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 +** [[Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute]] of [[Medicine Buddha Healing Center]] **
 +** [[Nalanda University]] of [[Ayurveda]] and [[Buddhism]] **
  
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 +
 +Part of the List of [[Dharma Terms]] from the [[Buddhist Ayurveda]] Course ([[HUM108]] and [[SKT220]]) on [[Sanskrit Terms]] of [[Ayurveda]],​ [[Tibetan Medicine]] and [[Dharma]] and helpful for patients in [[CLN301|Consultations]]
 +----
 +
 +[[Buddhism Distance Learning]] | [[Ayurveda Distance Learning]]
 +
 +[[Recent Changes]] | [[Dharma Terms]] | [[Dharma Teachers]] | [[Ayurveda Terms]]
 +
 +======= Part 3 of 6 of A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous ======= ​
 +
 +Return to [[List of Indian Sanskrit Canon of Buddhist Dharma Texts]] from the List of [[Buddhist Texts]] of the [[Tripitaka]]
 +
 +Return to [[Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms William Soothill Table of Contents]]
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +[197]
 +
 +生生 Birth and rebirth (without end).
 +
 +生田 The three regions 三界 of the constant round of rebirth.
 +
 +生盲 Born blind.
 +
 +生空 Empty at birth, i. e. 我空, 人空 void of a permanent ego.
 +
 +生經 Stories of the previous incarnations of the Buddha and his disciples, tr. by Dharmapāla,​ 5 juan, third century A. D.
 +
 +生老病死 Birth, age, sickness, death, the 四苦 four afflictions that are the lot of every man. The five are the above four and 苦 misery, or suffering.
 +
 +生肇融叡 Four great disciples of Kumārajīva,​ the Indian Buddhajīva or 道生 Tao-sheng and the three Chinese 僧肇 Seng-chao, 道融 Tao-jung, and 僧叡 Seng-jui.
 +
 +生色 jāta-rūpa;​ gold, v. 生像.
 +
 +生起 Birth and what arises from it; cause of an act; the beginning and rise.
 +
 +生趣 The 四生 four forms of birth and the 六趣 six forms of transmigration.
 +
 +生身 The physical body; also that of a Buddha in contrast with his 法身 dharmakāya;​ also a bodhisattva'​s body when born into any mortal form.
 +
 +生身供 The worship paid to Buddha-relics,​ 生身舍利.
 +
 +生途 The way or lot of those born, i. e. of mortality.
 +
 +生靈 The mind or intelligence of the living; a living intelligent being; a living soul.
 +
 +生飯 出飯 Offerings made before a meal of a small portion of food hosts and all the living; cf. Nirvana Sutra 16, and Vinaya 雜事 31.
 +
 +生臺 A board on which the offerings are placed.
 +
 +生盤 The bowl in which offerings are contained.
 +
 +用 To use, to employ; use, function.
 +
 +用大 Great in function, the universal activity of the 眞如 bhūtatathatā;​ v. 起信論; and cf. 性相用 inner nature, form and function.
 +
 +用滅 Function or activity ceasing; i. e. matter (or the body 體) does not cease to exist, but only its varying functions or activities.
 +
 +田 A field, fields; a place, or state, for the cultivation of meritorious or other deeds; cf. 福田.
 +
 +田衣 (田相衣) A patch-robe, its patches resembling the rectangular divisions of fields.
 +
 +由 From; by: a cause, motive; to allow, let; translit. yo, yu; e. g. 由乾; 由乾陀羅 由乾陁羅,​ Yugaṃdhara,​ idem 踰健達羅.
 +
 +由旬 由延; 兪旬 (or 揄旬) ; 踰繕那 (or 踰闍那 or 踰延那) Yojana; described as anciently a royal day's march for the army; also 40, 30, or 16 li; 8 krośas 拘羅舍, one being the distance at which a bull's bellow can be heard; M. W. says 4 krośas or about 9 English miles, or nearly 30 Chinese li.
 +
 +甲 Scale, mail; the first of the ten '​celestial stems '.
 +
 +甲冑印 A digital or manual sign, indicating mail and helmet.
 +
 +甲馬 A picture, formerly shaped like a horse, of a god or a Buddha, now a picture of a horse.
 +
 +申 To draw out, stretch, extend, expand; notify, report: quote.
 +
 +申日 candra, the moon; also the name of an elder.
 +
 +申毒 身毒; 賢頭 Sindhu, Indus, Sindh, v. 印度.
 +
 +申河 The river Hiraṇyavatī,​ v. 尸賴; otherwise said to be the Nairañjanā 尼連禪河.
 +
 +申瑟知林 申怒林 (申怒波林) ; 杖林 yaṣṭi-vana,​ grove of staves, said to have grown from the staff with which a heretic measured the Buddha and which he threw away because the more he measured the higher the Buddha grew.
 +
 +申頭羅 ? sindūra, the trick of the illusionist who disappears in the air and reappears.
 +
 +白 White, pure, clear; make clear, inform.
 +
 +白一羯磨 (or 白二羯磨) jñaptidvitīyā karma-vācanā;​ to discuss with and explain to the body of monks the proposals or work to be undertaken; 白四羯磨 is to consult with them on matters of grave moment and obtain their complete assent.
 +
 +[198]
 +
 +白佛 To tell the Buddha.
 +
 +白傘佛頂 (or 白蓋佛頂) The white umbrella or canopy over the head of Buddha, indicating him as a cakravarti, or wheel-king.
 +
 +白報 Pure reward, or the reward of a good life.
 +
 +白心 A clear heart or conscience.
 +
 +白拈賊 (白拈) Robbing with bare hands and without leaving a trace, as 白戰 is fighting without weapons, and 白折 is killing with bare hands.
 +
 +白月 śuklapakṣa 自分; the bright, i. e. first half of the month, as contrasted with the 黑分 kṛṣṇapakṣa,​ dark or latter half.
 +
 +白槌 自椎 The informing baton or hammer, calling attention to a plaint, or for silence to give information.
 +
 +白檀 White candana, or white sandal-wood.
 +
 +白毫 The curl between Śākyamuni'​s eyebrows; from it, in the Mahāyāna sutras, he sends out a ray of light which reveals all worlds; it is used as a synonym of the Buddha, e. g. 白毫之賜 (all that a monk has is) a gift from the White-curled One.
 +
 +白水城 White-river town, Isfijab, 'in Turkestan, situated on a small tributary of the Jaxartes in Lat. 38° 30′ N., Long 65° E. ' Eitel.
 +
 +白牛 A white ox.
 +
 +白牛無角 a hornless white ox: a horse.
 +
 +白眞 To lay a true information.
 +
 +白蓮教 The White Lily Society, set up near the end of the Yuan dynasty, announcing the coming of Maitreya, the opening of his white lily, and the day of salvation at hand. It developed into a revolution which influenced the expulsion of the Mongols and establishment of the Ming dynasty. Under the Qing dynasty it was resurrected under a variety of names, and caused various uprisings.
 +
 +白蓮菜 The Sung vegetarian school of 茅子元 Mao Tzu-yuan.
 +
 +白蓮 (白蓮華);​ 分陀利 puṇḍarīka,​ the white lotus.
 +
 +白蓮華座 The lotus throne in the first court of the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +白蓮社 (白蓮華社) ; 白蓮之交;​ 蓮社 A society formed early in the fourth century A. D. by 慧遠 Huiyuan, who with 123 notable literati, swore to a life of purity before the image of Amitābha, and planted white lotuses in symbol. An account of seven of its succeeding patriarchs is given in the 佛祖統紀 26; as also of eighteen of its worthies.
 +
 +白衣 White clothing, said to be that of Brahmans and other people, hence it and 白俗 are terms for the common people. It is a name also for Guanyin.
 +
 +白衣觀音 (or 白處觀音) ; 白衣大士;​ 半拏囉嚩悉寧 Pāṇḍaravāsinī,​ the white-robed form of Guanyin on a white lotus.
 +
 +白象 The six-tusked white elephant which bore the Buddha on his descent from the Tuṣita heaven into Maya's womb, through her side. Every Buddha descends in similar fashion. The immaculate path, i. e. the immaculate conception (of Buddha).
 +
 +白贊 To speak praises to the Buddha.
 +
 +白足 (白足和尚);​ 白足阿練 The white-foot monk, a disciple of Kumārajīva.
 +
 +白雲宗 (白雲) Buddhist school formed in the White Cloud monastery during the Sung dynasty; its followers were known as the 白雲菜 White Cloud vegetarians.
 +
 +白飯王 Śuklodana-rāja,​ a prince of Kapilavastu,​ second son of Siṃhahanu,​ father of Tiṣya 帝沙, devadatta 調達, and Nandika 難提迦. Eitel.
 +
 +白馬寺 The White Horse Temple recorded as given to the Indian monks, Mātaṇga and Gobharaṇa,​ who are reputed to have been fetched from India to China in A. D. 64. The temple was in Honan, in Lo-yang thc capital; it was west of the ancient city, cast of the later city. According to tradition, originating at the end of the second century A. D., the White Horse Temple was so called because of the white horse which carried the sutras they brought.
 +
 +白鷺池 The White Heron Lake in Rājagṛha,​ the scene of Śākyamuni'​s reputed delivery of part of the Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra 大般若經 juan 593-600, the last of the '16 assemblies'​ of this sutra, which is also called the 白鷺池經.
 +
 +[199]
 +
 +白黑 white and dark, e. g. 白黑業 good and evil deeds, or karma.
 +
 +白黑布薩 light and dark uposatha, the observances of the waxing and waning moon, cf. 白月.
 +
 +皮 皮革 Leather, skin, hide.
 +
 +皮殼漏子 (or 皮可漏子) The body, lit. 'skin and shell leaking'​.
 +
 +皮衣 Clothing of hides or skins; a name for a monk's garments, implying their roughness and simplicity.
 +
 +皮袋 Skin bag, i. e. the body.
 +
 +目 cakṣṣuḥ,​ the eye; the organ of vision; the head or chief; translit. ma, mu.
 +
 +目佉 mukha, mouth, opening.
 +
 +目多 mukta, release, free, released; mukta, a pearl, jewels in general.
 +
 +目多伽 Abbrev. for 伊提目多伽 Itivṛttaka,​ biographical stories.
 +
 +目帝羅 木得羅 Intp. as mukti, release, emancipation 解脫, or as the knowledge or experience of liberation.
 +
 +目支鄰陀 (or 目脂鄰陀 or 目眞鄰陀) ; 目支鄰; 牟眞鄰陀;​ 母眞鄰那 (or 母止鄰那) ; 文眞鄰陀;​ 摩訶目支鄰陀. Mucilinda, or Mahāmucilinda. A nāga or dragon king who dwelt in a lake near a hill and cave of this name, near Gayā, where Śākyamuni sat absorbed for seven days after his enlightenment,​ protected by this nāga-king.
 +
 +目機銖兩 The power of the eye to discern trifling differences;​ quick discernment.
 +
 +目犍連 目連; 摩訶目犍連 (or 摩訶羅夜那);​ 大目犍連 (or 大目乾連) ; 沒特伽羅子 (or 沒力伽羅子);​ 目伽略 (Mahā-) Maudgalyāyana,​ or Maudgalaputra;​ explained by Mudga 胡豆 lentil, kidney-bean. One of the ten chief disciples of Śākyamuni,​ specially noted for miraculous powers; formerly an ascetic, he agreed with Śāriputra that whichever first found the truth would reveal it to the other. Śāriputra found the Buddha and brought Maudgalyāyana to him; the former is placed on the Buddha'​s right, the latter on his left. He is also known as 拘栗 Kolita, and when reborn as Buddha his title is to be Tamāla-patra-candana-gandha. In China Mahāsthāmaprapta is accounted a canonization of Maudgalyāyana. Several centuries afterwards there were two other great leaders of the Buddhist church bearing the same name, v. Eitel.
 +
 +目竭嵐 mudgara; a hammer, mallet, mace.
 +
 +目足 Eye and foot, knowledge and practice; eyes in the feet.
 +
 +目足仙 Akṣapāda,​ founder of the Nyaya, or logical school of philosophers. M. W.
 +
 +矢 An arrow; to take as oath; a marshal; ordure.
 +
 +矢石 Arrow and rock are two incompatibles,​ for an arrow cannot pierce a rock.
 +
 +石 Stone, rock.
 +
 +畫石 A painting of a rock: though the water of the water-color rapidly disappears, the painting remains.
 +
 +難石石裂 Even rock meeting hard treatment will split.
 +
 +石壁經 Sutras cut in stone in A. D. 829 in the 重玄寺 Ch'​ung-hsüan temple, Soochow, where Po Chü-i put up a tablet. They consist of 69, 550 words of the 法華, 27, 092 of the 維摩, 5,287 of the 金剛, 3,020 of the 尊勝陀羅尼,​ 1,800 of the 阿彌陀, 6,990 of the 普顯行法,​ 3, 150 of the 實相法密,​ and 258 of the 般若心經.
 +
 +石女 A barren woman; a woman incompetent for sexual intercourse.
 +
 +石女兒 Son of a barren woman, an impossibility.
 +
 +石榴 The pomegranate,​ symbol of many children because of its seeds; a symbol held in the hand of 鬼子母神 Hariti, the deva-mother of demons, converted by the Buddha.
 +
 +石火 Tinder; lighted tinder, i. e. of but momentary existence.
 +
 +石經山 The hill with the stone sutras, which are said to have been carved in the Sui dynasty in grottoes on 自帶山 Pai Tai Shan, west of 涿州 Cho-chou in Shun-t'​ienfu,​ Chihli.
 +
 +石蜜 Stone honey; a toffee, made of sugar, or sugar and cream (or butter).
 +
 +石鉢 The four heavy stone begging bowls handed by the four devas to the Buddha on his enlightenment,​ which he miraculously received one piled on the other.
 +
 +示 To indicate, notify, proclaim.
 +
 +示教 To point out and instruct.
 +
 +示寂 to indicate the way of nirvana.
 +
 +告示 A proclamation;​ to notify.
 +
 +禾 Growing grain.
 +
 +禾山 Ho-Shan, a monastery in 吉州 Chi-chou, and its abbot who died A. D. 960.
 +
 +立 Set up, establish, stand, stand up.
 +
 +立僧首座 The learned monk who occupies the chief seat to edify the body of monks.
