered inferior to a Buddha or any who have attained bodhi. His wife is Indrāṇī.
 +
 +天帝生驢胎 Lord of devas, born in the womb of an ass, a Buddhist fable, that Indra knowing he was to be reborn from the womb of an ass, in sorrow sought to escape his fate, and was told that trust in Buddha was the only way. Before he reached Buddha his life came to an end and he found himself in the ass. His resolve, however, had proved effective, for the master of the ass beat her so hard that she dropped her foal dead. Thus Indra returned to his former existence and began his ascent to Buddha.
 +
 +天帝釋城 The city of Śakra, the Lord of devas, called 善見城 Sudarśana city good to behold, or 喜見城 city a joy to behold.
 +
 +天弓 The deva-bow, the rainbow.
 +
 +天德甁 The vase of deva virtue, i. e. the bodhi heart, because all that one desires comes from it, e. g. the 如意珠 the talismanic pearl. Cf. 天意樹.
 +
 +天愛 devānāṃpriya. '​Beloved of the gods, 'i. e. natural fools, simpletons, or the ignorant.
 +
 +天意樹 The tree in each devaloka which produces whatever the devas desire.
 +
 +天授 Heaven-bestowed,​ a name of Devadatta, v. 提.
 +
 +天有 Existence and joy as a deva, derived from previous devotion, the fourth of the seven forms of existence.
 +
 +天根 The phallic emblem of Śiva, which Xuanzang found in the temples of India; he says the Hindus '​worship it without being ashamed'​.
 +
 +天梯山 The ladder-to-heaven hill or monastery, i. e. 天台 Tiantai mountain in Chekiang.
 +
 +天樂 Heavenly music, the music of the inhabitants of the heavens. Also one of the three '​joys'​— that of those in the heavens.
 +
 +天機 Natural capacity; the nature bestowed by Heaven.
 +
 +天樹王 The pārijāta tree 波利質多 which grows in front of Indra'​s palace— the king among the heavenly trees.
 +
 +天狗 ulkā, 憂流迦the '​heavenly dog' i. e. a meteor. Also 'a star in Argo' according to Williams.
 +
 +天獄 The heavens and hells; devalokas and purgatories.
 +
 +天王 Maharāja-devas;​ 四天王 Caturmahārāja. The four deva kings in the first or lowest devaloka, on its four sides. E. 持國天王 Dhṛtarāṣṭra. S. 增長天王 Virūḍhaka. W. 廣目天王 Virūpākṣa. N. 多聞天王 Dhanada, or Vaiśravaṇa. The four are said to have appeared to 不空 Amogha in a temple in Xianfu, some time between 742-6, and in consequence he introduced their worship to China as guardians of the monasteries,​ where their images are seen in the hall at the entrance, which is sometimes called the 天王堂 hall of the deva-kings. 天王 is also a designation of Siva the 大白在, i. e. Maheśvara 摩醯首羅,​ the great sovereign ruler.
 +
 +[146]
 +
 +天王如來 Devarāja-tathāgata,​ the name by which Devadatta, the enemy of Śākyamuni,​ will be known on his future appearance as a Buddha in the universe called 天道 Devasopāna;​ his present residence in hell being temporary for his karmaic expurgation.
 +
 +天界 idem天道.
 +
 +天畫 deva lines or pictures.
 +
 +天皇 Deva-king; the Tang monk 道悟 Daowu of the 天皇 Tianhuang monastery at 荊州 Jingzhou.
 +
 +天眞 bhūtatathatā,​ permanent reality underlying all phenomena, pure and unchanging e. g. the sea in contrast with the waves; nature, the natural, 天然之眞理,​ 非人之造作者 natural reality, not of human creation.
 +
 +天眞佛 The real or ultimate Buddha; the bhūtatathatā;​ another name for the Dharmakāya,​ the source of all life.
 +
 +天眞獨朗 The fundamental reality or bhūtatathatā,​ is the only illumination. It is a dictum of 道邃 Daosui of the Tang to the famous Japanese monk 傳教 Dengyō. The apprehension of this fundamental reality makes all things clear, including the universality of Buddha- hood. It also interprets the phrase 一心三觀 that 空中假 the void, the 'mean ', the seeming, are all aspects of the one mind.
 +
 +天眼 divyacakṣṣus. The deva-eye; the first abhijñā, v. 六通; one of the five classes of eyes; divine sight, unlimited vision; all things are open to it, large and small, near and distant, the destiny of all beings in future rebirths. It may be obtained among men by their human eyes through the practice of meditation 修得: and as a reward or natural possession by those born in the deva heavens 報得. Cf 天耳, etc.
 +
 +天眼力 The power of the celestial or deva eye, one of the ten powers of a Buddha.
 +
 +天眼明 One of the three enlightenments 三明, or clear visions of the saint, which enables him to know the future rebirths of himself and all beings.
 +
 +天眼智 The wisdom obtained by the deva eye.
 +
 +天眼智證通 (天眼智通) The complete universal knowledge and assurance of the deva eye.
 +
 +天眼智通願 The sixth of Amitābha'​s forty-eight vows, that he would not enter the final stage until all beings had obtained this divine vision.
 +
 +天眼通 idem 天眼; also a term used by those who practise hypnotism.
 +
 +天督 Tiandu, an erroneous form of 天竺, or 印度 Yindu, India.
 +
 +天祠 devālaya, devatāgāra,​ or devatāgṛha. Brahminical temples.
 +
 +天神 deva 提婆 or devatā 泥縛多. (1) Brahma and the gods in general, including the inhabitants of the devalokas, all subject to metem-psychosis. (2) The fifteenth patriarch, a native of South India, or Ceylon and disciple of Nāgārjuna;​ he is also styled Devabodhisattva 提婆菩薩,​ Āryadeva 聖天, and Nilanetra 靑目 blue-eyed, or 分別明 clear discriminator. He was the author of nine works and a famous antagonist of Brahmanism.
 +
 +天神地祇 The spirits 天神 are Indra and his retinue; devas in general; the 地祇 are the earth spirits, nāgas, demons, ghosts, etc.
 +
 +天童 Divine youths, i. e. deva guardians of the Buddha-law who appear as Mercuries, or youthful messengers of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas.
 +
 +天童山 天潼山 A famous group of monasteries in the mountains near Ningpo, also called 太白山 Venus planet mountain; this is one of the five famous mountains of China.
 +
 +天竺 (天竺國) India; 竹 zhu is said to have the same sound as 篤 tu, suggesting a connection with the 度 tu in 印度 Indu; other forms are 身毒 Sindhu, Scinde; 賢豆 Hindu; and 印持伽羅. The term is explained by 月 moon, which is the meaning of Indu, but it is said to be so called because the sages of India illumine the rest of the world: or because of the half-moon shape of the land, which was supposed to be 90, 000 li in circumference,​ and placed among other kingdoms like the moon among the stars. Another name is 因陀羅婆他那 ? Indravadana,​ or Indrabhavana,​ the region where Indra dwells. A hill and monastery near Hangchow.
 +
 +天竺三時 (or 天竺三際). The three seasons of an Indian year: Grīṣma, the hot season, from first month, sixteenth day, to fifth month, fifteenth; Varṣākāla,​ the rainy season, fifth month, sixteenth, the to ninth month, fifteenth; Hemanta, the cold season, ninth month, sixteenth, to first month, fifteenth. These three are each divided into two, making six seasons, or six periods: Vasanta and grīṣma, varṣākāla and śarad, hemanta and śiśira. The twelve months are Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaiṣṭha,​ Āṣāḍha,​ Śrāvaṇa,​ Bhādrapada,​ Āśvavuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrṣa,​ Pauṣa, Māgha, and Phālguna.
 +
 +[147]
 +
 +天竺九儀 The nine forms of etiquette of India: speaking softly, bowing the head, raising the hands high, placing hands together, bending knees, kneeling long, hands and knees touching the ground, bowing the head, lowering arms and bending knees, bringing head, arms, and knees to the ground.
 +
 +天竺五山 The five mountains of India on which the Buddha assembled his disciples: Vaibhara, Saptaparnaguha,​ Indrasailaguha,​ Sarpiskundika-pragbhara,​ Grdhrakuta.
 +
 +天羅國 The kingdom of the king with kalmā-ṣapāda,​ i. e. spotted, or striped feet 斑定王; cf. 仁王經.
 +
 +天耳 (天耳通) divyaśrotra,​ deva-ear, celestial ear.
 +
 +天耳智 (天耳智通);​ 天耳智證通 The second of the six abhijñās 六通 by which devas in the form-world, certain arhats through the fourth dhyāna, and others can hear all sounds and understand all languages in the realms of form, with resulting wisdom. For its equivalent interpretation and its 修得 and 報得 v. 天眼.
 +
 +天耳智通願 The seventh of the forty-eight vows of Amitābha, not to become Buddha until all obtain the divine ear.
 +
 +天臂城 Devadarśita or Devadiṣṭa,​ Deva-arm city, but the Sanskrit means deva (or divinely) indicated. The residence of Suprabuddha,​ 善覺長者 father of Māyā, mother of the Buddha.
 +
 +天華 Deva, or divine, flowers, stated in the Lotus Sutra as of four kinds, mandāras, mahāmandāras,​ mañjūṣakas,​ and mahāmañjūṣakas,​ the first two white, the last two red.
 +
 +天蓋 A Buddha'​s canopy, or umbrella; a nimbus of rays of light, a halo.
 +
 +天衆 The host of heaven, Brahma, Indra, and all their host.
 +
 +天衆五相 The five signs of approaching demise among the devas, cf. 五衰.
 +
 +天行 A bodhisattva'​s natural or spontaneous correspondence with fundamental law: one of the 五行 of the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra.
 +
 +天衣 Deva garments, of extreme lightness.
 +
 +天衣拂千歲 An illustration of the length of a small kalpa: if a great rock, let it be one, two, or even 40 li square, be dusted with a deva-garment once in a hundred years till the rock be worn away, the kalpa would still be unfinished.
 +
 +天親 Vasubandhu, 伐蘇畔度;​ 婆藪槃豆 (or 婆修槃豆) (or 婆修槃陀) 'akin to the gods ', or 世親 'akin to the world'​. Vasubandhu is described as a native of Puruṣapura,​ or Peshawar, by Eitel as of Rājagriha, born '900 years after the nirvana',​ or about A. D. 400; Takakusu suggests 420-500, Peri puts his death not later than 350. In Eitel'​s day the date of his death was put definitely at A. D. 117. Vasubandhu'​s great work, the Abhidharmakośa,​ is only one of his thirty-six works. He is said to be the younger brother of Asaṅga of the Yogācāra school, by whom he was converted from the Sarvāstivāda school of thought to that of Mahāyāna and of Nāgārjuna. On his conversion he would have 'cut out his tongue'​ for its past heresy, but was dissuaded by his brother, who bade him use the same tongue to correct his errors, whereupon he wrote the 唯識論 and other Mahayanist works. He is called the twenty-first patriarch and died in Ayodhya.
 +
 +天語 The deva language, i. e. that of the Brahman, Sanskrit.
 +
 +天識 Natural perception, or wisdom; the primal endowment in man: the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +天趣 idem 天道.
 +
 +天迦 devanāgarī,​ 神字 the usual form of Sanskrit writing, introduced into Tibet, v. 梵字.
 +
 +天道 deva-gati, or devasopāna,​ 天趣. (1) The highest of the six paths 六道, the realm of devas, i. e. the eighteen heavens of form and four of formlessness. A place of enjoyment, where the meritorious enjoy the fruits of good karma, but not a place of progress toward bodhisattva perfection. (2) The Dao of Heaven, natural law, cosmic energy; according to the Daoists, the origin and law of all things.
 +
 +天部 The classes of devas; the host of devas; the host of heaven.
 +
 +天部善神 Brahma, Indra, the four devaloka-rājas,​ and the other spirit guardians of Buddhism.
 +
 +天須菩提 Deva Subhūti, one of three Subhūtis, disciples of the Buddha; said to have been so called because of his love of fine clothing and purity of life.
 +
 +[148]
 +
 +天食 sudhā, food of the gods sweet dew, ambrosia, nectar; blue, yellow, red, and white in colour, white for the higher ranks, the other colours for the lower.
 +
 +天香 Deva incense, divine or excellent incense.
 +
 +天鬼 Gods and demons; gati, or reincarnation,​ among devas and demons.
 +
 +天魔 deva-māra, 魔羅 one of the four Māras, who dwells in the sixth heaven. Paranirmita-vaśa-vartin,​ at the top of the Kāmadhātu,​ with his innumerable host, whence he constantly obstructs the Buddha-truth and its followers. He is also styled 殺者 the slayer; also 波旬 explained by 惡愛 sinful love or desire, as he sends his daughters to seduce the saints; also 波卑 (波卑夜) Papiyan, the evil one. He is the special Māra of the Śākyamuni period; other Buddhas suffer from other Māras; v. 魔.
 +
 +天魔外道 Māras and heretics— both enemies of Buddha-truth.
 +
 +天鼓 The deva drum— in the 善法 Good Law Hall of the Trayas-triṃśas heavens, which sounds of itself, warning the inhabitants of the thirty-three heavens that even their life is impermanent and subject to karma: at the sound of the drum Indra preaches against excess. Hence it is a title of Buddha as the great law-drum, who warns, exhorts, and encourages the good and frightens the evil and the demons.
 +
 +天鼓雷音佛 鼓音如來 Divyadundubhimeghanirghosa. One of the five Buddhas in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala,​ on the north of the central group; said to be one of the dharmakāya of Sakyamuai, his 等流身 or universal emanation body; and is known as 不動尊 corresponding with Akṣobhya, cf. 五智如來 and 大日經疏 4.
 +
 +天鼓音 雲自在燈王 Dundubhisvara-rāja. Lord of the sound of celestial drums, i. e. the thunder. Name of each of 2, 000 kotis of Buddhas who attained Buddhahood.
 +
 +天龍 Devas, including Brahma, Indra, and the devas, together with the nāgas.
 +
 +天龍八部 devas, nāgas, and others of the eight classes: devas, nāgas, yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kinnaras, mahoragas. 天; 龍; 夜叉; 乾闥婆; 阿修羅; 迦樓羅; 堅那羅; 摩睺羅迦.
 +
 +天龍夜叉 devas, nāgas, yakṣas.
 +
 +孔 A hole: surname of Confucius; great, very; a peacock.
 +
 +孔雀 mayūra, 摩裕羅 a peacock; the latter form is also given by Eitel for Mauriya as 'an ancient city on the north-east frontier of Matipura, the residence of the ancient Maurya (Morya) princes. The present Amrouah near Hurdwar'​.
 +
 +孔雀城 Mathurā, or Kṛṣṇapura;​ modern Muttra; 摩度羅 (or 摩偸羅, 摩突羅, or 摩頭羅); 秣兔羅 an ancient city and kingdom of Central India, famous for its stupas, reputed birthplace of Krisna.
 +
 +孔雀明王 '​Peacock king, ' a former incarnation of Śākyamuni,​ when as a peacock he sucked from a rock water of miraculous healing power; now one of the mahārāja bodhisattvas,​ with four arms, who rides on a peacock; his full title is 佛母大金曜孔雀明王. There is another 孔雀王 with two arms.
 +
 +少 Few: also used as a transliteration of ṣat, six.
 +
 +少光天 (少光); 廅天 parīttābhās;​ the fourth Brahmaloka, i. e. the first region of the second dhyāna heavens, also called 有光壽.
 +
 +少室 Shaoshi, a hill on the 嵩山 Sungshan where Bodhidharma set up his 少林寺 infra.
 +
 +少室六門集 Six brief treatises attributed to Bodhidharma,​ but their authenticity is denied.
 +
 +少康 Shaokang, a famous monk of the Tang dynasty, known as the later 善導 Shandao, his master.
 +
 +少林寺 The monastery at 少室 in 登封 Dengfeng xian, Henanfu, where Bodhidharma sat with his face to a wall for nine years.
 +
 +少林武藝 Wu-i, a cook of the Shao-lin monastery, who is said single-handed to have driven off the Yellow Turban rebels with a three-foot staff, and who was posthumously rewarded with the rank of '​general '; a school of adepts of the quarter-staff,​ etc., was called after him, of whom thirteen were far-famed.
 +
 +少欲知足 Content with few desires.
 +
 +少淨天 (少淨) Parīttaśubhas. The first and smallest heaven (brahmaloka) in the third dhyāna region of form.
 +
 +少財鬼 Hungry ghosts who pilfer because they are poor and get but little food.
 +
 +屯 Collect, mass; to quarter, camp. To sprout; very; stingy.
 +
 +屯崙摩 Druma, the king of the kinhara, male and female spirits whose music awakened mystics from their trance: v. 智度論 17.
 +
 +巴 The open hand, palm; to lay hold of; to flatter.
 +
 +巴利 Pali, considered by ' Southern ' Buddhists to be the language of Magadha, i. e. Māgadhī Prākrit, spoken by Śākyamuni:​ their Tripiṭaka is written in it. It is closely allied to Sanskrit, but phonetically decayed and grammatically degenerate.
 +
 +巴思巴 v. 八思巴.
 +
 +巴連弗 Pataliputra,​ v. 波吒釐.
 +
 +巴陵三轉語 The three cryptic sayings of Hàojiàn 顥鑑 styled Baling, name of his place in Yuèzhōu 嶽州. He was the successor of Yunmen 雲門. 'What is the way ? The seeing fall into wells. What is the feather-cutting sword (of Truth)? Coral branches (i. e. moonbeams) prop up the moon. What is the divine (or deva) throng ? A silver bowl full of snow. '
 +
 +[149]
 +
 +巴鼻 (or 把鼻) ; 巴臂 Something to lay hold of, e. g. a nose or an arm; evidence.
 +
 +幻 māyā. Illusion, hallucination,​ a conjurer'​s trick, jugglery, i. e. one of the ten illustrations of unreality.
 +
 +幻人 or幻士 An illusionist,​ a conjurer.
 +
 +幻力 The powers of a conjurer.
 +
 +幻化 Illusion and transformation,​ or illusory transformation.
 +
 +幻垢 Illusory and defiled, i. e. body and mind are alike illusion and unclean.
 +
 +幻師 An illusionist,​ a conjurer.
 +
 +幻心 The illusion mind, or mind is unreal.
 +
 +幻惑 Illusory; to delude.
 +
 +幻日王 Bālāditya,​ 婆羅阿迭多 the morning sun (lit. mock-sun) king, circa A. D. 191. 幻 probably should be 幼; a king of Magadha, who fought and captured Mihirakula, the king of 磔迦 Ceka, or the Hūnas, who was an opponent of Buddhism.
 +
 +幻有 Illusory existence.
 +
 +幻法 Conjuring tricks, illusion, methods of Bodhisattva transformation.
 +
 +幻相 Illusion, illusory appearance.
 +
 +幻者 The illusory; anything that is an illusion; all things, for they are illusion.
 +
 +幻身 The illusion-body,​ i. e. this body is not real but an illusion.
 +
 +幻野 The wilderness of illusion, i. e. mortal life.
 +
 +幻門 The ways or methods of illusion, or of bodhisattva transformation.
 +
 +引 To stretch, draw, lead, bring in or on.
 +
 +引入 To introduce, initiate.
 +
 +引化 Initiate and instruct.
 +
 +引出佛性 One of the 三佛性 q. v. the Buddha-nature in all the living to be developed by proper processes.
 +
 +引導 To lead men into Buddha-truth);​ also a phrase used at funerals implying the leading of the dead soul to the other world, possibly arising from setting alight the funeral pyre.
 +
 +引座 A phrase used by one who ushers a preacher into the '​pulpit'​ to expound the Law.
 +
 +引接 引攝 To accept, receive, welcome— as a Buddha does all who call on him, as stated in the nineteenth vow 第十九願 of Amitābha.
 +
 +引果 The stage of fruition, i. e. reward or punishment in the genus, as contrasted with 滿引 the differentiated species or stages, e. g. for each organ, or variety of condition. 唯識論 2.
 +
 +引業 引因; 牽引業; 總報業 The principal or integral direction of karma, in contrast with 滿引 its more detailed stages; see last entry.
 +
 +引正太子 Sātavāhana,​ 沙多婆漢那 a prince of Kosala, whose father the king was the patron of Nāgārjuna;​ the prince, attributing his father'​s unduly prolonged life to Nāgārjuna'​s magic, is said to have compelled the latter to commit suicide, on hearing of which the king died and the prince ascended the throne. 西域記 10.
 +
 +引發因 One of the 十因 the force or cause that releases other forces or causes.
 +
 +引磬 手磬 A hand-bell to direct the attention in services.
 +
 +引請闍梨 A term for the instructor of beginners.
 +
 +引飯大師 The great leader who introduces the meal, i. e. the club which beats the call to meals.
 +
 +引駕大師 One of the 四大師 of the Tang dynasty; it was his duty to welcome back the emperor on his return to the palace, a duty at times apparently devolving on Buddhist monks.
 +
 +心 hṛd, hṛdaya 汗栗太 (or 汗栗馱); 紀哩馱 the heart, mind, soul; citta 質多 the heart as the seat of thought or intelligence. In both senses the heart is likened to a lotus. There are various definitions,​ of which the following are six instances: (1) 肉團心 hṛd, the physical heart of sentient or nonsentient living beings, e. g. men, trees, etc. (2) 集起心 citta, the ālayavijñāna,​ or totality of mind, and the source of all mental activity. (3) 思量心 manas, the thinking and calculating mind; (4) 緣慮心; 了別心; 慮知心; citta; the discriminating mind; (5) 堅實心 the bhūtatathatā mind, or the permanent mind; (6) 積聚精要心 the mind essence of the sutras.
 +
 +心一境性 one of the seven dhyāna 定, the mind fixed in one condition.
 +
 +心不相應行 ( or 心不相應行法) The functioning of the mind not corresponding with the first three of the 五法 five laws, of which this is the fourth.
 +
 +心乘 The mind vehicle, i. e. 心觀 meditation, insight.
 +
 +心亭 The pavilion of the mind, i. e. the body; cf.|城.
 +
 +心佛 The Buddha within the heart: from mind is Buddha hood: the Buddha revealed in or to the mind; the mind is Buddha. 心佛及衆生,​ 是三無差別 The mind, Buddha, and all the living — there is no difference between the three. i. e. all are of the same order. This is an important doctrine of the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra, cf. its 夜摩天宮品;​ by Tiantai it is called 三法妙 the mystery of the three things.
 +
 +心作 The karmic activity of the mind, the 意業 of the three agents, body, mouth, and mind.
 +
 +心光 The light from (a Buddha'​s) mind, or merciful heart, especially that of Amitābha.
 +
 +[150]
 +
 +心印 Mental impression, intuitive certainty; the mind is the Buddha-mind in all, which can seal or assure the truth; the term indicates the intuitive method of the 禪 Ch' an (Zen) school, which was independent of the spoken or written word.
 +
 +心咒 One of the three classes of spells, idem 一字咒.
 +
 +心命 Mind life, i. e. the life, longevity, or eternity of the dharmakāya or spiritual body, that of mind; also 慧命. v. 智度論 78.
 +
 +心器 Mind as the receptacle of all phenomena.
 +
 +心地 Mind, from which all things spīng; the mental ground, or condition; also used for 意 the third of the three agents-body,​ mouth, mind.
 +
 +心城 The citadel of the mind, i. e. as guardian over action; others intp. it as the body, cf. 心亭.
 +
 +心垢 The impurities of the mind, i. e. 煩惱 passion and delusion; the two phrases are used as synonyms.
 +
 +心塵 Mind dust or dirt, i. e. 煩惱 the passions, greed, anger, etc.
 +
 +心宗 The intuitive sect, i. e. the Ch'an (Zen) school; also 佛心宗; 禪宗.
 +
 +心師 The mind as master, not (like the heretics) mastering (or subduing) the mind 師心.
 +
 +心心 Every mind; also citta-caitta,​ mind and mental conditions, i. e. 心 and 心所.
 +
 +心心數 The mind and its conditions or emotions; 心數 is an older form of 心所.
 +
 +心念不空 Pondering on (Buddha) and not passing (the time) in vain.
 +
 +心性 Immutable mind-corpus,​ or mind-nature,​ the self-existing fundamental pure mind, the all, the Tathāgata-garbha,​ or 如來藏心;​ 自性淸淨心;​ also described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith as immortal 不生不滅. Another definition identifies 心 with 性 saying 性卽是心,​ 心卽是佛 the nature is the mind, and mind is Buddha; another, that mind and nature are the same when 悟 awake and understanding,​ but differ when 迷 in illusion; and further, in reply to the statement that the Buddha-nature is eternal but the mind not eternal, it is said, the nature is like water, the mind like ice, illusion turns nature to mental ice form, awakening melts it back to its proper nature.
 +
 +心性三千 The universe in a thought; the mind as a microcosm.
 +
 +心想 Thought; the thoughts of the mind.
 +
 +心意識 Mind, thought, and perception (or discernment).
 +
 +心慧 wisdom, i. e. mind or heart wisdom, e. g. 身戒心慧 controlled in body and wise in mind.
 +
 +心懷戀慕 Heart-yearning (for the Buddha).
 +
 +心所 (心所法) Mental conditions, the attributes of the mind, especially the moral qualities, or emotions, love, hate, etc.; also 心所有法,​ v. 心心.
 +
 +心數 An older term for 心所q. v. the several qualities of the mind. The esoterics make Vairocana the 心王, i. e. Mind or Will, and 心數 the moral qualities, or mental attributes, are personified as his retinue.
 +
 +心智 Mind and knowledge, or the wisdom of the mind, mind being the organ, knowing the function.
 +
 +心月 Mind (as the) moon, the natural mind or heart pure and bright as the full moon.
 +
 +心月輪 The mind' s or heart' s moon-revolutions,​ i. e. the moon' s varying stages, typifying the grades of enlightenment from beginner to saint.
 +
 +心根 Manas, or the mind-organ, one of the twenty-five tattva 諦 or postulates of a universe.
 +
 +心極 The pole or extreme of the mind, the mental reach; the Buddha.
 +
 +心機 The motive power of the mind, the mind the motor.
 +
 +心水 The mind as a reflecting water-surface;​ also the mind as water, clear or turbids.
 +
 +[151]
 +
 +心冰 The heart chaste as ice; the mind congealed as ice, i. e. unable to solve a difficulty.
 +
 +心法 Mental dharmas, idea— all '​things'​ are divided into two classes 色 and 心 physical and mental; that which has 質礙 substance and resistance is physical, that which is devoid of these is mental; or the root of all phenomena is mind 緣起諸法之根本者爲心法. The exoteric and esoteric schools differ in their interpretation:​ the exoterics hold that mental ideas or '​things'​ are 無色無形 unsubstantial and invisible, the esoterics that they 有色有形 have both substance and form.
 +
 +心法身 心是法身 The mind is dharmakāya,​ '​tathāgata in bonds,'​ 在纏如來.
 +
 +心波 Mind waves, i. e. mental activity.
 +
 +心海 Mind as a sea or ocean, external phenomena being the wind, and the 八識 eight forms of cognition being the waves.
 +
 +心源 The fountain of the mind; the thought-welling fountain; mind as the fons et origo of all things.
 +
 +心無所住 The mind without resting-place,​ i. e. detached from time and space, e. g. the past being past may be considered as a '​non-past'​ or non-existent,​ so with present and future, thus realizing their unreality. The result is detachment, or the liberated mind, which is the Buddha-mind,​ the bodhi-mind, 無生心 the mind free from ideas of creation and extinction, of beginning and end, recognizing that all forms and natures are of the Void, or Absolute.
 +
 +心燈 The lamp of the mind; inner light, intelligence.
 +
 +心猿 The mind as a restless monkey.
 +
 +心王 The mind, the will the directive or controlling mind, the functioning mind as a whole, distinct from its 心所 or qualities.
 +
 +心王如來 Vairocana as the ultimate mind, the attributes being personified as his retinue. Applied also to the 五佛 and the 九尊.
 +
 +心王心所 The mind and its qualities, or conditions.
 +
 +心珠 The mind stuff of all the living, being of the pure Buddha-nature,​ is likened to a translucent gem.
 +
 +心生滅門 The two gates of mind, creation and destruction,​ or beginning and end.
 +
 +心田 The field of the mind, or heart, in which spring up good and evil.
 +
 +心目 Mind and eye, the chief causes of the emotions.
 +
 +心相 Heart-shape (of the physical heart); manifestation of mind in action; (the folly of assuming that) mind has shape.
 +
 +心相應行 Actions corresponding with mind, or mind productive of all action.
 +
 +心眞 Our mind is by nature that of the bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +心眞如門 The mind as bhūtatathatā,​ one of the 二門 of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith.
 +
 +心眼 The eye of the mind, mental vision.
 +
 +心神 The spirit of the mind, mental intelligence:​ mind.
 +
 +心空 Mind-space, or mind spaciousness,​ mind holding all things, hence like space; also, the emptied mind, kenosis.
 +
 +心經 Hṛdaya or '​Heart'​ Sutra, idem 般若心經;​ 般若波羅蜜多心經;​ styled 神分心經 '​divinely distributed',​ when publicly recited to get rid of evil spirits.
 +
 +心縛 The mind in bondage— taking the seeming for the real.
 +
 +心緣 Mental cognition of the environment;​ to lay hold of external things by means of the mind.
 +
 +心自在者 He whose mind is free, or sovereign, an arhat who has got rid of all hindrances to abstraction.
 +
 +心華 Heart-flower,​ the heart in its original innocence resembling a fower.
 +
 +心蓮 The lotus of the mind or heart; the exoteric school interprets it by original purity; the esoteric by the physical heart, which resembles a closed lotus with eight petals.
 +
 +[152]
 +
 +心藥 Medicine for the mind, or spirit.
 +
 +心行 The activities of the mind, or heart; also working on the mind for its control; also mind and action.
 +
 +心行不離 Mind and act not separated, thought and deed in accord, especially in relation to Amitābha.
 +
 +心要 The very core, or essence.
 +
 +心觀 Contemplation of the mind and its thoughts, v. 一心三觀.
 +
 +心證 The inner witness, or assurance, mind and Buddha witnessing together.
 +
 +心識 The mind and cognition; mind and its contents; the two are considered as identical in the Abhidharma-kośa,​ but different in Mahāyāna.
 +
 +心趣 The bent or direction of the mind, or moral nature.
 +
 +心跡 Footprints, or indications of mind, i. e. the mind revealed by deeds.
 +
 +心路 The mind-road, i. e. the road to Buddhahood.
 +
 +心量 Mind-measure;​ the ordinary man's calculating mind; also, capacity of mind.
 +
 +心鏡 The heart-mirror,​ or mirror of the mind, which must be kept clean if it is to reflect the Truth.