 +
 +立播 repa, or repha, a '​low'​ garment, a loin-cloth.
 +
 +立教 To establish a '​school',​ sect, or church.
 +
 +立教開宗 To set up a school and start a sect.
 +
 +立法 To set up, or state a proposition;​ to make a law, or rule.
 +
 +立破 To state— and confute— a proposition.
 +
 +立量 To state a syllogism with its 宗 proposition,​ 因 reason, and 喩 example.
 +6. SIX STROKES
 +
 +亦 Also; moreover.
 +
 +亦有亦空門 Both reality and unreality (or, relative and absolute, phenomenal and non-phenomenal),​ a term for the middle school; Mādhyamika.
 +
 +交 Interlock, intersect; crossed; mutual; friendship; to hand over, pay.
 +
 +交代 交付 To hand over, entrust to.
 +
 +交堂 To hand over charge of a hall, or monastery.
 +
 +交蘆 束蘆 A tripod of three rushes or canes— an illustration of the mutuality of cause and effect, each cane depending on the other at the point of intersection.
 +
 +[200]
 +
 +交露 A curtain festooned with jewels, resembling hanging dewdrops.
 +
 +交點 To hand over and check (as in the case of an inventory).
 +
 +伎 Skill; 伎巧; 伎藝.
 +
 +伎兒 An actor.
 +
 +伎藝天女 The metamorphic devī on the head of Śiva, perhaps the moon which is the usual figure on Śiva'​s head.
 +
 +伍 A rank of five.
 +
 +伍官王 Wuguan Wang, the fourth of the ten rulers of Hades.
 +
 +任 Bear, endure, let; office; it is used to connote laisser-faire;​ one of the 四病, as 任運 implies laisser-aller;​ it is intp. by let things follow their own course, or by 自然 naturally, without intervention.
 +
 +仰 Look up, respectful; lying with the face upward, opposite of 俯; translit. n as in aṅga, cf. 我, 俄 哦.
 +
 +仰山 To look up to the hill; Yang-shan, name of a noted monk.
 +
 +仰月點 A half-moon on its back, i. e. ⌣, a sign in the esoteric sect.
 +
 +休 Desist, give up; resign; divorce; blessing, favour.
 +
 +休屠 Lit. '​Desist from butchering, 'said to be the earliest Han term for 浮屠, 佛圖, etc., Buddha. The 漢武故事 says that the King of Vaiśālī 毘邪 killed King 體屠 (or the non-butchering kings), took his golden gods, over 10 feet in height, and put them in the 甘泉宮 Sweet-spring palace; they required no sacrifices of bulls or rams, but only worship of incense, so the king ordered that they should be served after their national method.
 +
 +伏 Prostrate; humble; suffer, bear; ambush; dog-days; hatch; it is used for control, under control, e. g. as delusion; 斷 is contrasted with it as complete extirpation,​ so that no delusive thought arises.
 +
 +伏忍 The first of the 五忍 five forms of submission, self-control,​ or patience.
 +
 +伏藏 To bury, hide away.
 +
 +伏陀 The Vedas, v. 韋.
 +
 +伏駄蜜多 Buddhamitra,​ of northern India, the ninth patriarch, a vaiśya by birth (third caste), author of the 五門禪經要用法 Pancadvara-dhyāna-sutramahartha-dharma;​ he was styled Mahā-dhyāna-guru.
 +
 +伐 To cut down, chastise; a go-between; to make a display; translit. va.
 +
 +伐伽 跋渠 varga, tr. by 部 a class, division, group.
 +
 +伐刺拏 Varana, 'a mountainous province of Kapiśā with city of the same name, probably the country south-east of Wauneh in Lat. 32°30 N., Long. 69°25 E. ' Eitel. Perhaps Bannu, v. Levi, J. Asiatique, xi, v, p. 73. Also v. 障.
 +
 +伐地 Vadi or Vati. 'An ancient little kingdom and city on the Oxus, the modern Betik, Lat. 39°7 N., Long. 63°10 E. ' Eitel.
 +
 +伐折羅 vajra. 伐闍羅; 縛日羅 (or 嚩日羅 or 跋日羅) (or 跋日囉); 嚩馹囉; 跋折羅 (or 跋闍羅); 跋折多; 波闍羅 (or 髮闍羅), tr. by 金剛 (金剛杵) Diamond club; the thunderbolt,​ svastika; recently defined by Western scholars as a sun symbol. It is one of the saptaratna, seven precious things; the sceptre of Indra as god of thunder and lightning, with which he slays the enemies of Buddhism; the sceptre of the exorcist; the symbol of the all conquering power of Buddha.
 +
 +伐折羅陀羅 持金剛 (or 執金剛) Vajradhara, the bearer of the vajra.
 +
 +伐折羅嚩羅 vajrajvāla,​ i. e. flame, tr. as 金剛光 the scintillation of the diamond, the lightning.
 +
 +伐浪伽 Varanga, name of a spirit, or god; a name of Viṣṇu as beautiful.
 +
 +伐臘毗 Valabhī. Modern Wālā. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the eastern coast of Gujerat. ' Eitel. Known also as 北羅 northern Lata.
 +
 +伐蘇蜜呾羅 Vasumitra, v. 筏.
 +
 +伐蘇槃度 (or 伐蘇畔度) ; 婆藪槃豆 Vasubandhu, v. 天親.
 +
 +伐那婆斯 Vanavāsin, one of the sixteen arhats.
 +
 +伐里沙 varṣa, rain; name of a noted Saṃkhyā leader, Varsaganya.
 +
 +伐闍羅弗多羅 Vajraputra, one of the sixteen arhats.
 +
 +伊 He, she, it; that; translit. i, ai, ṛ; cf. 壹, 彝 and 意; for the long ī the double characters 翳吚 and 伊伊 are sometimes used.
 +
 +伊字三點 refers to the Sanskrit sign (?) as neither across nor upright, being of triangular shape, and indicating neither unity nor difference, before nor after. The Nirvana Sutra applies the three parts to 法身 dharmakāya,​ 般若 prajñā and 解脫 vimokṣa, all three being necessary to complete nirvana. It is also associated with the three eyes of Śiva. When considered across they represent fire, when upright, water. At a later period the three were joined (?) in writing.
 +
 +伊刹尼 ikṣaṇi, or ikṣaṇa, defined as a magic mode of reading another'​s thoughts.
 +
 +伊吾 (伊吾盧) I-wu(-lu), the modern Hami, so called during the Han dynasty. Later it was known as I-wu Chün and I-chou. v. Serindia, P. 1147.
 +
 +伊尼延 aiṇeya(s);​ also 伊泥延 (or 伊梨延) 伊泥延陀);​ 因尼延 (or 黳尼延 or M003885 ) ; 翳泥耶 (or 瑿泥耶) the black antelope; intp. as 鹿 (鹿王) a deer, or royal stag.
 +
 +伊泥延腨相 (or M065770) aiṇeyajaṅgha. The eighth of the thirty-two characteristic signs of a Buddha, knees like those of a royal stag.
 +
 +[201]
 +
 +伊師迦 iṣīkā, an arrow, dart, elephant'​s eyeball; Ṛṣigiri,​ a high hill at Rājagṛha,​ v. 伊師迦私;​ a type of 我見, 我曼 egoism, etc.
 +
 +伊帝目多伽 (or 伊帝日多伽 or 伊帝越多伽) ityuktas, so said, or reported; itivṛttakam,​ so occurring; the Buddha'​s discourses arising out of events; intp. as 本事 q. v. personal events, or Jātaka stories, one of the twelve classes of Buddhist literature, i. e. 十二部經 biographical narratives.
 +
 +伊梨沙般荼迦 (or 伊利沙般荼迦) īrṣyāpaṇḍaka,​ also 伊梨沙掌拏 eunuchs, or impotent save when stirred by jealousy, cf. 般.
 +
 +伊沙 IIśa, master, lord. 伊沙 is used for 伊舍那 q. v., but 伊沙那 īśāna, possessing, is intp. as 聚落 a settled place, locality, and may be Iiśānapura,​ v. infra 伊賞.
 +
 +伊沙陁羅 伊沙駄羅 Iiṣādhara. A chain of mountains, being the second of the seven concentric circles surrounding Sumeru; defined as 持軸 holding the axis, or axle, also as 車軸 the axletree, or 自在持 sovereign control. It is made of the seven precious things, and its sea, 42, 000 yojanas wide, is filled with fragrant flowers.
 +
 +伊爛拏 (伊爛拏鉢伐多) Iiriṇa-parvata,​ or Hiraṇya-parvata. An ancient kingdom noted for a volcano near its capital, the present Monghir, Lat. 25 16 N., Long. 86°26 E. Eitel.
 +
 +伊私耆梨 Ṛṣigiri,​ 仙山, name of a mountain in Magadha; M. W.
 +
 +伊羅婆那 Airāvaṇa;​ 伊羅婆拏;​ 伊羅鉢那 (or 伊那鉢那);​ 伊蘭; 堙羅 (堙羅那) q. v.; ?羅婆那 (or ?​那婆那);​ 黳羅葉 (or 毉羅葉), etc. Airāvaṇa,​ come from the water; Indra'​s elephant; a tree, the elāpattra; name of a park (i. e. Lumbinī, where the Buddha is said to have been born).
 +
 +伊羅跋提河 Erāvatī, Airāvatī, Irāvatī, the river Ravi, also abbrev. to 跋提 Vati.
 +
 +伊羅鉢龍王 (伊羅鉢多羅龍王);​ 伊羅多羅 (or 伊羅跋羅);​ 伊羅婆那;​ 伊那槃婆龍 and many other forms, v. supra. Elāpattra, Erāpattra, Eḍavarṇa,​ Ersavarṇa. A nāga, or elephant, which is also a meaning of Airāvaṇa and Airāvata. A nāga-guardian of a sea or lake, who had plucked a herb wrongfully in a previous incarnation,​ been made into a naga and now begged the Buddha that he might be reborn in a higher sphere. Another version is that he pulled up a tree, which stuck to his head and grew there, hence his name. One form is 伊羅婆那龍象王,​ which may have an association with Indra'​s elephant.
 +
 +伊舍那 (伊舍那天) Iiśāna; 伊邪那 (or 伊賒那); v. 伊沙 'one of the older names of Siva-Rudra; one of the Rudras; the sun as a form of Śiva, ' M. W. Maheśvara; the deva of the sixth desire-heaven;​ head of the external Vajra-hall of the Vajradhātu group; Siva with his three fierce eyes and tusks.
 +
 +伊舍那后 IIśānī, wife of Śiva, Durgā.
 +
 +伊葉波羅 Iśvara 伊溼伐羅 (1) King, sovereign; Siva and others; intp. by 自在 self-existing,​ independent;​ applied to Guanyin and other popular deities. (2) A śramaṇa of the West, learned in the Tripiṭaka,​ who inter alia translated A. D. 426 Samyuktābhidharma-hṛdaya-śāstra,​ lost since A. D. 730. (3) A bhikṣu of India, commentator on 菩提資糧論 attributed to Nāgārjuna,​ tr. by Dharmagupta,​ A. D. 590-616.
 +
 +伊蒲塞 upāsaka, a lay member of the Buddhist Church, v. 優.
 +
 +伊蘭 airāvaṇa,​ erāvaṇa, 伊羅 and other forms, v. supra; name of a tree with beautiful flowers of nauseous scent which spreads its odour for 40 li; typifying 煩惱 the passions and delusions.
 +
 +伊賞那補羅 IIśānapura. An ancient kingdom in Burma. Eitel. Cf. 伊沙那.
 +
 +伊迦波提羅那 A title of a Tathāgata, intp. as 最上大王 the supreme deva-king.
 +
 +兆 An omen; a million.
 +
 +兆載永劫 The perpetual aeon of millions of years, the kalpa beyond numbers.
 +
 +先 Fore, before, former, first; precede.
 +
 +先世 A previous life, or world.
 +
 +先哲 先達 One who has preceded (me) in understanding,​ or achievement.
 +
 +先尼 西儞迦; 霰尼 sainika, senika, martial, a commander; a class of non-Buddhists,​ perhaps the Jains; it may be connected with Śraiṇya, Śreṇika.
 +
 +先業 Karma from a previous life.
 +
 +先照高山 The rising sun first shines on the highest mountains.
 +
 +先生 Senior, sir, teacher, master, Mr.; a previous life.
 +
 +先進 先輩 Of earlier, or senior rank or achievement.
 +
 +先陀 (先陀婆) Saindhava, interpreted as salt, a cup, water, and a horse; born or produced in Sihdh, or near the Indus; also a minister of state in personal attendance on the king.
 +
 +先陀客 A man of renown, wealth, and wisdom.
 +
 +[202]
 +
 +光 光明 prabha, light, brightness, splendour, to illuminate.
 +
 +光世音 idem 觀世音.
 +
 +光宅 Kuang-chai, name of the temple where 法雲 Fa-yun early in the sixth century wrote his commentary on the Lotus Sutra, which is known as the 光宅疏; 光宅 became his epithet. He made a division of four yāna from the Burning House parable, the goat cart representing the śrāvaka, the deer cart the pratyekabuddha,​ the ox-cart the Hīnayāna bodhisattva,​ and the great white ox-cart the Mahāyāna bodhisattva;​ a division adopted by T'​ien-t'​ai.
 +
 +光寳 Two noted monks of 大慈恩 T'​zu-en monastery under the Tang dynasty, 普光 P'​u-kuang and 法寳 Fa-Pao, the first the author of 倶舍論記,​ the second of a commentary 疏 on the same śāstra, each in 30 juan.
 +
 +光座 prabha-maṇḍala;​ the halo and throne (of a Buddha); also 光趺.
 +
 +光德國 Avabhāsa, the kingdom of light and virtue, or glorious virtue, in which Mahākāśyapa is to be reborn as a Buddha under the name of 光明 Raśmiprabhāsa.
 +
 +光明 v. last entry.
 +
 +光明土 The glory land, or Paradise of Amitābha.
 +
 +光明壇 The fire altar.
 +
 +光明大梵 Jyotiṣprabhā,​ the great illustrious Brahman, whose Buddha-realm 'is to contribute some Bodhisattvas for that of Amitābha'​. Eitel.