 +
 +心靈 The mind spirit, or genius; intelligence;​ cf. 心燈.
 +
 +心願 The will of the mind, resolve, vow.
 +
 +心香 The incense of the mind, or heart, i. e. sincere devotion.
 +
 +心馬 The mind like a horse, that needs breaking in, or stimulating with a whip, cf. 心猿.
 +
 +心鬼 A perverse mind, whose karma will be that of a wandering ghost.
 +
 +心魔 (心魔賊) The māra-robbers of the mind, i. e. the passions.
 +
 +戈 A spear.
 +
 +戈追 idem 倶胝 q. v. Koti.
 +
 +手 pāṇī; hasta; kara; hand, arm.
 +
 +手印 mūdra, mystic positions of the hand; signet-rings,​ seals; finger-prints.
 +
 +手口意相應 In yoga practices it means correspondence of hand, mouth, and mind, i. e. manual signs, esoteric words or spells, and thought or mental projection.
 +
 +手執金剛杵 Vajrapāṇi,​ or Vajradhara, who holds the thunderbolt.
 +
 +手爐 A portable censer (with handle).
 +
 +手磬 A hand-chime (or bell) struck with a stick.
 +
 +手輪 The lines on the palm and fingers— especially the '​thousand'​ lines on a Buddha'​s hand.
 +
 +支 A branch; to branch, put off, pay, advance.
 +
 +支伐羅 至縛羅 cīvara. A mendicant'​ s garment.
 +
 +支佛, 辟支佛 A pratyekabuddha,​ who understands the twelve nidānas, or chain of causation, and so attains to complete wisdom. His stage of attainment is the 支佛地.
 +
 +支具 支度 The various articles required for worship.
 +
 +支提 支帝; 支徵; 支陀; 脂帝. Newer forms are 制多; 制底 (制底耶);​ 制地, i. e. 刹, 塔, 廟 caitya. A tumulus, a mausoleum; a place where the relics of Buddha were collected, hence a place where his sutras or images are placed. Eight famous Caityas formerly existed: Lumbinī, Buddha-gayā,​ Vārāṇasī,​ Jetavana, Kanyākubja,​ Rājagṛha 王舍城, Vaiśālī, and the Śāla grove in Kuśinagara. Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the exact connotation of the terms given, some being referred to graves or stūpas, others to shrines or temples, but in general the meaning is stūpas, shrines, and any collection of objects of worship.
 +
 +支提山部 支提加部;​ 制多山部;​ 只底舸部 ? Caityaśaila;​ described as one of the twenty sects of the Hīnayāna, and as ascetic dwellers among tombs or in caves.
 +
 +支樓迦讖 支讖 Chih-lou-chia-ch'​an,​ a śramaṇa who came to China from Yueh-chih A. D. 147 or A. D. 164 and worked at translations till A. D. 186 at Loyang.
 +
 +支用 To divide, distribute for use, i. e. 分用.
 +
 +支謙 Chih-ch'​ien;​ name of a Yueh-chih monk said to have come to Loyang at the end of the Han dynasty and under the Wei; tall, dark, emaciated, with light brown eyes; very learned and wise.
 +
 +支那, 指那, 眞丹, 至那, 斯那, 振旦, 震旦, 眞那, 振丹, 脂難, 旃丹; 摩訶至那 Cina; Maha-cina. The name by which China is referred to in the laws of Manu (which assert that the Chinese were degenerate Kṣatriya),​ in the Mahābharata,​ and in Buddhist works. This name may have been derived from families ruling in western China under such titles as 晉 Chin at Fen-chou in Shansi 1106-376 B. C., 陳 Ch'en in Honan 1122-479 B. C., 秦 Ch'in in Shensi as early as the ninth century B. C., and to this latter dynasty the designation is generally attributed.
 +
 +[153]
 +
 +支那提婆瞿恒羅 漢天種 Cīnadeva gotra. The 'solar deva' of Han descent, first king of Khavandha, born to a princess of the Han dynasty (206 B. C. -A. D. 220) on her way as a bride-elect to Persia, the parentage being attributed to the solar deva. 西域記 12.
 +
 +支鄰陀 Mucilinda, v. 目 or 摩訶 Maha-m.
 +
 +支郞 Chih-lang, formerly a polite term for a monk, said to have arisen from the fame of the three 支 Chih of the Wei dynasty 支謙 Chih-ch'​ien,​ 支讖 Chih-ch'​an,​ and 支亮 Chih-liang.
 +
 +文 Letters, literature, writing; refined; culture; civil; a despatch; veined; a cash; to gloss.
 +
 +文句 Textual explanation or criticism, also termed 章; 疏; 述義; 記, etc.; the term applies to works on canonical texts in general, but has particular reference to the Lotus Sutra, i. e. the 妙法蓮華經文句.
 +
 +文來 A portfolio, or satchel for Buddhist books.
 +
 +文字 The letter; letters; literal; the written word is described as the breath and life of the dharmakāya;​ cf. 嚕 ruta.
 +
 +文字人 A literalist, pedant; narrow.
 +
 +文字法師 A teacher of the letter of the Law, who knows not its spirit.
 +
 +文尼 muni, idem 牟尼 and 茂尼, e. g. Śākyamuni.
 +
 +文殊 (文殊師利) Mañjuśrī 滿殊尸利 -later 曼殊室利. 文殊 is also used for Mañjunātha,​ Mañjudeva, Mañjughoṣa,​ Mañjuṣvara,​ et al. T., hjamdpal; J., Monju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas,​ an idealization of a particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Mañju is beautiful, Śrī; good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained from various scriptures: 妙首 (or 頭 ) wonderful or beautiful) head; 普首 universal head; 濡首 glossy head (probably a transliteration);​ 敬首 revered head; 妙德 wonderful virtue (or power); 妙吉祥 wonderfully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the 西域記. As guardian of wisdom 智慧 he is often placed on Śākyamuni'​s left, with 普顯 on the right as guardian of law 理, the latter holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held the reverse positions. He is often represented with five curls or waves to his hair indicating the 五智 q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He is represented as a youth, i. e. eternal youth. His present abode is given as east of the universe, known as 淸涼山 clear and cool mountain, or a region 寶住 precious abode, or Abode of Treasures, or 寶氏 from which he derives one of his titles, 寶相如來. One of his dhāraṇīs prophesies China as his post-nirvāṇa realm. In past incarnations he is described as being the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; his title was 龍種上佛 the supreme Buddha of the nāgas, also 大身佛 or 神仙佛; now his title is 歡喜藏摩尼寶精佛 The spiritual Buddha who joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be 普現佛 Buddha universally revealed. In the 序品 Introductory Chapter of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Śākyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or as his son 法王子. Hīnayāna counts Śāriputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahāyāna gives Mañjuśrī the chief place, hence he is also styled 覺母 mother, or begetter of understanding. He is shown riding on either a lion or a peacock, or sitting on a white lotus; often he holds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith. His signs, magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famous centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimages,​ especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He takes the place in Buddhism of Viśvakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyāni-bodhisattvas,​ and sometimes has the image of Akṣobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-king of the Ocean. He has five messengers 五使者 and eight youths 八童子 attending on him. His hall in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. His position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. 文殊師利問菩提經 Gayaśīrṣa sūtra, tr. by Kumārajīva 384-417: and its 論 or .Tīkā of Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhiruci 535. see list in B. N.
 +
 +文殊三昧 The samādhi of Mañjuśrī styled the 無相妙慧 formless wonderful wisdom, or wonderful wisdom in the realm of that which is beyond form.
 +
 +[154]
 +
 +文殊五使者 The five messengers of Mañjuśrī,​ each bearing one of his 五智 five expressions of wisdom; they are 髻設尼; 優波髻設尼;​ 質多羅; 地慧, and 請召.
 +
 +文殊八大童子 The eight '​pages'​ of Mañjuśrī are 光網; 地慧; 無垢光; 不思慧; 召請; 髻設尼; 救護慧, and 鄥波髻設尼.
 +
 +文殊悔過 The repentance of Mañjuśrī,​ i. e. of his former doubting mind, cf. St. Thomas.
 +
 +文殊院 The seventh great court of the thirteen in the Garbhadhātu group; it shows Mañjuśrī in the centre of a group of twenty-five.
 +
 +文池 The dragon pool by the side of the throne of Vajrapāṇi,​ called 目眞鄰陀 Mucilinda q. v.
 +
 +文理 The written word and the truth expressed; written principles, or reasonings; a treatise; literary style.
 +
 +文證 The evidence of the written word, or scripture.
 +
 +文陀竭 Mūrdhajāta,​ Māndhātṛ,​ i. e. 頂生王 born from his mother'​s head, a reputed previous incarnation of the Buddha, who still ambitious, despite his universal earthly sway, his thousand sons, etc., few to Indra'​s heaven, saw the 天上玉女 celestial devī, but on the desire arising to rule there on Indra'​s death, he was hurled to earth; v. 文陀竭王經.
 +
 +斗 A bushel, i. e. ten Chinese pints.
 +
 +斗帳 A bushel-shaped curtain, e. g. a state umbrella.
 +
 +斗姥 Dame of the Bushel; queen of heaven 天后 or Marīci, 摩利支.
 +
 +斗父天尊 The husband of the Dame of the Bushel 斗姥, a Daoist attribution.
 +
 +斤 An adze; to chop; a catty, 1 and 1/3 lb.: penetrating,​ minute.
 +
 +斤斗 筋斗; 巾斗 A somersault.
 +
 +方 Square; place; correct; a means, plan, prescription;​ then, now, just.
 +
 +方丈 An abbot, 寺主 head of a monastery; the term is said to arise from the ten-foot cubic dwelling in which 維摩 Vimalakirti lived, but here seems to be no Sanskrit equivalent.
 +
 +方便 upāya. Convenient to the place, or situation, suited to the condition, opportune, appropriate;​ but 方 is interpreted as 方法 method, mode, plan, and 便 as 便用 convenient for use, i. e. a convenient or expedient method; also 方 as 方正 and 便 as 巧妙, which implies strategically correct. It is also intp. as 權道智 partial, temporary, or relative (teaching of) knowledge of reality, in contrast with 般若智 prajñā, and 眞實 absolute truth, or reality instead of the seeming. The term is a translation of 傴和 upāya, a mode of approach, an expedient, stratagem, device. The meaning is— teaching according to the capacity of the hearer, by any suitable method, including that of device or stratagem, but expedience beneficial to the recipient is understood. Mahāyāna claims that the Buddha used this expedient or partial method in his teaching until near the end of his days, when he enlarged it to the revelation of reality, or the preaching of his final and complete truth; Hīnayāna with reason denies this, and it is evident that the Mahāyāna claim has no foundation, for the whole of its 方等 or 方廣 scriptures are of later invention. Tiantai speaks of the 三乘 q. v. or Three Vehicles as 方便 expedient or partial revelations,​ and of its 一乘 or One Vehicle as the complete revelation of universal Buddhahood. This is the teaching of the Lotus Sutra, which itself contains 方便 teaching to lead up to the full revelation; hence the terms 體内 (or 同體 ) 方便, i. e. expedient or partial truths within the full revelation, meaning the expedient part of the Lotus, and 體外方便 the expedient or partial truths of the teaching which preceded the Lotus; see the 方便品 of that work, also the second chapter of the 維摩經. 方便 is also the seventh of the ten pāramitās.
 +
 +方便化身土 An intermediate 'land 'of the Japanese monk 見眞 Kenshin, below the Pure-land, where Amitābha appears in his transformation-body.
 +
 +方便土 Abbreviation for the last and next but one.
 +
 +方便智 upāya-jñāna;​ the wisdom or knowledge of using skilful means (for saving others).
 +
 +方便有餘土 One of the Tiantai 四土 Four Lands, which is temporary, as its occupants still have remains to be purged away.
 +
 +方便殺生 The right of great Bodhisattvas,​ knowing every one's karma, to kill without sinning, e. g. in order to prevent a person from committing sin involving unintermitted suffering, or to aid him in reaching one of the higher reincarnations.
 +
 +方便波羅蜜 upāya, the seventh pāramitā.
 +
 +方便波羅蜜菩薩 A bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu group, the second on the right in the hall of Space.
 +
 +方便現涅槃 Though the Buddha is eternal, he showed himself as temporarily extinct, as necessary to arouse a longing for Buddha, cf. Lotus, 16.
 +
 +方便門 The gates of upāya, i. e. convenient or expedient gates leading into Truth.
 +
 +方便假門 Expedient gates or ways of using the seeming for the real.
 +
 +[155]
 +
 +方典 A term covering the whole of the Mahāyāna sutras, idem 方等經典.
 +
 +方口食 Opportunism in obtaining a living, i. e. a monk who makes a living by fawning or by bullying, one of the 四邪命 four illicit ways of livelihood.
 +
 +方外 Out of the world; the life of a monk.
 +
 +方廣 vaipulya, 毘佛略 expansion, enlargement,​ broad, spacious. 方 is intp. by 方正 correct in doctrine and 廣 by 廣博 broad or wide; some interpret it by elaboration,​ or fuller explanation of the doctrine; in general it may be taken as the broad school, or wider teaching, in contrast with the narrow school, or Hīnayāna. The term covers the whole of the specifically Mahāyāna sutras. The sutras are also known as 無量義經 scriptures of measureless meaning, i. e. universalistic,​ or the infinite. Cf. 方等.
 +
 +方廣大莊嚴經 A vaipulya sutra, the Lalita-vistara,​ in 12 chuan, giving an account of the Buddha in the Tuṣita heaven and his descent to earth as Śākyamuni:​ tr. by Divākara under the Tang dynasty; another tr. is the 普曜經.
 +
 +方廣道人 Heretical followers of Mahāyāna, who hold a false doctrine of 空 the Void, teaching it as total non-existence,​ or nihilism.
 +
 +方相 Square, four square, one of the five shapes.
 +
 +方等 vaipulya; cf. 方廣. 方 is interpreted as referring to the doctrine, 等 as equal, or universal, i. e. everynwhere equally. An attempt is made to distinguish between the two above terms, 方廣 being now used for vaipulya, but they are interchangeable. Eitel says the vaipulya sutras 'are distinguished by an expansion of doctrine and style (Sūtras developées,​ Burnouf). They are apparently of later date, showing the influence of different schools; their style is diffuse and prolix, repeating the same idea over and over again in prose and in verse; they are also frequently interlarded with prophecies and dhāraṇīs';​ but the two terms seem to refer rather to the content than the form. The content is that of universalism. Chinese Buddhists assert that all the sutras from the 華嚴 Huayan onwards are of this class and therefore are Mahāyāna. Consequently all 方等 or 方廣 sutras are claimed by that school. Cf. 方便.
 +
 +方等三昧 One of Tiantai'​s methods of inducing samādhi, partly by walking, partly by sitting, based on the 大方等陀羅尼經;​ Zhiyi delivered the 方等三昧行法 to his disciple 灌頂 Guanding who wrote it in one juan.
 +
 +方等懺悔 (方等懺) One of the subjects of meditation in the 方等三昧 on the hindrances caused by the six organs of sense.
 +
 +方等戒壇 (方等壇) An open altar at which instruction in the commandments was preached to the people, founded on the Mahāyāna-vaipulya sutras; the system began in 765 in the capital under 代宗 Daizong of the Tang dynasty and continued, with an interim under 武宗 Wuzong, till the 宣宗 Xuanzong period.
 +
 +方等時 The third of the five periods of Tiantai 五時教, the eight years from the twelfth to the twentieth years of the Buddha'​s teaching, i. e. the period of the 維摩經, the 金光明經,​ and other vaipulya sutras.
 +
 +方等部 The sutras taught during the 方等時 expedient period.
 +
 +方服 A monk's robe 袈裟 said to be so called because of its square appearance; also 方袍.
 +
 +方規 Square-shaped,​ properly, according to scale.
 +
 +方詣 Direction.
 +
 +日 sūrya; the sun; a day. 蘇利耶.
 +
 +日光 (日光菩薩);​ 蘇利也波羅皮遮那 Sūrya-prabhāsana. Sunlight, and 月光 (月光菩薩) Moonlight, name of two Bodhisattva assistants of 藥師 the Master of Healing; Sunlight is the ninth in the Dizang Court of the Garbhadhātu group.
 +
 +日出論者 The sunrise exponents, a title of the founders of the 經部宗 before the Christian era.
 +
 +日域 Japan.
 +
 +日天 (日天子) sūrya, 蘇利耶; 修利; 修野天子 (or 修意天子) 天子; also 寳光天子. The sun-ruler; one of the metamorphoses of Guanyin, dwelling in the sun as palace, driving a quadriga.
 +
 +日天衆 The retinue of Indra in his palace of the sun.
 +
 +日宮 The sun-palace, the abode of 日天子 supra.
 +
 +日幢華眼鼓 Five characters taken from the names of, and representing five Buddhas in the Vajradhātu 大日, 寳幢, 華開敷, 蓮華眼, and 天鼓雷音.
 +
 +日想觀 Meditation on, and observing of the setting sun, the first of the sixteen meditations in the 觀無量壽經.
 +
 +日旋三昧 sūryāvarta-samādhi,​ one of the sixteen samādhi mentioned in the 法華經, 妙音品; 日輪三昧 is an older name for it.
 +
 +日星宿 Nakṣatratārā-rāja-ditya;​ a degree of meditation, i. e. the sun, stars and constellations samādhi.
 +
 +日曜 The sun, one of the nine 曜 luminaries; one of the retinue of 日天 shown in the eastern part of the Garbhadhātu group driving three horses.
 +
 +日月淨明德 Candra-vimala-sūrya-prabhāsa-śrī. A Buddha whose realm resembles Sukhāvatī.
 +
 +日月燈明佛 Candra-sūrya-pradīpa,​ or Candrārkadīpa. The title of 20, 000 Buddhas who succeeded each other preaching the Lotus Sutra, v. 法華經, 序品.
 +
 +[156]
 +
 +日本 Japan. Buddhism was introduced there from Korea in the sixth century, and in the seventh from China.
 +
 +日禺中 10 a. m. styled by Tiantai the hour of 般若 wisdom.
 +
 +日種 Sūrya-vaṃśa,​ one of the five surnames of Śākyamuni,​ sun-seed or lineage, his first ancestors having been produced by the sun from. 'two stalks of sugar-cane';​ v. Ikṣvāku.
 +
 +日精摩尼 A maṇi 摩尼, or pearl, crystal-clear as the sun, which gives sight to the blind.
 +
 +日蓮 Nichiren, the Japanese founder, in A. D. 1252, of the 日蓮宗 Nichiren sect, which is also known as the 法華宗 or Lotus sect. Its chief tenets are the three great mysteries 三大祕法,​ representing the trikāya: (1) 本尊 or chief object of worship, being the great maṇḍala of the worlds of the ten directions, or universe, i. e. the body or nirmāṇakāya of Buddha; (2) 題目 the title of the Lotus Sutra 妙法蓮華經 Myo-ho-ren-gwe-kyo,​ preceded by Namo, or, '​Adoration to the scripture of the lotus of the wonderful law, ' for it is Buddha'​s spiritual body; (3) 戒壇 the altar of the law, which is also the title of the Lotus as above; the believer, wherever he is, dwells in the Pure-land of calm light 寂光淨土,​ the saṃbhogakāya.
 +
 +日輪 The sun's disc, which is the exterior of the sun palace of 日天子; it is said to consist of sphaṭika, or fiery crystal.
 +
 +月 candra, 旅達 (旅達羅);​ 旂陀羅; 戰達羅; 戰捺羅 the moon, called also 蘇摩 soma, from the fermented juice of asclepias acida used in worship, and later personified in association with the moon. It has many other epithets, e. g. 印度 Indu, incorrectly intp. as marked like a hare; 創夜神 Niśākara, maker of the night; 星宿王 Nakṣatranātha,​ lord of constellations;​ 喜懷之頭飾 the crest of Siva; 蓮華王 Kumuda-pati,​ lotus lord; 白馬主 Śvetavājin,​ drawn by (or lord of) white horses; 大白光神 Śītāṃśu,​ the spirit with white rays; 冷光神 Sitamarici, the spirit with cool rays; 鹿形神 Mṛgāṅka,​ the spirit with marks m form like a deer; 野兎形神 Śaśi, ditto like a hare.
 +
 +月上女經 Candrottarā-dārikā-vyākaraṇa-sūtra of the maid in the moon.
 +
 +月光 Candraprabha,​ 戰達羅鉢刺婆 Moonlight. One of the three honoured ones in the Vajradhātu,​ and in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu,​ known also as 淸涼金剛.
 +
 +月光太子 Moonlight prince, name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation as a prince, when he split one of his bones to anoint a leper with its marrow and gave him of his blood to drink. 智度論 12.
 +
 +月光王 Moonlight king, the same as 月光太子,​ the name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation when he gave his head to a brahman.
 +
 +月光童子 月光兒 The son of an elder of the capital of Magadha, who listening to heretics and against his son's pleadings, endeavoured to destroy the Buddha in a pitfall of fire, but, on the Buddha'​s approach, the fire turned to a pool and the father was converted; the son was then predicted by the Buddha to be king of China in a future incarnation,​ when all China and the Mongolian and other tribes would be converted, v. 月光童子經.
 +
 +月光菩薩 The bodhisattva Moonlight who attends on 藥師 the Master of Healing; also in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu;​ used for 月光王; v. 月光菩薩經.
 +
 +月兎 The hare in the moon.
 +
 +月分 Moon and division, a tr. of candrabhaga,​ 旃達羅婆伽 The two rivers Candra and Bhaga joined. The Chenab river, Punjab, the Acesines of Alexander.
 +
 +月壇 An external altar in temples in the open, i. e. under the moon.
 +
 +月天 Candradeva, or Somadeva. 旃達提婆 (or 蘇摩提婆) The ruler of the moon, to whom the terms under 月 supra are also applied.
 +
 +月天子 The male regent of the moon, named 寳吉祥, one of the metamorphoses of the Bodhisattva 勢至 Mahāsthāmaprāpta;​ the male regent has also his queen 月天妃.
 +
 +月婆首那 Upaśūnya, 高 空 an Indian monk, son of the king of 優禪尼 Udyāna, who tr. 僧伽叱經.
 +
 +月宮 The moon-palace of the 月天子 made of silver and crystal; it is described as forty-nine yojanas square, but there are other accounts.
 +
 +月忌 The return of the day in each month when a person died.
 +
 +月愛三昧 A Buddha'​s '​moon-love samādhi'​ in which he rids men of the distresses of love and hate.
 +
 +月愛珠 Candrakānta,​ the moon-love pearl or moonstone, which bestows abundance of water or rain.
 +
 +月支 (月支國) The Yuezhi, or '​Indo-Scythians',​ 月氏 (國) and a country they at one time occupied, i. e. 都貨羅 Tukhara, Tokharestan,​ or Badakshan. Driven out from the northern curve of the Yellow River by the Huns, circa 165 B. C., they conquered Bactria 大夏, the Punjab, Kashmir, 'and the greater part of India. ' Their expulsion from the north of Shansi was the cause of the famous journey of Zhangqian of the Han dynasty and the beginning of Chinese expansion to the north-west. Kanishka, king of the Yuezhi towards the end of the first century A. D., became the great protector and propagator of Buddhism.
 +
 +[157]
 +
 +月明菩薩 idem 月光菩薩;​ there is a 月明菩薩經. Also 月明童子 (or 月明男).
 +
 +月曜 Moon-shining,​ or Moon-effulgence;​ a group shown outside the Garbhadhātu group in the Diamond Court.
 +
 +月燈三昧 candra-dīpa-samādhi,​ the samādhi said to have been given to 月光童子 by Buddha, the sutra of which is in two translations.
 +
 +月王 Moon-king, 設賞迦 Śaśāṇka,​ a ruler of Karṇasuvarṇa,​ who tried to destroy the bodhidruma, Buddha'​s tree; dethroned by Śīlāditya.
 +
 +月冑 Candravarma,​ 旃達羅伐摩 a learned monk of the Nāgavadana monastery.
 +
 +月眉 New moon eyebrows, i. e. arched like the Buddha'​s.
 +
 +月種 Candravaṃśa,​ descendants of the moon, 'the lunar race of kings or the second great line of Kṣatriya or royal dynasties in India. ' M. W.
 +
 +月精摩尼(月精) The pearl or jewel in the fortieth hand of the '​thousand hand' Guanyin, towards which worship is paid in case of fevers; the hand is called 月精手.
 +
 +月蓋 An elder of Vaiśālī, who at the Buddha'​s bidding sought the aid of Amitābha, 勢至 (Mahāsthamaprāpta) and Guanyin, especially the last, to rid his people of a pestilence. See Vimalakīrti Sutra.
 +
 +月輦 The chariot of 月天子.
 +
 +月輪 The moon's disc, the moon.
 +
 +月輪觀 (or 月輪三昧) The moon contemplation ( or samādhi) in regard to its sixteen nights of waxing to the full, and the application of this contemplation to the development of bodhi within, especially of the sixteen kinds of bodhisattva mind of the lotus and of the human heart.
 +
 +月面佛 The '​moon-face Buddha',​ whose life is only a day and a night, in contrast with the sun-face Buddha whose life is 1, 800 years.
 +
 +月黶尊 One of the names of a 明王 Ming Wang, i. e. '​moon-black'​ or '​moon-spots',​ 降三世明王 the maharāja who subdues all resisters, past, present, and future, represented with black face, three eyes, four protruding teeth, and fierce laugh.
 +
 +月鼠 The moon rat, one of the two rats, black and white, that gnaw the cord of life, i. e. night and day.
 +
 +木 Wood; a tree; kāṣṭha,​ a piece of wood, wood, timber.
 +
 +木上座 The elder with the tree, or the wooden elder; the elder'​s staff.
 +
 +木佛 A Buddha of wood, i. e. an image of wood.
 +
 +木佉褒折娜 mukhaproṅchana,​ or face-wiper, towel handkerchief,​ one of the thirteen articles of a monk.
 +
 +木叉 木蛇; 波羅提木叉 mokṣa, prātimokṣa 波羅提木叉;​ mokṣa is deliverance,​ emancipation;​ prati, '​towards,​ '​implies the getting rid of evils one by one; the 250 rules of the Vinaya for monks for their deliverance from the round of mortality.
 +
 +木叉提婆 Mokṣadeva. A title given by the Hinayanists in India to Mahāyānadeva,​ i. e. 玄奘 Xuanzang.
 +
 +木叉毱多 Mokṣagupta. A monk of Karashahr, protagonist of the Madhyamayāna school, 'whose ignorance Xuanzang publicly exposed. ' Eitel.
 +
 +木底 mukti, 解脫 deliverance,​ liberation, emancipation;​ the same meaning is given to 目帝羅 mucira, which has more the sense of being free with (gifts), generosity.
 +
 +木律僧 A wooden pettifogging monk; a rigid formalist.
 +
 +木得羅 Mudra, a seal; mystic signs with the hands.
 +
 +木星 勿哩訶婆跋底 Bṛhaspati;​ 'Lord of increase,'​ the planet Jupiter.
 +
 +木曜 Jupiter, one of the 九曜 nine luminaries, q. v.; on the south of the diamond hall outside the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala.
 +
 +木槵子 無患子 A tree whose wood can exorcise evil spirits, or whose seeds are used as rosary-beads. It is said to be the ariṣṭa 阿梨瑟迦紫,​ which means unharmed, secure; it is the name of the soap-berry and other shrubs.
 +
 +木樂子 Seeds used for rosary-beads.
 +
 +木瓜林 苦行林 Papaya forest, i. e. Uruvilva, 優樓頻螺 the place near Gayā where Kāśyapa, Śākyamuni,​ and others practised their austerities before the latter'​s enlightenment;​ hence the former is styled Uruvilva Kāśyapa.
 +
 +木蘭色 Brownish colour made from bark, probably cinnamon.
 +
 +[158]
 +
 +木頭 Blockhead, a stupid person, one who breaks the commandments.
 +
 +木香 根香; 薰陸香; 多伽羅 tagara. An incense-yielding tree, putchuk; vangueria spinosa or tabernae montana coronaria; Eitel.
 +
 +木食 Living on wild fruits nuts, etc.
 +
 +木魚 The wooden fish; there are two kinds, one round for use to keep time in chanting, the other long for calling to meals. The origin of the use of a fish is unkজxample to monks to be watchful: there is no evidence of connection with the Christian ίχθύς.ί 木馬 Wooden horse, a symbol of emancipation.
 +
 +欠 To owe: debt; deficient; to bend, bow, yawn, etc.; the Sanskrit sign अ said to imply 大空不可得 space, great and unattainable or immeasurable.
 +
 +止 To stop, halt, cease; one of the seven definitions of 禪定 dhyāna described as 奢摩他 śamatha or 三摩地 samādhi; it is defined as 靜息動心 silencing, or putting to rest the active mind, or auto-hypnosis;​ also 心定止於一處 the mind centred, lit. the mind steadily fixed on one place, or in one position. It differs from 觀 which observes, examines, sifts evidence; 止 has to do with 拂妄 getting rid of distraction for moral ends; it is abstraction,​ rather than contemplation;​ see 止觀 In practice there are three methods of attaining such abstraction:​ (a) by fixing the mind on the nose, navel, etc.; (b) by stopping every thought as it arises; (c) by dwelling on the thought that nothing exists of itself, but from a preceding cause.
 +
 +止息 To stop, cease; to stop breathing by self-control;​ to bring the mind to rest; used for 止觀.
 +
 +止持 Self-control in keeping the commandments or prohibitions relating to deeds and words, which are styled 止持戒, 止持門, 止惡門. 止犯; 止持作犯 Stopping offences; ceasing to do evil, preventing others from doing wrong.
 +
 +止觀 奢摩他毗婆舍那 (or 奢摩他毗鉢舍那) śamatha-vipaśyanā,​ which Sanskrit words are intp. by 止觀; 定慧; 寂照; and 明靜; for their respective meanings see 止 and 觀. When the physical organism is at rest it is called 止 zhi, when the mind is seeing clearly it is called 觀 guan. The term and form of meditation is specially connected with its chief exponent, the founder of the Tiantai school, which school is styled 止觀宗 Zhiguan Zong, its chief object being concentration of the mind by special methods for the purpose of clear insight into truth, and to be rid of illusion. The Tiantai work gives ten fields of mediation, or concentration:​ (1) the 五陰, 十八界, and 十二入; (2) passion and delusion; (3) sickness; (4) karma forms; (5) māra-deeds;​ (6) dhyāna; (7) (wrong) theories; (8) arrogance; (9) the two Vehicles; (10) bodhisattvahood.
 +
 +止觀和尚 A name for the Tang monk Daosui 道邃.
 +
 +止觀宗 Another name for the Tiantai school.
 +
 +止觀捨 The upekṣā, indifference to or abandonment of both 止 and 觀, i. e. to rise above both into the universal.
 +
 +止觀玄文 Another name for the止觀論.
 +
 +止觀論 摩訶止觀論 The foundation work on Tiantai'​s modified form of samādhi, rest of body for clearness of vision. It is one of the three foundation works of the Tiantai School: was delivered by 智顗 Zhiyi to his disciple 章安 Chāgan who committed it to writing. The treatises on it are numerous.
 +
 +比 To compare; than; to assemble, arrive; partisan; each; translit. pi, bhi, vi, v. also 毘, 毗.
 +
 +比丘 比呼; 苾芻; 煏芻 bhikṣu, a religious mendicant, an almsman, one who has left home, been fully ordained, and depends on alms for a living. Some are styled 乞士 mendicant scholars, all are 釋種 Śākya-seed,​ offspring of Buddha. The Chinese characters are clearly used as a phonetic equivalent, but many attempts have been made to give meanings to the two words, e. g. 比 as 破 and 丘 as 煩惱, hence one who destroys the passions and delusions, also 悕能 able to overawe Māra and his minions; also 除饉 to get rid of dearth, moral and spiritual. Two kinds 内乞 and 外乞; both indicate self-control,​ the first by internal mental or spiritual methods, the second by externals such as strict diet. 苾芻 is a fragrant plant, emblem of the monastic life.
 +
 +比丘尼 苾芻尼; 尼姑 bhikṣuṇī. A nun, or almswoman. The first woman to be ordained was the Buddha'​s aunt Mahāprajāpatī,​ who had nursed him. In the fourteenth year after his enlightenment the Buddha yielded to persuasion and admitted his aunt and women to his order of religious mendicants, but said that the admission of women would shorten the period of Buddhism by 500 years. The nun, however old, must acknowledge the superiority of every monk; must never scold him or tell his faults; must never accuse him, though he may accuse her; and must in all respects obey the rules as commanded by him. She accepts all the rules for the monks with additional rules for her own order. Such is the theory rather than the practice. The title by which Mahāprajāpatī was addressed was applied to nuns, i. e. ārya, or noble, 阿姨, though some consider the Chinese term entirely native.
 +
 +比丘尼戒 The nun's '500 rules' and the eight commanding respect for monks, cf. 五百戒 and 八敬戒; also 比丘尼戒本 and other works; the 比丘尼僧祇律波羅提木叉戒經 Bhikṣuṇī-sāṃghika-vinaya-prātimokṣa-sūtra was tr. by Faxian and also by Buddhabhadra.
 +
 +[159]
 +
 +比丘會 An authoritative assembly of at least four monks; idem 僧伽.
 +
 +比吒迦倶舍 piṭaka-kośa. i. e. 藏 a thesaurus, treasury, store.
 +
 +比摩寺 A monastery five li west of Khotan where Laozi is said to have converted the Huns to Buddhism.
 +
 +比耆陀羨那 毗戌陀僧訶 Viśuddhasiṃha;​ the second form is defined by Eitel as 淨師子 pure lion, a Mahayanist, circa A. D. 640; the first is named in the 賢愚經 6, but they may be two different persons.
 +
 +比智 idem. 類智 q. v.
 +
 +比羅娑落 (比羅娑落山) Pīlusāragiri,​ 象堅山 Hill firm as an elephant, a mountain southwest of the capital of Kapiśā, 'the tutelary deity of which was converted by Sakvamuni.'​ Eitel. Aśoka built a stūpa on its summit. 婆 is found in error for 娑 and 洛 for 落.
 +
 +比那 (比那多);​ 毗那 vinata, 不高 A low hill.
 +
 +比量 Comparison and inference; it is defined as 比 comparison of the known, and 量 inference of the unknown. It is the second form in logic of the three kinds of example, 現, 比 and 聖教量, e. g. the inference of fire from smoke.
 +
 +比量相違 viruddha. A contradicting example or analogy in logic, e. g. the vase is permanent (or eternal), because of its nature; one of the nine, in the proposition,​ of the thirty-three possible fallacies in a syllogism.
 +
 +毛 Hair; feathers.
 +
 +毛病 flaw, ailment.
 +
 +毛孔 Hair-hole, pore, the pores.
 +
 +毛繩 A hair rope, i. e. tied up by the passions, as with an unbreakable hair rope.
 +
 +毛道 毛頭 A name for 凡夫 ordinary people, i. e. non-Buddhists,​ the unenlightened;​ the 毛 is said to be a translation of vāla, hair or down, which in turn is considered an error for bāla, ignorant, foolish, i. e. simple people who are easily beguiled. It is also said to be a form of bala-pṛthag-jana,​ v. 婆, which is intp. as born in ignorance; the ignorant and untutored in general.
 +
 +毛道生 The ignorant people.
 +
 +毛道凡夫 An ignorant, gullible person.
 +
 +毛頭 idem 毛道; also, a barber-monk who shaves the fraternity.
 +
 +毛馱伽羅子 Mudgalaputra,​ idem Mahāmaudgalyāyana,​ v. 目連.
 +
 +水 water; liquid.
 +
 +水上泡 A bubble on the water, emblem of all things being transient.
 +
 +水中月 v. 水月.
 +
 +水乳 Water and milk— an illustration of the intermingling of things; but their essential separateness is recognized in that the rāja-haṃsa (a kind of goose) is said to be able to drink up the milk leaving behind the water.
 +
 +水冠 A monk's hat shaped like the character '​water'​ in front.
 +
 +水器 water vessel; a filter used by the esoterics in baptismal and other rites.
 +
 +水圓 water-globule,​ a tabu term for the more dangerous term 火珠 fire-pearl or ruby, also altered to 珠圓 pearl ball; it is the ball on top of a pagoda.
 +
 +水塵 An atom of dust wandering freely in water— one of the smallest of things.
 +
 +水壇 The water, or round, altar in the homa, or Fire ceremonial of the esoterics; also an altar in a house, which is cleansed with filtered water in times of peril.
 +
 +水大 The element water, one of the four elements 四大 q. v.
 +
 +水天 Varuṇa, 縛嚕拏; 婆樓那 ούϕανός,​ the heavens, or the sky, where are clouds and dragons; the 水神 water-deva, or dragon-king,​ who rules the clouds, rains, and water generally. One of the 大神 in the esoteric maṇḍalas;​ he rules the west; his consort is the 水天妃 represented on his left, and his chief retainer 水天眷屬 is placed on his right.
 +
 +水天供 or 水天法 is the method of worshipping Varuṇa for rain.
 +
 +水天德佛 The 743 rd Buddha of the present universe.
 +
 +水定 The water dhyāna, in which one becomes identified with water, for during the period of trance one may become water; stories are told of devotees who, having turned to water, on awaking found stones in their bodies which had been thrown into their liquid bodies, and which were only removed during a succeeding similar trance.
 +
 +水曜 The planet Mercury, one of the nine luminaries; it is shown south of the west door of the diamond court in the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +水月 udakacandra;​ jalacandra; the moon reflected in the water, i. e. all is illusory and unreal.
 +
 +水月觀音 Guanyin gazing at the moon in the water, i. e. the unreality of all phenomena.
 +
 +[160]
 +
 +水梭花 Water shuttle flowers, i. e. fish.
 +
 +水沫泡焰 Spume, bubbles, and flame, e. g. that all is unreal and transient.
 +
 +水波 Waves of water; the wave and the water are two yet one— an illustration of the identity of differences.
 +
 +水淨 Cleansed by water; edibles recovered from fowing water are '​clean'​food to a monk.
 +
 +水災 The calamity of water, or food; one of the three final world catastrophes of fire, wind, and water, v. 三災.
 +
 +水滿 Jalāmbara (third son of 流水 Jalavāhana) reborn as Śākyamuni'​s son Rāhula.
 +
 +水燈 The water-lantern festival in the seventh month.
 +
 +水玉 sphaṭika, 塞頗胝迦;​ 婆致迦 water crystal, rock crystal.
 +
 +水田衣 A monk's robe, because its patches resemble rice-fields;​ also 稻田衣.
 +
 +水界 The realm of water, one of the 四大 four elements.
 +
 +水精 sphaṭika, crystal, idem 水玉.
 +
 +水羅 A gauze filter.
 +
 +水老鶴 A bird, very rarely seen, possibly a snow-goose; also 水白鶴 (or 鷺 ): 水涸.
 +
 +水葬 Water-burial,​ casting a corpse into the water, one of the four forms of burial.
 +
 +水藏 Water-store,​ or treasury; second son of Jalavāhana,​ born as 瞿波 Gopā, see 水滿.
 +
 +水囊 A water-bag, or filter.
 +
 +水觀 also 水相觀; 水想 similar to 水定 q. v.
 +
 +水輪 The third of the four '​wheel'​ on which the earth rests— space, wind (or air), water, and metal.
 +
 +水輪三昧 The samādhi of the water '​wheel'​ 水輪, one of the 五輪三昧;​ water is fertilizing and soft, in like manner the effect of this samādhi is the fertilizing of good roots, and the softening or reduction of ambition and pride.
 +
 +水陸會 or (水陸齋) The festival of water and land, attributed to Wudi of the Liang dynasty consequent on a dream; it began with placing food in the water for water sprites, and on land for 鬼 ghosts; see 釋門正統 4.
 +
 +水頭 The waterman in a monastery.
 +
 +水風火災 The three final catastrophes,​ see 三災.
 +
 +火 Fire, flame. Śikhin 尸棄; 式棄, which means fire in the sense of flame, is the name of the 999th Buddha of the kalpa preceding this.
 +
 +火一切處 Universal conflagration— one of the ten universals, and one of the meditations on the final destruction of all things by fire.
 +
 +火伴 The fire-tender in a monastic kitchen.
 +
 +火光 Fire-light, flame.
 +
 +火光定 The flame dhyāna by which the body is self-immolated.
 +
 +火光三昧 The flame samādhi, also styled the fourth dhyāna.
 +
 +火光尊 idem 火天.
 +
 +火印 The fire sign, for which a triangle pointing upwards is used; a triangular arrangement of fingers of the right hand with the left.
 +
 +火坑 The fiery pit (of the five desires 五欲); also that of the three ill destinies— the hells, animals, hungry ghosts.
 +
 +火壇 Fire altar, connected with homa or fire worship; also 爐壇.
 +
 +火大 The element fire, one of the 四大 four elements.
 +
 +火天 The fire devas shown as the 12th group in the diamond court of the Garbhadhātu;​ v. 火神.
 +
 +[161]
 +
 +火夜 hāva; to call, invoke; also 訶婆.
 +
 +火宅 The parable of the burning house; one of the 'seven parables'​ in the Lotus Sutra 譬喩品, that of the burning house from which the owner tempts his heedless children by the device of the three kinds of carts— goat, deer, and bullock, especially a white-bullock cart i. e. Mahāyāna.
 +
 +火宅僧 Monks in a, burning house, i. e. married monks.
 +
 +火定 The fire dhyāna v. 火生.
 +
 +火客 The monk who attends to the fire; also 火伴; 火佃.
 +
 +火尊 i. e. 火神 q. v.
 +
 +火帳 The kitchen account of the rice cooked and persons served.
 +
 +火德星君 The ruler over the fire-star, Mars, whose tablet hangs in the south side of a temple and whose days of worship, to prevent conflagrations,​ are the fourth and eighteenth of each moon; he is identified with the ancient emperor 炎帝 Yen Ti.
 +
 +火星 Aṇgāraka,​ 鴦哦囉迦 the planet Mars.
 +
 +火曜 Mars, one of the nine luminaries, shown south of the Diamond hall in the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +火? Fire-tongs, made of wood, themselves burnt up before all brushwood is used up, a simile of a bodhisattva who so far forgot his vow to save all the living as to enter nirvana before completing his work.
 +
 +火法 The homa or fire service of the esoterics.
 +
 +火浣布袈裟 An asbestos cassock; also a non-inflammable robe said to be made of the hair of the 火鼠 fire-rat.
 +
 +火淨 Purified, food made '​clean'​ by fire, or cooking.
 +
 +火湯 The hell of liquid fire.
 +
 +火災 The conflagration catastrophe,​ for world destruction,​ v. 三災.
 +
 +火焚地獄 The scorching hell, where sinners are burnt up.
 +
 +火燄三昧 A samādhi entered into by the Buddha, in which he emitted flames to overcome a poisonous dragon. Also 火光 (or 火生) 三昧 q. v.
 +
 +火爐 火鑪 The homa or fire altar of the esoterics.
 +
 +火版 The '​fire-board'​ or wooden plaque, hung in the kitchen, the striking of which warns the monks that the meal is ready.
 +
 +火狗 The fiery dogs— which vomit fire on sinners in hell.
 +
 +火珠 Fire-pearl, or ruby; the ball on top of a pagoda, see 水圓.
 +
 +火生三昧 A flame-emitting samādhi, the power to emit flames from the body for auto-holocaust,​ or other purposes. It is especially associated with 不動尊 q. v. and Shingon practice of the yoga which unites the devotee to him and his powers.
 +
 +火界 The realm of fire, one of the realms of the four elements 四大, i. e. earth, water, fire, and wind. Cf. 火院.
 +
 +火界咒 A dharai of 不動尊 q. v.
 +
 +火界定 agni-dhātu-samādhi;​ the meditation on the final destruction of the world by fire.
 +
 +火神 The gods of fire, stated as numbering forty-four in the Vedic pantheon, with Mahābrahmā as the first; of these the Vairocana sutra takes twelve, i. e. 大因陀羅;​ 行滿; 摩嚕多; 盧醯多; 沒口栗拏;​ 忿怒; 闍吒羅; 吃灑耶; 意生; 羯攞微; (11th unknown); 謨賀那. Cf. 火尊; 火天.
 +
 +火祠法 The directions for the fire sacrifices in the Atharva-veda,​ the fourth Veda; the esoteric sect has also its 火法 for magical purposes.
 +
 +火種居士 Brahmans, servers of the sacred fire.
 +
 +火羅 hora, hour, hours, time; astrologically a horoscope; said to be the country where 一行 Yixing studied astronomy.
 +
 +[162]
 +
 +火聚 Accumulated fires (of hell); accumulating one's own hell-fires; the body as a heap of fire, i. e. to be feared; the fires of angry passions.
 +
 +火聚仙 This genius and his wife are shown above Vaisramana in the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +火聚佛頂 光聚佛頂;​ 放光 or 放光佛頂 One of the five 佛預, i. e. one of the incarnations of Śākyamuni,​ whose Indian name is given as 帝聚羅研羯羅縛哩底 Tejorāśi-cakravarttī,​ called by Shingon 神通金剛;​ this incarnation is placed fourth on Śākyamuni'​s left in the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +火舍 A kind of censer, made in two superimposed circles with a cover.
 +
 +火葬 jhāpita, 荼毘; 閣維 cremation, the relics 舍利 being buried.
 +
 +火蛇 Fire-vomiting serpents in the hells.
 +
 +火血刀 The hells, animals, and hungry ghosts, i. e. the fiery, bloody, and knife-sharp destinies, the 三惡道.
 +
 +火車 The fiery chariot (belonging to the hells); there is also the 火車地獄 hell of the fire-chariot,​ and the fire-pit with its fiery wheels; the sufferer first freezes, then is tempted into the chariot which bursts into flames and he perishes in the fire pit, a process each sufferer repeats daily 90 koṭīs of times.
 +
 +火輪 Whirling fire, e. g. fire whirled in a circle, the whole circle seeming to be on fire, emblem of illusion; a fire wheel.
 +
 +火輪印 A sign made by putting the doubled fists together and opening the index fingers to form the fire-sign, a triangle.
 +
 +火塗 (or 火道) The fiery way, i. e. the destiny of the hot hells, one of the three evil destinies.
 +
 +火辨 Citrabhānu,​ 質呾羅婆拏 described as one of the ten great writers of the Indian 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, a contemporary and colleague of Vasubandhu; but the description is doubtful.
 +
 +火鈴 Fire-bell-in warning to be careful of fire.
 +
 +火院 The '​fire-court',​ a kind of contemplation,​ in which the devotee sees himself encircled by fire after circumambulating three times to the right while making the fire-sign. Also 火界; 金剛炎.
 +
 +火頂山 A peak near Tiantai, where the founder of that school overcame Māra.
 +
 +火頭 A monastery cook.
 +
 +火頭金剛 One of the Ming Wang 明王 v. 烏芻瑟摩.
 +
 +火食 Burnt offerings, as in the homa worship.
 +
 +爪 Claws, talons; servants.
 +
 +爪土 (爪上土) The quantity of earth one can put on a toe-nail, i. e. in proportion to the whole earth in the world, such is the rareness of being reborn as a human being; or, according to the Nirvana Sutra 33, of attaining nirvana.
 +
 +爪塔 A stūpa, or reliquary, for preserving and honouring the nails and hair of the Buddha, said to be the first Buddhist stūpa raised.
 +
 +爪淨 Nail '​cleaned',​ i. e. fruit, etc., that can be peeled with the nails, one of the five kinds of '​clean'​ food.
 +
 +爪犢 The long-nailed ascetic Brahmacārī (of the) Vātsīputrīyaḥ;​ it is said that his nails were a treatise and his hair a discourse 爪章髮論.
 +
 +父 pitṛ, 比多 Father.
 +
 +父母 pitṛ-mātṛ,​ father and mother, parents; 無明 ignorance is referred to as father, and 貪愛 desire, or concupiscence,​ as mother, the two— ignorance and concupiscence— being the parents of all delusion and karma. Samādhi is also referred to as father, and praj na (wisdom) as mother, the parents of all knowledge and virtue. In the vast interchanges of rebirth all have been or are my parents, therefore all males are my father and all females my mother: 一切男女我父母 see 心地觀經 2.
 +
 +父城 The paternal or native city, especially Śākyamuni'​s,​ Kapilavastu.
 +
 +片 A slice, slip, card; brief, few.
 +
 +片禪 A brief samādhi, or meditation.
 +
 +牙 Tooth, teeth; toothed; a broker.
 +
 +牙菩薩 The bodhisattva fiercely showing his teeth in defence of the Buddha, also styled 金剛藥叉;​ he is east of the Buddha in the Vajradhātu.
 +
 +牛 go, gaus; ox, bull, bullock, etc. A term applied to the Buddha Gautama as in 牛王 king of bulls, possibly because of the derivation of his name; the phrase 騎牛來牛 (or 騎牛覔牛) to ride an ox, to seek an ox, means to use the Buddha to find the Buddha.
 +
 +牛戒 To live as a cow, eating grass with bent head, etc. — as certain Indian heretics are said to have done, in the belief that a cow's next reincarnation would be in the heavens.
 +
 +[163]
 +
 +牛毛塵 go-rājas, the amount of dust that can rest on the top of a cow's hair, i. e. seven times that on a sheep'​s.
 +
 +牛狗外道 go-vrauka, or kukkura-vratika. Heretics who lived as oxen or dogs.
 +
 +牛王 The king of bulls, i. e. a Buddha, or bodhisattva;​ it is applied to Gautama Buddha, possibly derived from his name.
 +
 +牛王尊者 牛呞; 牛相; 牛跡 Gavāṃpati,​ v. 憍焚波提 and 牛跡比丘.
 +
 +牛皮 ox hide— mortal happiness injures the wisdom-life of gods and men, just as ox hide shrinks and crushes a man who is wrapped in it and placed under the hot sun.
 +
 +牛糞 gomaya, cow-dung, considered in India as clean and cleansing; used by the esoterics for '​cleansing'​ altars.
 +
 +牛糞種 The first Gotama ancestor of Śākyamuni,​ who is reputed to have sprung from cow-dung in the Sugar-cane garden, probably a mere tradition that the family sprang from herdsmen.
 +
 +牛羊眼 (牛羊心眼) Only the eyes (i. e. vision, or insight) of oxen and sheep.
 +
 +牛角 Ox-horns, a synonym for things that are even, or on a level.
 +
 +牛角一觸 The ox that by merely touching a monk's robe with its horn was transformed into a deva.
 +
 +牛角娑羅林 Ox-horns śāla grove, said to be a couple of śāla or teak trees shaped like ox-horns, which grew near Kuśinagara,​ under which the Buddha preached the Nirvana Sutra. He is reported to have entered nirvana in a grove of eight śāla trees standing in pairs.
 +
 +牛角山 v. 牛頭山.
 +
 +牛貨洲 Godānīya, 瞿伽尼 (or 瞿耶尼, or 瞿陀尼) ; 倶助尼; 遇嚩柅; Aparagodāna,​ 阿鉢唎瞿陀尼,​ the western of the four continents into which every world is divided, where oxen are the principal product and medium of exchange.
 +
 +牛跡 Ox-tracks, i. e. the teaching of a Buddha the 牛王 royal bull.
 +
 +牛跡比丘 the bhikṣu Gavāṃpati,​ 憍梵波提 q. v., also styled 牛王 (尊者), said to have been a disciple of Śākyamuni;​ also styled 牛呞 ruminating like a cow, and 牛相 cow-faced: so born because of his previous herdsman'​s misdeeds.
 +
 +牛車 Bullock cart, the 自牛車 white bullock cart as the one universal vehicle of salvation, v. 火宅.
 +
 +牛頭 The ox-head lictors in the hells.
 +
 +牛頭山 Gośṛṇga 瞿室{M044209}伽 a mountain 13 li from Khotan. One of the same name exists in Kiangning in Kiangsu, which gave its name to a school, the followers of 法融 Fa-jung, called 牛頭山法 Niu-t'​ou shan fa, or 牛頭禪 (or 牛頭宗); its fundamental teaching was the unreality of all things, that all is dream, or illusion.
 +
 +牛頭大王 The guardian deity of the Jetavana monastery, and an incarnation of 藥師 q. v.
 +
 +牛頭栴檀 牛檀栴檀;​ 牛檀香 gośīrṣa-candana,​ ox-head sandal-wood,​ also styled 赤栴檀 red sandal-wood;​ said to come from the Ox-head mountains, and if rubbed on the body to make one impervious to fire, also generally protective against fire, curative of wounds and generally medicinal. 'The first image of Śākyamuni was made of this wood. ' Eitel. 西域記 10.
 +
 +牛驢二乳 The milk of cow and ass, the one turns to '​curd',​ the other to 'dung ', i. e. alike in appearance, but fundamentally different, as is the case with the Buddha'​s teaching and that of outsiders.
 +
 +牛黃加持 (or 牛王加持) Cow-bezoar aid, a charm used for childless women to obtain children— the four words should be written with cow bezoar on birch-bark and carried on the person.
 +
 +王 rāja, king, prince, royal; to rule.
 +
 +王三昧 三昧王三昧;​ 三昧王 The king of samādhis, the highest degree of samādhi, the 首楞嚴定 q. v. The first is also applied to invoking Buddha, or sitting in meditation or trance.
 +
 +王仙 A royal ṛṣi, i. e. a sovereign who retires from the world and attains to the five transcendent powers.
 +
 +王古 Wanggu, name of a President of the Board of Rites during the Sung dynasty, who was also a devout Buddhist, end of eleventh century.
 +
 +王日 idem 八王日.
 +
 +王日休 Wang Rixiu, a 進士 doctor who became a devout and learned follower of Amida and Guanyin; he was of 龍舒 Longshu, was also known as 虛中 Xuzhong, and compiled the 大阿彌陀經 1160-2.
 +
 +王曷邏閣伐彈那 Rājyavardhana,​ tr. by 王增 Wang Tseng. A brother of Harshavardhana,​ king of Kanyākubja.
 +
 +王法 Royal law, the law by which a king should rule his country.
 +
 +王法經 A sutra on royal law, tr. by Yijing; there are other treatises on it.
 +
 +王膳 A royal feast referred to in the Lotus Sutra, where the hungry people feared to accept the King's feast till he came himself and called them; i. e. the feast of Buddhahood and the Buddha'​s call.
 +
 +[164]
 +
 +王舍城 Rājagṛha. King Bimbisāra is said to have removed his capital here from Kuśāgrapura,​ v. 矩 and 吉, a little further eastward, because of fire and other calamities. Rājagṛha was surrounded by five hills, of which Gṛdhrakūṭa (Vulture Peak) became the most famous. It was the royal city from the time of Bimbisara 'until the time of Aśoka'​. Its ruins are still extant at the village of Rājgir, some sixteen miles S. S. W. of Bihār; they 'form an object of pilgrimages for the Jains'​. Eitel. The first synod is said to have assembled here.
 +5. FIVE STROKES
 +
 +丙 Fire, heat, south; the third of the ten stems.
 +
 +丙丁 A junior, or so-and-so.
 +
 +丙丁童子 the boy who attends to the lamps (which are associated with '​fire'​).
 +
 +且 Moreover, yet, meanwhile.
 +
 +且喜 So be it, granted, a qualified assent.
 +
 +丘 A mound, a plot; personal name of Confucius.
 +
 +丘井 A (dry) well on a hill top, symbolical of old age.
 +
 +丘慈 屈支; 龜兹 q. v. Kuche, Karashahr.
 +
 +世 yuga. An age, 1, 000th part of a kalpa. loka, the world. 世 originally meant a human generation, a period of thirty years; it is used in Buddhism both for yuga, a period of time ever flowing, and loka, the world, worldly, earthly. The world is that which is to be destroyed; it is sunk in the round of mortality, or transmigration;​ and conceals, or is a veil over reality.
 +
 +世世生生 Transmigration after transmigration in the six states of mortal existence.
 +
 +世主 (世主天) The Lord of the world, Brahmā; Maheśvara; also the four mahārājas 四天王; v. 梵天; 大自在天.
 +
 +世代 A generation, a lifetime; the world.
 +
 +世依 He on whom the world relies— Buddha.
 +
 +世俗 laukika; common or ordinary things, custom, experiences,​ common or worldly ways or views).
 +
 +世典 Non-Buddhist classical works.
 +
 +世友 Vasumitra; v. 筏蘇蜜呾羅.
 +
 +世善 The pleasures of the world, v. 世福.
 +
 +世尊 lokajyeṣṭha,​ world'​s most Venerable, or lokanātha, lord of worlds. 盧迦委斯諦;​ 路迦那他 World-honoured,​ an epithet of every Buddha. Also a tr. of Bhagavat, v. 婆.
 +
 +世智 (世俗智) ordinary or worldly knowledge or wisdom.
 +
 +世法 Common or ordinary dharmas, i. e. truths, laws, things, etc.
 +
 +世界 Loka 世間; the finite world, the world, a world, which is of two kinds: (1) 衆生世界 that of the living, who are receiving their 正報 correct recompense or karma; (2) 器世界 that of the material, or that on which karma depends for expression. By the living is meant 有情 the sentient.
 +
 +世界主 The lord, or ruler over a world or dhyāna heaven, one for each of the four dhyāna heavens.
 +
 +世界悉檀 One of the four siddhāntas:​ the Buddha'​s line of reasoning in earthly or common terms to draw men to the higher truth.
 +
 +世相 World-state,​ or condition; appearances,​ phenomena.
 +
 +世眼 idem 世間眼.
 +
 +世福 Earthly happiness, arising from the ordinary good living of those unenlightened by Buddhism, one of the 三福; also, the blessings of this world.
 +
 +世第一法 The highest of the 四加行位 q. v.
 +
 +世羅 śaila 勢羅; 施羅; a crag, a mountain.
 +
 +世耶那薩喃 śayanāsana,​ lying and sitting, couch and seat.
 +
 +世自在王 Lokeśvararāja,​ 世饒王 a Buddha under whom Amitābha, in a previous existence, entered into the ascetic life and made his forty-eight vows.
 +
 +[165]
 +
 +世英 World hero, i. e. a Buddha; also 世雄.
 +
 +世親 Vasubandhu, idem 天親 q. v.
 +
 +世論 worldly discussions;​ ordinary unenlightened ways of description or definition; also styled 惡論 evil discussions,​ especially when applied to the hedonistic lokāyatika teachings, v. 路迦.
 +
 +世諦 ordinary or worldly truth, opposite of 眞諦 truth in reality; also 俗諦; 世俗諦; 覆俗諦.
 +
 +世諦不生滅 Ordinary worldly postulates that things are permanent, as contrasted with the doctrine of impermanence advocated by Hīnayāna; both positions are controverted by Tiantai, which holds that the phenomenal world is neither becoming nor passing, but is an aspect of- eternal reality.
 +
 +世路 The ways, or procedure, of the world: the phenomenal.
 +
 +世間 The world; in the world; the finite impermanent world, idem 世界.
 +
 +世間乘 The vehicle, or teaching for the attainment of good fruit in the present life, in contrast with 出世間乘 that for attainment in lives outside this world.
 +
 +世間天 World-devas,​ i. e. earthly kings.
 +
 +世間天院 The third court in the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +世間智 Worldly knowledge, i. e. that of ordinary men and those unenlightened by Buddhism.
 +
 +世間檀 Worldly dāna, or giving, i. e. with thoughts of possession, meum, tūm, and the thing given, v. 三礙.
 +
 +世間法 The world law, or law of this world, especially of birth-and-death;​ in this respect it is associated with the first two of the four dogmas, i, e. 苦 suffering, and 集 its accumulated consequences in karma.
 +
 +世間相常住 World-forms,​ systems, or states are eternal (as existing in the Absolute, the 眞如).
 +
 +世間相違 Lokaviruddha;​ one of the thirty-three logical errors, to set up a premise contrary to human experience.
 +
 +世間眼 The Eye of the world, the eye that sees for all men, i. e. the Buddha, who is also the one that opens the eyes of men. Worldly, or ordinary eyes. Also 世眼.
 +
 +世間經 A sutra discussing causality in regard to the first three of the Four Dogmas 苦諦, 集諦 and 滅諦 in the 阿含經 34.
 +
 +世間解 lokavid, 路迦憊 tr. as 知世間 Knower of the world, one of the ten titles of a Buddha.
 +
 +世間難信捷徑 The speedy and straight way to Buddhahood (for all) which the world finds it hard to believe.
 +
 +世雄兩足尊 The World-hero and two legged (or human) honoured one, Buddha, or the honoured among human bipeds.
 +
 +主 Chief, lord, master; to control.
 +
 +主事 viharāsvāmin;​ controller, director, the four heads of affairs in a monastery 監寺, 維那, 典坐, and 直歳.
 +
 +主伴 Chief and attendant, principal and secondary.
 +
 +主宰 Lord, master; to dominate, control; the lord within, the soul; the lord of the universe, God.
 +
 +主方神 The spirits controlling the eight directions.
 +
 +主首 The 監寺 or abbot of a monastery.
 +
 +乏 Lacking.
 +
 +乏道 lacking in the right way, shortcoming,​ poor, —an expression of humility.
 +
 +代 Instead of, in place of, acting for, for; e. g. 代香 to offer incense in place of another; a generation, v. 世代.