 +
 +光明寺 光明大師 (or 光明和尚). Guangming si, temple and title of 善導 Shandao, a noted monk of the Tang dynasty under Gaozong.
 +
 +光明山 The shining hill, or monastery, a name for the abode of Guanyin, said to be in India, and called Potala.
 +
 +光明心殿 The temple of the bright or shining heart; the seat of Vairocana, the sun Buddha, in the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.
 +
 +光明王 One of the twenty-five bodhisattvas who, with Amitābha, welcomes to Paradise the dying who call on Buddha.
 +
 +光明眞言 A dhāraṇī by whose repetition the brightness or glory of Buddha may be obtained, and all retribution of sin be averted.
 +
 +光毫 The ūrṇā, or curl between the Buddha'​s eyebrows whence streams light that reveals all worlds, one of the thirty-two characteristics of a Buddha.
 +
 +光照如來相 Vairocana-raśmi-prati-maṇḍita-dhvaja;​ 'a Bodhisattva,​ disciple of Śākyamuni,​ who was in a former life Vimaladattā. ' Eitel.
 +
 +光燄王佛 The royal Buddha of shining fames, or flaming brightness, Amitābha, with reference to his virtues.
 +
 +光瑞 The auspicious ray sent from between the Buddha'​s eyebrows before a revelation.
 +
 +光目女 The bright-eyed (or wide-eyed) daughter, a former incarnation of 地藏 Kṣitigarbha.
 +
 +光統 Guang the general supervisor, i. e. the monk 慧光 Huiguang, sixth century, who resigned the high office of 統 and tr. the 十地經論.
 +
 +光網童子 Jālinīprabhakumāra,​ 惹哩寧鉢囉婆倶摩羅;​ one of the eight attendants on Mañjuśrī;​ he is the youth with the shining net.
 +
 +光聚佛頂 one of the five 佛頂 q. v.
 +
 +光記 The above-mentioned 倶舍論記 in 30 juan by 普光 Puguang, v. 光寳.
 +
 +光降 The honoured one descends, i. e. the Buddha or bodhisattva who is worshipped descends.
 +
 +光音天 Ābhāsvara,​ light and sound, or light-sound heavens, also styled 極光淨天,​ the heavens of utmost light and purity, i. e. the third of the second dhyāna heavens, in which the inhabitants converse by light instead of words; they recreate the universe from the hells up to and including the first dhyāna heavens after it has been destroyed by fire during he final series of cataclysms; but they gradually diminish in power and are reborn in lower states. The three heavens of the second dhyāna are 少光, 無量光, and 光音.
 +
 +光音宮 Ābhāsvara-vimāna,​ the Ābhāsvara palace, idem.
 +
 +全 All, whole, complete.
 +
 +全分戒 or 全分受 Fully ordained by receiving all the commandments.
 +
 +全跏趺坐 The legs completely crossed as in a completely seated image.
 +
 +共 All altogether, both, same, in common.
 +
 +共不定 sādhāraṇa;​ both indeterminate,​ i. e. one of the six indeterminates in Logic, 'when a thesis and its contradiction are both supported by equally valid reasons, ' e. g. 'that sound is not eternal, because it is a product, ' 'that it is eternal, because it is audible. ' Keith.
 +
 +[203]
 +
 +共十地 The ten stages which śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas,​ and bodhisattvas have in common.
 +
 +共命鳥 命命鳥; 生生鳥 jīvajīva, or jīvañjīva,​ a bird said to have two heads on one body, i. e. mind and perception differing, but the karma one.
 +
 +共報 Collective retribution;​ reward or punishment of the community, or in common, for the 共業 deeds of the community, or even of the individual in their effects on the community.
 +
 +共宗 That which all Buddhist schools have in common.
 +
 +共法 共功德 The totality of truth, or virtue, common to all sages, is found in the Buddha.
 +
 +共相 sāmānya. Totality, generality, the whole; in common, as contrasted with 自相 individuality,​ or component parts.
 +
 +共相惑 Delusion arising from observing things as a whole, or apart from their relationships.
 +
 +共般若 The interpretation of the Prajñāpāramitā that advanced and ordinary students have in common, as contrasted with its deeper meaning, or 不共般若 only understood by Bodhisattvas.
 +
 +共許 What is commonly admitted, a term in logic.
 +
 +再 Again, a second time, also 再往.
 +
 +冰 Ice, chaste.
 +
 +冰伽羅 piṅgala, tawny; tr. as 蒼色 azure, grey.
 +
 +决 To divide, decide; decidedly; cut off, execute.
 +
 +决了 Decided, defined, and made clear.
 +
 +决定 Fixed and settled, determined.
 +
 +决擇 Deciding and choosing; that which decides and gives reason, i. e. the truth of the saints, or Buddhism.
 +
 +决疑 To resolve doubts, doubts solved: definite.
 +
 +劣 Inferior, vicious.
 +
 +劣智 Inferior wisdom, harmful wisdom.
 +
 +卍 sauvastika, 塞縛悉底迦;​ also styled 室利靺瑳 śrīvatsa, lucky sign, Viṣṇu'​s breast-curl or mark, tr. by 海雲 sea-cloud, or cirrhus. Used as a fancy form of 萬 or 萬; and is also written in a form said to resemble a curl. It is the 4th of the auspicious signs in the footprint of Buddha, and is a mystic diagram of great antiquity. To be distinguished from 卐svastika,​ the crampons of which turn to the right.
 +
 +危 Perilous.
 +
 +危城 A perilous citadel, i. e. the body.
 +
 +印 mudrā; seal, sign, symbol, emblem, proof, assurance, approve; also 印契; 契印; 印相. Manual signs indicative of various ideas, e. g. each finger represents one of the five primary elements, earth, water, fire, air, and space, beginning with the little finger; the left hand represents 定 stillness, or meditation, the right hand 慧 discernment or wisdom; they have also many other indications. Also, the various symbols of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas,​ e. g. the thunderbolt;​ cf. 因.
 +
 +印佛 A Buddha made of incense and burnt, a symbolical Buddha.
 +
 +印佛作法 An esoteric method of seeking spirit-aid by printing a Buddha on paper, or forming his image on sand, or in the air, and performing specified rites.
 +
 +印光 Illumination from the symbol on a Buddha'​s or Bodhisattva'​s breast.
 +
 +印可 Assuredly can, i. e. recognition of ability, or suitability.
 +
 +印土 idem 印度 India.
 +
 +印域 The territory of India.
 +
 +印度 印特伽; 身毒; 賢豆; 天竺 Indu (meaning '​moon'​ in Sanskrit), Hindu, Sindhu; see also 信度 and 閻浮 India in general. In the Tang dynasty its territory is described as extending over 90, 000 li in circuit, being bounded on three sides by the sea; north it rested on the Snow mountains 雪山, i. e. Himālayas; wide at the north, narrowing to the south, shaped like a half-moon; it contained over seventy kingdoms, was extremely hot, well watered and damp; from the centre eastwards to 震旦 China was 58, 000 li; and the same distance southwards to 金地國, westwards to 阿拘遮國,​ and northwards to 小香山阿耨達.
 +
 +印度佛教 Indian Buddhism, which began in Magadha, now Bihar, under Śākyamuni,​ the date of whose nirvana was circa 486 B. C. v. 佛 and 佛教.
 +
 +印母 añjali; the two hands with palms and fingers together— the '​mother'​ of all manual signs.
 +
 +印治 Approval of a course of action.
 +
 +印紙同時 At one and the same time, like printing (which is synchronous,​ not like writing which is word by word).
 +
 +印達羅 Indra; a thousand quinquillions.
 +
 +大印達羅 mahendra; ten times the amount of an indra 印達羅.
 +
 +各 Each, every.
 +
 +各種 each kind, every sort.
 +
 +吐 To spit, excrete, put forth.
 +
 +吐涙 Female and male seminal fluids which blend for conception.
 +
 +吒 To entrust; translit. t or ṭ.
 +
 +吒婆 Something rigid, an obstruction.
 +
 +吃 To eat; to stutter.
 +
 +吃栗多 ? kṛtya; a 賤人 low or common fellow.
 +
 +M03296刺拏伐底 v. 阿恃多伐底 Hiraṇyavatī,​ Hiraṇya, Ajitavatī, the river near which Śākyamuni entered into Nirvana; the Gunduck (Gandak), flowing south of Kuśinagara city.
 +
 +[204]
 +
 +向 Towards, to go towards, facing, heretofore.
 +
 +向上 To trace backwards, as from the later to the earlier, primary, the earliest or first; upwards.
 +
 +向下 Downwards; to trace downwards, i. e. forwards, 'from root to branches.'​
 +
 +向彼悔 pratideśanīya 波羅提提舍尼 sin to be confessed before the assembly.
 +
 +合 Bring together, unite, unison, in accord.
 +
 +合十 合爪; 合掌 To bring the ten fingers or two palms together; a monk's salutation.
 +
 +合掌叉手 to put the hands together and fold the fingers.
 +
 +合壇 United, or common altar, or altars, as distinguished from 離壇 separate altars.
 +
 +合昏 (合昏樹);​ 合歡; 尸利沙 or 尸利灑 siria, the acacia sirisa.
 +
 +合殺 The closing note of a chant or song; bring to an end.
 +
 +合用 In accordance with need; suitable.
 +
 +合蓮華 A closed lotus-flower.
 +
 +同 Together, with; mutual; same.
 +
 +同事 samānārthatā,​ working together (with and for others); one of the 四攝法.
 +
 +同分 同品; 同類 Of the same class, or order.
 +
 +同學 FeIlow-students,​ those who learn or study together.
 +
 +同生天 同生神; 同名天 The first two of these terms are intp. as the guardian deva, or spirit, who is sahaja, i. e. born or produced simultaneously with the person he protects; the last is the deva who has the same name as the one he protects.
 +
 +同聽異聞 To hear the same (words) but understand. differently.
 +
 +同行 Those who are practising religion together.
 +
 +同體 Of the same body, or nature, as water and wave, but同體慈悲 means fellow-feeling and compassion, looking on all sympathetically as of the same nature as oneself.
 +
 +同體三寳 idem 一體三寳.
 +
 +名 nāman 娜麽 (or 娜摩); a name, a term; noted, famous.
 +
 +名假 Name unreal; one of the 三假; names are not in themselves realities.
 +
 +名利 Fame and gain.
 +
 +名別義通 Different in name but of the same meaning.
 +
 +名字 Name and description,​ name.
 +
 +名字比丘 A monk in name but not in reality.
 +
 +名字菩薩 A nominal bodhisattva.
 +
 +名字沙彌 One of an age to be a monk, i. e. 20 years of age and over.
 +
 +名德 Of notable virtue.
 +
 +名目 A name, or descriptive title.
 +
 +名相 Name and appearance; everything has a name, e. g. sound, or has appearance, i. e. the visible, v. 名色; both are unreal and give rise to delusion. The name under which Subhūti will be reborn as Buddha.
 +
 +名籍 A register of names.
 +
 +名義 Name and meaning; the meaning of a name, or term.
 +
 +名義不離 Connotation;​ name and meaning not apart, or differing, they are inseparable or identical, the name having equality with the meaning, e. g. a Buddha, or the terms of a dhāraṇī.
 +
 +名義集 or 名義 is an abbreviation for the 翻譯名義 Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 dictionary.
 +
 +名聞 名聲 yaśas, renown, fame.
 +
 +名臈 A monk of renown and of years.
 +
 +名色 nāmarūpa, name-form, or name and form, one of the twelve nidānas. In Brahminical tradition it served 'to denote spirit and matter',​ 'the concrete individual',​ Keith; in Buddhism it is intp. as the 五蘊 five skandhas or aggregates, i, e. a '​body',​ 受, 想, 行, and 識 vedana, saṃjñā, karman, and vijñāna being the '​name'​ and 色 rupa the '​form';​ the first-named four are mental and the last material. 色 Rupa is described as the minutest particle of matter, that which has resistance; the embryonic body or foetus is a nāmarūpa, something that can be named.
 +
 +名號 A name, or title, especially that of Amitābha.
 +
 +名衲 A name and robe, i. e. a monk.
 +
 +名身 A word-group, a term of more than one word.
 +
 +名體 Name and embodiment; the identity of name and substance, as in the dhāraṇī of the esoteric sects; somewhat similar to 名義不離 q. v.
 +
 +吉 śrī; auspicious, lucky, fortunate; translit. k, ke, ku, g.
 +
 +吉利 姞栗陀 gṛdhra, a vulture.
 +
 +吉利羅 髻離吉羅 One of the honourable ones in the Vajradhātu group.
 +
 +吉庶 (or 吉遮 or 吉蔗); 訖利多; 訖栗著 kṛtyā; a demon, or class of demons, yakṣa and human; explained by 起尸鬼 a corpse raising demon.
 +
 +吉利多 is explained by 買得 bought as (a serf or slave).
 +
 +吉慶 Auspicious, lucky, fortunate.
 +
 +吉日良辰 A lucky day and propitious star.
 +
 +吉槃荼 kumbhāṇḍas,​ demons of monstrous form, idem 鳩盤荼.
 +
 +吉河 The auspicious river, the Ganges, because in it the heretics say they can wash away their sins.
 +
 +吉由羅 枳由邏; ?由羅 keyūra, a bracelet (worn on the upper arm).
 +
 +吉祥 Auspicious, fortunate, tr. of the name of Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune. See next, also 室利 and 尸里.
 +
 +吉祥天女 功德天; 摩訶室利 Mahāśrī, identified with Lakṣmī, name 'of the goddess of fortune and beauty frequently in the later mythology identified with Śrī and regarded as the wife of Viṣṇu or Nārāyaṇa',​ she sprang from the ocean with a lotus in her hand, whence she is also called Padmā, and is connected in other ways with the lotus. M. W. There is some confusion between this goddess and Guanyin, possibly through the attribution of Hindu ideas of Lakṣmī to Guanyin.
 +
 +吉祥果 The auspicious fruit, a pomegranate,​ held by Hāritī 鬼子母 as the bestower of children.
 +
 +吉祥海雲 The auspicious sea-cloud; tr. as Śrī-vatsa,​ the breast mark of Viṣṇu, but defined as the svastika, which is the 佛心印 symbol on a Buddha'​s breast.
 +
 +吉祥草 (or 吉祥茅); 矩奢. kuśa, auspicious grass used at religious ceremonials,​ poa cynosuroides.