 +
 +付 To deliver, hand over to, hand down.
 +
 +付屬 付囑 To deliver, entrust to.
 +
 +付法藏 (因緣傳);​ 付法藏傳 or 付法藏經. The work explaining the handing down of Śākyamuni'​s teaching by Mahākāśyapa and the elders, twenty-four in number; tr. in the Yuan dynasty in six juan; cf. 釋門正統 4.
 +
 +他 Another, other, the other, his, her, it, etc.
 +
 +他力 Another'​s strength, especially that of a Buddha, or bodhisattva,​ obtained through faith in Mahāyāna salvation.
 +
 +他力宗 Those who trust to salvation by faith, contrasted with 自力宗 those who seek salvation by works, or by their own strength.
 +
 +他力念佛 Trusting to and calling on the Buddha, especially Amitābha.
 +
 +他勝罪 Overcome by specific sin; i. e. any of the four pārājikas,​ or sins of excommunication.
 +
 +他化天 (他化自在天) Paranirmita-vaśavartin,​ 婆羅尼蜜婆舍跋提天;​ 婆那和提;​ 波舍跋提 the sixth of the six heavens of desire, or passion heavens, the last of the six devalokas, the abode of Maheśvara (i. e. Śiva), and of Māra.
 +
 +他受用土 That part of a buddhakṣetra,​ or reward land of a Buddha, in which all beings receive and obey his truth; cf. 自受用土.
 +
 +他寳 The valuables of another person; other valuables.
 +
 +他己 Another and oneself; both he and I.
 +
 +他心智 他心通; 他心智通;​ 知他心通 paracittajñāna. Intuitive knowledge of the minds of all other beings. The eighth of the 十智, and the fourth or third of the 六神通. The eighth of Amitābha'​s forty-eight vows that men and devas in his paradise should all have the joy of this power.
 +
 +他毘梨與部 他毘利 (or 梯毘利); 他鞞羅部;​ 體毘履 (or 體毘裏) Sthavirāḥ;​ 上巫; 老宿 One of the four branches of the Vaibhāṣika School, so called after the Vaibhāṣika-śāstra,​ v. 毘; the school was reputed as later represented by the Mahāvihāra-vāsins,​ Jetavanīyās,​ Abhayagirivāsins,​ in Ceylon; but the history of the Buddhist sects is uncertain.
 +
 +[166]
 +
 +他世 Another life, or world, either previous to or after this.
 +
 +他那 吒那 stṣṭhāna,​ 處 a place, state, condition.
 +
 +仙 僊 ṛṣi, 哩始 an immortal. 仙人; 人仙 the genī, of whom there is a famous group of eight 八仙; an ascetic, a man of the hills, a hermit; the Buddha. The 楞嚴經 gives ten kinds of immortals, walkers on the earth, fliers, wanderers at will, into space, into the deva heavens, transforming themselves into any form, etc. The names of ten ṛṣis, who preceded Śākyamuni,​ the first being 闍提首那?​ Jatisena; there is also a list of sixty-eight 大仙 given in the 大孔雀咒經下 A classification of five is 天仙 deva genī, 神仙 spirit genī, 人仙 human genī, 地仙 earth, or cavern genī, and 鬼仙 ghost genī.
 +
 +仙人鹿野苑 仙人鹿園,​ 仙苑 The Mṛgadāva,​ a deer park N. E. of Vārāṇasī,​ 'a favourite resort of Śākyamuni. The modern Sārnath (Sāraṇganātha) near Benares. ' Eitel.
 +
 +仙城 The ṛṣi'​s city, i. e. the Buddha'​s native city, Kapilavastu.
 +
 +仙經 Daoist treatises on alchemy and immortality.
 +
 +仙音 The voice of Buddha.
 +
 +仙鹿王 The royal-stag Genius, i. e. Buddha.
 +
 +以 By means of, by using, by; whereby, in order to.
 +
 +以心傳心 Direct transmission from mind to mind, as contrasted with the written word; the intuitive principle of the Chan (Zen), or intuitive school.
 +
 +仡 Strong, valiant; suddenly.
 +
 +仡那 繕摩 jāuman, 生 jāti, birth, production; rebirth as man, animal, etc.; life, position assigned by birth; race, being; the four methods of birth are egg, womb, water, and transformation.
 +
 +兄 Elder brother.
 +
 +兄弟 Elder and younger brothers; brother, brethren, i. e. members of the fraternity.
 +
 +囘 Return, turn back, a turn.
 +
 +囘忌 The days on which the day of death is remembered.
 +
 +囘駕窣塔婆 nivartana-stūpa,​ erected on the spot where Śākyamuni sent back his horse after quitting home.
 +
 +冬 hima; hemanta; winter.
 +
 +冬安居 The winter retreat, 16t of 10th moon to 15th of 1st.
 +
 +冬夜 The night before the 冬至 winter solstice.
 +
 +冬朝 The morning of that day.
 +
 +冬齋 The observances of that day.
 +
 +出 To go out, come forth, put forth; exit; beyond.
 +
 +出世 (1) Appearance in the world e. g. the Buddha'​s appearing. (2) To leave the world; a monk or nun. (3) Beyond, or outside this world, not of this world; of nirvana character.
 +
 +出世大事 The great work of the Buddha'​s appearing, or for which he appeared.
 +
 +出世心 The nirvana, or other-world mind.
 +
 +出世本懷 The aim cherished by the Buddha in appearing in the world.
 +
 +出世果 The fruit of leaving the world; the result in another world; nirvana.
 +
 +出世業 The work or position of one who has quitted the world, that of a monk.
 +
 +出世服 The garment of one who has left the world.
 +
 +出世舍 An abode away from the world, a monastery, hermitage.
 +
 +出世說部 出世部 (出世間說部) (or 出世語言部) Lokottaravādinaḥ,​ 盧倶多婆拖部 an offshoot of the Māhāsaṇghikāḥ division of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools; the tenets of the school are unknown, but the name, as implied by the Chinese translation,​ suggests if not the idea of Ādi-Buddha,​ yet that of supra-mundane nature.
 +
 +出世間 To go out of the world; the world (or life) beyond this; the supra-mundane;​ the spiritual world.
 +
 +出世間道,​ or 出世間法. The way of leaving the world, i. e. of enlightenment,​ idem 菩提道; the spiritual law.
 +
 +出佛血 To shed a Buddha'​s blood, one of the five grave sins.
 +
 +出假行 A bodhisattva'​s entry into time and space, or the phenomenal 假, for the sake of saving others.
 +
 +出出世間 surpassing the supra-mundane;​ the stage of Bodhisattvahood above the eighth 八地 or degree.
 +
 +出塵 To leave the dusty world of passion and delusion.
 +
 +出定 To come out of the state of dhyāna; to enter into it is 入定.
 +
 +出家 pravraj; to leave home and become a monk or nun.
 +
 +出家人 One who has left home and become a monk or nun. Two kinds are named: (1) 身出家 one who physically leaves home, and (2) 心出家 one who does so in spirit and conduct. A further division of four is: (1 ) one who physically leaves home, but in spirit remains with wife and family; (2) one who physically remains at home but whose spirit goes forth; (3) one who leaves home, body and spirit; and (4) one who, body and mind, refuses to leave home.
 +
 +[167]
 +
 +出息 To breathe out.
 +
 +出息不待入 Breathing out-not waiting for breathing-in,​ breathless.
 +
 +出慧 The wisdom of leaving mortality, or reincarnations;​ the wisdom of leaving the world.
 +
 +出曜經 avadānas, 阿波陀那 stories of memorable deeds. The sixth of the twelve sections of the canon, consisting of 譬喩 parables and comparisons.
 +
 +出期 The going forth period, i. e. from the sufferings of mortality; the appointed time of going forth; the period of setting forth.
 +
 +出現 To manifest, reveal, be manifested, appear, e. g. as does a Buddha'​s temporary body, or nirmāṇakāya. Name of Udāyi 優陀夷 a disciple of Buddha to be reborn as Samantaprabhāsa;​ also of a son of Ajātaśatru.
 +
 +出生 To be born; to produce; monastic food, superior as bestowed in alms, called 出飯 and 生飯.
 +
 +出纏眞如 The unfettered, or free bhūtatathatā,​ as contrasted with the 在纏眞如.
 +
 +出聖 The surpassing sacred truth, or the sacred immortal truth.
 +
 +出道 To leave the world and enter the nirvana way.
 +
 +出陣 To stand out from the class or rank (e. g. to ask question).
 +
 +出隊 outstanding,​ of outstanding ability, egregious, standing forth.
 +
 +出隊迦提 The public announcement of the distribution of the kaṭhina garment (v. 功德衣 ) in the last month of the rainy season, i. e. of the coming forth of the monks from their retreat.
 +
 +出離 To leave, come out from.
 +
 +出離煩惱 to leave the passions and delusions of life, an intp. of nirvana.
 +
 +出體 External; the components of a thing or matter; to put forth a body.
 +
 +加 Add, added; increase; put on.
 +
 +加力 Added strength or power (by the Buddhas or bodhisattvas);​ aid.
 +
 +加尸 加私; 迦尸 kasa, visibility, splendour; a species of grass, saccharum spontaneum. M. W.
 +
 +加持 地瑟娓曩 adhiṣṭhāna,​ to depend upon, a base, rule. It is defined as dependence on the Buddha, who 加 confers his strength on all (who seek it), and 持 upholds them; hence it implies prayer, because of obtaining the Buddha'​s power and transferring it to others; in general it is to aid, support.
 +
 +加持供物 To repeat tantras over offerings, in order to prevent demons from taking them or making them unclean.
 +
 +加持成佛 By the aid of Buddha to enter Buddhahood.
 +
 +加持杖 A wand (made of peach wood) laid on in driving out demons, or in healing disease, the painful place being beaten. Tantras are repeated while the wand is used on the patient.
 +
 +加持身 The body which the Buddha depends upon or his manifestation,​ i. e. the nirmāṇakāya.
 +
 +加沙 迦沙; 袈裟 kaṣāya, a colour composed of red and yellow, i. e. brown, described as a mixed colour, but 加沙野 is defined as 赤 red.
 +
 +加蘭伽 Kalaviṇka,​ v. 迦.
 +
 +加行 prayoga. Added progress, intensified effort, earnest endeavour.
 +
 +加行位 The second of the four stages of the 唯識宗 known also as 四加行.
 +
 +加行善 修得善; 方便善 Goodness acquired by earnest effort, or '​works',​ as differentiated from 生得善 natural goodness.
 +
 +加被 加祐; 加備; 加護 Divine or Buddha aid or power bestowed on the living, for their protection or perfection.
 +
 +功 Merit, meritorious;​ achievement,​ hence 功力 achieving strength, earnest effort after the good).
 +
 +功嘉葛刺思 Kun-dgah-grags,​ also named 膽巴 Danupa, a famous Tibetan monk of the thirteenth century, who had influence at the Mongol court under Kublai Khan and after, d. 1303.
 +
 +功巧論 功明論 (or 巧明論) Śilpasthāna-vidyā-śāstra;​ 'the śāstra of arts and sciences, ' i. e. of 術 and 數, one of the 五明 five works on knowledge; it treats of 'arts, mechanics, dual philosophy, and calendaric calculations'​. Eitel.
 +
 +功德 Virtue achieved; achievement;​ power to do meritorious works; merit; meritorious virtue; the reward of virtue; a name for 弗若多羅 Puṇyatara,​ one of the twenty-four 天尊 deva aryas, worshipped in China.
 +
 +功德叢林 The grove of merit and virtue, i. e. a Buddhist hall, or monastery; also the scriptures.
 +
 +功德使 Envoy to the virtuous, or officer supervising virtue, controller of monks and nuns appointed by the Tang Court.
 +
 +[168]
 +
 +功德天 (功德天女) idem 吉祥天 (吉祥天女) Lakṣmī, goddess of fortune.
 +
 +功德水 (or 功德池) The water or eight lakes of meritorious deeds, or virtue, in Paradise.
 +
 +功德田 The field of merit and virtue, i. e. the triratna 三寳, to be cultivated by the faithful; it is one of the three fields for cultivating welfare 三福田.
 +
 +功德聚 The assembly of all merit and virtue, i. e. the Buddha; also a stūpa as symbol of him.
 +
 +功德衣 kaṭhina, 迦絺那; 羯絺那 the garment of merits, given to monks after their summer retreat of ninety days; it symbolized five merits to which they had attained.
 +
 +功德遊 Meritorious exercise, i. e. walking about intoning after duty.
 +
 +功用 Action, functioning,​ in practice and achievement.
 +
 +功能 Achieving power; ability, power.
 +
 +北 uttara, North.
 +
 +北山住部 鬱多世羅部 Uttaraśailāḥ. One of the sects organized in the third century after the Nirvana, whose seat is described as north of 制多山 q. v.
 +
 +北宗 The northern school of the Chan (Zen) sect; from Bodhidharma 達磨 to the fifth patriarch 弘忍 Hongren the school was undivided; from 慧能 Huineng began the division of the southern school, 神秀 Shenxiu maintaining the northern; it was the southern school which prevailed.
 +
 +北度 The pupil'​s position in paying respect to his master, i. e. facing the north where the master sits.
 +
 +北斗 (北斗七星) Ursa major, the Northern Bushel with its seven stars.
 +
 +北斗堂 The hall for the worship of Ursa Major.
 +
 +北方七曜衆 The seven northern constellations from 胃 wei to 虛 xu are represented in the Garbhadhātu by their seven devas. Cf. 北辰.
 +
 +北方佛教 Northern Buddhism, i. e. Mahāyāna, in contrast with Southern Buddhism, Hīnayāna.
 +
 +北本涅槃經 The northern version of the Nirvana Sutra, in forty juan.
 +
 +北枕 The northern pillow, i. e. Śākyamuni,​ when dying, pillowed his head to the north, pointing the way for the extension of his doctrine.
 +
 +北洲 北拘盧洲 (or 北倶盧洲) Uttarakuru, the northern of the four continents surrounding Sumeru.
 +
 +北羅 Valabhī. Northern Lāṭa. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the Eastern coast of Gujerat.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +北臺 The northern Tai, i. e. Wutai shan in Shansi, the northernmost of the Four famous Buddhist Mountains.
 +
 +北藏 The northern collection or edition of 1,621 works first published in Peking by order of Ch'eng Tsu (1403-1424),​ together with forty-one additional works, published by 密藏 Mizang after thirty years, labour beginning A. D. 1586. Later this edition was published in Japan 1678-1681 by 鐵眼 Tetsugen.
 +
 +北行 Uttarāyaṇa. The northern ascension of the sun between the winter and summer solstices.
 +
 +北辰菩薩 The Bodhisattva 妙見 Miaojian of Ursa Major.
 +
 +半 Half. Used as translit. for pan, pun.
 +
 +半只 (or 半支) 迦般止柯;​ 般闍迦; 散支 (散支迦);​ 德叉迦 Pāñcika, the third of the eight great yakṣas, husband of Hāritī 鬼子母.
 +
 +半嗟笯 半笯嗟 Punaca or Pañcasattra or Pañcarāṣṭra,​ an ancient province and city of Kashmir (now Punch).
 +
 +半天婆羅門 Half deva brahmans, a term for hungry ghosts.
 +
 +半娜 (半娜裟);​ 半M015858 裟; 般捺婆; 波那娑 paṇasa, breadfruit; 婆 is incorrectly used for 娑.
 +
 +半字 'Half a character';​ a letter of the alphabet. Hīnayāna is likened to half-word, Mahāyāna to a 滿字 complete word; hence 半字教 is Hīnayāna.
 +
 +半拏囉嚩悉寧 伴陀羅縛子尼 Pāṇḍara-vāsinī;​ white-clothed,​ i. e. the white-clothed Guanyin; also tr. as white abode.
 +
 +半擇迦 paṇḍaka,​ intp. as 變 to change from time to time, a general term for eunuchs; see 般荼迦.
 +
 +半滿教 The half and the complete doctrines: i. e. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna.
 +
 +半者珂但尼 (or 半者佉但尼) ; 半者佉闍 pañcakhādanīya,​ the five '​chewing'​ foods, not regular foods, i. e. roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits; or stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and the their triturations.
 +
 +半者蒲膳尼 (or 半者蒲闍尼) pañca-bhojanīya. The five regular articles of food: the 繙譯名義 Fanyimingyi gives wheat, rice, parched rice (or cakes), fish, and flesh. Another account is rice, boiled wheat or pulse, parched grain, flesh, cakes.
 +
 +半託迦 (or 半他迦) ; 槃陀 (槃陀迦);​ 槃特 Panthaka, born on the road; a road; two brothers— one born by a main road, the other by a path— who both became arhats.
 +
 +半超 A deva who by devotion advances by leaps, escaping from one to thirteen of the sixteen heavens of form.
 +
 +半跏趺坐 (半跏坐) A bodhisattva'​s form of sitting, different from the completely cross-legged form of a Buddha.
 +
 +半遮羅 pañjara, a basket, or cage.
 +
 +半齋 Half a day's fast, i. e.. fasting all day but eating at night.
 +
 +占 To divine, prognosticate.
 +
 +占察 A method of divination in the esoteric school by means of the Sanskrit letter '​a'​.
 +
 +占戌拏 '​Tchañśuṇa'​ is the highly doubtful form given by Eitel, who describes it as the ancient capital of Vrji, an ' ancient kingdom N. of the Ganges, S. E. of Nepaul'​.
 +
 +去 Go, go away; gone, past; depart, leave; to remove, dismiss; the 去 tone.
 +
 +去來 Go and come.
 +
 +去來今 Past, future, present.
 +
 +去來實有宗 The heretical sect which believed in the reality of past and future as well as the present.
 +
 +去叉迦羅尼 (or 式叉迦羅尼) ; 尸叉罽羅尼;​ 突吉羅 Śikṣākaraṇī. 'A young Brahman stying with his preceptor. 'M. W. Studies, students. Also interpreted as 'evil deeds'​. Also ' a section of the Vinaya called 衆學法... consisting of a series of 100 regulations with reference to the conduct of novices'​. Eitel.
 +
 +[169]
 +
 +叫 To call, cry.
 +
 +叫喚 To cry, wail, raurava, hence the fourth and fifth hot hells, v. 呌.
 +
 +召 To summon, call.
 +
 +召請 To invite, especially the Buddhas or bodhisattvas to worship.
 +
 +召請童子 阿羯囉灑 The inviter, possibly etymologically connected with achāvāka; he is they youth fifth on the left of Mañjuśrī in his group of the Garbhadhātu,​ and is supposed to invite all the living to enlightenment.
 +
 +句 A sentence, phrase, clause; also used for a place.
 +
 +句句 Sentence by sentence, every word.
 +
 +句身 padakāya, perhaps prātipadika;​ an inflected word.
 +
 +只 Only; a final particle; translit. j.
 +
 +只底舸部 只底興世羅部;​ 支提加部;​ 支提山部;​ 制多山部;​ 住支提山部;​ 逝多林 (or 逝多苑); 祇桓 Jetavanīyāḥ or Jetīyaśailāḥ. School of the dwellers on Mount Jeta, or 勝林部 School of Jetṛvana. A subdivision of the Stṣṭhavirāḥ Cf. 北.
 +
 +叵 May not, cannot; translit. ph.
 +
 +叵囉虞那麽洗 叵勒拏; 頗攞遇捉;​ 頗勒窶拏 phālgunamāsa,​ the twelfth month; M. W. says February-March,​ the month, māsa, of the Nakṣatra Phālgunī.
 +
 +可 May, can, able.
 +
 +可汗 khan. A Turkish term for '​prince'​.
 +
 +可漏子 (可漏) A case for books or writings, likened to the shell of an egg (殼漏).
 +
 +可賀敦 khatun. A Turkish term for '​queen'​ or '​princess'​.
 +
 +古 Ancient, antique, old; of old.
 +
 +古今 Ancient and modern.
 +
 +古來實有宗 idem 去來實有宗.
 +
 +台 A flat place, platform, plateau, terrace; an abbrev. for 臺 and for 天台 Tiantai, hence 台嶽 the Tiantai mountain; 台宗; 台家 its '​school';​ 台徒 its disciples; 台教; 台道 its doctrine, or way.
 +
 +台衡 The school of Tai-Heng, or Tai and Heng; Tai is Tiantai. i. e. Zhiyi 智顗 its founder, Heng is 衡嶽 the Hengyue monastery, i. e. a term for Huisi 慧思 the teacher of Zhiyi.
 +
 +右 dakṣiṇa. The right hand, on the right, e. g.
 +
 +右手 right hand.
 +
 +右旋 right turn.
 +
 +右繞 pradakṣiṇa,​ turning or processing with the right shoulder towards an object of reverence.
 +
 +四 catur. Four.
 +
 +四一 The four '​ones',​ or the unity contained (according to Tiantai) in the 方便品 of the Lotus Sutra; i. e. 教一 its teaching of one Vehicle; 行一 its sole bodhisattva procedure; 人一 its men all and only as bodhisattvas;​ 理一 its one ultimate truth of the reality of all existence.
 +
 +四七品 The twenty-eight chapters of the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +四上 The four times a day of going up to worship— daybreak, noon, evening, and midnight.
 +
 +四不可得 The four unattainables,​ perpetual youth, no sickness, perennial life, no death. There is a work, the Catur-lābha-sūtra,​ tr. into Chinese under this title.
 +
 +四不可思議 The four things of a Buddha which are beyond human conception: 世界 his world, 衆生 his living beings, 龍 his nāgas, and 佛土境界 the bounds of his Buddha-realm.
 +
 +四不可輕 The four that may not be treated lightly: a prince though young, a snake though small, a fire though tiny, and above all a '​novice'​ though a beginner, for he may become an arhat. Cf. 阿合經 46.
 +
 +四不寄附 The four to whom one does not entrust valuables— the old, for death is nigh; the distant, lest one has immediate need of them; the evil; or the 大力 strong; lest the temptation be too strong for the last two.
 +
 +四不壞淨 (or 四不壞信) The four objects of unfailing purity (or faith), i. e. the three precious ones (triratna) and the 戒 moral law.
 +
 +四不成 Four forms of asiddha or incomplete statement, part of the thirty-three fallacies in logic.
 +
 +四不生 That a thing is not born or not produced of itself, of another, of both, of neither; cf. 四句推撿.
 +
 +四不見 The four invisibles— water to fish, wind (or air) to man, the nature (of things) to the deluded, and the 空 '​void'​to the 悟 enlightened,​ because he is in his own element, and the Void is beyond conception.
 +
 +[170]
 +
 +四世 The period of the Buddha'​s earthly life, styled 聖世 the sacred period (or period of the sage), is added to the three periods of 正法 correct Law; 像法 semblance of the Law; and 末法 decadence of the Law.
 +
 +四事 The four necessaries of a monk clothing, victuals, bedding, medicine (or herbs). Another set is a dwelling, clothing, victuals, medicine.
 +
 +四事供養 The four offerings or provisions for a monk. There is a sutra, the 四事經, or 阿難四事經.
 +
 +四事不可思議 v. 四不可思議.
 +
 +四事法門 Four methods of a bodhisattva'​s preparation for preaching the Law— entry into meditation: into wisdom; into complete moral self-control;​ and into clear discernment,​ or reasoning, 辯才門.
 +
 +四主 The four Lords of the world, whose domains were supposed to stretch E., S., W., and N. of the Himālayas; E. 人主 the lord of men; S. 象主 of elephants; W. 寳主 of jewels (or precious things); N. 馬主of horses. 西域記.
 +
 +四乘 The goat, deer, and ox carts and the great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra, see 四車.
 +
 +四人觀世 The world from four points of view: that of men in general— its pleasures, thoughtlessly;​ of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas— as a burning house, uneasily; of bodhisattvas— as an empty flower; of Buddhas— as mind, all things being for (or of) intelligent mind.
 +
 +四仙 The three genī, or founders of systems, together with 若提子 Nirgranthajñāti;​ v. 二天三仙.
 +
 +四仙避死 The four wise men who sought escape from death: one in the mountains, another in the ocean, another in the air, and a fourth in the market place— all in vain.
 +
 +四住 The four abodes or states in the 智度論 3, i. e. (1) 天住 the devalokas, equivalents of charity, morality, and goodness of heart; (2) 梵住 the brahmalokas,​ equivalents of benevolence,​ pity, joy, and indifference;​ (3) 聖住 the abode of śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas,​ and bodhisattvas,​ equivalent of the samādhi of the immaterial realm, formless and still; (4) 佛住 the Buddha-abode,​ the equivalent of the samādhis of the infinite. v. 四住地.
 +
 +四住地 (四住) The four states or conditions found in mortality; wherein are the delusions of misleading views and desires. They are (1) 見一切住地 the delusions arising from seeing things as they seem, not as they really are. (2) 欲愛住地 the desires in the desire-realm. (3) 色愛住地 the desires in the form-realm. (4) 有愛住地 the desires in the formless realm. When 無明住地 the state of ignorance is added we have the 五住地 five states. These five states condition all error, and are the ground in which spring the roots of the countless passions and delusions of all mortal beings.
 +
 +四佛 Four of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas. i.e. the four regional Buddhas; they are variously stated. The 金光明經 gives E. 阿閦; S. 寳相; W. 無量壽; N. 微妙聲. The 大日經 gives E. 寳幢; S. 大勤勇遍覺華開敷;​ W. 仁勝 (i. e. 無量壽); N. 不動, i. e. 鼓音如來. The 金剛頂經 gives 不動; 寳生; 觀自在, and 不 空 成就如來. v. 五智如來.
 +
 +四佛土 idem 四土.
 +
 +四佛知見 The four purposes of the Buddha'​s appearing, that the Buddha-knowledge might be 開示悟入revealed,​ proclaimed, understood, and entered; v. Lotus 方便品.
 +
 +四依 The four necessaries,​ or things on which the religious rely. (1) 行四依 The four of ascetic practitioners— rag clothing; begging for food; sitting under trees; purgatives and diuretics as moral and spiritual means; these are also termed 四聖種. (2) 法四依 The four of the dharma: i. e. the truth, which is eternal, rather than man, even its propagator; the sutras of perfect meaning i. e. of the 道實相 the truth of the '​middle'​ way; the meaning, or spirit, not the letter; wisdom 智, i.e. Buddha-wisdom rather than mere knowledge 識. There are other groups. Cf. 四事.
 +
 +四依八正 The first four of the four 四依, 行四依, and the 八正道 q. v.
 +
 +四信 v.四種信心.
 +
 +四信五行 The four right objects of faith and the five right modes of procedure; the 眞如 bhūtatathatā and the 三寳 Three Precious Ones are the four; the five are almsgiving, morality, patience, zeal (or progress), and 觀 meditation.
 +
 +四倒 The four viparyaya i. e. inverted or false beliefs in regard to 常, 樂, 我, 淨. There are two groups: (1) the common belief in the four above, denied by the early Buddhist doctrine that all is impermanent,​ suffering, impersonal, and impure; (2) the false belief of the Hīnayāna school that nirvana is not a state of permanence, joy, personality,​ and purity. Hīnayāna refutes the common view in regard to the phenomenal life; bodhisattvism refutes both views.
 +
 +[171]
 +
 +四優檀那 yu-t'​an-na,​ ? udāna, the four dogmas: all is impermanent,​ all is suffering, there is no ego, nirvana.
 +
 +四八相 The thirty-two marks of a Buddha.
 +
 +四兵 catur-an.gabalakāya;​ the four divisions of a cakravarti'​s troops— elephant, hastikāya; horse, aśvakāya; chariot, rathakāya; and foot, pattikāya.
 +
 +四分 The 法相 Dharmalakṣana school divides the function of 識 cognition into four, i. e. 相分 mental phenomena, 見分 discriminating such phenomena, 自證分 the power that discriminates,​ and 證自證 the proof or assurance of that power. Another group is: 信 faith, 解 liberty, 行 action, and 證 assurance or realization.
 +
 +四分僧戒本 Extracts from the 四分律 four-division Vinaya with verses, for use on days when the discipline is recited; there are other works under a similar title.
 +
 +四分宗 idem 律宗.
 +
 +四分家 The 法相 school which divides the 識心 cognition-mind into four parts, v. 四分.
 +
 +四分律 The four-division Vinaya or discipline of the Dharmagupta school, divided into four sections of 20, 15, 14, and 11 chuan. The 四分律藏 Dharma-gupta-vinaya was tr. in A. D. 405 by Buddhayasas and 竺佛念 Chu Fo-nien; the 四分比丘尼羯磨法 Dharmagupta-bhikṣuṇī-karman was tr. by Gunavarman in 431: and there are numerous other works of this order.
 +
 +四劫 The four kalpas, or epochs, of a world, 成劫 that of formation and completion; 住劫 existing or abiding; 懷劫 destruction;​ and 空劫 annihilation,​ or the succeeding void. 倶舍論 12.
 +
 +四力 The four powers for attaining enlightenment:​ independent personal power; power derived from others; power of past good karma; and power arising from environment.
 +
 +四加行 v. 四善根.
 +
 +四勝義諦 idem 四諦.
 +
 +四勝身 The four with victorious bodies, who were transformed independently of normal rebirth; also styled 解行身 bodies set free from all physical taint, thus attaining to Buddhahood. The four are the 龍女 dragon daughter of the Lotus Sutra, who instantly became a male bodhisattva;​ and three others of the 華嚴 Huayan sutra, i. e. 善財童子;​ 兜率天子,​ and 普莊嚴童子.
 +
 +四化法 The 四無磯辯 q. v. whereby all beings may be saved.
 +
 +四十 catvāriṃśat;​ forty.
 +
 +四十一位 (or 四十一地) Forty-one of the fifty-two bodhisattva stages (of development),​ i. e. all except the 十信 and 妙覺. For this and 四十二位 v. 五十二位.
 +
 +四十九僧 and 四十九燈. The service to 藥師 the Master of Healing, when forty-nine lamps are displayed and forty-nine monks engaged; seven of his images are used, seven of the lamps being placed before each image.
 +
 +四十九日 The seven times seven days of funeral services; the forty-ninth day.
 +
 +四十九重摩尼殿 (or 四十九重如意殿) . The maṇi, or Pearl palace of forty-nine stories above the Tuṣita heaven.
 +
 +四十二使者 The forty-two messengers, or angels of 不動尊 q. v.
 +
 +四十二位 The forty-two stages, i. e. all above the 十信 of the fifty-two stages.
 +
 +四十二品無明 The forty-two species of ignorance which, according to Tiantai, are to be cut off seriatim in the above forty-two stages.
 +
 +四十二字門 The doctrine of the forty-two 悉曇 Siddham letters as given in the 華嚴 76 and 般若經 4. They have special meanings, independent of their use among the fourteen vowels and thirty-five consonants, i. e. forty-nine alphabetic signs. The forty-two are supposed by the 智度論 47 to be the root or basis of all letters; and each letter has its own specific value as a spiritual symbol; Tiantai associates each of them with one of the forty-two 位. The letters begin with 阿 and end with 荼 or 佗.
 +
 +四十二章經 The 'Sutra of Forty-two Sections'​ generally attributed to Kāśyapa Mātaṇga, v. 迦, and Gobharaṇa,​ v. 竺, the first Indian monks to arrive officially in China. It was, however, probably first produced in China in the 晉 Chin dynasty. There are various editions and commentaries.
 +
 +四十位 The 'forty bodhisattva positions'​ of the 梵網經. They are classified into four groups: (1) 十發趣 Ten initial stages, i. e. the minds 心 of abandoning things of the world, of keeping the moral law, patience, zealous progress, dhyāna, wisdom, resolve, guarding (the Law), joy, and spiritual baptism by the Buddha. These are associated with the 十住. (2) 十長養 Ten steps in the nourishment of perfection, i. e. minds of kindness, pity, joy, relinquishing,​ almsgiving, good discourse, benefiting, friendship, dhyāna, wisdom. These are associated with the 十行. (3) 十金剛 Ten '​diamond'​ steps of firmness, i. e. a mind of faith, remembrance,​ bestowing one's merits on others, understanding,​ uprighthess,​ no-retreat, Mahāyāna, formlessness,​ wisdom, indestructibility;​ these are associated with the 十廻向. (4) The 十地 q. v.
 +
 +四十八使者 The forty-eight demon satellites of Āryācalanātha 不動明王 as subduer of demons, etc.
 +
 +四十八年 The forty-eight years of service demanded by an old physician of his pupil in order to acquire his skill— likened to the slow and difficult methods of Hīnayāna and of early Mahāyāna.
 +
 +[172]
 +
 +四十八願 The forty-eight vows of Amitābha that he would not enter into his final nirvana or heaven, unless all beings shared it; the lists vary.
 +
 +四十八餘年未顯眞實 For forty and more years (the Buddha) was unable to unfold the full truth (until he first gave it in the Lotus Sutra).
 +
 +四取 catuḥ-parāmarśa,​ the four attachments,​ i. e. desire, (unenlightened) views, (fakir) morals, and ideas arising from the conception of the self. Also, the possible delusions of the 四住地. Also, seeking fame in the four quarters.
 +
 +四句 The four terms, phrases, or four-line verses, e. g. 四句分別 The four terms of differentiation,​ e. g. of all things into 有 the existing; 空 nonexisting;​ both; neither; or phenomenal, noumenal, both, neither. Also, double, single, both, neither; and other similar applications.
 +
 +四句執 The four tenets held by various non-Buddhist schools: (1) the permanence of the ego, i. e. that the ego of past lives is the ego of the present; (2) its impermanence,​ i. e. that the present ego is of independent birth; (3) both permanent and impermanent,​ that the ego is permanent, the body impermanent;​ (4) neither permanent nor impermanent;​ that the body is impermanent but the ego not impermanent.
 +
 +四句成道 The swan-song of an arhat, who has attained to the perfect life: — All rebirths are ended,
 +The noble life established,​
 +My work is accomplished.
 +No further existence is mine.
 +
 +四句推撿 The four-phrase classification that phenomena are 自因 self-caused,​ 他因 caused by another, 共因 by both, 無因 by neither; cf. 四不生.
 +
 +四向 The four stages in Hīnayāna sanctity: srota-āpanna,​ sakṛdāgāmin,​ anāgāmin and arhan.
 +
 +四含 idem 四阿含經.
 +
 +四味 The four '​tastes':​ the Tiantai definition of the four periods of the Buddha'​s teaching preliminary to the fifth, i. e. that of the Lotus Sutra; cf. 五味.
 +
 +四唱 The four commanders or leaders; see Lotus Sutra 15.
 +
 +四善根 catuṣ-kuśala-mūla,​ the four good roots, or sources from which spring good fruiy or development. In Hīnayāna they form the stage after 總相念住 as represented by the 倶舍 and 成實; in Mahāyāna it is the final stage of the 十廻向 as represented by the 法相宗. There are also four similar stages connected with śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha,​ and Buddha, styled 三品四善根. The four of the 倶舍宗 are 煗法, 頂法, 忍法, and 世第一法. The four of the 成實宗 are the same, but are applied differently. The 法相宗 retains the same four terms, but connects them with the four dhyāna stages of the 眞唯識觀 in its four first 加行 developments.
 +
 +四喩 The four metaphors (of infinity, etc. ): 山斤 the weight of all the mountains in pounds; 海 the drops in the ocean; 地塵 the atoms of dust in the earth; 空 界 the extent of space.
 +
 +四園 idem 四苑.
 +
 +四土 The four Buddha-kṣetra,​ or realms, of Tiantai: (1) 凡聖居同土 Realms where all classes dwell— men, devas, Buddhas, disciples, non-disciples;​ it has two divisions, the impure, e. g. this world, and the pure, e. g. the '​Western'​ pure-land. (2) 方便有餘土 Temporary realms, where the occupants have got rid of the evils of 見思 unenlightened views and thoughts, but still have to be reborn. (3) 實報無障礙土 Realms of permanent reward and freedom, for those who have attained bodhisattva rank. (4) 常寂光土 Realm of eternal rest and light (i. e. wisdom) and of eternal spirit (dharmakāya),​ the abode of Buddhas; but in reality all the others are included in this, and are only separated for convenience,​ sake.
 +
 +四執 The four erroneous tenets; also 四邪; 四迷; 四術; there are two groups: I. The four of the 外道 outsiders, or non-Buddhists,​ i. e. of Brahminism, concerning the law of cause and effect: (1) 邪因邪果 heretical theory of causation, e. g. creation by Mahesvara; (2) 無因有果 or 自然, effect independent of cause, e. g. creation without a cause, or spontaneous generation; (3) 有因無果 cause without effect, e. g. no future life as the result of this. (4) 無因無果 neither cause nor effect, e. g. that rewards and punishments are independent of morals. II. The four erroneous tenets of 內外道 insiders and outsiders, Buddhist and Brahman, also styled 四宗 the four schools, as negated in the 中論 Mādhyamika śāstra: (1) outsiders, who do not accept either the 人 ren or 法 fa ideas of 空 kong; (2) insiders who hold the Abhidharma or Sarvāstivādāḥ tenet, which recognizes 人空 human impersonality,​ but not 法空 the unreality of things; (3) also those who hold the 成實 Satyasiddhi tenet which discriminates the two meanings of 空 kong but not clearly; and also (4) those in Mahāyāna who hold the tenet of the realists.
 +
 +[173]
 +
 +四執金剛 The four Vajra-rulers of the four elements — earth, water, fire, wind, and of the S. E., S. W., N. W,. and N. E.
 +
 +四堅信 The four firm or 四不懷信 indestructible beliefs, in the Buddha, the law, the order, and the commandments.
 +
 +四塔 The four stūpas at the places of Buddha'​s birth, Kapilavastu;​ enlightenment,​ Magadha: preaching, Benares; and parinirvāṇa,​ Kuśinagara. Four more are located in the heavens of the Travastriṃśas gods, one each tor his hair, nails, begging bowl, and teeth, E., S., W., N., respectively.
 +
 +四墮 (四墮落法) The four causes of falling from grace and final excommunication of a monk or nun; adultery, stealing, killing, falsity; v. 四波羅夷.
 +
 +四夜八晝 The four hours of the night 成亥子丑,​ i. e. 7 to 3, and the eight hours of the day from 寅 to 酉 3 a. m. to 7 p. m.
 +
 +四大 mahābhūta,​ 四界; 四大界. The four elements of which all things are made; or the four realms; i. e. earth, water, fire, and wind (or air); they represent 堅, 濕, 煖, and 動 solid, liquid, heat, and motion; motion produces and maintains life. As 實 active or formative forces they are styled 四界 (四大界) ; as 假 passive or material objects they are 四大; but the 成實論 Satyasiddhi śāstra disputes the 實 and recognizes only the 假.
 +
 +四大不調 The inharmonious working of the four elements in the body, which causes the 440 ailments; cf. 四蛇.
 +
 +四大元無主 The verse uttered by 肇法師 Zhao Fashi when facing death under the 姚秦 Yao Qin emperor, fourth century A. D.: — 'No master have the four elements,
 +Unreal are the five skandhas,
 +When my head meets the white blade,
 +Twill be but slicing the spring wind.
 +' The 'four elements'​ are the physical body.
 +
 +四大名山 The four famous '​hills'​ or monasteries in China: 普陀 P'​u-t'​o,​ for Guanyin, element water; 五臺 Wu-tai, Wen-shu, wind; 峨眉 O-mei, P'​uhsien,​ fire; and 九華 Chiu-hua, Tizang, earth.
 +
 +四大天王 see 四天王. The four deva-kings of the four quarters, guardians in a monastery.
 +
 +四大明王 v. 大明王.
 +
 +四大師 The four monastic heads imperially appointed during, the Tang dynasty.
 +
 +四大弟子 The four great disciples of the Buddha— Śāriputra,​ Mahāmaudgalyāyana,​ Subhūti, and Mahākāśyapa. Another group is Mahākāśyapa,​ Piṇḍola,​ Rāhula, and ? Kauṇḍinya.
 +
 +四大海 The four great oceans in a world, around Sumeru, in which are the four great continents; cf. 九山八海.
 +
 +四大部洲 The four great continents. See 四洲.
 +
 +四大種 idem 四大.
 +
 +四大聲聞 The four great śrāvakas, idem 四大弟子.
 +
 +四大菩薩 The four great Bodhisattvas of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. Maitreya, Mañjuśrī,​ Avalokiteśvara,​ and Samantabhadra. Another list of previous Bodhisattvas is 上行 Viśiṣtacāritra;​ 無邊行 Anantacāritra;​ 淨行 Viśuddhacāritra,​ and 安立行 Supratiṣṭhitacāritra.
 +
 +四大護 The guardian devas of the four quarters: south 金剛無勝結護;​ east 無畏結護;​ north 懷諸怖結護;​ and west 難降伏結護. The 四大佛護院 is the thirteenth group of the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +四大部經 Four great sutras: 華嚴經 Huayan; 涅盤經 Nirvana; 寳積經Mahāratnakūta,​ and 般若經 Prajñā.
 +
 +四天下 The four quarters or continents of the world.
 +
 +四天上下 In the upper regions there are the four heavens of the four deva-kings; below are the people of the four continents.
 +
 +四天王 (四大天王) catur-mahārājas,​ or Lokapālas; the four deva-kings. Indra'​s external '​generals 'who dwell each on a side of Mount Meru, and who ward off from the world the attacks of malicious spirits, or asuras, hence their name 護世四天王 the four deva-kings, guardians of the world. Their abode is the 四天王天 catur-maharāja-kāyikas;​ and their titles are: East 持國天 Deva who keeps (his) kingdom; colour white; name Dhṛtarsaṣtra. South 增長天 Deva of increase and growth; blue; name Virūḍhaka. West 廣目天 The broad-eyed (also ugly-eyed) deva (perhaps a form of Siva); red; name Virūpākṣa. North 多聞天 The deva who hears much and is well-versed;​ yellow; name Vaiśravaṇa,​ or Dhanada; he is a form of Kuvera, the god of wealth. These are the four giant temple guardians introduced as such to China by Amogha; cf. 四天王經.
 +
 +四天王天 catur-maharāja-kāyikas;​ the four heavens of the four deva-kings.
 +
 +四夷 (四夷戒 or 四夷罪) v. 四波羅夷.
 +
 +四如實觀 A meditation method on the 四加行位 q. v.
 +
 +四如意足 四神足 ṛddhi-pāda;​ the third group of the 三十七科道品 bodhi-pakṣikadharma;​ the four steps to supernatural powers, making the body independent of ordinary or natural law. The four steps are said to be the 四種禪定 four kinds of dhyāna, but there are several definitions,​ e. g. 欲神足 chanda-ṛddhi-pāda,​ desire (or intensive longing, or concentration);​ 勤神足 virya-ṛddhi-pāda,​ energy (or intensified effort); 心神足 citta-ṛddhi-pāda,​ memory (or intense holding on to the position reached); 觀神足 mīmāṃsa-ṛddhi-pāda.,​ meditation (or survey, the state of dhyāna).
 +
 +[174]
 +
 +四姓 The four Indian '​clans'​ or castes— brāhmaṇa,​ kṣatriya, vaiśya, and śūdra, i. e. (1) priestly, (2) military and ruling, (3) farmers and traders, and (4) serfs; born respectively from the mouth, shoulders, flanks, and feet of Brahma.
 +
 +四威儀 Four respect-inspiring forms of demeanour in walking, standing, sitting, lying.
 +
 +四孟月 The four senior or prime months, i. e. the first of each season, first, fourth, seventh, and tenth.
 +
 +四安樂 (四安樂行) The four means of attaining to a happy contentment,​ by proper direction of the deeds of the body; the words of the mouth; the thoughts of the mind; and the resolve (of the will) to preach to all the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +四定 The four dhyāna heavens of form, and the four degrees of dhyāna corresponding to them.
 +
 +四定記 v. 四記.
 +
 +四宗 The four kinds of inference in logic— common, prejudged or opposing, insufficiently founded, arbitrary. Also, the four schools of thought I. According to 淨影 Jingying they are (1) 立性宗 that everything exists, or has its own nature; e. g. Sarvāstivāda,​ in the '​lower'​ schools of Hīnayāna; (2) 破性宗 that everything has not a nature of its own; e. g. the 成實宗 a '​higher'​ Hīnayāna school, the Satyasiddhi;​ (3) 破相宗 that form has no reality, because of the doctrine of the void, '​lower'​ Mahāyāna; (4) 願實宗 revelation of reality, that all comes from the bhūtatathatā,​ '​higher ' Mahāyāna. II. According to 曇隱 Tanyin of the 大衍 monastery they are (1) 因緣宗, i. e. 立性宗 all things are causally produced; (2) 假名宗, i. e. 破性宗 things are but names; (3) 不眞宗, i. e. 破相宗, denying the reality of form, this school fails to define reality; (4) 眞宗, i. e. 顯實宗 the school of the real, in contrast with the seeming.
 +
 +四家 The schools of 般若, 諦, 捨煩惱, and 苦淸 likened by 章安 Zhangan of the Tiantai to the 四教, i. e. seriatim: 別, 圓, 通, and 三藏.
 +
 +四尋思觀 A study or contemplation of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect, on 名 the terms used, 義 the meanings of the things or phenomena, 自性 the nature of the things, 差別 their differentiation.
 +
 +四山 Like four closing-in mountains are birth, age, sickness, and death; another group is age, sickness, death, and decay (衰, i. e. of wealth, honours, etc., or 無常 impermanence).
 +
 +四度加行 Special study of or advancement in the four degrees, a method of the esoterics, formerly extending over 800 or 1, 000 days, later contracted to 200. The four '​degrees ' are 十八道, 胎藏, 金剛, and 護摩, but the order varies.
 +
 +四弘誓願 The four universal vows of a Buddha or bodhisattva:​ 衆生無邊誓願度 to save all living beings without limit; 煩惱無數誓願斷 to put an end to all passions and delusions however numerous; 法門無盡誓願學 to study and learn all methods and means without end; 佛道無上誓願成 to become perfect in the supreme Buddha-law. The four vows are considered as arising one by one out of the 四諦 Four Noble Truths.
 +
 +四律五論 The four vinaya and the five śāstras. The four vinaya 四律, or disciplinary regulations,​ are the 十誦律 Sarvāstivāda version tr. in 61 chuan by Punyatara; 四分律 Dharmagupta'​s version, tr. in 60 chuan by Buddhayaśas;​ 僧祗律 Sāṃghika version or Mahāsāṃghika version, tr. in 40 chuan, by Buddhabhadra;​ and 五部律 Mahīśāsaka version, tr. in 30 chuan by Buddhajīva and others, also known as Mahīśāsaka-nikāya-pañcavargavinaya. The five śāstras 五論 are 毘尼母論;​ 摩得勒伽論;​ 善見論; 薩婆多論;​ and 明了論. v. 論.
 +
 +四微 The four minutest forms or atoms perceptible to the four senses of sight, smell, taste, or touch; from these arise the 四大 four elements, from which arise the 五智 five wisdoms, q. v.
 +
 +四德 The four nirvana virtues, or values, according to the Mahāyāna Nirvana Sutra: (1) 常德 permanence or eternity; (2) 樂德 joy; (3) 我德 personality or the soul; (4) 淨德 purity. These four important terms, while denied in the lower realms, are affirmed by the sutra in the transcendental,​ or nirvana-realm.
 +
 +[175]
 +
 +四德樂邦 四德波羅蜜 The joyful realm, or acme of the above four virtues, the nirvana realm, the abode or dharmakāya of the Tathāgata.
 +
 +四心 The hearts of kindness, pity, joy, and indifference,​ idem 四無量心.
 +
 +四忉利交形 copulation in the first and in the second devalokas, i. e. 四王 and 忉利 heavens; in the third it is by embrace; in the fourth, by holding hands; in the fifth, by mutual smiling; in the sixth by a mutual look.
 +
 +四忘 The state of a saint, i. e. beyond, or oblivious of the four conditions of 一異有無 unity, difference, existence, non-existence.
 +
 +四念住 idem 四念處.
 +
 +四念珠 The four classes of '​prayer-beads',​ numbering 27, 54, 108, or 1, 080, styled 下品, 中品, 最勝, and 上品, lower, middle, superior, and most superior.
 +
 +四念處 (四念處觀);​ 四念住 smṛtyupasthāna. The fourfold stage of mindfulness,​ thought, or meditation that follows the 五停心觀 five-fold procedure for quieting the mind. This fourfold method, or objectivity of thought, is for stimulating the mind in ethical wisdom. It consists of contemplating (1) 身 the body as impure and utterly filthy; (2) 受 sensation, or consciousness,​ as always resulting in suffering; (3) 心 mind as impermanent,​ merely one sensation after another; (4) 法 things in general as being dependent and without a nature of their own. The four negate the ideas of permanence, joy, personality,​ and purity 常, 樂, 我, and 淨, i. e. the four 顚倒, but v. 四德. They are further subdivided into 別 and 總 particular and general, termed 別相念處 and 總相念處,​ and there are further subdivisions.
 +
 +四性行 The four kinds of conduct natural to a Bodhisattva,​ that arising from his native goodness, his vow-nature, his compliant nature, i. e. to the six pāramitās,​ and his transforming nature, i. e. his powers of conversion or salvation.
 +
 +四怨 The four enemies— the passions-and-delusion māras, death māra, the five-skandhas māras, and the supreme māra-king.
 +
 +四恒 As the sands of four Ganges.
 +
 +四悔 see 五悔 and omit the first.
 +
 +四悉檀 The four siddhānta, v. 悉檀. The Buddha taught by (1) mundane or ordinary modes of expression; (2) individual treatment, adapting his teaching to the capacity of his hearers; (3) diagnostic treatment of their moral diseases; and (4) the perfect and highest truth.
 +
 +四惑 idem 煩惱.
 +
 +四意斷 idem 四正勤.
 +
 +四愛生 (or 四愛起) Four sources of affection: the giving or receiving of clothing, or food, or bedding, or independently of gifts.
 +
 +四惡趣 (or 四惡道) The four apāya, or evil destinies: the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, or asuras. The asuras are sometimes evil, sometimes good, hence the term 三惡道 'three evil destinies'​ excepts the asuras.
 +
 +四惡比丘 The four wicked bhikṣus who threw over the teaching of their Buddha 大莊嚴 Dazhuangyan after his nirvana; these suffered in the deepest hells, came forth purified, but have not been able to attain perfection because of their past unbelief; v. 佛藏經往古品. Also four disobedient bhikṣus who through much purgation ultimately became the Buddhas of the four points of the compass, 阿閦, 寳相, 無量壽, and 微妙聲.
 +
 +四慧 The four kinds of wisdom received: (1) by birth, or nature; (2) by hearing, or being taught; (3) by thought; (4) by dhyāna meditation.
 +
 +四戒 Four stages in moral development:​ that of release, or deliverance from the world on becoming a monk; that arising from the four meditations on the realms of form; that above the stage of 見道 q. v.; that in which all moral evil is ended and delusion ceases.
 +
 +四持 idem 四種總持.
 +
 +四捨 The four givings, i. e. of goods of the Truth, of courage (or fearlessness),​ and the giving up of the passions and delusions; cf. dāna-pāramitā,​ 捨.
 +
 +四摩 (四摩室) sīmā. A boundary, a separate dwelling, or dwellings (for monks and/or visitors).
 +
 +四攝法 (or 四攝事) catuḥ-saṃgraha-vastu;​ four all-embracing (bodhisattva) virtues: (1) 布施 dāna, giving what others like, in order to lead them to love and receive the truth; (2) 愛語 priyavacana,​ affctionate,​ speech, with the same purpose; (3) 利行 arthakṛtya,​ conduct proftable to others, with the same purpose; (4) 同事 samānārthatā,​ co-operation with and adaptation of oneself to others, to lead them into the truth.
 +
 +[176]
 +
 +四攝菩薩 四攝衆; 四攝全剛 The four bodhisattvas in the Vajradhātu with the hook, the rope, the chain, and the bell, whose office is to 化他 convert the living.
 +
 +四教 Four teachings, doctrines, or schools; five groups are given, whose titles are abbreviated to 光天曉苑龍:​ (1) 光宅四教 The four schools of 法雲 Fayun of the 光宅 Guangzhai monastery are the four vehicles referred to in the burning house parable of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha,​ bodhisattva,​ and the final or one vehicle teaching. (2) 天台四教 The Tiantai four are 藏通, 別, and 圓, v. 八教. (3) 曉公四教 The group of 元曉 Wŏnhyo of 海東 Haedong are the 三乘別教 represented by the 四諦緣起經;​ 三乘通教 represented by the 般若深密教;​ 一乘分教 represented by the 究網經; and 一乘滿教 represented by the 華嚴經. (4) 苑公四教 The group of 慧苑 Huiyuan: the schools of unbelievers,​ who are misled and mislead; of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas who know only the phenomenal bhūtatathatā;​ of novitiate bodhisattvas who know only the noumenal bhūtatathatā;​ and of fully developed bodhisattvas,​ who know both. (5) 龍樹四教 Nāgārjuna'​s division of the canon into 有 dealing with existence, or reality, cf. the 四阿含; 空 the Void, cf. 般若經; 亦有亦 空 both, cf. 深密經; and 非有非 空 neither, cf. 中論.
 +
 +四教三密 Now a 眞言 Shingon term; the 四教 are the Tiantai four schools of 顯 open or exoteric teaching; the 三密 are the Shingon esoteric teaching in which the three 身口意 body, mouth, and mind have special functions.
 +
 +四教三觀 The Tiantai four main doctrinal divisions as above and its three kinds of meditation.
 +
 +四教五時 Tiantai'​s doctrine of the four developments of the Buddha'​s own teaching, v. above, and the five periods of the same, v. 五時教.
 +
 +四教儀 A work of 智顗 Zhiyi of Tiantai.
 +
 +四教地 Four stages, as given in the 大日經, 具緣品, i. e. 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 q. v.
 +
 +四方 The four quarters of the compass; a square, square; the E. is ruled by Indra, S. by Yama, W. by Varuṇa, and N. by Vaiśramaṇa;​ the N. E. is ruled by 伊舍尼 Iśāna, S. E. by 護摩 Homa, S. W. by 涅哩底 Nirṛti, and the N. W. by 嚩瘐 Varuṇa.
 +
 +四方四佛 The four Buddhas of the four regions — E. the world of 香積 abundant fragrance where reigns 阿閦 Akṣobhya; S. of 歡喜 pleasure, 寳相 Ratnaketu; W. of 安樂 restfulness,​ or joyful comfort, 無量壽 Amitābha; and N. of 蓮華莊嚴 lotus adornment, 微妙聲 ? Amoghasiddhi,​ or Śākyamuni.
 +
 +四方大將 The four '​generals'​ or guardians of the Law, of the four directions: N. 散脂四方,​ E. 樂欲四方,​ S. 檀帝四方,​ W. 善現四方. Each has 500 followers and twenty-eight companies of demons and spirits. Cf. 四天王.
 +
 +四施 Four benefactions,​ i. e. pen, ink, sutras, preaching.
 +
 +四日 catvāraḥ sūryāḥ the four suns, i. e. Aśvaghoṣa,​ Devabodhisattva,​ Nāgārjuna,​ and Kumāralabdha (or -lata).
 +
 +四明 Four Shingon emblems, aids to Yoga-possession by a Buddha or bodhisattva;​ they are 鉤, 索, 鏁, 鈴, a hook, a cord, a lock, and a bell; the hook for summoning, the cord for leading, the lock for firmly holding, and the bell for the resultant joy. Also, the four Veda śāstras.
 +
 +四明山 A mountain range in Ningbo prefecture where the 四明 are clearly seen, i. e. sun, moon, stars, and constellations. 知禮 Zhili of the Sung dynasty is known as the 四明尊者 honoured one of Siming and his school as the 四明家 Siming school in the direct line of Tiantai. In Japan Mt. Hiei 比叡山 is known by this title, through Dengyo 傳教 the founder of the Japanese Tiantai School.
 +
 +四智 The four forms of wisdom of a Buddha according to the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school: (1) 大圓鏡智 the great mirror wisdom of Akṣobhya; (2) 平等性智 the universal wisdom of Ratnaketu; (3) 妙觀察智 the profound observing wisdom of Amitābha; (4) 成所作智 the perfecting wisdom of Amoghasiddhi. There are various other groups.
 +
 +四智印 Four wisdom symbols of the Shingon cult: 大智印 or 摩訶岐若勿他羅 mahājñāna-mudrā,​ the forms of the images; 三昧耶印 samaya-jñāna-mudrā,​ their symbols and manual signs; 法智印 dharma-jñāna-mudrā,​ the magic formula of each; 羯摩智印 karma-jñāna-mudrā,​ the emblems of their specific functions.
 +
 +四智讚 The praise hymns of the four '​wisdoms ', v. 四智.
 +
 +四月 Āṣāḍha,​ the fourth month.
 +
 +四月八日 The eighth of the fourth moon, the Buddha'​s birthday.
 +
 +四有爲相 The four functioning forms, i. e. 生 birth, 住 stay, 異 change, and 滅 extinction; v. 四相.
 +
 +[177]
 +
 +四本止觀 The four books of Tiantai on meditation 止觀, i. e. 摩訶止觀;​ 禪波羅蜜;​ 六妙門; and 坐禪法要.
 +
 +四本相 The four fundamental states— birth, stay, change, and extinction (or death), v. 四相.
 +
 +四果 The four phala, i. e. fruitions, or rewards — srota-āpanna-phala,​ sakradāgāmi-phala,​ anāgāmiphala,​ arhat-phala,​ i. e. four grades of saintship; see 須陀洹; 斯陀含, 阿那含, and 阿離漢. The four titles are also applied to four grades of śramaṇas— yellow and blue flower śramaṇas,​ lotus śramaṇas,​ meek śramaṇas,​ and ultra-meek śramaṇas.
 +
 +四枯四榮 When the Buddha died, of the eight śāla trees surrounding him four are said to have withered while four continued in full leaf— a sign that the four doctrines of 苦 suffering, 空 the void, 無常 impermanence,​ and 無我 impersonality were to perish and those of 常 permanence, 葉 joy, 我 personality,​ and 淨 purity, the transcendent bodhisattva doctrines, were to flourish.
 +
 +四根本性罪 (or 四根本重罪) idem 四波羅夷.
 +
 +四梵住 The noble state of unlimited 慈, 悲, 喜, 捨 love, pity, joy, and indifference.
 +
 +四梵堂 Four ways of attaining arhatship, idem 四梵住, except that the last of the four is 護 protection (of others).
 +
 +四梵志 The four Brahmacārins who resolved to escape death each on mountain, sea, in the air, or the: market place, and yet failed; v. 山.
 +
 +四棄 The four pārājika sins resulting in excommunication,​ v. 波.
 +
 +四欲 The four desires or passions: 情 sexual love; 色 sexual beauty or attractiveness;​ 食 food; 婬 lust.
 +
 +四正勤 saṃyakprahāṇa,​ v. 三十七道品;​ the four right efforts一to put an end to existing evil; prevent evil arising; bring good into existence; develop existing good; 四正斷; 四意斷 are similar but the third point is the conservation of the good.
 +
 +四比丘 v. 四惡比丘.
 +
 +四毒蛇 Four poisonous snakes (in a basket), e. g. the four elements, earth, water, fire, and air, of which a man is formed.
 +
 +四河 The four rivers— Ganges, Sindhu (Indus), Vākṣu (Oxus), and Tārīm, all reputed to arise out of a lake, Anavatapta, in Tibet.
 +
 +四波 An abbreviation for 四波羅蜜菩薩. The four female attendants on Vairocana in the Vajradhātu,​ evolved from him, each of them a '​mother'​ of one of the four Buddhas of the four quarters; v. 四佛, etc.
 +
 +四波羅夷 四重; 四棄, 四極重感墮罪 The four pārājikas,​ or grievous sins of monks or nuns: (1) abrahmacarya,​ sexual immorality, or bestiality; (2) adattādāna,​ stealing; (3) vadhahiṃṣa killing; (4) uttaramanuṣyadharma-prālapa,​ false speaking.
 +
 +四法 There are several groups of four dharma: (1) 教法 the teaching of the Buddha); 理法 its principles, or meaning; 行法 its practice; 果法 its fruits or rewards. (2) Another group relates to bodhisattvas,​ their never losing the bodhi-mind, or the wisdom attained, or perseverance in progress, or the monastic forest life (āraṇyaka). (3) Also 信解行證 faith, discernment,​ performance,​ and assurance. (4) The Pure-land '​True'​ sect of Japan has a division: 教法, i. e. the 大無量壽經;​ 行法 the practice of the seventeenth of Amitābha'​s vows; 信法 faith in the eighteenth; and 證法 proof of the eleventh. The most important work of Shinran, the founder of the sect, is these four, i. e. 教行信證. (5) A 'Lotus ' division of 四法 is the answer to a question of Puxian (Samantabhadra) how the Lotus is to be possessed after the Buddha'​s demise, i. e. by thought (or protection) of the Buddhas; the cultivation of virtue; entry into correct dhyāna; and having a mind to save all creatures.
 +
 +四法三願 idem 四法 #4; the three vows are the seventeenth,​ eighteenth, and eleventh of Amitābha.
 +
 +四法不懷 The four imperishables— the correctly receptive heart, the diamond, the relics of a Buddha, and the palace of the devas of light and sound, ābhasvāras.