 +
 +吉祥茅國 矩奢揭羅補羅 Kuśāgrapura,​ '​ancient residence of the kings of Magadha, surrounded by mountains, 14 miles south of Behar. It was deserted under Bimbisara, who built 'New Radjagrīha'​6 miles farther to the west. ' Eitel. The distance given is somewhat incorrect, but v. 王舍城.
 +
 +[205]
 +
 +吉羅 kṛta idem 突吉羅 duṣkṛta;​ one of the grave sins.
 +
 +吉迦夜 Kekaya, a noted monk of the Liu-Sung dynasty.
 +
 +囘 回 To turn, revolve, return.
 +
 +囘互 Interchange,​ intermutation.
 +
 +囘光返照 To turn the light inwards on oneself, concern oneself with one's own duty.
 +
 +囘向 迴向 pariṇāmanā. To turn towards; to turn something from one person or thing to another; transference of merit); the term is intp. by 轉趣 turn towards; it is used for works of supererogation,​ or rather, it means the bestowing on another, or others, of merits acquired by oneself, especially the merits acquired by a bodhisattva or Buddha for the salvation of all, e. g. the bestowing of his merits by Amitābha on all the living. There are other kinds, such as the turning of acquired merit to attain further progress in bodhi, or nirvana. 囘事向理 to turn (from) practice to theory; 囘自向他 to turn from oneself to another; 囘因向果 To turn from cause to effect. 囘世而向出世 to turn from this world to what is beyond this world, from the worldly to the unworldly.
 +
 +囘小向大 To turn from Hīnayāna to Mahāyāna.
 +
 +囘心 囘心懺悔 To turn the mind from evil to good, to repent.
 +
 +囘心戒 Commandments bestowed on the converted, or repentant.
 +
 +囘悟 To turn and apprehend; be converted.
 +
 +囘禮 To return, or acknowledge a courtesy or gift.
 +
 +囘財 囘祭 Payment by a donor of sums already expended at his request by a monastery.
 +
 +囘趣 To turn from other things to Buddhism.
 +
 +因 hetu: a cause: because: a reason: to follow, it follows, that which produces a 果 result or effect. 因 is a primary cause in comparison with 緣 pratyaya which is an environmental or secondary cause. In the 十因十果 ten causes and ten effects, adultery results in the iron bed, the copper pillar, and the eight hot hells; covetousness in the cold hells; and so on, as shown in the 楞嚴經. Translit. in, yin. Cf. 印.
 +
 +因人 Followers of Buddha who have not yet attained Buddhahood, but are still Producers of karma and reincarnation.
 +
 +因位 The causative position, i. e. that of a Buddhist, for he has accepted a cause, or enlightenment,​ that produces a changed outlook.
 +
 +因修 The practice of Buddhism as the '​cause'​ of Buddhahood.
 +
 +因內 (因內二明) Reason and authority; i. e. two of the five 明, v. 因明 and 内明, the latter referring to the statements, therefore authoritative,​ of the Scriptures.
 +
 +因分 Cause, as contrasted with effect 果分.
 +
 +因分可說果分不可說 The causes (that give rise to a Buddha'​s Buddhahood) may, in a measure, be stated, that is, such part as is humanly manifested; but the full result is beyond description.
 +
 +因力 The causal force, or cause, contrasted with 緣力 environmental,​ or secondary forces.
 +
 +因十四過 The fourteen possible errors or fallacies in the reason in a syllogism.
 +
 +因同品 (The example in logic must be) of the same order as the reason.
 +
 +因圓果滿 The cause perfect and the effect complete, i. e. the practice of Buddhism.
 +
 +因地 The causal ground, fundamental cause; the state of practising the Buddha-religion which leads to the 果地 or resulting Buddhahood.
 +
 +因尼延 aiṇeya, black antelope, v. 伊.
 +
 +因明 Hetuvidya, 醯都費陀,​ the science of cause, logical reasoning, logic, with its syllogistic method of the proposition,​ the reason, the example. The creation of this school of logic is attributed to Akṣapāda,​ probably a name for the philosopher Gautama (not Śākyamuni). The 因明論 or Hetu-vidyā-śāstra is one of the 五明論 pañcavidya-śāstras,​ a treatise explaining causality, or the nature of truth and error.
 +
 +因明入正理論 Nyāyapraveśa;​ a treatise on logic by 商羯羅主 Saṅkarasvāmin,​ follower of Dignāga, tr. by Xuanzang in 1 juan, on which there are numerous commentaries and works.
 +
 +因明正理門論 Nyāya-dvāratarka-śāstra,​ a treatise by 陳那 Dignāga, tr. by Yijing, 1 juan.
 +
 +因曼陀羅 The Garbhadhātu 胎臟 maṇḍala,​ which is also east and 因, or cause, as contrasted with the Vajradhātu,​ which is west and 果, or effect.
 +
 +[206]
 +
 +因果 Cause and effect; every cause has its effect, as every effect arises from a cause.
 +
 +因果應報 Cause and effect in the moral realm have their corresponding relations, the denial of which destroys all moral responsibility.
 +
 +因果皆空宗 A sect of '​heretics'​ who denied cause and effect both in regard to creation and morals.
 +
 +因業 The work, or operation, of cause, or causes, i. e. the co-operation of direct and indirect causes, of primary and environmental causes.
 +
 +因源 Cause; cause and origin.
 +
 +因異品 hetu-viruddha;​ in a syllogism the example not accordant with the reason.
 +
 +因相 Causation; one of the three forms or characteristics of the ālayavijñāna,​ the character of the origin of all things.
 +
 +因緣 hetupratyaya. Cause; causes; 因 hetu, is primary cause, 緣 pratyaya, secondary cause, or causes, e. g. a seed is 因, rain, dew, farmer, etc., are 緣. The 十二因緣 twelve nidānas or links are 'the concatenation of cause and effect in the whole range of existence'​.
 +
 +因緣依 Dependent on cause, or the cause or causes on which anything depends.
 +
 +因緣生 Causally-produced.
 +
 +因緣觀 A meditation on the nidānas.
 +
 +因能變 The power in a cause to transform itself into an effect a cause that is also an effect, e. g. a seed.
 +
 +因行果 Cause, action, effect; e. g. seed, germination,​ fruit.
 +
 +因論 idem 因明論.
 +
 +因道 The way, or principle, of causation.
 +
 +因達羅大將 (or 因陀羅大將) Indra as General (guarding the shrine of 藥師 Bhaiṣajya).
 +
 +因陀囉誓多 Indraceta, Indra'​s attendants, or slaves.
 +
 +因陀囉達婆門佛 Indradhvaja,​ a Buddha-incarnation of the seventh son of the Buddha Mahābhijñābhibhū 大通智勝.
 +
 +因陀羅 Indra, 因坻; 因提; 因提梨; 因達羅; 天帝; 天主帝; 帝釋天; originally a god of the atmosphere, i. e. of thunder and rain; idem Śakra; his symbol is the vajra, or thunderbolt,​ hence he is the 金剛手; he became 'lord of the gods of the sky', '​regent of the east quarter',​ '​popularly chief after Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, '​(M.W.);​ in Buddhism he represents the secular power, and is inferior to a Buddhist saint. Cf. 忉利 and 印.
 +
 +因陀羅勢羅窶詞 因陀羅世羅求訶;​ 因陀羅窟;​ 因沙舊 Indraśailaguhā;​ explained by 帝釋石窟 Indra'​s cave; also by 蛇神山 the mountain of the snake god, also by 小孤石山 the mountain of small isolated peaks located near Nālandā, where on the south crag of the west peak is a rock cave, broad but not high, which Śākyamuni frequently visited. Indra is said to have written forty-two questions on stone, to which the Buddha replied.
 +
 +因陀羅呵悉多 因陀羅喝悉哆;​ 因陀羅訓塞多. Probably Indra-hasta,​ Indra'​s hand, 'a kind of medicament. ' M. W. Is it the 佛手 '​Buddha'​s hand', a kind of citron ?
 +
 +因陀羅婆他那 ? Indravadana,​ or ? Indrabhavana. A 'name for India proper',;​ Eitel.
 +
 +因陀羅尼羅 (因陀羅尼羅目多) Indranīla-(muktā). Indra'​s blue (or green) stone, which suggests an emerald, Indranīlaka (M. W. ); but according to M. W. Indranīla is a sapphire; muktā is a pearl.
 +
 +因陀羅跋帝 Tr. as Indra'​s city, or Indra'​s banner, but the latter is Indraketu; ? Indravatī.
 +
 +在 At, in, on, present.
 +
 +在世 In the world, while alive here.
 +
 +在俗 In and of the world, unenlightened;​ in a lay condition.
 +
 +在在處處 In every place.
 +
 +在家 At home, a layman or woman, not 出家, i. e. not leaving home as a monk or nun.
 +
 +在家二戒 The two grades of commandments observed by the lay, one the five, the other the eight, v. 五戒 and 八戒; these are the Hīnayāna rules; the 在戒 of Mahāyāna are the 十善戒 ten good rules.
 +
 +在家出家 One who while remaining at home observes the whole of a monk's or nun's rules.
 +
 +在理教 The Tsai-li secret society, an offshoot of the White Lily Society, was founded in Shantung at the beginning of the Ch'ing dynasty; the title 'in the li, ' indicating that the society associated itself with all three religions, Confucianism,​ Taoism, and Buddhism; its followers set up no images, burnt no incense, neither smoked nor drank, and were vegetarian.
 +
 +在纏 In bonds, i. e. the '​在眞如 the bhūtatathatā in limitations,​ e. g. relative, v. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.
 +
 +地 pṛthivī, 鉢里體尾 the earth, ground; bhūmi, 歩弭 the earth, place, situation; talima, 託史麽 (or 託吏麽) ground, site; explained by 土地 earth, ground; 能生 capable of producing; 所依 that on which things rely. It is also the spiritual rank, position, or character attained by a Bodhisattva as a result of 住 remaining and developing in a given state in order to attain this 地 rank; v. 十住; 住位 and 十地.
 +
 +[207]
 +
 +地上 on the ground; above the ground; used for 初地以上 the stages above the initial stage of a Bodhisattva'​s development.
 +
 +地中 地內 Annexes, or subsidiary buildings in the grounds of a monastery.
 +
 +地仙 (地行仙) Earth-immortals,​ or genī, one of the classes of ṛṣis; i. e. bhūdeva = Brahman.
 +
 +地位 Position, place, state.
 +
 +地前 The stages of a Bodhisattva before the 初地.
 +
 +地動 Earthquake; the earth shaken, one of the signs of Buddha-power.
 +
 +地塵 Earth-dust: as dust of earth (in number): atoms of the earth element.
 +
 +地壇 A square altar used by the esoteric cult.
 +
 +地大 Earth as one of the 四大 four elements, 地 earth, 水大 water, 火大 fire, and 風大 air (i. e. air in motion, wind); to these 空大 space (Skt. ākāśa) is added to make the 五大 five elements; 識 vijñāna, perception to make the six elements; and 見 darśana, views, concepts, or reasonings to make the seven elements. The esoteric sect use the five fingers, beginning with the little finger, to symbolize the five elements.
 +
 +地天 The earth-devī,​ Pṛthivī, one of the four with thunderbolts in the Vajradhātu group; also CF. 地后 the earth-devī in the Garbhadhātu group. Cf. 地神.
 +
 +地婆訶羅 Divākara, tr. as 日照 Jih-chao, a śramaṇa from Central India, A. D. 676-688, tr. of eighteen or nineteen works, introduced an alphabet of forty-two letters or characters.
 +
 +地婆達多 (or 地婆達兜) Devadatta, v. 提婆達多.
 +
 +地居天 Indra'​s heaven on the top of Sumeru, below the 空居天 heavens in space.
 +
 +地底迦 Dhītika, originally Dhṛtaka, an ancient monk, whose name is tr. by 有愧 Yu-k'​uei,​ ashamed, shy.
 +
 +地慧童子 (or 持慧童子 or 財慧童子) The youth who controls earthly possessions,​ the fourth on the left of the messengers of Mañjuśrī in the Garbhadhātu group.
 +
 +地涌 To spring forth, or burst from the earth, a chapter in the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +地獄 naraka, 捺落迦 (or 那落迦) ; niraya 泥犂; explained by 不樂 joyless; 可厭 disgusting, hateful; 苦具, 苦器 means of suffering; if 地獄 earth-prison;​ 冥府 the shades, or departments of darkness. Earth-prison is generally intp. as hell or the hells; it may also be termed purgatory; one of the six gati or ways of transmigration. The hells are divided into three classes: I. Central, or radical, 根本地獄 consisting of (1) The eight hot hells. These were the original hells of primitive Buddhism, and are supposed to be located umder the southern continent Jambudvīpa 瞻部州, 500 yojanas below the surface. (a) 等活 or 更活 Saṃjīva, rebirth, where after many kinds of suffering a cold wind blows over the soul and returns it to this life as it was before, hence the name 等活. (b) 黑繩 Kaslasūtra,​ where the sufferer is bound with black chains and chopped or sawn asunder. (c) 線合; 衆合; 堆壓 Saṃghāta,​ where are multitudes of implements of torture, or the falling of mountains upon the sufferer. (d) 號呌; 呼呼; 叫喚 Raurava, hell of wailing. (e) 大呌; 大號呌; 大呼 Mahāraurava,​ hell of great wailing. (f) 炎熱; 燒炙 Tapana, hell of fames and burning. (g) 大熱; 大燒炙; 大炎熱 Pratāpana, hell of molten lead. (h) 無間; 河鼻旨; 阿惟越致;​ 阿毗至; 阿鼻; 阿毗 Avīci, unintermitted suffering, where sinners die and are reborn to suffer without interval. (2) The eight cold hells 八寒地獄. (a) 頞浮陀地獄 Arbuda, where the cold causes blisters. (b) 尼刺部陀 Nirarbuda, colder still causing the blisters to burst. (c) 頞哳吒; 阿吒吒 Atata, where this is the only possible sound from frozen lips. (d) 臛臛婆; 阿波波 Hahava or Apapa, where it is so cold that only this sound can be uttered. (e) 虎虎婆 Hāhādhara or Huhuva, where only this sound can be uttered. (f) 嗢鉢羅; 鬱鉢羅 (or 優鉢羅) Utpala, or 尼羅鳥 (or 漚) 鉢羅 Nīlotpala, where the skin is frozen like blue lotus buds. (g) 鉢特摩 Padma, where the skin is frozen and bursts open like red lotus buds. (h) 摩訶鉢特摩 Mahāpadma, ditto like great red lotus buds. Somewhat different names are also given. Cf. 倶舍論 8; 智度論 16; 涅槃經 11. II. The secondary hells are called 近邊地獄 adjacent hells or 十六遊增 each of its four sides, opening from each such door are four adjacent hells, in all sixteen; thus with the original eight there are 136. A list of eighteen hells is given in the 十八泥梨經. III. A third class is called the 孤地獄 (獨地獄) Lokāntarika,​ or isolated hells in mountains, deserts, below the earth and above it. Eitel says in regard to the eight hot hells that they range 'one beneath the other in tiers which begin at a depth of 11,900 yojanas and reach to a depth of 40,000 yojanas'​. The cold hells are under 'the two Tchahavālas and range shaft-like one below the other, but so that this shaft is gradually widening to the fourth hell and then narrowing itself again so that the first and last hell have the shortest, those in the centre the longest diameter'​. 'Every universe has the same number of hells, ' but 'the northern continent has no hell whatever, the two continents east and west of Meru have only small Lokāntarika hells... whilst all the other hells are required for the inhabitants of the southern continent '. It may be noted that the purpose of these hells is definitely punitive, as well as purgatorial. Yama is the judge and ruler, assisted by eighteen officers and a host of demons, who order or administer the various degrees of torture. 'His sister performs the same duties with regard to female criminals, ' and it may be mentioned that the Chinese have added the 血盆池 Lake of the bloody bath, or '​placenta tank' for women who die in childbirth. Release from the hells is in the power of the monks by tantric means.
 +
 +[208]
 +
 +地獄天子 The immediate transformation of one in hell mto a deva because he had in a previous life known of the merit and power of the 華嚴 Huayen sutra.
 +
 +地獄道 or 地獄趣 The hell-gati, br destiny of reincarnation in the hells.
 +
 +地珂 dīrgha, long; also 地?伽.
 +
 +地界 The realm of earth, one of the four elements, v. 地大.
 +
 +地神 The earth devī, Pṛthivī also styled 堅牢 firm and secure; cf. 地天.
 +
 +地種 Earth-seed, or atoms of the element.
 +
 +地臈脾 dravya, substance, thing, object.
 +
 +地致婆 tiṭibha, titi.lambha,​ 'a particular high mountain, ' M. W. 1,000 quadrillions;​ a 大地致婆 is said to be 10,000 quadrillions.
 +
 +地藏 Ti-tsang, J. Jizō, Kṣitigarbha,​ 乞叉底蘗沙;​ Earth-store,​ Earth-treasury,​ or Earthwomb. One of the group of eight Dhvani- Bodhisattvas. With hints of a feminine origin, he is now the guardian of the earth. Though associated with Yama as overlord, and with the dead and the hells, his role is that of saviour. Depicted with the alarum staff with its six rings, he is accredited with power over the hells and is devoted to the saving of all creatures between the nirvana of Śākyamuni and the advent of Maitreya the fifth century he has been especially considered as the deliverer from the hells. His central place in China is at Chiu-hua-shan,​ forty li south-west of Ch'​ing-yang in Anhui. In Japan he is also the protector of travellers by land and his image accordingly appears on the roads; bereaved parents put stones by his images to seek his aid in relieving the labours of their dead in the task of piling stones on the banks of the Buddhist Styx; he also helps women in labour. He is described as holding a place between the gods and men on the one hand and the hells on the other for saving all in distress; some say he is an incarnation of Yama. At dawn he sits immobile on the earth 地 and meditates on the myriads of its beings 藏. When represented as a monk, it may be through the influence of a Korean monk who is considered to be his incarnation,​ and who came to China in 653 and died in 728 at the age of 99 after residing at Chiu-hua-shan for seventy-five years: his body, not decaying, is said to have been gilded over and became an object of worship. Many have confused 眞羅 part of Korea with 暹羅 Siam. There are other developments of Ti-tsang, such as the 六地藏 Six Ti-tsang, i. e. severally converting or transforming those in the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and the devas; these six Ti-tsang have different images and symbols. Ti-tsang has also six messengers 六使者: Yama for transforming those in hell; the pearl-holder for pretas; the strong one or animals; the devīof mercy for asuras; the devī of the treasure for human beings; one who has charge of the heavens for the devas. There is also the 延命地藏 Yanming Ti-tsang, who controls length of days and who is approached, as also may be P'​u-hsien,​ for that Purpose; his two assistants are the Supervisors of good and evil 掌善 and 掌惡. Under another form, as 勝軍地藏 Ti-tsang is chiefly associated with the esoteric cult. The benefits derived from his worship are many, some say ten, others say twenty-eight. His vows are contained in the 地藏菩薩本願經. There is also the 大乘大集地藏十電經 tr. by Xuanzang in 10 juan in the seventh century, which probably influenced the spread of the Ti-tsang cult.
 +
 +[209]
 +
 +地論 idem 十地經論.
 +
 +地輪 The earth-wheel,​ one of the 五輪 five circles, i. e. space, wind, water, earth, and above them fire: the five '​wheels'​ or umbrellas shown on the top of certain stūpas or pagodas.
 +
 +地輪壇 The earth altar is four-cornered and used by the esoteric sect.
 +
 +地迦媻縛那僧伽藍 ?​Dīrgha-bhavana-saṃghārāma. A monastery near Khotan 豁旦, with a statue dressed in silk which had '​transported itself'​ thither from Karashahr 庫車. Eitel.
 +
 +多 bahu: bhūri. Many; all; translit. ta.
 +
 +多他 多咃 tathā; in such a manner, like, so, true; it is tr. by 如 which has the same meanings. It is also said to mean 滅 extinction, or nirvana. v. 多陀.
 +
 +多寶 (多寳) (多寳如來,​ 多寶如來) Prabhūtaratna,​ abundant treasures, or many jewels. The Ancient Buddha, long in nirvana, who appears in his stūpa to hear the Buddha preach the Lotus doctrine, by his presence revealing, inter alia, that nirvana is not annihilation,​ and that the Lotus doctrine is the Buddha-gospel;​ v. Lotus Sutra 寳塔品.
 +
 +多揭羅 tagaraka, 木香; 根香 putchuck, aplotaxis auriculata, or tabernaemontana coronaria, the shrub and its fragrant powder; also 多伽羅 (or 多伽留, or 多伽婁).
 +
 +多摩梨帝 Tamralipti, or Tamralipttī;​ the modern Tumluk in the estuary of the Hugli; also 呾摩栗底 (or 躭摩栗底) .
 +
 +多摩羅跋旃檀香 Tamālapattra-candana-gandha;​ a Buddha-incarnation of the 11th son of Mahābhijña,​ residing N. W. of our universe; also the name of the Buddha- incarnation of Mahāmaudgalyāyana.
 +
 +多生 Many births, or productions;​ many reincarnations.
 +
 +多羅 tārā, in the sense of starry, or scintillation;​ Tāla, for the fan-palm; Tara, from 'to pass over', a ferry, etc. Tārā, starry, piercing, the eye, the pupil; the last two are both Sanskrit and Chinese definitions;​ it is a term applied to certain female deities and has been adopted especially by Tibetan Buddhism for certain devīs of the Tantric school. The origin of the term is also ascribed to tar meaning 'to cross',​ i. e. she who aids to cross the sea of mortality. Getty, 19-27. The Chinese derivation is the eye; the tara devīs; either as śakti or independent,​ are little known outside Lamaism. Tāla is the palmyra, or fan-palm, whose leaves are used for writing and known as 具多 Pei-to, pattra. The tree is described as 70 or 80 feet high, with fruit like yellow rice-seeds; the borassus eabelliformis;​ a measure of 70 feet. Taras, from to cross over, also means a ferry, and a bank, or the other shore. Also 呾囉.
 +
 +多羅夜登陸舍 Trāyastriṃśas,​ v. 三十三天.
 +
 +多羅樹 多羅果; 多羅葉; 多羅掌 The tāla tree, its edible fruit resembling the pomegranate,​ its leaves being used for writing, their palm-shaped parts being made into fans.
 +
 +多羅菩薩 Tārā Bodhisattva,​ as a form of Guanyin, is said to have been produced from the eye of Guanyin.
 +
 +多聞 bahu-sruta; learned, one who has heard much.
 +
 +多聞第一 The chief among the Buddha'​s hearers: Ānanda.
 +
 +多財鬼 wealthy ghosts.
 +
 +多貪 Many desires.
 +
 +多足 Many-footed,​ e. g. centipedes.
 +
 +多陀阿伽陀 tathāgata, 多他阿伽陀 (多他阿伽陀耶);​ 多他阿伽駄 (or 多他阿伽度);​ 多阿竭 (or 怛闥阿竭 or 怛薩阿竭);​ 怛他蘗多;​ intp. by 如來 rulai, q. v. 'thus come', or 'so come'; it has distant resemblance to the Messiah, but means one who has arrived according to the norm, one who has attained he goal of enlightenment). It is also intp. as 如去 Ju-ch'​ü,​ he who so goes, his coming and going being both according to the Buddha-norm. It is the highest of a Buddha'​s titles.
 +
 +多阿摩羅跋陀羅 tamālapattra,​ cassia, 'the leaf of the xanthochymus pictorius, the leaf of the laurus cassia, ' M. W. The Malobathrum of Pliny. Also called 藿葉香 betony, bishopwort, or thyme; also 赤銅葉 copper-leaf.
 +
 +多體 Many bodies, or forms: many-bodied.
 +
 +多髮 kēśinī, having long hair, intp. as many locks (of hair), name of a rākṣasī,​ v. 髻.
 +
 +多齡 (多齡路迦也吠闍也);​ 帝隷 etc. Trailokyavijaya,​ one of the 明王 Ming Wang, the term being tr. literally as 三世降 (明王) the Ming-Wang defeater (of evil) in the three spheres.
 +
 +[210]
 +
 +妃 An imperial concubine; as implying production, or giving birth, it is used by the esoteric cult for samaya and dhāraṇī.
 +
 +好 Good, well; to like, be fond of, love.
 +
 +好照 Good at shining, a mirror.
 +
 +好生 Love of life; love of the living.
 +
 +好相 A good appearance, omen, or sign.
 +
 +好聲鳥 (or 好音鳥) A bird with a beautiful note, the kokila, or kalaviṅka,​ some say Karanda(ka).
 +
 +妄 mithyā; false, untrue, erroneous, wild.
 +
 +妄執 False tenets, holding on to false views.
 +
 +妄境界 False environment;​ the unreal world.
 +
 +妄塵 the unreal and unclean world.
 +
 +妄心 A wrong, false, or misleading mind.
 +
 +妄念 False or misleading thoughts.
 +
 +妄想 Erroneous thinking.
 +
 +妄染 妄風 The spread of lies, or false ideas.
 +
 +妄法 bhrānti, going astray, error.
 +
 +妄緣 The unreality of one's environment;​ also, the causes of erroneous ideas.
 +
 +妄見 False views (of reality), taking the seeming as real.
 +
 +妄言 妄說 False words, or talk; lies.
 +
 +妄語 The commandment against lying. either as slander, or false boasting, or deception; for this the 智度論 gives ten evil results on reincarnation:​ (1) stinking breath; (2) good spirits avoid him, as also do men; (3) none believes him even when telling the truth; (4) wise men never admit him to their deliberations:​ etc.
 +
 +妄雲 Clouds of falsity, i. e. delusion.
 +
 +如 tathā 多陀; 但他 (or 怛他), so, thus, in such manner, like, as. It is used in the sense of the absolute, the 空 śūnya, which is 諸佛之實相 the reality of all Buddhas; hence 如 ru is 賃相 the undifferentiated whole of things, the ultimate reality; it is 諸法之性 the nature of all things, hence it connotes 法性 faxing which is 眞實之際極 the ultimate of reality, or the absolute, and therefore connotes 實際 ultimate reality. The ultimate nature of all things being 如 ru, the one undivided same, it also connotes 理 li, the principle or theory behind all things, and this 理 li universal law, being the 眞實 truth or ultimate reality; 如 ru is termed 眞如 bhūtatathatā,​ the real so, or suchness, or reality, the ultimate or the all, i. e. the 一如 yiru. In regard to 如 ju as 理 li the Prajñā-pāramitā puṇḍarīka makes it the 中 zhong, neither matter nor nothingness. It is also used in the ordinary sense of so, like, as (cf yathā).
 +
 +如幻 as an illusion, or illusory.
 +
 +如化 as if transformed.
 +
 +如焰 like smoke.
 +
 +如雲 like a cloud.
 +
 +如夢 like a dream.
 +
 +如電 like lightning.
 +
 +如夢 like a dream.
 +
 +如泡 like a bubble.
 +
 +如影 like a shadow.
 +
 +如響 like an echo.
 +
 +如來 tathāgata, 多陀阿伽陀 q. v.; 怛他揭多 defined as he who comes as do all other Buddhas; or as he who took the 眞如 zhenru or absolute way of cause and effect, and attained to perfect wisdom; or as the absolute come; one of the highest titles of a Buddha. It is the Buddha in his nirmāṇakāya,​ i. e. his '​transformation'​ or corporeal manifestation descended on earth. The two kinds of Tathāgata are (1) 在纏 the Tathāgata in bonds, i. e. limited and subject to the delusions and sufferings of life, and (2) 出纏 unlimited and free from them. There are numerous sutras and śāstras bearing this title of 如來 rulai.
 +
 +如來乘 tathāgata-yāna,​ the Tathāgata vehicle, or means of salvation.
 +
 +如來使 tathāgata-dūta,​ or tathāgata-preṣya;​ a Tathāgata apostle sent to do his work.
 +
 +如來光明出已還入 According to the Nirvana Sutra, at the Tathāgata'​s nirvana he sent forth his glory in a wonderful light which finally returned into his mouth.
 +
 +如來地 The state or condition of a Tathāgata.
 +
 +如來室 The abode of the Tathāgata, i. e. 慈悲 mercy, or pity.
 +
 +如來常住 The Tathāgata is eternal, always abiding.