 +
 +四法印 The seal or impression of the four dogmas, suffering, impermanence,​ non-ego, nirvana, see 四法本末.
 +
 +四法成就 idem 四種檀法.
 +
 +四法本末 The alpha and omega in four laws or dogmas— that nothing is permanent, that all things involve suffering, that there is no personality,​ and that nirvana is 永寂 eternal rest.
 +
 +四法施 The Buddha'​ s gift of the four laws or dogmas, that all things are impermanent,​ that all (sentient) existence is suffering, that there is no (essential) personality,​ that all form (or matter) returns to the void.
 +
 +四法界 四種法界 The four dharma-realms of the Huayan School: (1) 事法界 the phenomenal realm, with differentiation;​ (2) 理四法 noumenal with unity; (3) 理事無礙法界 both 理 noumenal and 事 phenomenal are interdependent;​ (4) 事事無礙法界 phenomena are also interdependent.
 +
 +[178]
 +
 +四洲 catur-dvīpa;​ the four inhabited continents of every universe; they are situated S., E., W., and N. of the central mountain Sumeru; S. is Jambudvīpa 暗部洲; E. Pūrva-videha 東毘提訶;​ W. Apara-godānīya 牛貨; and N. Uttarakuru 瞿盧.
 +
 +四海 The four oceans around Mount Sumeru; cf. 九山八海.
 +
 +四海論主 Honorific title of the monk 敬脫 Jingtuo of the Sui dynasty.
 +
 +四流 The four currents (that carry the unthinking along): i. e. the illusions of 見 seeing things as they seem, not as they really are; 欲 desires; 有 existence, life; 無明 ignorance, or an unenlightened condition.
 +
 +四淨定 The '​pure'​ dhyāna, i. e. one of the 三定 three dhyānas; this dhyāna is in four parts.
 +
 +四無常偈 (or 四非常偈) Eight stanzas in the 仁王經, two each on 無常 impermanence,​ 苦 suffering, 空 the void, and 無我 non-personality;​ the whole four sets embodying the impermanence of all things.
 +
 +四無所畏 (四無畏) The four kinds of fearlessness,​ or courage, of which there are two groups: Buddha-fearlessness arises from his omniscience;​ perfection of character; overcoming opposition; and ending of suffering. Bodhisattva-fearlessness arises from powers of memory; of moral diagnosis and application of the remedy; of ratiocination;​ and of solving doubts. v. 智度論 48 and 5.
 +
 +四無礙解 (or 四無礙智 or 四無礙辯). pratisaṃvid,​ the four unhindered or unlimited bodhisattva powers of interpretation,​ or reasoning, i. e. in 法 dharma, the letter of the law; 義 artha, its meaning; ? nirukti, in any language, or form of expression; 樂說 pratibhāna,​ in eloquence, or pleasure in speaking, or argument.
 +
 +四無色 idem 四空處, 四空定.
 +
 +四無量心 catvāri apramāṇāni;​ the four immeasurables,​ or infinite Buddha-states of mind, also styled 四等 the four equalities, or universals, and 四梵行 noble acts or characteristics;​ i. e. four of the twelve 禪 dhyānas: 慈無量心 boundless kindness, maitrī, or bestowing of joy or happiness; 悲無量心 boundless pity, karuṇā, to save from suffering; 喜無量心 boundless joy, muditā, on seeing others rescued from suffering; 捨無量心 limitless indifference,​ upekṣā, i. e. rising above these emotions, or giving up all things, e. g. distinctions of friend and enemy, love and hate, etc. The esoteric sect has a special definition of its own, connecting each of the four with 普賢; 虛 空 藏; 觀自在; or 盧 空 庫.
 +
 +四煩惱 The four delusions in reference to the ego: 我痴 ignorance in regard to the ego; 我見 holding to the ego idea; 我慢 self-esteem,​ egotism, pride; 我愛 self-seeking,​ or desire, both the latter arising from belief in the ego. Also 四惑.
 +
 +四爐 The four furnaces, or altars of the esoteric cult, each differing in shape: earth, square; water, round; fire, triangular; wind, half-moon shape.
 +
 +四王 (四王天) catur-mahārāja-kāyikās,​ the four heavens of the four deva-kings, i. e. the lowest of the six heavens of desire; v. 四天王.
 +
 +四王忉利 The 四王天 and trāyastriṃśas,​ Indra'​s heaven.
 +
 +四生 catur-yoni, the four forms of birth: (1) 胎 or 生 jarāyuja, viviparous, as with mammalia; (2) 卵生 aṇḍaja, oviparous, as with birds; (3) 濕生 or 寒熱和合生 saṃsvedaja,​ moisture, or water-born, as with worms and fishes; (4) 化生 aupapāduka,​ metamorphic,​ as with moths from the chrysalis, or with devas, or in the hells, or the first beings in a newly evolved world.
 +
 +四生百劫 A pratyekabuddha method of obtaining release, by intensive effort, at the shortest in four rebirths, at the longest in a hundred kalpas.
 +
 +四田 The four fields for cultivating happiness — animals; the poor; parents, etc.; the religion.
 +
 +四界 The four realms, idem 四大 earth, water, fire, and air.
 +
 +四界攝持 The four are the substance and upholders of all things.
 +
 +四病 The four ailments, or mistaken ways of seeking perfection: 作病 '​works'​ or effort; 任病 laissez-faire;​ 止病 cessation of all mental operation; 滅病 annihilaīon (of all desire).
 +
 +四百 Four hundred.
 +
 +四百四病 The 404 ailments of the body; each of the four elements— earth, water, fire, and wind — is responsible for 101; there are 202 fevers, or hot humours caused by earth and fire; and 202 chills or cold humours caused by water and wind; v. 智度論 65.
 +
 +[179]
 +
 +四百戒 The 400 disciplinary laws of a bodhisattva,​ referred to in the 藥師經 but without detail.
 +
 +四相 The four avasthā, or states of all phenomena, i. e. 生住異滅 birth, being, change (i. e. decay), and death; also 四有爲相. There are several groups, e. g. 果報四相 birth, age, disease, death. Also 藏識四相 of the Awakening of Faith referring to the initiation, continuation,​ change, and cessation of the ālaya-vijñāna. Also 我人四相 The ideas: (1) that there is an ego; (2) that man is different from other organisms; (3) that all the living are produced by the skandhas; (4) that life is limited to the organism. Also 智境四相 dealing differently with the four last headings 我; 人; 衆生; and 壽相.
 +
 +四眞 (四眞諦) The four noble truths, v. 四諦 (四聖諦) , i. e. 苦, 集, 滅, 道 pain, its location, its cessation, the way of cure.
 +
 +四眼 The four powers of sight of bodhisattvas,​ a Buddha has a fifth power; v. 五眼.
 +
 +四知 The four who know the workings of one's mind for good or evil— heaven, earth, one's intimates, and oneself.
 +
 +四神足 idem 四如意足.
 +
 +四禪 (四禪天) The four dhyāna heavens, 四靜慮 (四靜慮天),​ i. e. the division of the eighteen brahmalokas into four dhyānas: the disciple attains to one of these heavens according to the dhyāna he observes: (1) 初禪天 The first region, 'as large as one whole universe'​ comprises the three heavens, Brahma-pāriṣadya,​ Brahma-purohita,​ and Mahābrahma,​ 梵輔, 梵衆, and 大梵天; the inhabitants are without gustatory or olfactory organs, not needing food, but possess the other four of the six organs. (2) 二禪天 The second region, equal to 'a small chiliocosmos'​ 小千界, comprises the three heavens, according to Eitel, '​Parīttābha,​ Apramāṇābha,​ and Ābhāsvara,​ ' i. e. 少光 minor light, 無量光 infinite light, and 極光淨 utmost light purity; the inhabitants have ceased to require the five physical organs, possessing only the organ of mind. (3) 三禪天 The third region, equal to 'a middling chiliocosmos '​中千界,​ comprises three heavens; Eitel gives them as Parīttaśubha,​ Apramāṇaśubha,​ and Śubhakṛtsna,​ i. e. 少淨 minor purity, 無量淨 infinite purity, and 徧淨 universal purity; the inhabitants still have the organ of mind and are receptive of great joy. (4) 四禪天 The fourth region, equal to a great chiliocosmos,​ 大千界, comprises the remaining nine brahmalokas,​ namely, Puṇyaprasava,​ Anabhraka, Bṛhatphala,​ Asañjñisattva,​ Avṛha, Atapa, Sudṛśa, Sudarśana, and Akaniṣṭha (Eitel). The Chinese titles are 福生 felicitous birth, 無雲 cloudless, 廣果 large fruitage, 無煩 no vexations, atapa is 無熱 no heat, sudṛśa is 善見 beautiful to see, sudarśana is 善現 beautiful appearing, two others are 色究竟 the end of form, and 無想天 the heaven above thought, but it is difficult to trace avṛha and akaniṣṭha;​ the inhabitants of this fourth region still have mind. The number of the dhyāna heavens differs; the Sarvāstivādins say 16, the 經 or Sutra school 17, and the Sthavirāḥ school 18. Eitel points out that the first dhyāna has one world with one moon, one mem, four continents, and six devalokas; the second dhyāna has 1, 000 times the worlds of the first; the third has 1, 000 times the worlds of the second; the fourth dhyāna has 1, 000 times those of the third. Within a kalpa of destruction 壞劫 the first is destroyed fifty-six times by fire, the second seven by water, the third once by wind, the fourth '​corresponding to a state of absolute indifference'​ remains '​untouched'​ by all the other evolutions; when 'fate (天命) comes to an end then the fourth dhyāna may come to an end too, but not sooner'​.
 +
 +四禪八定 The four dhyānas on the form-realms and the eight concentrations,​ i. e. four on the form-realms and four on the formless. realms.
 +
 +四禪定 The four dhyāna-concentrations which lead to the four dhyāna heavenly regions, see above.
 +
 +四種 Four kinds; where phrases containing the 種 are not found here, they may occur direct, e. g. 四法界.
 +
 +四種三昧耶 The four samaya, i. e. the four pārājikas— killing, stealing, carnality, lying.
 +
 +四種信心 The four kinds of faith given in the Awakening of Faith, i. e. (1) in the 眞如 q. v. as the teacher of all Buddhas and fount of all action; (2) in Buddha, or the Buddhas; (3) in the Dharma; and (4) in the Sarogha.
 +
 +四種根本罪 The four deadly sins, i. e. the four pārājikas— killing, stealing, carnality, lying.
 +
 +四種檀法 四種悉地;​ 四種成就法 The four kinds of altar-worship of the esoteric sect for (1) averting calamities from self and others; (2) seeking good fortune; (3) seeking the love and protection of Buddhas; (4) subduing enemies.
 +
 +四種死生 Four kinds of rebirth dependent on present deeds: from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in the same condition; from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in light and honour; from light and honour to be reborn in obscurity and poverty; from light and honour to be reborn in the heavens.
 +
 +[180]
 +
 +四種法界 v. 四法界.
 +
 +四種總持 The four kinds of dhāraṇī 陀羅尼 q. v.
 +
 +四種行人 The four grades of earnest doers, who follow the bodhisattva discipline and attain to the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, and 十地.
 +
 +四種觀行 The four kinds of examination,​ a method of repentance as a way to get rid of any sin: study the cause of the sin, which lies in ignorance, or lack of clear understanding,​ e. g. moth and fame; study its inevitable effect, its karma; study oneself, introspection;​ and study the Tathāgata in his perfect character, and saving power.
 +
 +四空處 (or四空天) catur-ārūpya brahmalokas;​ also 四無色界 and see 四空定. The four immaterial or formless heavens, arūpa-dhātu,​ above the eighteen brahmalokas:​ (1) 空無邊處 ākāśānantyāyatana,​ also termed 虛空 處 the state or heaven of boundless space; (2) 識無邊處 vijñānanāntyāyatana,​ of boundless knowledge; (3) 無所有處 ākiñcanyāyatana,​ of nothing, or nonexistence;​ (4) 非想非非想處 naivasanjñānasañjnāyatana,​ also styled 非有想非無想 the state of neither thinking nor not thinking (which may resemble a state of intuition). Existence in the first state lasts 20, 000 great kalpas, increasing respectively to 40, 000, 60, 000 and 80, 000 in the other three.
 +
 +四空定 四無色定 The last four of the twelve dhyānas; the auto-hypnotic,​ or ecstatic entry into the four states represented by the four dhyāna heavens, i. e. 四 空 處 supra. In the first, the mind becomes void and vast like space; in the second, the powers of perception and understanding are unlimited; in the third, the discriminative powers of mind are subdued; in the fourth, the realm of consciousness or knowledge) without thought is reached, e. g. intuitive wisdom. These four are considered both as states of dhyāna, and as heavens into which one who practices these forms of dhyāna may be born.
 +
 +四第一偈 A verse from the 莊嚴論 Zhuangyan lun— Health is the best wealth,
 +Contentment the best riches,
 +Friendship the best relationship,​
 +Nirvana the best joy.
 +
 +四等 The four virtues which a Buddha out of his infinite heart manifests equally to all; also called 四無量 q. w. They are: 慈悲喜捨 maitrī, karuṇā, muditā, upekṣā, i. e. kindness, pity, joy and indifference,​ or 護 protection. Another group is 字語法身,​ i. e. 字 that all Buddhas have the same title or titles; 語 speak the same language; 法 proclaim the same truth; and 身 have each the threefold body, or trikāya. A third group is 諸法 all things are equally included in the bhūtatathatā;​ 發心 the mind-nature being universal, its field of action is universal; 道等 the way or method is also universal; therefore 慈悲 the mercy (of the Buddhas) is universal for all.
 +
 +四箇大乘 The four Mahāyānas,​ i. e. the four great schools: (1) 華嚴 Huayan or Avataṃsaka;​ (2) 天台 Tiantai; (3) 眞言 Zhenyan, Shingon, or esoteric; (4) 禪 Chan, Zen, or intuitive school. Another group is the 法相, 三論, 天台, and 華嚴.
 +
 +四節 The four monastic annual periods — beginning of summer, end of summer, winter solstice, and the new year.
 +
 +四料簡 A summary of the 臨濟 Linji school, an offshoot of the Chan, in reference to subjective, objective, both, neither.
 +
 +四結 The four knots, or bonds, saṃyojana,​ which hinder free development;​ they are likened to the 四翳 q. v. four things that becloud, i. e. rain clouds, resembling desire; dust-storms,​ hate; smoke, ignorance; and asuras, gain.
 +
 +四絶 The four ideas to be got rid of in order to obtain the '​mean'​ or ultimate reality, according to the 中論: they are that things exist, do not exist, both, neither.
 +
 +四維 The four half points of the compass, N. E., N. W., S. E., S. W.
 +
 +四縛 The four bandhana, or bonds are (1) desire, resentment, heretical morality, egoism; or (2) desire, possession (or existence), ignorance, and unenlightened views.
 +
 +四翳 The four films, or things that becloud, i. e. rain-clouds;​ dust-storms;​ smoke; and asuras, i. e. eclipses of sun and moon; emblematic of desire, hate, ignorance, and pride; cf. 四結.
 +
 +四聖 The four kinds of holy men— śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas,​ bodhisattvas,​ and Buddhas. Also, the four chief disciples of Kumārajīva,​ i. e. 道生 Daosheng, 僧肇 Sengzhao, 道融 Daorong, and 僧叡 Sengrui.
 +
 +[181]
 +
 +四聖行 The four holy ways— wearing rags from dust-heaps, begging for food, sitting under trees, and entire withdrawal from the world. The meaning is similar in 四良藥; 行四依; and 四聖種.
 +
 +四聖諦 The four holy or noble truths, idem 四諦.
 +
 +四股 The four-armed svastika, or thunderbolt.
 +
 +四自侵 The four self-raidings,​ or self-injuries — in youth not to study from morn till night; in advancing years not to cease sexual intercourse;​ wealthy and not being charitable; not accepting the Buddha'​s teaching.
 +
 +四自在 The four sovereign powers: 戒 the moral law; 神通 supernatural powers; 智 knowledge; and 慧 wisdom.
 +
 +四良藥 The four good physicians, or medicines; idem 四聖行.
 +
 +四花 The four (divine) flowers— mandāra, mahāmandāra,​ mañjūṣaka,​ and mahāmañjūṣaka. Also, puṇḍarīka,​ utpala, padma, and kumuda or white, blue, red, and yellow lotuses.
 +
 +四苑 The pleasure grounds outside 善見城 Sudarśana, the heavenly city of Indra: E. 衆車苑 Caitrarathavana,​ the park of chariots; S. 麤惡苑 Parūṣakavana,​ the war park; W. 雜林苑 Miśrakāvana,​ intp. as the park where all desires are fulfilled; N. 喜林苑 Nandanavana,​ the park of all delights. Also 四園.
 +
 +四苦 The four miseries, or sufferings — birth, age, disease, and death.
 +
 +四菩薩 The four bodhisattvas— Avalokiteśvara,​ Maitreya, Samantabhadra,​ and Mañjuśrī. Also, the four chief bodhisattvas in the Garbhadhātu. There are also the 本化四菩薩 of the Lotus Sutra, named 上行, 無邊行, 淨行, and 安立行.
 +
 +四處十六會 The sixteen assemblies, or addresses in the four places where the 大般若經 complete Prajñāpāramitā Sutra is said to have been delivered.
 +
 +四處問訊 To inquire (or worship at) the four places for lighting incense at a monastery.
 +
 +四蚖蛇 see 四蛇.
 +
 +四蛇 idem 四毒蛇. The Fanyimingyi under this heading gives the parable of a man who fled from the two bewildering forms of life and death, and climbed down a rope (of life) 命根, into the well of impermanence 無常, where two mice, night and day, gnawed the rattan rope; on the four sides four snakes 四蛇 sought to poison him, i. e. the 四大 or four elements of his physical nature); below were three dragons 三毒龍 breathing fire and trying to seize him. On looking up he saw that two 象 elephants (darkness and light) had come to the mouth of the well; he was in despair, when a bee flew by and dropped some honey (the five desires 五欲) into his mouth, which he ate and entirely forgot his peril.
 +
 +四衆 The four varga (groups, or orders), i. e. bhikṣu, bhikṣuṇī,​ upāsaka and upāsikā, monks, nuns, male and female devotees. Another group, according to Tiantai'​s commentary on the Lotus, is 發起衆 the assembly which, through Śāriputra,​ stirred the Buddha to begin his Lotus Sutra sermons; 當機衆 the pivotal assembly, those who were responsive to him; 影向衆 the reflection assembly, those like Mañjuśrī,​ etc., who reflected on, or drew out the Buddha'​s teaching; and 結緣衆 those who only profited in having seen and heard a Buddha, and therefore whose enlightenment is delayed to a future life.
 +
 +四行 The four disciplinary processes: enlightenment;​ good deeds; wisdom; and worship.
 +
 +四行相 To meditate upon the implications or disciplines of pain, unreality, impermanence,​ and the non-ego.
 +
 +四衍 The four yānas or vehicles, idem 四乘.
 +
 +四術 idem 四執.
 +
 +四要品 The four most important chapters of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. 方便品; 安樂行品;​ 壽量品, and 普門品; this is Tiantai'​s selection; the Nichiren sect makes 勸持品 the second and 神力品 the fourth.
 +
 +四親近 The four bodhisattvas associated with the five dhyāni-buddhas in the Vajradhātu.
 +
 +四覺 The 'four intelligences,​ or apprehensions'​ of the Awakening of Faith 起信論, q. v., viz. 本覺, 相似覺, 隨分覺, and 究竟覺.
 +
 +[182]
 +
 +四記 (or 四答) The Buddha'​s for methods of dealing with questions: direct answer, discriminating answer, questioning in return, and silence.
 +
 +四評家 The four great scholars (among the 500 arhats) who made the Vibhāṣā-śāstra,​ a critical commentary on the Abhidharma. Their names are 世友 Vasumitra, 妙音 Ghoṣa, 法救 Dharmatrāta,​ and 覺天 Buddhadeva.
 +
 +四論 Four famous śāstras: (1) 中觀論Prāṇyamūla-śāstraṭīkā by Nāgārjuna,​ four juan; (2) 百論 Śata-śāstra by devabodhisattva,​ two juan; (3) 十二門論 Dvādaśanikāya(-mukha)-śāstra by Nāgārjuna,​ one juan; (4) 大智度論 Mahāprajñāpāramitā-śāstra by Nāgārjuna,​ 100 juan. During the Sui dynasty the followers of these four śāstras formed the 四論宗.
 +
 +四諦 catvāri-ārya-satyāni;​ 四聖諦; 四眞諦. The four dogmas, or noble truths, the primary and fundamental doctrines of Śākyamuni,​ said to approximate to the form of medical diagnosis. They are pain or '​suffering,​ its cause, its ending, the way thereto; that existence is suffering, that human passion (taṇhā, 欲 desire) is the cause of continued suffering, that by the destruction of human passion existence may be brought to an end; that by a life of holiness the destruction of human passion may be attained'​. Childers. The four are 苦, 聚 (or 集), 滅, and 道諦, i. e. duḥkha 豆佉, samudaya 三牟提耶,​ nirodha 尼棲陀, and mārga 末加. Eitel interprets them (1) 'that '​misery'​ is a necessary attribute of sentient existence';​ (2) that 'the '​accumulation'​ of misery is caused by the passions';​ (3) that 'the '​extinction'​ of passion is possible; (4) mārga is 'the doctrine of the '​path'​ that leads to the extinction of passion'​. (1) 苦 suffering is the lot of the 六趣 six states of existence; (2) 集 is the aggregation (or exacerbation) of suffering by reason of the passions; (3) 滅 is nirvana, the extinction of desire and its consequences,​ and the leaving of the sufferings of mortality as void and extinct; (4) 道 is the way of such extinction, i. e. the 八正道 eightfold correct way. The first two are considered to be related to this life, the last two to 出世間 a life outside or apart from the world. The four are described as the fundamental doctrines first preached to his five former ascetic companions. Those who accepted these truths were in the stage of śrāvaka. There is much dispute as to the meaning of 滅 '​extinction'​ as to whether it means extinction of suffering, of passion, or of existence. The Nirvana Sutra 18 says that whoever accepts the four dogmas will put an end to births and deaths 若能見四諦則得斷生死 which does not of necessity mean the termination of existence but that of continued transmigration. v. 滅.
 +
 +四諦經 The sutra of the four dogmas, tr. by 安世高 An Shih Kao, one juan. 四趣 Durgati; the four evil directions or destinations:​ the hells, hungry ghosts, animals, asuras; v. 四惡.
 +
 +四身 The four kāya, or '​bodies'​. The Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra gives 化佛; 功德佛; 智慧佛 and 如如佛; the first is the nirmāṇakāya,​ the second and third saṃbhogakāya,​ and the fourth dharmakāya. The 唯識論 gives 自性身; 他受用身;​ 自受用身,​ and 變化身, the first being 法身, the second and third 報身, and the fourth 化身. The Tiantai School gives 法身; 報身; 應身, and 化身. The esoteric sect has four divisions of the 法身. See 三身.
 +
 +四車 The four vehicles 四乘 of the Lotus Sutra 譬喩品, i. e. goat, deer, bullock, and great white-bullock carts.
 +
 +四車家 The Lotus School, which adds to the trīyāna, or Three Vehicles, a fourth which includes the other three, viz. the 一佛乘 q. v.
 +
 +四軛 The four yokes, or fetters, i. e. 欲 desire, 有 possessions and existence, 見 (unenlightened or non-Buddhist) views, 無明 ignorance.
 +
 +四輪 The four wheels or circles: (1) 大地四輪 the four on which the earth rests, wind (or air), water, metal, and space. (2) Four images with wheels, yellow associated with metal or gold, white with water, red with fire, and black with wind. (3) The four dhyāni-buddhas,​ 金剛輪 Akṣobhya; 寳輪 Ratnasaṃbhava;​ 法輪 Amitābha; 羯磨輪 Amoghasiddhi. (4) Also the four metals, gold, silver, copper, iron, of the cakravartin kings.
 +
 +四輪王 The four kinds of cakravartin kings.
 +
 +四輩 The four grades: (1) bhikṣu, bhikṣuṇī,​ upāsaka, upāsikā, i. e. monks, nuns, male and female disciples, v. 四衆; (2) men, devas, nāgas, and ghosts 鬼.
 +
 +四迷 idem 四執.
 +
 +四道 The Dao or road means the nirvana road; the '​four'​ are rather modes of progress, or stages in it: (1) 加行道 discipline or effort, i. e. progress from the 三賢 and 四善根 stages to that of the 三學位, i. e. morality, meditation, and understanding;​ (2) 無間道 uninterrupted progress to the stage in which all delusion is banished; (3) 解脫道 liberaton, or freedom, reaching the state of assurance or proof and knowledge of the truth; and (4) 勝進道 surpassing progress in dhyāni-wisdom. Those four stages are also associated with those of srota-āpanna,​ sakṛdāgāmin,​ anāgāmin, and arhat.
 +
 +[183]
 +
 +四達 saindhava, 先陀婆 rock-salt, but intp. as salt, water, a utensil, and a horse, the four necessaries,​ i. e. water for washing, salt for food, a vessel to contain it, and a horse for progress; also called 四實.
 +
 +四運 (四運心) The four stages of a thought: not yet arisen, its initiation, its realization,​ its passing away, styled 未念, 欲念, 正念, and 念巳.
 +
 +四邪 idem 四執.
 +
 +四部 The four classes, e. g. srota-āpanna,​ sakṛdāgāmin,​ anāgāmin, and arhat. v. 四道.
 +
 +四部律 v. 四律五論.
 +
 +四部經 The four sutras of the Pure Land sect, according to 慈恩 Cien, i. e. the 無量壽經;​ 觀無量壽經;​ 阿彌陀經,​ and 鼓音壽處陀羅尼經.
 +
 +四部衆 四部弟子;​ 四部僧; 四衆 The four divisions of disciples— bhikṣu, bhikṣuṇī,​ upāsaka, and upāsikā, monks, nuns, and male and female devotees.
 +
 +四重 (四重禁) The four grave prohibitions,​ or sins, 四重罪 pārājikas:​ killing, stealing, carnality, lying. Also four of the esoteric sect, i. e. discarding the truth, discarding the bodhi-mind, being mean or selfish in regard to the supreme law, injuring the living.
 +
 +四重八重 The four pārājikas for monks and eight for nuns.
 +
 +四重圓壇 四重曼荼羅 The Garbhadhātu maṇḍala of one central and three surrounding courts. The occupants are described as 四重聖衆 the sacred host of the four courts.
 +
 +四金剛 The four mahārājas,​ v. 四天王.
 +
 +四鉢 The four heavy stone begging-bowls offered to Śākyamuni by the four devas, which he miraculously combined into one and used as if ordinary material.
 +
 +四鎭 The four guardians, v. 四天王.
 +
 +四鏡 The four resemblances between a mirror and the bhūtatathatā in the Awakening of Faith 起信論. The bhūtatathatā,​ like the mirror, is independent of all beings, reveals all objects, is not hindered by objects, and serves all beings.
 +
 +四門 The four doors, schools of thought, or theories: 有 is the phenomenal world real, or 空 unreal, or both, or neither ? According to the Tiantai school each of the four schools 四教 in discussing these four questions emphasizes one of them, i. e. 三藏教 that it is real 通教 unreal, 別通 both, 圓通 neither; v. 有 and 空, and each of the four schools. In esoteric symbolism the 四門 are four stages of initiation, development,​ enlightenment,​ and nirvana, and are associated with E., S., W., and N.; with the four seasons; with warmth, heat, coolness and cold, etc.
 +
 +四門遊觀 The four distresses observed during his wanderings by the Buddha when a prince— birth, age, disease, death.
 +
 +四阿含 The four Agamas 四阿笈摩,​ or divisions of the Hīnayāna scriptures: 長阿含 dīrghāgamas,​ '​long'​ works, cosmological;​ 中阿含 madhyamāgamas,​ metaphysical;​ 雜阿含 saṃyuktāgamas,​ general, on dhyāna, trance, etc.; 增一阿含 ekottarikāgamas,​ numerically arranged subjects.
 +
 +四階成道 (or 四階成佛) The four Hīnayāna steps for attaining Buddhahood, i. e. the myriad deeds of the three asaṃkhyeya kalpas; the continually good karma of a hundred great kalpas; in the final body the cutting off of the illusions of the lower eight states; and the taking of one's seat on the bodhi-plot for final enlightenment,​ and the cutting off of the thirty-four forms of delusive thought.
 +
 +四隅四行薩埵 The four female attendants on Vairocana in the Vajradhātu 金, 寳, 法, and 業, q. v.; also 四波.
 +
 +四靜慮 (四靜慮天) v. 四禪 (四禪天).
 +
 +四面毘盧遮那 The four-faced Vairocana, his dharmakāya of Wisdom.
 +
 +四韋陀 (四韋) The four Vedas.
 +
 +四馬 Four kinds of horses, likened to four classes of monks: those that respond to the shadow of the whip, its lightest touch, its mild application,​ and those who need the spur to bite the bone.
 +
 +[184]
 +
 +四須臾 The four short divisions of time: a wink; a snap of the fingers; 羅預 a lava, 20 finger-snaps;​ and 須臾 kṣaṇa, said to be 20 lava; but a lava is 'the sixtieth of a twinkling'​ (M. W. ) and a kṣaṇa an instant.
 +
 +四食 The four kinds of food, i. e. 段食 or 摶食 for the body and its senses; 觸食 or 樂食 for the emotions; 思食 or 念食 for thought; and 識食 for wisdom, i. e. the 六識 of Hīnayāna and the 八識 of Mahāyāna, of which the eighth, i. e. ālayavijñāna,​ is the chief.
 +
 +四食時 The four times for food, i. e. of the devas at dawn, of all Buddhas at noon, of animals in the evening, and of demons and ghosts at night.
 +
 +四齋日 The four fast days, i. e. at the quarters of the moon— new, full 8th, and 23rd.
 +
 +外 bāhya. Outside, external; opposite to 内 within, inner, e. g. 内證 inner witness, or realization and 外用 external manifestation,​ function, or use.
 +
 +外乞 The mendicant monk who seeks self-control by external means, e. g. abstinence from food, as contrasted with the 内乞 who seeks it by spiritual methods.
 +
 +外塵 The external objects of the six internal senses.
 +
 +外外道 Outside outsiders, those of other cults.
 +
 +外學 Study of outside, or non-Buddhist doctrines.
 +
 +外我 An external Ego, e. g. a Creator or ruler of the world, such as Siva.
 +
 +外法 外教; 外典; 外執 External doctrines; rules or tenets non-Buddhist,​ or heretical.
 +
 +外海 The sea that surrounds the four world-continents.