 +
 +如來愍菩薩 怛他蘗多母隸底多 The seventh Bodhisattva to the right of Śākyamuni in the Garbhadhātu group, in charge of the pity or sympathy of the Tathāgata. There are other bodhisattvas in charge of other Tathāgata forms or qualities in the same group.
 +
 +如來應供正偏智 Tathāgata, Worshipful, Omniscient-three titles of a Buddha.
 +
 +如來日 寳相日 The Tathāgata day, which is without beginning or end and has no limit of past, present, or future.
 +
 +如來神力品 如來壽量品 Chapters in the Lotus Sutra on Tathāgata powers and eternity.
 +
 +如來舞 The play of the Tathāgata, i. e. the exercise of his manifold powers.
 +
 +如來藏 tathāgata-garbha,​ the Tathāgata womb or store, defined as (1) the 眞如 zhenru, q. v. in the midst of 煩惱 the delusion of passions and desires; (2) sutras of the Buddha'​s uttering. The first especially refers to the zhenru as the source of all things: whether compatibles or incompatibles,​ whether forces of purity or impurity, good or bad, all created things are in the Tathāgatagarbha,​ which is the womb that gives birth to them all. The second is the storehouse of the Buddha'​s teaching.
 +
 +如來藏心 idem 眞如心.
 +
 +如來藏性 The natures of all the living are the nature of the Tathāgata; for which v. the 如來藏經,​ 如來藏論,​ etc.
 +
 +如來身 tathāgata-kāya,​ Buddha-body.
 +
 +如來部 The court of Vairocana Tathāgata in the Garbhadhātu group.
 +
 +如去 '​so-gone',​ i. e. into Nirvana; v. 如來 and 多陀.
 +
 +如如 The 眞如 zhenru or absolute; also the absolute in differentiation,​ or in the relative. The 如如境 and 如如智 are the realm, or '​substance',​ and the wisdom or law of the absolute.
 +
 +[211]
 +
 +如實 Real, reality, according to reality ( yathābhūtam);​ true; the 眞如 zhenru, or bhūtatathatā,​ for which it is also used; the universal undifferentiated,​ i. e. 平等不二,​ or the primary essence out of which the phenomenal arises; 如實空 is this essence in its purity; 如實不空 is this essence in its differentiation.
 +
 +如實智 Knowledge of reality, i. e. of all things whether whole or divided, universal or particular, as distinguished from their seeming; Buddha-omniscience.
 +
 +如實知者 The knower of reality, a Buddha.
 +
 +如實知見 To know and see the reality of all things as does the Buddha.
 +
 +如實知自心 To know one's heart in reality.
 +
 +如意 At will; according to desire; a ceremonial emblem, originally a short sword; tr. of Manoratha 末笯曷刺他 successor of Vasubandhu as 22nd patriarch and of Mahāṛddhiprāpta,​ a king of garuḍas.
 +
 +如意珠 cintāmaṇi,​ a fabulous gem, the philosopher'​s stone, the talisman-pearl capable of responding to every wish, said to be obtained from the dragon-king of the sea, or the head of the great fish, Makara, or the relics of a Buddha. It is also called 如意寳 (如意寳珠);​ 如意摩尼.
 +
 +如意甁 The talismanic vase.
 +
 +如意輪 The talismanic wheel, as in the case of 如意輪觀音 Guanyin with the wheel, holding the pearl in her hand symbolizing a response to every prayer, also styled 持寳金剛 the Vajra-bodhisattva with six hands, one holding the pearl, or gem, another the wheel, etc. There are several sūtras, etc., under these titles, associated with Guanyin.
 +
 +如意足 ṛddhipāda,​ magical psychic power of ubiquity, idem 神足.
 +
 +如意身 ṛddhi, magic power exempting the body from physical limitations,​ v. 大教 and 神足.
 +
 +如是 evam; thus, so; so it is; so let it be; such and such; (as)... so. Most of the sūtras open with the phrase如是我聞 or 聞如是 Thus have I heard, i. e. from the Buddha.
 +
 +如法 According to the Law, according to rule.
 +
 +如法治 Punished according to law, i. e. 突吉羅 duṣkṛita,​ the punishments due to law-breaking monks or nuns.
 +
 +如理師 A title of the Buddha, the Master who taught according to the truth, or fundamental law.
 +
 +如語 True words, right discourse.
 +
 +存 To keep, maintain, preserve.
 +
 +存生 (存生命);​ 存命 To preserve one's life, to preserve alive.
 +
 +存見 To keep to (wrong) views.
 +
 +字 akṣara, 阿乞史囉;​ 阿刹羅; a letter, character; akṣara is also used for a vowel, especially the vowed '​a'​ as distinguished from the other vowels; a word, words.
 +
 +字相字義 Word-form and word-meaning,​ differentiated by the esoteric sect for its own ends, 阿 being considered the alpha and root of all sounds and words; the 字 among esoteric Buddhists is the 種子 bīja, or seed-word possessing power through the object with which it is associated.
 +
 +字輪 The wheel, rotation, or interchange of words for esoteric purposes, especially the five Sanskrit signs adopted for the five elements, earth, water, fire, air, space.
 +
 +字母 The Sanskrit alphabet of 42, 47, or 50 letters, the '​Siddham'​ 悉曇 consisting of 35 體文 consonants and 12 摩多 vowels. The 字母表 deals with the alphabet in 1 juan. The 字母品 is an abbreviation of 文殊問經字母品.
 +
 +字緣 母音 The 12 or 14 Sanskrit vowels, as contrasted with the 35 or 36 consonants, which are 根本 radical or 字界 limited or fixed letters.
 +
 +宅 Residential part of a palace, or mansion; a residence.
 +
 +守 Keep, guard, observe.
 +
 +守寺 The guardian, or caretaker, of a monastery.
 +
 +守法 To keep the law.
 +
 +守護 To guard, protect.
 +
 +守門天 or 守門尊 The deva gate-guardian of a temple.
 +
 +安 Peace, tranquil, quiet, pacify; to put, place; where ? how?
 +
 +安下 To put down.
 +
 +安下處 A place for putting things down, e. g. baggage; a resting place, a place to stay at.
 +
 +安名 To give a religious name to a beginner.
 +
 +安呾羅縛 Andarab, a country through which Xuanzang passed, north of Kapiśā, v. 迦.
 +
 +安土地 To tranquillize the land, or a plot of land, by freeing it from harmful influences.
 +
 +安居 Tranquil dwelling. varṣā, varṣās, or varṣāvasāna. A retreat during the three months of the Indian rainy season, and also, say some, in the depth of winter. During the rains it was '​difficult to move without injuring insect life'. But the object was for study and meditation. In Tokhara the retreat is said to have been in winter, from the middle of the 12th to the middle of the 3rd moon; in India from the middle of the 5th to the 8th, or the 6th to the 9th moons; usually from Śrāvaṇa,​ Chinese 5th moon, to Aśvayuja, Chinese 8th moon; but the 16th of the 4th to the 15th of the 7th moon has been the common period in China and Japan. The two annual periods are sometimes called 坐 夏 and 坐 臘 sitting or resting for the summer and for the end of the year. The period is divided into three sections, former, middle, and latter, each of a month.
 +
 +[212]
 +
 +安底羅 Aṇḍīra,​ one of the twelve attendants of 藥師 Bhaiṣajya.
 +
 +安廩 Anlin, a noted monk circa A. D. 500.
 +
 +安心 To quiet the heart, or mind; be at rest.
 +
 +安息 To rest.
 +
 +安息 (安息國) Parthia, 波斯 modern Persia, from which several monks came to China in the later Han dynasty, such as 安世高 An Shigao, 安玄 Anxuan, 曇無諦 Tan Wudi, 安法欽 An Faqin, 安淸 Anqing.
 +
 +安息香 Persian incense, or benzoin.
 +
 +安慧 Settled or firm resolve on wisdom; established wisdom; tr. of 悉耻羅末底 Sthiramati, or Sthitamati, one of the ten great exponents of the 唯識論 Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi śāstra, a native of southern India.
 +
 +安明山(安明由山) Sumeru, v, 須.
 +
 +安樂 Happy; ease (of body) and joy (of heart) 身安心樂.
 +
 +安樂國 or安樂淨土 Amitābha'​s Happy Land in the western region, which is his domain; it is also called 安養淨土 or 淨刹, Pure Land of Tranquil Nourishment.
 +
 +安禪To enter into dhyāna meditation.
 +
 +安穩 安隱 Body and mind at rest.
 +
 +安立 To set up, establish, stand firm.
 +
 +安立行 Supratiṣṭhita-cāritra;​ a Bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra who rose up out of the earth to greet Śākyamuni.
 +
 +安膳那 (or 安繕那or 安禪那or 安闍那) An Indian eye medicine, said to be Añjana.
 +
 +安遠 Two noted monks of the 晉 Chin dynasty, i. e. 道安 Dao-an and 慧遠 Huiyuan.
 +
 +安那般那 安般; 阿那波那 (阿那阿波那) ānāpāna, expiration and inspiration,​ a method of breathing and counting the breaths for purposes of concentration;​ the 大安般守意經 is a treatise on the subject.
 +
 +安陁會 安怛婆沙 (or 安多婆沙) (or 安怛婆參,​ 安多婆參);​ 安多跋薩 (or 安陀跋薩) antarvāsaka,​ antarvāsas;​ a monk's inner garment described as a sort of waistcoat. It is also explained by 裙 qun which means a skirt. This inner garment is said to be worn against desire, the middle one against hate, and the outer one against ignorance and delusion. It is described as the present-day 絡子 a jacket or vest.
 +
 +寺 vihāra, 毘訶羅 or 鼻訶羅; saṅghārāma 僧伽藍; an official hall, a temple, adopted by Buddhists for a monastery, many other names are given to it, e. g. 淨住; 法同舍; 出世舍; 精舍; 淸淨園; 金剛刹; 寂滅道場;​ 遠離處; 親近處 'A model vihāra ought to be built of red sandalwood, with 32 chambers, 8 tāla trees in height, with a garden, park and bathing tank attached; it ought to have promenades for peripatetic meditation and to be richly furnished with stores of clothes, food, bedsteads, mattresses, medicines and all creature comforts.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +寺院 Monastery grounds and buildings, a monastery.
 +
 +年 A year, years.
 +
 +年忌 Anniversary of a death, and the ceremonies associated with it.
 +
 +年戒 The (number of) years since receiving the commandments.
 +
 +年星 The year-star of an individual.
 +
 +年滿受具 To receive the full commandments,​ i. e. be fully ordained at the regulation age of 20.
 +
 +年臘 The end of a year, also a year.
 +
 +年少淨行 A young Brahman.
 +
 +式 Style, shape, fashion, kind.
 +
 +式棄 式葉, v. 尸棄.
 +
 +式叉 śikṣā; learning, study.
 +
 +式叉尼 (式叉摩那尼) śikṣamāṇā,​ a female neophyte who from 18 to 20 years of age studies the six rules, in regard to adultery, stealing, killing, lying, alcoholic liquor, not eating at unregulated hours.
 +
 +式叉迦羅尼 śikṣākāraṇī,​ intp. as study, or should study or be studied, also as duṣkṛtam,​ bad deed, breach of the law. The form meaning is suggestive of a female preceptor.
 +
 +忙 Busy, bustling.
 +
 +忙忙六道 Bustling about and absorbed in the six paths of transmigration.
 +
 +忙忙鷄 忙葬鷄金剛 (or 忙葬計金剛);​ 麽麽鷄; 麽莫枳 Māmakī, or Māmukhī, tr. as 金剛母 the mother of all the vajra group, whose wisdom is derived from her; she is represented in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala.
 +
 +成 See under seven strokes.
 +
 +戌 The hour from 7-9 p. m.; translit. śū, śu.
 +
 +戌陀 戌達; 戌陀羅 (or 戌捺羅 or戌怛羅) śūdra, the fourth or servile caste, whose duty is to serve the three higher castes.
 +
 +戌陀戰達羅 Śuddhacandra,​ 淨月 pure moon, name of one of the ten authorities on 唯識 q. v.
 +
 +戌婆揭羅僧訶 Śubhakarasiṃha. Propitious lion, i. e. auspicious and heroic; fearless.
 +
 +戌縷多 v. 述嚕憺羅.
 +
 +戌羯羅 Śukra; 金星 the planet Venus.
 +
 +戌輪聿提 śudhyantī;​ clean or pure. It may be an epithet of vāk '​voice'​ in the musical sense of '​natural diatonic melody'​.
 +
 +戌迦 śuka, a parrot; an epithet of the Buddha.
 +
 +戌迦羅博乞史 śuklapakṣa,​ the waxing period of the moon, 1st to 15th.
 +
 +托 To carry on the palm, entrust to.
 +
 +托塔天王 The deva-king who bears a pagoda on his palm, one of the four mahārājas,​ i. e. 毘沙門 Vaiśravaṇa.
 +
 +托生 That to which birth is entrusted, as a womb, or a lotus in Paradise.
 +
 +托胎 A womb; conception.
 +
 +托鉢 An almsbowl; to carry it.
 +
 +收 To receive; collect, gather; withdraw.
 +
 +收鉢 To collect paper money, i. e. receive contributions.
 +
 +收骨 To collect the bones, or relics, after cremation.
 +
 +[213]
 +
 +早 Early; morning.
 +
 +早參 The early morning assembly.
 +
 +早帝梨 Name of a 鬼 demon.
 +
 +旬 A decade, a period of ten days.
 +
 +旬單 The ten days, account in a monastery.
 +
 +旨 Purport, will; good.
 +
 +旨歸 The purport, aim, or objective.
 +
 +曳 To trail, drag.
 +
 +曳瑟知林 Yaṣṭivana,​ v. 杖林.
 +
 +曲 Bent, crooked, humpbacked; to oppress; ballads.
 +
 +曲女城 The city of hunchback women, said to be Kanyākubja,​ an ancient kingdom and capital of Central India, '​Canouge Lat. 27° 3 N., Long. 79° 50 E.' Eitel. The legend in the 西域記 Record of Western Lands is that ninety-nine of King Brahmadatta'​s daughters were thus deformed by the ṛṣi Mahāvṛkṣa whom they refused to marry.
 +
 +曲彔 曲錄; 曲祿; 曲M043560 A bent chair used in monasteries.