 +
 +外無爲 Unmoved by externals, none of the senses stirred.
 +
 +外相 External appearance or conduct; what is manifested without; externally. The 十二外相 are the hair, teeth, nails, etc.
 +
 +外護 External protection, or aid, e. g. food and clothing for monks and nuns, contrasted with the internal aid of the Buddha'​s teaching.
 +
 +外貪欲 Sexual thoughts towards others than one's own wife, or husband.
 +
 +外道 Outside doctrines; non-Buddhist;​ heresy, heretics; the Tīrthyas or Tīrthikas; there are many groups of these: that of the 二天三仙 two devas and three sages, i. e. the Viṣṇuites,​ the Maheśvarites (or Śivaites), and the followers of Kapila, Ulūka, and Ṛṣabha. Another group of four is given as Kapila, Ulūka, Nirgrantha-putra (Jainas), and Jñātṛ (Jainas). A group of six, known as the外道六師 six heretical masters, is Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa,​ Maskari-Gośālīputra,​ Sañjaya-Vairāṭīputra,​ Ajita-Keśakambala,​ Kakuda-Kātyāyana,​ and Nirgrantha-Jñātṛputra;​ there are also two other groupings of six, one of them indicative of their various forms of asceticism and self-torture. There are also groups of 13, 1, 20, 30, 95, and 96 heretics, or forms of non-Buddhist doctrine, the 95 being divided into 11 classes, beginning with the Saṃkhyā philosophy and ending with that of no-cause, or existence as accidental.
 +
 +外金剛部 The external twenty devas in the Vajradhātu group, whose names, many of them doubtful, are given as Nārāyaṇa,​ Kumāra, Vajragoḍa,​ Brahmā, Śakra, Āditya, Candra, Vajramāha, ? Musala, Piṅgala, ? Rakṣalevatā,​ Vāyu, Vajravāsin,​ Agni, Vaiśravaṇa,​ Vajrāṅkuśa,​ Yama, Vajrājaya, Vināyaka, Nāgavajra.
 +
 +外金剛部院 The last of the thirteen courts in the Garbhadhātu group.
 +
 +失 To lose, opp. of 得; to err.
 +
 +失守摩羅 (or 失收摩羅) śiśumāra,​ '​child-killing,​ the Gangetic porpoise, delphinus gangeticus, ' M. W. Tr. by 鰐 a crocodile, which is the kumbhīra 金毘羅.
 +
 +失念 To lose the train of thought, or meditation; a wandering mind; loss of memory.
 +
 +失羅婆 śravaṇā,​ a constellation identified with the Ox, or 9th Chinese constellation,​ in Aries and Sagittarius.
 +
 +央 The middle, medial: to solicit; ample, vast.
 +
 +央掘摩羅 (央掘); 央仇魔羅;​ 央崛鬘; 盎崛利摩羅 (or 鴦崛利摩羅) (or 鴦窶利摩羅) Aṇgulimālya,​ Śivaitic fanatics who ' made assassination a religious act', and wore finger-bones as a chaplet. One who had assassinated 999, and was about to assassinate his mother for the thousandth, is said to have been then converted by the Buddha.
 +
 +奴 A slave 奴僕; 奴隸.
 +
 +奴婢 Male and female slaves.
 +
 +尼 To stop; a nun; near; translit. ni. When used for a nun it is an abbrev. for 比丘尼 bhikṣuṇī.
 +
 +尼壇 The nun's altar; a convent or nunnery.
 +
 +尼大師 An abbess.
 +
 +尼姑 A nun.
 +
 +尼寺 A nunnery, or convent.
 +
 +尼戒 The rules for nuns, numbering 341, to which seven more were added making 348, commonly called the 五百戒 500 rules.
 +
 +尼比丘 A female bhikṣu, i. e. a nun.
 +
 +尼法師 A nun teacher; effeminate.
 +
 +尼衆主 The Mistress of the nuns, Gautami, i. e. Mahāprājapatī,​ the foster-mother of Śākyamuni.
 +
 +尼刺部陀 (or 尼刺浮陀) nirarbuda, 尼羅浮陀 ' bursting tumours ', the second naraka of the eight cold hells.
 +
 +尼夜摩 niyama, restraint, vow; determination,​ resolve; a degree of Bodhisattva progress, i. e. never turning back.
 +
 +[185]
 +
 +尼師壇 (or 尼師但那) niṣīdana;​ M043724 史娜曩 A thing to sit or lie on, a mat 坐具.
 +
 +尼延底 ? niyati, or niyantṛ 尼近底 tr. as 執取 to restrain, hold, also as 深入 deeply enter, and said to be another term for 貪 to desire, covet.
 +
 +尼建他迦 niṣkaṇṭhaka,​ 尼延他柯 a kind of yakṣa, 無咽 throatless.
 +
 +尼彌留陀 nirodha, tr. as 滅 extinction, annihilation,​ cessation, the third of the four noble truths, cf. 尼樓陀.
 +
 +尼思佛 Sugatacetana,​ a disciple who slighted Śākyamuni in his former incarnation of 常不輕 Never despise, but who afterwards attained through him to Buddhahood.
 +
 +尼拘陀 nyag-rodha, the down-growing tree, Ficus Indica, or banyan; high and wide-spreading,​ leaves like persimmon-leaves,​ fruit called 多勒 to-lo used as a cough-medicine;​ also intp. 楊柳 the willow, probably from its drooping characteristic;​ the 榕樹 '​bastard banyan',​ ficus pyrifolia, takes its place as ficus religiosa in China. Also written尼拘律;​ 尼拘尼陀;​ 尼拘盧陀 (or 尼拘類陀,​ 尼拘婁陀,​ or 尼拘屢陀) ; 尼瞿陀; 尼倶陀 (or 尼倶類); 諾瞿陀.
 +
 +尼抵 nidhi (praṇidhāna);​ also 尼低; 尼提 The Sanskrit is doubtful. The intp. is 願 vow, or 願志求滿足 seeking the fulfilment of resolves, or aims.
 +
 +尼提 尼陀 A scavenger.
 +
 +尼摩羅 nirmāṇarati,​ 須密陀天 devas who '​delight in transformations',​ i. e. 化樂天 or 樂變化天;​ of the six devalokas of desire they occupy the fifth, where life lasts for 8, 000 years.
 +
 +尼樓陀 nirodha, restraint, suppression,​ cessation, annihilation,​ tr. by 滅 extinction, the third of the four dogmas 四諦; with the breaking of the chain of karma there is left no further bond to reincarnation. Used in Anupūrva-nirodha,​ or '​successive terminaīons',​ i. e. nine successive stages of dhyāna. Cf. 尼彌留陀.
 +
 +尼民陀羅 Nimindhara, or Nemiṃdhara 尼民達羅 maintaining the circle, i. e. the outermost ring of the seven concentric ranges of a world, the 地持山 the mountains that hold the land. Also the name of a sea fish whose head is supposed to resemble this mountain.
 +
 +尼沙陀 Upaniṣad, v. 鄥.
 +
 +尼波羅 Nepala, Nepal, anciently corresponding to that part of Nepal which lies east of the Kathmandu. Eitel.
 +
 +尼犍 nirgrantha, 尼健; 尼乾 (尼乾陀);​ 尼虔, freed from all ties, a naked mendicant, tr. by 離繋, 不繋, 無結 devotees who are free from all ties, wander naked, and cover themselves with ashes. Mahāvīra, one of this sect, called 若提 Jñāti after his family, and also 尼乾陀若提子 Nirgrantha-jñātiputra,​ was an opponent of Śākyamuni. His doctrines were determinist,​ everything being fated, and no religious practices could change one's lot.
 +
 +尼犍度 bhikṣuṇī-khaṇḍa,​ a division of the Vinaya, containing the rules for nuns.
 +
 +尼犍陀弗咀羅 Nirgrantha-putra,​ idem Jñāti.
 +
 +尼羅 nila, dark blue or green.
 +
 +尼羅優曇鉢羅 nila-udumbara,​ v. 優.
 +
 +尼羅婆陀羅 尼藍婆 nīlavajra, the blue vajra, or thunderbolt.
 +
 +尼羅浮陀 idem 尼刺部陀.
 +
 +尼羅烏鉢羅 (or 尼羅漚鉢羅) nīlotpala, the blue lotus.
 +
 +尼羅蔽荼 Nīlapiṭa,​ 'the blue collection'​ of annals and royal edicts, mentioned in 西域記.
 +
 +尼薩曇 Defined as an atom, the smallest possible particle; but its extended form of 優波尼薩曇分 suggests upaniṣad, esoteric doctrine, the secret sense of the sutras.
 +
 +尼薩耆波逸提 Naiḥsargika-prāyaścittika,​ intp. by 捨 and 墮, the sin in the former case being forgiven on confession and restoration being made, in the latter being not forgiven because of refusal to confess and restore. Cf. 二百五十戒.
 +
 +尼衛 nivāsana, an inner garment.
 +
 +尼近底 v. 尼延底.
 +
 +尼迦羅 ? niṣkala, the name of a tree, but niṣkala means iter alia seedless, barren.
 +
 +尼連禪 (尼連禪那) Nairaṅjanā,​ 尼連河; 希連禪 (or 希連河) The Nīlājan that flows past Gaya, 'an eastern tributary of the Phalgu. ' Eitel.
 +
 +[186]
 +
 +尼陀那 nidāna, a band, bond, link, primary cause. I. The 十二因緣 twelve causes or links in the chain of existence: (1) jarā-maraṇa 老死 old age and death. (2) jāti 生 (re) birth. (3) bhava 有 existence. (4) upādāna 取 laying hold of, grasping. (5) tṛṣṇā 愛 love, thirst, desire. (6) vedana 受 receiving, perceiving, sensation. (7) sparśa 觸 touch, contact, feeling. (8) ṣaḍ-āyatana,​ 六入 the six senses. (9) nāma-rūpa 名色 name and form, individuality (of things). (10) vijñāna 六識 the six forms of perception, awareness or discernment. (11) saṃskāra 行 action, moral conduct. (12) avidyā 無明 unenlightenment,​ '​ignorance which mistakes the illusory phenomena of this world for realities. ' Eitel. These twelve links are stated also in Hīnayāna in reverse order, beginning with avidyā and ending with jarā-maraṇa. The Fanyimingyi says the whole series arises from 無明 ignorance, and if this can be got rid of the whole process of 生死 births and deaths (or reincarnations) comes to an end. II. Applied to the purpose and occasion of writing sutras, nidāna means (1) those written because of a request or query; (2) because certain precepts were violated; (3) because of certain events.
 +
 +尼陀那目得迦 nidāna-mātṛkā,​ two of the twelve divisions of the sutras, one dealing with the nidānas, the other with 本事 previous incarnations.
 +
 +巧 Skilful, clever.
 +
 +巧妙智 巧智慧 is 一切智智 q. v.
 +
 +巧明 v. 功巧論.
 +
 +巨 Great; translit. ko, hau, go.
 +
 +巨益 Great benefit.
 +
 +巨磨 gomaya, cow-dung.
 +
 +巨賞彌 Kauśāmbī,​ (Pali) Kosambi, Vatsa-pattana. Also written 倶睒彌 (or 倶賞彌, or 倶舍彌); 拘睒彌 (or 拘剡彌) ; 拘鹽; 拘深; 拘羅瞿; 拘翼; 憍賞 (or 憍閃) 彌. The country of King Udayana in '​Central India',​ described as 6, 000 li in circuit, soil rich, with a famous capital, in which the 西域記 5 says there was a great image of the Buddha. Eitel says: It was 'one of the most ancient cities of India, identified by some with Kasia near Kurrah (Lat. 25 ° 41 N., Long. 81 ° 27 E. ), by others with the village of Kosam on the Jumna 30 miles above Aulahabad'​. It is identified with Kosam.
 +
 +左 The left hand.
 +
 +左溪 Zuoxi, the eighth Tiantai patriarch, named Xuanlang 玄朗.
 +
 +市 A market, a fair, an open place for public assembly.
 +
 +市演得迦 Jetaka, or 婆多婆漢那 Sadvahana. A king of southern Kosala, patron of Nāgārjuna.
 +
 +布 Cloth, to spread; translit. pu, po, pau.
 +
 +布儞阿偈 pūti-agada,​ purgatives.
 +
 +布利迦 pūrikā, a kind of cake.
 +
 +布刺拏 Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa,​ v. 富. Also Purna of the 釋毘婆少論 v. 毘.
 +
 +布史 pausa, the 10th month in India.
 +
 +布咀洛迦 Potala, v. 補 and 普.
 +
 +布嚕婆毗提訶 Pūrva-videha,​ or Videha. 弗婆提 (弗婆毗提訶);​ 弗子毗婆提訶;​ 逋利婆鼻提賀 One of the four great continents east of Sumeru.
 +
 +布嚕那跋陀羅 Pūrṇabhadra,​ one of the eight yakṣa generals.
 +
 +布如鳥伐耶 Puṇyopāya,​ or 那提 Nadī. A monk of Central India, said to have brought over 1, 500 texts of the Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna schools to China A. D. 655. In 656 he was sent to 崑崙山 Pulo Condore Island in the China Sea for some strange medicine. Tr. three works, one lost by A. D. 730.
 +
 +布字觀 A Shingon meditation on the Sanskrit letter '​a'​ and others, written on the devotee'​s own body.
 +
 +布怛那 pūtanā, 布單那; 富多那 (or 富單那 or 富陀那) a female demon poisoning or the cause of wasting in a child; interpreted as a stinking hungry demon, and the most successful of demons.
 +
 +布教 To publish, or spread abroad the doctrine.
 +
 +布施 dāna 檀那; the sixth pāramitā, almsgiving, i. e. of goods, or the doctrine, with resultant benefits now and also hereafter in the forms of reincarnation,​ as neglect or refusal will produce the opposite consequences. The 二種布施 two kinds of dāna are the pure, or unsullied charity, which looks for no reward here but only hereafter; and the sullied almsgiving whose object is personal benefit. The three kinds of dāna are goods, the doctrine, and courage, or fearlessness. The four kinds are pens to write the sutras, ink, the sutras themselves, and preaching. The five kinds are giving to those who have come from a distance, those who are going to a distance, the sick, the hungry, those wise in the doctrine. The seven kinds are giving to visitors, travellers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries,​ endowments for the sustenance of monks or nuns, and clothing and food according to season. The eight kinds are giving to those who come for aid, giving for fear (of evil), return for kindness received, anticipating gifts in return, continuing the parental example of giving, giving in hope of rebirth in a particular heaven, in hope of an honoured name, for the adornment of the heart and life. 倶舍論 18.
 +
 +[187]
 +
 +布瑟波 puṣpa, 補澀波 a flower 華.
 +
 +布薩 poṣadha, upavasatha, upoṣana; 布沙他 (or 布灑他); 褒沙陀 Pali: uposatha; fasting, a fast, the nurturing or renewal of vows, intp. by 淨住 or 善宿 or 長養, meaning abiding in retreat for spiritual refreshment. There are other similar terms, e. g. 布薩陀婆;​ 優補陀婆;​ also 布薩犍度 which the Vinaya uses for the meeting place; 鉢囉帝提舍耶寐 pratideśanīya,​ is self-examination and public confession during the fast. It is also an old Indian fast. Buddha'​s monks should meet at the new and fall moons and read the Prātimokṣa sutra for their moral edification,​ also disciples at home should observe the six fast days and the eight commands. The 布薩日 fast days are the 15th and 29th or 30th of the moon.
 +
 +布薩護 is a term for the lay observance of the first eight commandments on fast days, and it is used as a name for those commands.
 +
 +布袋和尚 Pu-tai Ho-shang (J.: Hotei Osho) Cloth-bag monk, an erratic monk 長汀子 Changtingzi early in the tenth century, noted, inter alia, for his shoulder bag. Often depicted, especially in Japanese art, as a jovial, corpulent monk, scantily clad and surrounded by children.
 +
 +布路沙 puruṣa, 布嚕沙; 補盧沙 man, mankind, a man, Man as Nārayāṇa the soul and origin of the universe, the soul, the Soul, Supreme Being, God, see M. W.; intp. as 人 and 丈夫 man, and an adult man, also by 士夫 master or educated man, '​explained by 神我, literally the spiritual self. A metaphysical term; the spirit which together with nature (自性 svabhāva), through the successive modifications (轉變) of guṇa (求那 attributes or qualities), or the active principles (作者), produces all forms of existence (作一切物). ' Eitel.
 +
 +布路沙布羅 佛樓沙 Puruṣapura;​ the ancient capital of Gandhara, the modern Peshawar.
 +
 +布達拉 Potala, 普陀羅 the monastery of the Dalai Lama in Lhasa; v. 普.
 +
 +平 Even, level, tranquil; ordinary.
 +
 +平常 Ordinary, usual, common.
 +
 +平生 Throughout life; all one's life.
 +
 +平等 sama; samatā. Level, even, everywhere the same, universal, without partiality; it especially refers to the Buddha in his universal; impartial, and equal attitude towards all beings.
 +
 +平等力 Universal power, or omnipotence,​ i. e. to save all beings, a title of a Buddha.
 +
 +平等大慧 '​Universal great wisdom',​ the declaration by the ancient Buddha in the Lotus Sutra, that all would obtain the Buddha-wisdom.
 +
 +平等心 An impartial mind, 'no respecter of persons, ' not loving one and hating another.
 +
 +平等性 The universal nature, i. e. the 眞如 bhūtatathatā q. v.
 +
 +平等性智 samatājñāna. The wisdom of rising above such distinctions as I and Thou, meum and tūm, thus being rid of the ego idea, and wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally,​ cf. 五智. The esoteric school also call it the 灌頂智 and Ratnasaṃbhava wisdom.
 +
 +平等教 One of two schools founded by 印法師 Yin Fashi early in the Tang dynasty.
 +
 +平等智 samatajñāna,​ wisdom of universality or sameness, v. supra.
 +
 +平等法 The universal or impartial truth that all become Buddha, 一切衆生平等成佛.
 +
 +平等法身 Universalized dharmakāya,​ a stage in Bodhisattva development above the eighth, i. e. above the 八地.
 +
 +平等王 Yama, the impartial or just judge and awarder. But the name is also applied to one of the Ten Rulers of the Underworld, distinct from Yama. Also, name of the founder of the kṣatriya caste, to which the Śākyas belonged.
 +
 +平等義 The meaning of universal, i. e. that the 眞如 q. v. is equally and everywhere in all things.
 +
 +平等覺 A Buddha'​s universal and impartial perception, his absolute intuition above the laws of differentiation.
 +
 +平等觀 One of the three Tiantai meditations,​ the 假觀 phenomenal being blended with the noumenal or universal. The term is also used for 空觀 meditation on the universal, or absolute.
 +
 +平袈裟 A one-coloured robe of seven pieces.
 +
 +弘 Vast, great; to enlarge, spread abroad; e. g. 弘宣; 弘教; 弘法; 弘通 widely to proclaim the Buddhist truth.
 +
 +弘忍 Hung-jen noted monk.
 +
 +弘法 Hung-fa, noted monk.
 +
 +弘誓 弘誓願 vast or universal vows of a Buddha, or Bodhisattva,​ especially Amitābha'​s forty-eight vows.
 +
 +弗 Not; no; do not.
 +
 +弗于逮 弗于毘婆提訶 idem 布嚕波 Pūrva-Videha.
 +
 +弗伽羅 福伽羅 (or 富伽羅) ; 補特伽羅 pudgala; Pali, puggala M. W. says '​handsome',​ '​having form or property',​ 'the soul, personal identity'​ Keith uses '​person';​ '​personality'​. Eitel. 'a general term for all human beings as subject to metempsychosis. A philosophical term denoting personality. ' It is tr. by 人 man and 衆生 all the living; later by 數取趣 those who go on to repeated reincarnations,​ but whether this means the individual soul in its rebirths is not clear.
 +
 +[188]
 +
 +弗如檀 Puṇyadarśa,​ auspicious mirror, interpreted as 法鏡 mirror of the law; name of a man.
 +
 +弗婆勢羅 Pūrvaśaila,​ 'the eastern mountain behind which the sun is supposed to rise. ' M. W. The eastern mountain, name of a monastery east of Dhānyakataka (Amaravati),​ the 弗婆勢羅僧伽藍 (or 佛婆勢羅僧伽藍) (or 弗媻勢羅僧伽藍) Pūrvaśaila-saṅghārāma. One of the subdivisions of the Mahāsāṅghika school.
 +
 +弗婆呵羅 puṣpāhara flower-plucker 食花 flower-eater,​ name of a yakṣa.
 +
 +弗婆提 弗婆鞞陀提 idem 弗毘提訶.
 +
 +弗沙王 Vatsarāja. King Vatsa, idem Udayana, v. 優塡. The 弗沙迦王經 is another name for the 萍沙王五願經.
 +
 +弗沙 勃沙 or 富沙 or 逋v or 補沙; puṣya; 'the sixth (or in later times the eighth) Nakshatra or lunar mansion, also called Tishya. ' M. W. 底沙. It is the 鬼 group Cancer γδηθ, the 23rd of the Chinese twenty-eight stellar mansions. Name of an ancient Buddha.
 +
 +弗沙佛 idem 底沙佛.
 +
 +弗沙蜜多 Puṣyamitra,​ descendant of Asoka and enemy of Buddhism; possibly a mistake for 弗沙蜜羅.
 +
 +弗沙蜜羅 Puṣyamitra,​ the fourth successor of King Aśoka; asking what he should do to perpetuate his name, he was told that Aśoka had erected 84, 000 shrines and he might become famous by destroying them, which he is said to have done, v. 雜阿含經 25. Also see 弗沙蜜多.
 +
 +弗栗特 Vṛji, or 三伐特 Saṃvaji. An ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, S. E. of Nepal, the inhabitants,​ called Saṃvaji, were noted for their heretical proclivities. Eitel.
 +
 +弗毘提訶 Pūrva-Videha,​ or Videha, the continent east of Sumeru, idem 布嚕波.
 +
 +弗波提 弗把提 Either devapuṣpa,​ or bhūpadī, the latter being jasmiunm zambae; both are interpreted by 天華 deva-flowers.
 +
 +弗若多羅 功德華 Puṇyatara,​ a śramaṇa of Kubha 罽賓國 (Kabul), who came to China and in 404 tr. with Kumārajīva the 十誦律 Sarvāstivāda-vinaya. 'One of the twenty-four deva-ārya (天尊) worshipped in China. ' Eitel.
 +
 +必 Certainly, necessary, must.
 +
 +必定 Certainly, assuredly; tr. of 阿鞞蹴致 avaivartika,​ intp. as 不退轉 never receding, or turning back, always progressing,​ and certainly reaching nirvana.
 +
 +必栗託仡那 pṛthagjana,​ interpreted as 獨生, 異生, and 凡夫; pṛthak is separately, individually;​ with Buddhists the whole term means born an ordinary man; the common people.
 +
 +必棏家 比摘迦 piṭaka, a basket, receptacle, thesaurus, hence the Tripiṭaka 三藏.
 +
 +必至 Certainly will, certainly arrive at.
 +
 +忉 Grieved, distressed.
 +
 +忉利天 trāyastriṃśas,​ 怛唎耶怛唎奢;​ 多羅夜登陵舍;​ the heavens of the thirty-three devas, 三十三天,​ the second of the desire-heavens,​ the heaven of Indra; it is the Svarga of Hindu mythology, situated on Meru with thirty-two deva-cities,​ eight on each side; a central city is 善見城 Sudarśana, or Amarāvatī,​ where Indra, with 1, 000 heads and eyes and four arms, lives in his palace called 禪延; 毘闍延 (or 毘禪延) ? Vaijayanta, and '​revels in numberless sensual pleasures together with his wife' Śacī and with 119, 000 concubines. 'There he receives the monthly reports of the' four Mahārājas as to the good and evil in the world. 'The whole myth may have an astronomical'​ or meteorological background, e. g. the number thirty-three indicating the 'eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Ādityas, and two Aśvins of Vedic mythology. ' Eitel. Cf. 因陀羅.
 +
 +戊 wu, mou; nourishing; the fifth of the ten '​stems'​.
 +
 +戊地 The Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 describes this as 西安國, perhaps 安西國 Parthia is meant.
 +
 +戊達羅 A misprint for 戍達羅; 首陁 śūdra, the caste of farmers and slaves.
 +
 +打 To beat, strike, make, do; used for many kinds of such action.
 +
 +打供 To make offerings.
 +
 +打包 To wrap up or carry a bundle, i. e. a wandering monk.
 +
 +打坐 To squat, sit down cross-legged.
 +
 +打成一片 To knock all into one, bring things together, or into order.
 +
 +打板 To beat the board, or wooden block, e.g. as an announcement,​ or intimation.
 +
 +打眠衣 A monk's sleeping garment.
 +
 +打聽 To make inquiries.
 +
 +打靜 To beat the silencer, or beat for silence.
 +
 +打飯 To eat rice, or a meal.
 +
 +旦 Dawn.
 +
 +旦望 The new moon and full moon, or first, and fifteenth of the moon.
 +
 +旦過僧 A wandering monk, who stays for a night.
 +
 +旦過寮 A monastery at which a wandering monk 旦過僧 stays.
 +
 +未 Not yet; the future; 1-3 p. m.
 +
 +未了因 The karma of past life not yet fulfilled.
 +
 +未來 當來 anāgata; that which has not come, or will come; the future, e. g. 未來世 a future life, or lives; also the future tense, one of the 三世, i. e. 過, 現, 未 past, present, future.
 +
 +未受具人 A monk who has not yet formally pledged himself to all the commandments.
 +
 +未敷蓮華 A half-opened lotus, such as one of the forms of Guanyin holds in the hand.
 +
 +未敷蓮華 A half-opened lotus, such as one of the forms of Guanyin holds in the hand.
 +
 +[189]
 +
 +未曾有 希有; 阿浮陀 adbhuta; never yet been, non-such, rare, marvellous.
 +
 +未曾有經 Adbhutadharma-paryāya,​ one of the twelve divisions of the sutras 十二部經.
 +
 +未曾有正法經 A Sung translation of the 阿闍世王經 Ajātaśatru-kaukṛīyavinodana.
 +
 +未生怨 Having no enemy, tr. of the name of Ajātaśatru 阿闍世王. There is a sutra of this name describing his murder of his father Bimbisāra.
 +
 +未至 未到 Not yet arrived, or reached.
 +
 +未陀 ? arbuda, 100 (or 10) millions.
 +
 +未顯眞實 未開顯 The unrevealed truth, the Truth only revealed by the Buddha in his final Mahāyāna doctrine.
 +
 +本 Radical, fundamental,​ original, principal, one's own; the Buddha himself, contrasted with 蹟 chi, traces left by him among men to educate them; also a volume of a book.
 +
 +本三昧耶印 The first samaya-sign to be made in worship, the forming of the hands after the manner of a lotus.
 +
 +本不生際 The original status of no rebirth, i. e. every man has a naturally pure heart, which 不生不滅 is independent of the bonds of mortality.
 +
 +本事經 itivṛttaka;​ ityukta; one of the twelve classes of sutras, in which the Buddha tells of the deeds of his disciples and others in previous lives, cf. 本生經.
 +
 +本二 His original second (in the house), the wife of a monk, before he retired from the world.
 +
 +本佛 The Buddha-nature within oneself; the original Buddha.
 +
 +本來 Coming from the root, originally, fundamentally,​ 無始以來 from, or before, the very beginning.
 +
 +本來成佛 All things being of Buddha become Buddha.
 +
 +本來法爾 So from the beginning, interpreted as 自始自然.
 +
 +本來無一物 Originally not a thing existing, or before anything existed— a subject of meditation.
 +
 +本來空 That all things come from the Void, or Absolute, the 眞如.
 +
 +本初 In the beginning; originally.
 +
 +本命星 The life-star of an individual, i. e. the particular star of the seven stars of Ursa Major which is dominant in the year of birth; 本命宿 is the constellation,​ or star-group, under which he is born; 本命元辰 is the year of birth, i. e. the year of his birth-star.
 +
 +本命道塲 Temple for worship of the emperor'​s birth-star, for the protection of the imperial family and the state.
 +
 +本地 Native place, natural position, original body; also the 本身; 本法身; or 本地身 fundamental person or embodiment of a Buddha or bodhisattva,​ as distinct from his temporal manifestation.
 +
 +本地門 The uncreated dharmakāya of Vairocana is eternal and the source of all things and all virtue.
 +
 +本尊 ? satyadevatā,​ 裟也地提嚩多. The original honoured one; the most honoured of all Buddhas; also the chief object of worship in a group; the specific Buddha, etc., being served.
 +
 +本山 Native hill; a monk's original or proper monastery; this (or that) monastery; also 本寺.
 +
 +本師 The original Master or Teacher. Śākyamuni.
 +
 +本師和尚 upādhyāya 鳥波陀耶 an original teacher, or founder; a title of Amitābha. 本形 Original form, or figure; the substantive form.
 +
 +本心 The original heart, or mind; one's own heart.
 +
 +本性 The spirit one possesses by nature; hence, the Buddha-nature;​ the Buddha-nature within; one's own nature.
 +
 +本惑 The root or origin of delusion; also 根本惑; 根本煩惱.
 +
 +本拏哩迦 idem puṇḍarīka,​ v. 奔.
 +
 +本據 mūlagrantha;​ the original text, or a quotation from it.
 +
 +本教 The fundamental doctrine, i. e. of the One Vehicle as declared in the Lotus Sutra, also 根本之教.
 +
 +本明 The original light, or potential enlightenment,​ that is in all beings; also 元明; cf. 本覺.
 +
 +本時 The original time, the period when Sakyamumi obtained enlightenment;​ at that time.
 +
 +[190]
 +
 +本書 The foundation books of any school; a book.
 +
 +本有 Originally or fundamentally existing; primal existence; the source and substance of all phenomena; also the present life; also the eighth 八識, i. e. ālaya-vijñāna.
 +
 +本有修生 The 本有 means that original dharma is complete in each individual, the 眞如法性之德 the virtue of the bhūtatathatā dharma-nature,​ being 具足無缺 complete without lack; the 修生 means the development of this original mind in the individual, whether saint or common man, to the realization of Buddha-virtue;​ 由觀行之力,​ 開發其本有之德,​ 漸漸修習而次第開顯佛德也.
 +
 +本有家 A division of the Dharmalakṣana school 法相宗.
 +
 +本末 Root and twigs, root and branch, first and last, beginning and end, etc.
 +
 +本母 upadeśa: mātṛkā: the original '​mother'​ or matrix; the original sutra, or work.
 +
 +本淨 (本淨無漏) Primal purity.
 +
 +本生經 Jātaka sutras 闍陀伽; stories of the Buddha'​s previous incarnations,​ one of the twelve classes of sutras.