 +
 +曲齒 矩吒檀底 Kūṭadantī,​ or Mālākūṭadantī,​ name of a rākṣasī.
 +
 +有 bhāva: that which exists, the existing, existence; to have, possess, be. It is defined as (1) the opposite of 無 wu and 空 kong the non-existent;​ (2) one of the twelve nidānas, existence; the condition which, considered as cause, produces effect; (3) effect, the consequence of cause; (4) anything that can be relied upon in the visible or invisible realm. It means any state which lies between birth and death, or beginning and end. There are numerous categories— 3, 4, 7, 9, 18, 25, and 29. The 三有 are the 三界 trailokya, i. e. 欲, 色 and 無色界 the realms of desire, of form, and of non-form, all of them realms of mortality; another three are 本有 the present body and mind, or existence, 當有 the future ditto, 中有 the intermediate ditto. Other definitions give the different forms or modes of existence.
 +
 +有上士 A bodhisattva who has reached the stage of 等覺 and is above the state of being, or the existing, i. e. as conceivable by human minds.
 +
 +有主物 Things that have an owner.
 +
 +有事 To have affairs, functioning,​ phenomenal, idem 有爲法.
 +
 +有作 有爲 Functioning,​ effective; phenomenal, the processes resulting from the law of karma; later 安立 came into use.
 +
 +有分別 The sixth sense of mental discrimination manas, as contrasted with the other five senses, sight, hearing, etc., each of which deals only with its own perceptions,​ and is 無分別.
 +
 +有分識 Discrimination,​ another name for the ālaya-vijñāna.
 +
 +有善多 Ujjayanta, a mountain and monastery in Surāṣṭra on the peninsula of Gujerat. Eitel.
 +
 +有執受 The perceived, perceptive, perception.
 +
 +有學 śaikṣa; in Hīnayāna those in the first three stages of training as arhats, the fourth and last stage being 無學 those beyond the need of further teaching or study. There are eighteen grades of śaikṣa.
 +
 +有對 pratigha, sapratigha; resistance, opposition, whatever is capable of offering resistance, an object; material; opposing, opposite.
 +
 +有待 That which is dependent on material things. i. e. the body.
 +
 +有德女 A woman of Brahman family in Benares, who became a convert and is the questioner of the Buddha in the Śrīmatī-brāhmaṇī-paripṛcchā 有德女所問大乘經.
 +
 +有性 'To have the nature, 'i. e. to be a Buddhist, have the bodhi-mind, in contrast with the 無性 absence of this mind, i. e. the闡提 icchanti, or unconverted.
 +
 +有情 sattva, 薩埵 in the sense of any sentient being; the term was formerly tr. 衆生 all the living, which includes the vegetable kingdom, while 有情 limits the meaning to those endowed with consciousness.
 +
 +有情居 The nine abodes, or states of conscious beings, v. 九有情居.
 +
 +有情數 Among the number, or in the category, of conscious beings.
 +
 +有情緣慈 Sentience gives rise to pity, or to have feeling causes pity.
 +
 +有想 To have thoughts, or desires, opp. 無想.
 +
 +有意 mati; matimant; possessing mind, intelligent;​ a tr. of manuṣya, man, a rational being. The name of the eldest son of Candra-sūrya-pradīpa.
 +
 +有波第耶夜 Upādhyāya,​ 鳥波陀耶 in India a teacher especially of the Vedāṅgas,​ a term adopted by the Buddhists and gradually applied to all monks. The Chinese form is 和尚, q. v.
 +
 +[214]
 +
 +有手 To have a hand, or hands. hastin, possessing a hand. i. e. a trunk; an elephant.
 +
 +有支 To have a branch; also the category of bhāva, one of the twelve nidānas, v. 有.
 +
 +有教 The realistic school as opposed to the 空教 teaching of unreality; especially (1) the Hīnayāna teaching of the 倶舍宗 Abhidharmakośa school of Vasubandhu, opposed to the 成實宗 Satya-siddhi school of Harivarman; (2) the Mahāyāna 法相宗 Dharma-lakṣana school, also called the 唯識宗, founded in China by Xuanzang, opposed to the 三論宗 Mādhyamika school of Nāgārjuna.
 +
 +有所緣 Mental activity, the mind being able to climb, or reach anywhere, in contrast with the non-mental activities, which are 無所緣.
 +
 +有智慧 manuṣya, an intelligent being, possessing wisdom, cf. 有意.
 +
 +有根身 The body with its five senses.
 +
 +有法 A thing that exists, not like 'the horns of a hare', which are 無法 non-existent things. Also in logic the subject in contrast with the predicate. e. g. '​sound'​ is the 有法 or thing, 'is eternal'​ the 法 or law stated.
 +
 +有海 The sea of existence, i. e. of mortality, or births-and-deaths.
 +
 +有流 The mortal stream of existence with its karma and delusion. Cf. 見流.
 +
 +有漏 āsrava, means '​outflow,​ discharge';​ '​distress,​ pain, affliction';​ it is intp. by 煩惱 kleśa, the passions, distress, trouble, which in turn is intp. as 惑 delusion. Whatever has kleśa, i. e. distress or trouble, is 有漏; all things are of this nature, hence it means whatever is in the stream of births-and-deaths,​ and also means mortal life or births-and-deaths,​ i. e. mortality as contrasted with 無漏, which is nirvāṇa.
 +
 +有漏世界 (or 三界) The world, or worlds, of distress and illusion.
 +
 +有漏善法 (or有漏惡法) Good (or evil) done in a mortal body is rewarded accordingly in the character of another mortal body.
 +
 +有漏淨土 A purifying stage which, for certain types, precedes entry into the Pure Land.
 +
 +有漏道 (or 有漏路) The way of mortal saṃsāra, in contrast with 無漏道 that of nirvāṇa.
 +
 +有無二見 bhāvābhāva. Existence or nonexistence,​ being or non-being; these two opposite views, opinions, or theories are the basis of all erroneous views, etc.
 +
 +有無二邊 The two extremes of being or non-being.
 +
 +有無邪見 Both views are erroneous in the opinion of upholders of the 中道, the Mādhyamika school. See 有無二邊 and 有無二見.
 +
 +有爲 Active, creative, productive, functioning,​ causative, phenomenal, the processes resulting from the laws of karma, v. 有作; opposite of 無爲 passive, inert, inactive, non-causative,​ laisser-faire. It is defined by 造作 to make, and associated with saṃskṛta. The three active things 三有爲法 are 色 material, or things which have form, 心 mental and 非色非心 neither the one nor the other. The four forms of activity 四有爲相 are 生住異滅 coming into existence, abiding, change, and extinction; they are also spoken of as three, the two middle terms being treated as having like meaning.
 +
 +有爲果 The result or effect of action.
 +
 +有爲無常 Activity implies impermanency.
 +
 +有爲生死 The mortal saṃsāra life of births and deaths, contrasted with 無爲生死 effortless mortality, e. g. transformation such as that of the Bodhisattva.
 +
 +有爲空 The unreality of the phenomenal.
 +
 +有爲轉變 The permutations of activity, or phenomena, in arising, abiding, change, and extinction.
 +
 +有界 The realm of existence.
 +
 +有相 To have form, whatever has form, whether ideal or real.
 +
 +有相業 Action through faith in the idea, e. g. of the Pure Land; the acts which produce such results.
 +
 +有相教 The first twelve years of the Buddha'​s teaching, when he treated the phenomenal as real; v. 有空中.
 +
 +有相宗 v. 法相宗 and 有部 Sarvāstivāda.
 +
 +有空 Phenomenal and noumenal; the manifold forms of things exist, but things, being constructed of elements, have no per se reality.
 +
 +有空不二 The phenomenal and the noumenal are identical, the phenomenal expresses the noumenal and the noumenon contains the phenomenon.
 +
 +有空中 The three terms, phenomenal, noumenal, and the link or mean, v. 中 and 空.
 +
 +有空中三時 The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school divides the Buddha'​s teaching into three periods, in which he taught (1) the unreality of the ego, as shown in the 阿含 Āgamas, etc.; (2) the unreality of the dharmas, as in the 船若 Prajñāpāramitā,​ etc.; and (3) the middle or uniting way, as in the 解深密經 Sandhinimocana-sūtra,​ etc., the last being the foundation text of this school.
 +
 +[215]
 +
 +有結 The bond of existence, or mortal life.
 +
 +有緣 Those who have the cause, link, or connection, i. e. are influenced by and responsive to the Buddha.
 +
 +有耶無耶 Existence ? non-existence ? Material ? immaterial ? i. e. uncertainty,​ a wavering mind.
 +
 +有表業 (or 有表色) The manifested activities of the 身 口 意 body, mouth, and mind (or will) in contrast with their 無表業 unmanifested activities.
 +
 +有見 The visible, but it is used also in the sense of the erroneous view that things really exist. Another meaning is the 色果 realm of form, as contrasted with the 無見 invisible, or with the formless realms.
 +
 +有解 The intp. of things as real, or material, opposite of 無解 the intp. of them as unreal, or immaterial.
 +
 +有識 Perceptive beings, similar to 有情 sentient beings.
 +
 +有貪 bhavarāga, the desire for existence, which is the cause of existence; 倶舍論 19.
 +
 +有輪 The wheel of existence, the round of mortality, of births-and-deaths.
 +
 +有邊 The one extreme of '​existence',​ the opposite extreme being 無邊'​non-existence'​.
 +
 +有部 一切有部;​ 薩婆多 Sarvāstivāda;​ the school of the reality of all phenomena, one of the early Hīnayāna sects, said to have been formed, about 300 years after the Nirvāṇa, out of the Sthavira; later it subdivided into five, Dharmaguptāḥ,​ Mūlasarvāstivādāḥ,​ Kaśyapīyāḥ,​ Mahīśāsakāḥ,​ and the influential Vātsīputrīyāḥ. v. 一切有部. Its scriptures are known as the 有部律; 律書; 十誦律; 根本說一切有部毘那耶;​ (根本說一切有部尼陀那) 有部尼陀那;​ (根本說一切有部目得迦) 有部目得迦;​ 根本薩婆多部律攝 or 有部律攝,​ etc.
 +
 +有量 Limited, finite; opposite of 無量 measureless,​ boundless, infinite. 有相有量That which has form and measurement is called 麤 coarse, i. e. palpable, that which is without form and measurement 無相無量 is called 細 fine, i. e. impalpable.
 +
 +有間 Interrupted,​ not continuous, not intermingled,​ opposite of 無間.
 +
 +有靈 Having souls, sentient beings, similar to 有情; possessing magical or spiritual powers.
 +
 +有頂 (有頂天) Akaniṣṭha,​ 色究竟天 the highest heaven of form, the ninth and last of the fourth dhyāna heavens.
 +
 +有頂惑 In the region of 有頂 (akaniṣṭha) there still exist the possibilities of delusion both in theory (or views) and practice, arising from the taking of the seeming for the real.
 +
 +有餘 Something more; those who have remainder to fulfil, e. g. of karma incomplete; extra, additional.
 +
 +有餘土 One of the four lands, or realms, the 方便有餘土 to which, according to Mahāyāna, arhats go at their decease; cf. 有餘涅槃.
 +
 +有餘涅槃 有餘依 (有餘依涅槃) Incomplete nirvāṇa. Hīnayāna holds that the arhat after his last term of mortal existence enters into nirvāṇa, while alive here he is in the state of sopādhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa,​ limited, or modified, nirvāṇa, as contrasted with 無餘涅槃 nirupadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna holds that when the cause 因 of reincarnation is ended the state is that of 有餘涅槃 incomplete nirvāṇa; when the effect 果 is ended, and 得佛之常身 the eternal Buddha-body has been obtained, then there is 無餘涅槃 complete nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna writers say that in the Hīnayāna 無餘涅槃 '​remainderless'​ nirvāṇa for the arhat there are still remains of illusion, karma, and suffering, and it is therefore 有餘涅槃;​ in Mahāyāna 無餘涅槃 these remains of illusion, etc., are ended.
 +
 +有餘說 Something further to say, incomplete explanation.
 +
 +有餘師 Masters, or exponents, in addition to the chief or recognized authorities;​ also spoken of as 有餘; 餘師; 有諸師; 有人; hence 有餘師說 refers to other than the recognized, or orthodox, explanations.
 +
 +有體 A thing, form, dharma, anything of ideal or real form; embodied things, bodies; varying list of 75, 84, and 100 are given.
 +
 +[216]
 +
 +朱 Red, vermilion.
 +
 +朱利 caura, a thief, robber.
 +
 +朱利草 caurī, robber-grass or herb, name of a plant.
 +
 +朱羅波梨迦羅 Defined as 雜碑衣, i. e. cīvara, or ragged clothes.
 +
 +次 Second, secondary; a turn, next.
 +
 +次第 In turn, one after another.
 +
 +次第緣 無間緣 Connected or consequent causes; continuous conditional or accessory cause.
 +
 +此 This, here.
 +
 +此世 此生 This world, or life.
 +
 +此土著述 Narratives in regard to the present life, part of the 雜藏 miscellaneous piṭaka.
 +
 +此土耳根利 Clearness of hearing in this world, i. e. the organ of sound fitted to hear the Buddha-gospel and the transcendental.
 +
 +此岸 This shore, the present life.
 +
 +死 maraṇa; 末刺諵; mṛta 母陀; to die, death; dead; also cyuti.
 +
 +死亡 Dead and gone (or lost).
 +
 +死刀 The (sharp) sword of death.
 +
 +死山 The hill of death.
 +
 +死屍 'Dead corpse, 'e. g. a wicked monk.
 +
 +死海 The sea of mortality.
 +
 +死王 Yama, 焰魔 as lord of death and hell.
 +
 +死生 Death and life, mortality, transmigration;​ v. 生死.
 +
 +死相 The appearance of death; signs at death indicating the person'​s good or evil karma.
 +
 +死禪和子 Die! monk; dead monk! a term of abuse to, or in regard to, a monk.
 +
 +死苦 The misery, or pain, of death, one of the Four Sufferings.
 +
 +死賊 The robber death.
 +
 +死門 死關 The gate, or border of death, leading from one incarnation to another.
 +
 +死靈 The spirit of one who is dead, a ghost.
 +
 +死風 The destroying wind in the final destruction of the world.
 +
 +求 v. Seven Strokes.