 +
 +本生說 The stories told in the Jātaka tales. v. 本事經.
 +
 +本緣 The origin or cause of any phenomenon.
 +
 +本行 The root of action: the method or motive of attainment; (his) own deeds, e. g. the doings of a Buddha or bodhisattva.
 +
 +本行經 (本行集經) A sutra of this title.
 +
 +本囊伽吒 pūrṇaghaṭa,​ full pitcher, 'one of the sixty-five mystic figures said to be traceable on every footprint (śrīpada) of Buddha. ' Eitel.
 +
 +本覺 Original bodhi, i. e. '​enlightenment',​ awareness, knowledge, or wisdom, as contrasted with 始覺 initial knowledge, that is '​enlightenment a priori is contrasted with enlightenment a posteriori'​. Suzuki, Awakening of Faith, P. 62. The reference is to universal mind 衆生之心體,​ which is conceived as pure and intelligent,​ with 始覺 as active intelligence. It is considered as the Buddha-dharmakāya,​ or as it might perhaps be termed, the fundamental mind. Nevertheless in action from the first it was influenced by its antithesis 無明 ignorance, the opposite of awareness, or true knowledge. See 起信論 and 仁王經,​中. There are two kinds of 本覺, one which is unconditioned,​ and never sullied by ignorance and delusion, the other which is conditioned and subject to ignorance. In original enlightenment is implied potential enlightenment in each being.
 +
 +本覺眞如 The 眞如, i. e. bhūtatathatā,​ is the 體 corpus, or embodiment; the 本覺 is the 相 or form of primal intelligence;​ the former is the 理 or fundamental truth, the latter is the 智, i. e. the knowledge or wisdom of it; together they form the whole embodiment of the buddha-dharmakāya.
 +
 +本質 Original substance, the substance itself; any real object of the senses.
 +
 +本誓 samaya; the original covenant or vow made by every Buddha and Bodhisattva.
 +
 +本識 The fundamental vijñāna, one of the eighteen names of the ālaya-vijñāna,​ the root of all things.
 +
 +本身 oneself; it also means 本心 the inner self.
 +
 +本迹 The original 本 Buddha or Bodhisattva and his 迹 varied manifestations for saving all beings, e. g. Guanyin with thirty-three forms. Also 本地垂迹.
 +
 +本迹二門 A division of the Lotus Sutra into two parts, the 迹門 being the first fourteen chapters, the 本門 the following fourteen chapters; the first half is related to the Buddha'​s earthly life and previous teaching; the second half to the final revelation of the Buddha as eternal and the Bodhisattva doctrines.
 +
 +本門 v. 本迹.
 +
 +本門本尊 The especial honoured one of the Nichiren sect, Svādi-devatā,​ the Supreme Being, whose maṇḍala is considered as the symbol of the Buddha as infinite, eternal, universal. The Nichiren sect has a meditation 本門事觀 on the universality of the Buddha and the unity in the diversity of all his phenomena, the whole truth being embodied in the Lotus Sutra, and in its title of five words, 妙法蓮華經 Wonderful-Law Lotus-Flower Sutra, which are considered to be the embodiment of the eternal, universal Buddha. Their repetition preceded by 南無 Namah ! is equivalent to the 歸命 of other Buddhists.
 +
 +本願 pūrvapraṇidhāna. The original vow, or vows, of a Buddha or bodhisattva,​ e. g. the forty-eight of Amitābha, the twelve of 藥師, etc.
 +
 +本願一實大道 The great way of the one reality of Amitābha'​s vows, i. e. that of calling on his name and trusting to his strength and not one's own.
 +
 +[191]
 +
 +本高迹下 The higher (Buddha) manifesting himself in lower form, e. g. as a bodhisattva.
 +
 +末 Branch, twig; end; dust; not; translit, ma, va, ba; cf. 摩.
 +
 +末上 On the last, at last, finally.
 +
 +末世 The third and last period of a Buddha-kalpa;​ the first is the first 500 years of correct doctrine, the second is the 1, 000 years of semblance law, or approximation to the doctrine, and the third a myriad years of its decline and end. Also 末代.
 +
 +末伽 mārga; track, path, way, the way; the fourth of the four dogmas 四諦, i. e. 道, known as the 八聖道, 八正道 (or 八正門), the eight holy or correct ways, or gates out of suffering into nirvana. Mārga is described as the 因 cause of liberation, bodhi as its 果 result. ​
 +
 +末伽始羅 mārgaśiras,​ M. W. says November-December;​ the Chinese say from he 16th of the 9th moon to the 15th of the 10th.
 +
 +末伽梨 (or 末伽黎) 拘賖梨 (or 拘賖黎); 末佉梨劬奢離 Maskari Gośālīputra,​ one of the six Tīrthikas 外道六師. He denied that present lot was due to deeds done in previous lives, and the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra says he taught total annihilation at the end of this life.
 +
 +末利 mallikā, 摩利; 末羅 (1) jasminum zambac, M. W., which suggests the 茉莉花, i. e. the Chinese jasmine; according to Eitel it is the narrowleaved nyctanthes (with globular berries 柰); the flower, now called kastūrī (musk) because of its odour. By the Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 it is styled the 鬘花 chaplet flower, as its flowers may be formed into a chaplet. (2) A concoction of various fruits mixed with water offered in worship.
 +
 +末利夫人 The wife of Prasenajit, king of Kośala, so called because she wove or wore jasmine chaplets, or came from a jasmine garden, etc.
 +
 +末利室羅 Mālyaśrī,​ said to be a daughter of the last and queen in Ayodhyā, capital of Kośala.
 +
 +末剌諵 maraṇa, 死 dying, mortal, death.
 +
 +末化 Buddha transformed into (palm-) branches or leaves; the transformation of the Buddha in the shape of the sutras.
 +
 +末嗟羅 matsara, 慳 grudging, stingy, greedy.
 +
 +末多利 One of the divisions of the Sarvāstivādāḥ school, said to be the 北山部 q. v.
 +
 +末奴是若颯縛羅 manojñasvara 如意音, 樂音 lovely sounds, music; a king of the gandharvas, Indra'​s musicians.
 +
 +末奴沙 mānuṣa, manuṣya; 摩奴娑 (or 摩努娑); 摩奴闍 (or 摩奴曬); 摩努史; 摩?沙 (or 摩?賖, or 摩?奢, or 摩舍喃); 摩?; 摩拏赦 man, human, intp. by 人 and man and mind or intelligence.
 +
 +末寺 Subsidiary buildings of a monastery.
 +
 +末尼 maṇi 摩尼; a jewel, a crystal, a pearl, symbol of purity, therefore of Buddha and of his doctrine. It is used in oṃ-maṇi -padmi-hūṃ.
 +
 +末尼教 The Manichean religion, first mentioned in Chinese literature by Xuanzang in his Memoirs, between A. D. 630 and 640. The first Manichean missionary from 大秦 Daqin reached China in 694. In 732, an imperial edict declared the religion of Mani a perverse doctrine, falsely taking the name of Buddhism. It continued, however, to flourish in parts of China, especially Fukien, even to the end of the Ming dynasty. Chinese writers have often confused it with Mazdeism 火祅教.
 +
 +末底 mati 摩提; devotion, discernment,​ understanding,​ tr. by 慧 wisdom.
 +
 +末底僧訶 Matisiṃha,​ the lion of intelligence,​ an honorific title.
 +
 +末度迦 madhūka 末杜迦; 摩頭; M. W. bassia lavtifolia, tr. as 美果 a fine or pleasant fruit.
 +
 +末捺南 vandana, 禮 worship, reverence.
 +
 +末摩 marman; a vital part, or mortal spot.
 +
 +末梨 Bali, an asura king.
 +
 +末法 The last of the three periods 正, 像, and 末; that of degeneration and extinction of the Buddha-law.
 +
 +末田 Madhyāntika,​ 末田地 (末田地那);​ 末田底加,​ 末田提; 末田鐸迦;​ 末彈地; 末闡地 or a 摩 is also used for 末. It is tr. by 中; 日中, 水中河中,​ and 金地. One of the two chief disciples of Ānanda, to whom he handed down the Buddha'​s doctrine. He is reputed to have been sent to convert 罽賓 Kashmir, the other, 商那和修 Śāṇakavāsa,​ to convert 中國 which is probably Central India, though it is understood as China. Another account makes the latter a disciple of the former. Eitel says that by his magic power he transported a sculptor to the Tuṣita heavens to obtain a correct image of Maitreya.
 +
 +[192]
 +
 +末睇提舍 Madhyadeśa,​ 中國 the central kingdom, i. e. Central India.
 +
 +末笯曷剌他 Manorhita, or Manoratha, tr. by 如意, an Indian prince who became the disciple and successor of Vasubandhu, reputed author of the 毘婆沙論 Vibhāṣā śāstra and the twenty-second patriarch.
 +
 +末羅 malla 魔羅; a term for inhabitants of Kuśinagara and Pāvā.
 +
 +末羅王經 The sutra of the king of this name, whose road was blocked by a rock, which his people were unable to remove, but which the Buddha removed easily by his miraculous powers.
 +
 +末羅鋼多 marakata, 摩羅迦陀 the emerald.
 +
 +末羅遊 Malaya, 'the western Ghats in the Deccan (these mountains abound in sandal trees); the country that lies to the east of the Malaya range, Malabar. ' M, W. Eitel gives 秣羅矩吒 Malakūṭa,​ i. e. Malaya, as 'an ancient kingdom of Southern India, the coast of Malabar, about A. D. 600 a noted haunt of the Nirgrantha sect'. It is also identified with 尸利佛逝 Śrībhoja, which is given as 馬來半嶋 the Malay peninsula; but v. 摩羅耶 Malaya.
 +
 +末栗者 marica, pepper.
 +
 +末迦吒賀邏馱 Markaṭa-hrada;​ the Apes' Pool, near Vaiśālī.
 +
 +末達那 madana; 摩陀那 (or 摩達那); 摩陀羅 a fruit called the intoxicating fruit 醉果.
 +
 +末那 manāḥ; manas; intp. by 意 mind, the (active) mind. Eitel says: 'The sixth of the chadâyatana,​ the mental faculty which constitutes man as an intelligent and moral being. ' The 末那識 is defined by the 唯識論 4 as the seventh of the 八識, namely 意, which means 思量 thinking and measuring, or calculating. It is the active mind, or activity of mind, but is also used for the mind itself.
 +
 +末陀 madya, intoxicating liquor, intoxicating. The two characters are also given as a translation of ? madhya, and mean 100, 000.
 +
 +末陀摩 This is intp. as not. in the mean or middle way.
 +
 +末麗曩 Balin 麽攞; strong, strengthening.
 +
 +正 Right, correct; just, exact chief, principal; the first month.
 +
 +正中 Exactly middle; midday.
 +
 +正依經 The sutras on which any sect specially relies.
 +
 +正像末 The three periods of correct law, semblance law, and decadence, or finality; cf. 正法.
 +
 +正命 samyagājīva,​ the fifth of the 八正道, right livelihood, right life; '​abstaining from any of the forbidden modes of living. ' 正因 The true or direct cause, as compared with 緣因 a contributory cause.
 +
 +正地部 v. 磨 Mahīśāsakāḥ.
 +
 +正報 The direct retribution of the individual'​s previous existence, such as being born as a man, etc. Also 正果.
 +
 +正士 Correct scholar, bodhisattva.
 +
 +正定 saṃyak-samādhi,​ right abstraction or concentration,​ so that the mind becomes vacant and receptive, the eighth of the 八正道; 'right concentration,​ in the shape of the Four Meditations.'​ Keith.
 +
 +正定業 Concentration upon the eighteenth vow of Amitābha and the Western Paradise, in repeating the name of Amitābha.
 +
 +正徧智 saṃyak-saṃbuddha 三藐三佛陀;​ omniscience,​ completely enlightened,​ the universal knowledge of a Buddha, hence he is the 正徧智海 ocean of omniscience. Also 正徧覺; 正等正覺.
 +
 +正忌 The day of decease.
 +
 +[193]
 +
 +正念 samyak-smṛti,​ right remembrance,​ the seventh of the 八正道; 'right mindfullness,​ the looking on the body and the spirit in such a way as to remain ardent, self-possessed and mindful, having overcome both hankering and dejection. ' Keith.
 +
 +正思惟 samyak-saṃkalpa,​ right thought and intent, the second of the 八正道, 'right aspiration towards renunciation,​ benevolence and kindness. ' Keith.
 +
 +正日 Correct day, the day of a funeral.
 +
 +正智 samyag-jñāna;​ correct knowledge; 聖智 sage-like, or saint-like knowledge.
 +
 +正業 samyakkarmānta,​ right action, purity of body, avoiding all wrong, the fourth of the 八正道; 'right action, abstaining from taking life, or what is not given, or from carnal indulgence. ' Keith.
 +
 +正法 The correct doctrine of the Buddha, whose period was to last 500, some say 1, 000 years, be followed by the 像法時 semblance period of 1, 000 years, and then by the 末法時 period of decay and termination,​ lasting 10, 000 years. The 正法時 is also known as 正法壽.
 +
 +正法依 He on whom the Truth depends, a term for a Buddha.
 +
 +正法明如來 The Tathāgata who clearly understands the true law, i. e. Guanyin, who attained Buddhahood in the past.
 +
 +正法炬 The torch of truth, i. e. Buddhism.
 +
 +正法華經 The earliest translation of the Lotus Sutra in 10 juan by Dharmarakṣa,​ A. D. 286, still in existence.
 +
 +正當恁麽時 Just at such and such an hour.
 +
 +正盡覺 idem 正等覺.
 +
 +正直 Correct and straight; it is also referred to the One Vehicle teaching of Tiantai.
 +
 +正直捨方便 The straight way which has cast aside expediency.
 +
 +正精進 samyagvyāyāma,​ right effort, zeal, or progress, unintermitting perseverance,​ the sixth of the 八正道; 'right effort, to suppress the rising of evil states, to eradicate those which have arisen, to stimulate good states, and to perfect those which have come into being. ' Keith.
 +
 +正等 idem 正徧智.
 +
 +正等覺 samyagbuddhi,​ or -bodhi; the perfect universal wisdom of a Buddha.
 +
 +正行 Right deeds, or action, opposite of 邪行.
 +
 +正行經 is an abbreviation of 佛說阿含正行經.
 +
 +正覺 Sambodhi. the wisdom or omniscience of Buddha.
 +
 +正見 samyag-dṛṣṭi,​ right views, understanding the four noble truths; the first of the 八正道; '​knowledge of the four noble truths. ' Keith.
 +
 +正語 samyag-vāk,​ right speech; the third of the 八正道; '​abstaining from lying, slander, abuse, and idle talk. ' Keith.
 +
 +正量部 Saṃmatīya,​ Saṃmitīya (三彌底);​ the school of correct measures, or correct evaluation. Three hundred years after the Nirvana it is said that from the Vātsīputrīyāḥ school four divisions were formed, of which this was the third.
 +
 +母 mātṛ, a mother.
 +
 +母主 The '​mother-lord',​ or mother, as contrasted with 主 and 母, lord and mother, king and queen, in the maṇḍala of Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu;​ Vairocana, being the source of all things, has no '​mnother'​as progenitor, and is the 部主 or lord of the maṇḍala;​ the other four dhyāni-buddhas have '​mothers'​ called 部母, who are supposed to arise from the paramitas; thus, Akṣobhya has 金剛波羅蜜 for mother; Ratnasaṃbhava has 寳波羅蜜 for mother; Amitābha has 法波羅蜜 for mother; Amoghasiddhi has 羯磨波羅蜜 for mother.
 +
 +母經 摩怛理迦 mātṛkā; a text, as distinguished from its commentary; an original text; the Abhidharma.
 +
 +母邑 摩咀理伽羅摩 matṛgrāma,​ the community of mothers, womankind.
 +
 +母陀摩奴沙 (or 母那摩奴沙) mṛta-manuṣya;​ a human corpse.
 +
 +母陀羅 母捺羅 (or 慕捺羅) ; 目陀羅; 末得羅 mudrā, 印 a seal, stamp, sign, manual sign.
 +
 +母陀羅手 A manual sign of assurance, hence felicitous.
 +
 +母馱 毋馱 idem 佛陀, i. e. 佛 Buddha.
 +
 +氷 Ice; chaste.
 +
 +氷揭羅 (or 氷伽羅) ; 畢哩孕迦 Piṅgala, name of the son of Hariti, 阿利底 the mother of demons. She is now represented as a saint holding a child. Piṅgala, as a beloved son, in her left arm. The sutra of his name 氷揭羅天童子經 was tr. by 不空金剛 Amoghavajra,​ middle of the eighth century.
 +
 +[194]
 +
 +永 Perpetual, eternal, everlasting (like the unceasing flow of water).
 +
 +永劫 Eternity; the everlasting aeon.
 +
 +永生 Eternal life; immortality;​ nirvana is defined as 不生 not being born, i. e. not reborn, and therefore 不滅 not dying; 永生 is also perpetual life; the Amitābha cult says in the Pure Land.
 +
 +犯 To offend against, break (as a law).
 +
 +犯戒 To offend against or break the moral or ceremonial laws (of Buddhism).
 +
 +犯重 To break the weightier laws.
 +
 +玄 Dark, sombre, black; abstruse, obscure, deep, profound; hence it is used to indicate Daoism, and was afterwards adopted by the Buddhists.
 +
 +玄一 Xuanyi, a commentator of the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school during the Tang dynasty.
 +
 +玄奘 Xuanzang, whose name is written variously e. g. Hsüan Chuang, Hiüen-tsang,​ Hiouen Tsang, Yüan Tsang, Yüen Chwang; the famous pilgrim to India, whose surname was 陳 Chen and personal name 禕 Wei; a native of Henan, A. D. 600-664 (Giles). It is said that he entered a monastery at 13 years of age and in 618 with his elder brother, who had preceded him in becoming a monk, went to Chang-an 長安, the capital, where in 622 he was fully ordained. Finding that China possessed only half of the Buddhist classics, he took his staff, bound his feet, and on foot braved the perils of the deserts and mountains of Central Asia. The date of his setting out is uncertain (629 or 627), but the year of his arrival in India is given as 633: after visiting and studying in many parts of India, he returned home, reaching the capital in 645, was received with honour and presented his collection of 657 works, '​besides many images and pictures, and one hundred and fifty relics, 'to the Court. Taizong, the emperor, gave him the 弘福寺 Hongfu monastery in which to work. He presented the manuscript of his famous 大唐西域記 Record of Western Countries in 646 and completed it as it now stands by 648. The emperor Gaozong called him to Court in 653 and gave him the 慈恩寺 Cien monastery in which to work, a monastery which ever after was associated with him; in 657 he removed him to the 玉華宮 Yuhua Gong and made that palace a monastery. He translated seventy-five works in 1335 juan. In India he received the titles of 摩訶耶那提婆 Mahāyānadeva and 木叉提婆 Mokṣadeva;​ he was also known as 三藏法師 Tripiṭaka teacher of Dharma. He died in 664, in his 65th year.
 +
 +玄宗 The profound principles, or propositions,​ i. e. Buddhism.
 +
 +玄應 Deep, or abstruse response; also Xuanying, the author in the Tang dynasty of the 玄應音義,​ i. e. 一切經音義 a Buddhist dictionary in 25 juan, not considered very reliable.
 +
 +玄景 Xuanjing, a monk, d. 606, noted for his preaching, and for his many changes of garments, as 衡嶽 Hengyue was noted for wearing one garment all his days.
 +
 +玄暢 Xuanchang, a famous Shensi monk, who was invited to be tutor of the heir-apparent,​ A. D. 445, but refused, died 484.
 +
 +玄朗 Xuanlang, a Chekiang monk of the Tang dynasty, died 854, at 83 years of age, noted for his influence on his disciples and for having remained in one room for over thirty years: also called 慧明 Huiming and 左溪 Zuoqi.
 +
 +玄疏 The 玄義, a Tiantai commentary an the contents and meaning of the Lotus Sutra, and 疏 the critical commentary on the text.
 +
 +玄沙 Xuansha, a famous Fukien monk who had over 800 disciples, died A. D. 908; his chief subjects were the fundamental ailments of men— blindness, deafness, and dumbness.
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 +玄流 The black-robed sect of monks.
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 +玄琬 Xuanyuan, an influential Shensi monk who lived through the persecution of Buddhism in the 北周 Northern Zhou dynasty into the Sui and Tang dynasties.
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 +玄範 Xuanfan, a Tang monk and editor, said to be a contemporary of Xuanzang, some say his disciple.
 +
 +玄義 The deep meaning; the meaning of the profound; it refers chiefly to the Tiantai method of teaching which was to proceed from a general explanation of the content and meaning of the various great sutras to a discussion of the deeper meaning. the method was: (1) 釋名 explanation of the terms; (2) 辨體 defintion of the substance; (3) 明宗 making clear the principles; (4) 論用 discussing their application;​ (5) 判教 discriminating the doctrine. v. also 玄疏.
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 +[195]
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 +玄覺 Hsüan-chio,​ a Wenchow monk, also named 明道 Ming-tao, who had a large following; he is said to have attained to enlightenment in one night, hence is known as 一宿覺.
 +
 +玄贊 An abbreviation of 法華經玄贊.
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 +玄道 The profound doctrine, Buddhism.
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 +玄鏡 An abbreviation of 華嚴法界玄鏡.
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 +玄鑑居士 An Indian, the patron of an Indian monk Dharmapāla,​ author of the 唯識釋論. After his death the patron gave the MS. to Xuanzang.
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 +玄門 The profound school, i. e. Buddhism. Also that of the 華嚴 Huayan (Kegon) which has a division of 十玄門 or 十玄緣起,​ indicating the ten metaphysical propositions,​ or lines of thought; of these there are two or more versions.
 +
 +玄高 Hsüan-kao, a famous Shensi monk, influential politically,​ later killed by order of the emperor Wu Ti, circa 400.
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 +玉 Jade, a gem; jade-like, precious; you, your.
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 +玉佛 A famous jade Buddha recovered while digging a well in Khotan, 3 to 4 feet high.
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 +玉柔 Pliable jade, i. e. 牛肉 beef.
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 +玉泉玉花兩宗 The two schools of the Jade-fountain and Jade-flower. i. e. 天台 Tiantai and 法相 Dharmalakṣana,​ the latter with Hsüan-tsang as founder in China. 玉泉 Yü-ch'​üan was the name of the monastery in Tang-yang 當陽 Hsien, An-lu Fu, Hupeh, where Chih-i, the founder of the T'​ien-t'​ai School, lived; 玉花 Yü-hua, where Hsüan-tsang lived.
 +
 +玉環 The Jade ring in one of the right hands of the '​thousand-hand'​ Guanyin.
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 +玉耶 The name of the woman to whom the sutra 玉耶女經 is addressed.
 +
 +玉花 The palace 玉花宮 '​Yuhuagong',​ transformed into a temple for Xuanzang to work in, where he tr. the 大般若經 Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra,​ 600 juan, etc. Cf. 玉泉.
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 +玉豪 玉毫 The ūrṇā or white curl between the Buddha'​s eyebrows, from which he sent forth his ray of light illuminating all worlds.
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 +瓜 Gourd, melon, etc.
 +
 +瓜皮 Melon rind.
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 +瓦 Tiles, pottery.
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 +瓦器金器 An earthen vessel, i. e. the śrāvaka method, and a golden vessel, the bodhisattva method.
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 +瓦師 The Buddha in a previous incarnation as a potter.
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 +瓦鉢 An earthenware begging bowl.
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 +甘 Sweet, agreeable, willing; kansu.
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 +甘丹 Dgahldan, the monastery of the yellow sect 30 miles north-east of Lhasa 拉薩, built by Tsoṅ-kha-pa.
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 +甘珠爾 Kanjur, one of the two divisions of the Tibetan canon, consisting of 180 juan, each juan of 1, 000 leaves; a load for ten yaks.
 +
 +甘菩 (甘菩遮, 甘菩國); 紺蒲; 劍蒲 Kamboja, one of the '​sixteen great countries of India',​ noted for its beautiful women.
 +
 +甘蔗 Sugar-cane, symbol of many things. A tr. of Ikṣvāku, one of the surnames of Śākyamuni,​ from a legend that one of his ancestors was born from a sugar-cane.
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 +甘蔗王 懿師摩; 一叉鳩王 King of the sugar-cane; Ikṣvāku Virūḍhaka,​ said to be one of the ancestors of Śākyamuni,​ but the name is claimed by others.
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 +甘露 阿密哩多 (or 啞密哩多) (or 啞密哩達) amṛta, sweet dew, ambrosia, the nectar of immortality;​ tr. by 天酒 deva-wine, the nectar of the gods. Four kinds of ambrosia are mentioned— green, yellow, red, and white, all coming from '​edible trees' and known as 蘇陀 sudhā, or 蘇摩 soma.
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 +甘露法, or 甘露雨 The ambrosial truth, or rain, i. e. the Buddha truth.
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 +甘露法門 The method of the ambrosial truth.
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 +甘露滅 The nectar of nirvana, the entrance is the 甘露門, and nirvana is the 甘露城 or 甘露界 nectar city, or region.
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 +甘露王 amṛta, intp. in its implication of immortality is a name of Amitābha, and connected with him are the 甘露咒, 甘露陀羅尼咒,​ 十甘露咒 (or 十甘露明),​ 甘露經, etc.
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 +甘露軍荼利明王 甘露王尊 amṛtakuṇḍalin,​ one of the five 明王 Ming Wang, who has three forms, vajra, lotus, and nectar.
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 +甘露飯 阿彌都檀那 amṛtodana. The king whose name was '​ambrosia-rice ', a prince of Magadha, father of Anuruddha and Bhadrika, and paternal uncle of Śākyamuni.
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 +甘露鼓 The ambrosial drum, the Buddha-truth.
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 +生 jāti 惹多; life; utpāda means coming forth, birth, production; 生 means beget, bear, birth, rebirth, born, begin, produce, life, the living. One of the twelve nidānas, 十二因緣;​ birth takes place in four forms, catur yoni, v. 四生, in each case causing: a sentient being to enter one of the 六道 six gati, or paths of transmigration.
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 +[196]
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 +生住異滅 Birth, stay, change (or decay), death.
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 +生佛 Buddha alive; a living Buddha; also 生, i. e. 衆生 all the living, and 佛, i. e. Buddha.
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 +生佛一如 生佛一體;​ 生佛不二;​ 凡聖一如 The living and the Buddha are one, i. e. all are the one undivided whole, or absolute; they are all of the same substance: all are Buddha, and of the same 法身 dharmakāya,​ or spiritual nature; all are of the same 空 infinity.
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 +生佛不增不滅 The indestructibility of the living and the Buddha; they neither increase nor decrease, being the absolute.
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 +生佛假名 The living and the Buddha are but temporary names, borrowed or derived for temporal indication.
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 +生像 生似 Natural and similar, i. e. gold and silver, gold being the natural and perfect metal and colour; silver being next, though it will tarnish; the two are also called 生色 and 可染, i. e. the proper natural (unchanging) colour, and the tarnishable.
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 +生化 化生 aupapāduka;​ one of the four forms of birth, i. e. by transformation,​ without parentage, and in full maturity; thus do bodhisattvas come from the Tuṣita heaven; the dhyāni-buddhas and bodhisattvas are also of such miraculous origin.
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 +生化二身 The physical body of Buddha and his transformation body capable of any form; the nirmāṇakāya in its two forms of 應 and 化.
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 +生卽無生無生卽生 To be born is not to be born, not to be born is to be born— an instance of the identity of contraries. It is an accepted doctrine of the 般若 prajñā teaching and the ultimate doctrine of the 三論 Mādhyamika school. Birth, creation, life, each is but a 假 temporary term, in common statement 俗諦 it is called birth, in truth 眞諦 it is not birth; in the relative it is birth, in the absolute non-birth.
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 +生報 Life's retribution,​ i. e. the deeds done in this life produce their results in the next reincarnation.
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 +生天 The heavens where those living in this world can be reborn, i. e. from that of the 四天王 to the 非想天; v. 福生天.
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 +生忍 common or ordinary patience, i. e. of 衆生 the masses.
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 +生念處菩薩 The second Bodhisattva on the right of the Bodhisattva of Space 虛空藏 in the Garbhadhātu.
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 +生支 liṅga; aṅga-jāta;​ the male organ, penis.
 +
 +生有 One of the four forms of existence, cf. 有.
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 +生死 saṃsāra: birth and death: rebirth and redeath; life and death; 生死, 死生; 生生死死 ever-recurring saṃsāra or transmigrations;​ the round of mortality. There are two, three, four, seven, and twelve kinds of 生死; the two are 分斷生死 the various karmaic transmigrations,​ and 不思義變易生死 (or simply 變易生死) the inconceivable transformation life in the Pure Land. Among the twelve are final separation from mortality of the arhat, with 無餘 no remains of it causing return; one final death and no rebirth of the anāgāmin; the seven advancing rebirths of the srota-āpanna;​ down to the births-cum-deaths of hungry ghosts.
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 +生死卽涅槃 Mortality is nirvana, but there are varying definitions of 卽 q. v.
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 +生死園 The garden of life-and-death. This mortal world in which the unenlightened find their satisfaction.
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 +生死大海 The ocean of mortality, mortal life, 輪迴 saṃsāra, or transmigrations.
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 +生死岸 The shore of mortal life; as生死流 is its flow; 生死泥 its quagmire; 生死淵 its abyss; 生死野 its wilderness; 生死雲 its envelopment in cloud.
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 +生死解脫 Release from the bonds of births-and-deaths,​ nirvana.
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 +生死輪 The wheel of births-and-deaths,​ the round of mortality.
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 +生死長夜 The long night of births-and-deaths.
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 +生死際 The region of births-and-deaths,​ as compared with that of nirvana.
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 +生法 The living and things, i. e. 人法, 我法 men and things, the self and things; the 有情 sentient, or those with emotions, i. e. the living; and 非情 those without, i. e. insentient things.
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 +生死二身 The physical body and the spiritual body of the Buddha: the nirmāṇakāya and dharmakāya.
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 +生津 The ford of life, or mortality.
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 +生滅 utpādanirodha. Birth and death, production and annihilation;​ all life, all phenomena, have birth and death, beginning and end; the 三論 Mādhyamika school deny this in the 實 absolute, but recognize it in the 假 relative.
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 +生滅去來 Coming into existence and ceasing to exist, past and future, are merely relative terms and not true in reality; they are the first two antitheses in the 中論 Mādhyamika-śāstra,​ the other two antitheses being 一異斷常 unity and difference, impermanence and permanence.
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part_2_of_dictionary_of_chinese_buddhist_terms_with_sanskrit_and_english_equivalents_by_william_soothill.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:12 (external edit)