 +
 +汙 Stagnant water, impure; but it is explained as a torrent, impermanent;​ translit. o and u, and h.
 +
 +汙栗駄 hṛd, hṛdaya, the 心 heart, core, mind, soul.
 +
 +汗 Sweat; vast.
 +
 +汗栗駄 (or 于栗駄 or 乾栗駄); 紇哩陀耶 hṛd, hṛdaya, the heart, core, mind, soul; probably an error for 汙.
 +
 +汚 Impure; to defile.
 +
 +汚家 To defile a household, i. e. by deeming it ungrateful or being dissatisfied with its gifts.
 +
 +汚染 To taint; taint.
 +
 +汚道沙門 A shameless monk who defiles his religion.
 +
 +江 A river; the River, the Yangtsze.
 +
 +江天寺 The River and Sky monastery on Golden Island, Chinkiang, Kiangsu.
 +
 +江湖 Kiangsi and Hunan, where and whence the 禪 Chan (Zen) or Intuitive movement had its early spread, the title being applied to followers of this cult.
 +
 +江西 A title of 馬祖 Mazu, who was a noted monk in Kiangsi, died 788.
 +
 +江迦葉 River- or Nadī-kāśyapa,​ one of the three Kāśyapa brothers: v. 三迦棄.
 +
 +灰 Ash; lime; hot or fiery as ashes.
 +
 +灰人 An image of ashes or lime made and worshipped seven times a day by a woman whose marriage is hindered by unpropitious circumstances.
 +
 +灰山住部 Sect of the Limestone hill dwellers, one of the twenty Hīnayāna schools; ? the Gokulikas, v. 雞.
 +
 +灰沙 Ascetics who cover themselves with ashes, or burn their flesh.
 +
 +灰河 A river of lava or fire, reducing all to ashes.
 +
 +灰身滅智 Destruction of the body and annihilation of the mind— for the attainment of nirvāṇa.
 +
 +灰頭土面 To put ashes on the head and dust on the face.
 +
 +牟 To low (as an ox); overpass; barley; a grain vessel; weevil; eye-pupil; translit. mu, ma.
 +
 +牟呼栗多 muhūrta, the thirtieth part of an ahorātra, a day-and-night,​ i. e. forty-eight minutes; a brief space of time, moment; also (wrongly) a firm mind.
 +
 +牟呼洛 mahoraga, boa-demons, v. 摩睺.
 +
 +牟娑 (or 摩娑 or 目娑 ) (牟娑羅);​ 牟娑洛 (牟娑洛揭婆);​ 摩沙羅; 謨薩羅 or 牟薩羅 musāragalva,​ a kind of coral, white coral, M. W.; defined as 瑪瑙 cornelian, agate; and 硨磲 mother of pearl; it is one of the 七寳 sapta ratna q. v.
 +
 +牟尼 (牟尼仙),​ 文尼; 茂泥; (馬曷摩尼) 摩尼 muni; mahāmuni; 月摩尼 vimuni. A sage, saint, ascetic, monk, especially Śākyamuni;​ interpreted as 寂 retired, secluded, silent, solitary, i. e. withdrawn from the world. See also 百八摩尼.
 +
 +牟尼室利 Muniśrī, name of a monk from northern India in the Liu Song period (5th cent. ).
 +
 +牟尼王 The monk-king, a title of the Buddha.
 +
 +牟眞鄰陀 mucilinda, v. 摩 and 目.
 +
 +牟陀羅 mardala, or mṛdaṅga,​ a kind of drum described as having three faces.
 +
 +百 sata; a hundred, all.
 +
 +百一 One out of a hundred; or every one of a hundred, i. e. all.
 +
 +百不知 (or 百不會) To know or perceive nothing, insensible (to surroundings).
 +
 +百杖 A hundred fathoms of 10 feet each, 1, 0O0 feet; the name of a noted Tang abbot of百杖山 Baizhangshan,​ the monastery of this name in 洪州 Hongzhou.
 +
 +[217]
 +
 +百二十八根本煩惱 The 128 delusions of 見 views and 思 thoughts; also called 百二十八使 v. 使.
 +
 +百倶胝 100 koṭīs.
 +
 +百光遍照王 The king of all light universally shining, i. e. Vairocana.
 +
 +百八 108.
 +
 +百八丸 百八數珠;​ 百八牟尼 108 beads on a rosary.
 +
 +百八尊 The 108 honourable ones in the Vajradhātu.
 +
 +百八煩惱 The 108 passions and delusions, also called 百八結業 the 108 karmaic bonds.
 +
 +百八鐘 The 108 tolls of the monastery bell at dawn and dusk.
 +
 +百即百生 Of 100 who call on the Buddha 100 will be saved, all will live.
 +
 +百味 All the (good) tastes, or flavours.
 +
 +百喩經 The sūtra of the 100 parables, tr. by Guṇavṛddhi,​ late fifth century; also 百警經.
 +
 +百四十不共法 The 140 special, or uncommon, characteristics of a Buddha i. e. 三十二相;​ 八十種好;​ 四淨; 十力; 四無畏; 三念處; 三不護; 大悲; 常不忘失;​ 斷煩惱習;​ 一切智.
 +
 +百會 Where all things meet, i. e. the head, the place of centralization;​ it is applied also to the Buddha as the centre of all wisdom.
 +
 +百本疏主 Lord of the hundred commentaries,​ title of Kuiji 窺基 of the 慈恩寺 Ci-en monastery, because of his work as a commentator;​ also 百本論師.
 +
 +百法 The hundred divisions of all mental qualities and their agents, of the 唯識 School; also known as the 五位百法five groups of the 100 modes or '​things':​ (1) 心法 the eight 識 perceptions,​ or forms of consciousness;​ (2) 心所有法 the fifty-one mental ideas; (3) 色法 the five physical organs and their six modes of sense, e. g. ear and sound; (4) 不相應行 twenty-four indefinites,​ or unconditioned elements; (5) 無爲 six inactive or metaphysical concepts.
 +
 +百法明門 The door to the knowledge of universal phenomena, one of the first stages of Bodhisattva progress.
 +
 +百法論 (百法明門論) was tr. by Xuanzang in 1 juan.
 +
 +百法界 The realm of the hundred qualities, i. e. the phenomenal realm; the ten stages from Hades to Buddha, each has ten 如是 or qualities which make up the hundred; cf. 百界.
 +
 +百界 The ten realms each of ten divisions, so called by the Tiantai school, i. e. of hells, ghosts, animals, asuras, men, devas, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas,​ bodhisattvas,​ and Buddhas. Each of the hundred has ten qualities, making in all 百界千如 the thousand qualities of the hundred realms; this 1, 000 being multiplied by the three of past, present, future, there are 3, 000; to behold these 3, 000 in an instant is called 一念三千 (一念三千之觀法) and the sphere envisaged is the 百界千如.
 +
 +百目 An earthenware lantern, i. e. with many eyes or holes.
 +
 +百衲衣 A monk's robe made of patches.
 +
 +百福 The hundred blessings, every kind of happiness.
 +
 +百萬遍 To repeat Amitābha'​s name a million times (ensures rebirth in his Paradise; for a seven days' unbroken repetition Paradise may be gained).
 +
 +百衆學 śikṣākaraṇīya,​ what all monks and nuns learn, the offence against which is duṣkṛta,​ v. 突.
 +
 +百論 Śataśāstra. One of the 三論 'three śāstras'​ of the Mādhyamika school, so called because of its 100 verses, each of 32 words; attributed to Deva Bodhisattva,​ it was written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu and tr. by Kumārajīva,​ but the versions differ. There is also the 廣百論本 Catuḥśataka [Catuḥśatakaśāstrakarika],​ an expansion of the above.
 +
 +竹 veṇu, bamboo.
 +
 +竹林 (竹林精舍 or竹林寺);​ 竹林園; 竹林苑 Veṇuvana, '​bamboo-grove,'​ a park called Karaṇḍaveṇuvana,​ near Rājagṛha,​ made by Bimbisāra for a group of ascetics, later given by him to Śākyamuni (Eitel), but another version says by the elder Karaṇḍa,​ who built there a vihāra for him.
 +
 +米 śāli, rice, i. e. hulled rice. The word śālihas been wrongly used for śarīra, relics, and for both words 舍利 has been used.
 +
 +米頭 Keeper of the stores.
 +
 +米麗耶 maireya, 'a kind of intoxicating drink (extracted from the blossoms of Lythrum fructicosum with sugar, etc. ).' M. W.
 +
 +[218]
 +
 +羊 avi, a sheep, goat, ram.
 +
 +羊毛塵 The minute speck of dust that can rest on the tip of a sheep'​s hair.
 +
 +羊石 An abbreviation for 羯磨 karma, from the radicals of the two words.
 +
 +羊角 A ram's horn is used for 煩惱 the passions and delusions of life.
 +
 +羊車 羊乘 The inferior, or śrāvaka, form of Buddhism, v. Lotus Sūtra, in the parable of the burning house.
 +
 +老 jarā; old, old age.
 +
 +老死 jarāmaraṇa,​ decrepitude and death; one of the twelve nidānas, a primary dogma of Buddhism that decrepitude and death are the natural products of the maturity of the five skandhas.
 +
 +老古錐 An old awl, an experienced and incisive teacher.
 +
 +老婆 An old woman; my 'old woman',​ i. e. my wife.
 +
 +老子 Laozi, or Laocius, the accepted founder of the Daoists. The theory that his soul went to India and was reborn as the Buddha is found in the 齊書 History of the Qi dynasty 顧歡傳.
 +
 +老宿 sthavira, an old man, virtuous elder.
 +
 +老橊槌 An old pestle, or drumstick, a baldheaded old man, or monk.
 +
 +老苦 One of the four sufferings, that of old age.
 +
 +耳 śrotra, the ear, one of the 六根 six organs of sense, hence 耳入 is one of the twelve 入, as 耳處 is one of the twelve 處.
 +
 +耳根 śrotrendriya,​ the organ of hearing.
 +
 +耳語戒 Secret rules whispered in the ear, an esoteric practice.
 +
 +耳識 śrotravijñāna. Ear-perception,​ ear-discernment.
 +
 +耳輪 An ear-ring.
 +
 +肉 māṃsa. Flesh.
 +
 +肉心 肉團心; 紇利陀耶 hṛdaya; the physical heart.
 +
 +肉燈 肉香 To cremate oneself alive as a lamp or as incense for Buddha.
 +
 +肉眼 māṃsacakṣus. Eye of flesh, the physical eye.
 +
 +肉色 Flesh-coloured,​ red.
 +
 +肉身 The physical body.
 +
 +肉菩薩 One who becomes a bodhisattva in the physical body, in the present life.
 +
 +肉食 māṃsabhakṣaṇa,​ meat-eating.
 +
 +肉髻 鳥失尼沙;​ 鬱失尼沙;​ 鳥瑟尼沙;​ 鬱瑟尼沙;​ 鳥瑟 膩沙 uṣṇīṣa. One of the thirty-two marks (lakṣaṇa) of a Buddha; originally a conical or flame-shaped tuft of hair on the crown of a Buddha, in later ages represented as a fleshly excrescence on the skull itself; interpreted as coiffure of flesh. In China it is low and large at the base, sometimes with a tonsure on top of the protuberance.
 +
 +自 sva, svayam; the self, one' s own, personal; of itself, naturally, of course; also, from (i. e. from the self as central). 自 is used as the opposite of 他 another, other'​s,​ etc., e. g. 自力 (in) one's own strength as contrasted with 他力 the strength of another, especially in the power to save of a Buddha or Bodhisattva. It is also used in the sense of ātman 阿怛摩 the self, or the soul.
 +
 +自作自受 As one does one receives, every man receives the reward of his deeds, creating his own karma, 自業自得.
 +
 +自内證 Inner witness.
 +
 +自利 ātmahitam, self-profit;​ beneficial to oneself.
 +
 +自利利他 '​Self-profit profit others',​ i. e. the essential nature and work of a bodhisattva,​ to benefit himself and benefit others, or himself press forward in the Buddhist life in order to carry others forward. Hīnayāna is considered to be self-advancement,​ self-salvation by works or discipline; Bodhisattva Buddhism as saving oneself in order to save others, or making progress and helping others to progress, bodhisattvism being essentially altruistic.
 +
 +自受用土 The third of the four buddhakṣetra or Buddha-domains,​ that in which there is complete response to his teaching and powers; v. 佛土.
 +
 +自受用身 One of the two kinds of saṃbhogakāya,​ for his own enjoyment; cf. 四身.
 +
 +自受法樂 The dharma-delights a Buddha enjoys in the自受用身 state.
 +
 +自在 Īśvara , 伊濕伐邏;​ can, king, master, sovereign, independent,​ royal; intp. as free from resistance; also, the mind free from delusion; in the Avataṃsaka Sūtra it translates vasitā. There are several groups of this independence,​ or sovereignty— 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10, e. g. the 2 are that a bodhisattva has sovereign knowledge and sovereign power; the others are categories of a bodhisattva'​s sovereign powers. For the eight powers v. 八大自在我.
 +
 +自在天 (or自在王) Īśvaradeva,​ a title of Śiva, king of the devas, also known as 大自在天 Maheśvara, q. v. It is a title also applied to Guanyin and others.
 +
 +自在天外道 Śivaites, who ascribed creation and destruction to Śiva, and that all things form his body, space his head, sun and moon his eyes, earth his body, rivers and seas his urine, mountains his fæces, wind his life, fire his heat, and all living things the vermin on his body. This sect is also known as the 自在等因宗. Śiva is represented with eight arms, three eyes, sitting on a bull.
 +
 +自在王 is also a title of Vairocana; and, as Sureśvara, is the name of a mythical king, contemporary of the mythical Śikhin Buddha.
 +
 +自心 svacitta, self-mind, one's own mind.
 +
 +自性 Own nature; of (its) own nature. As an intp. of pradhāna (and resembling 冥性) in the Sāṅkhya philosophy it is '​prakṛti,​ the Originant, primary or original matter or rather the primary germ out of which all material appearances are evolved, the first evolver or source of the material world (hence in a general acceptation '​nature'​ or rather '​matter'​ as opposed to purusha, or '​spirit'​)'​. M. W. As 莎發斡 svabhāva, it is 'own state, essential or inherent property, innate or peculiar disposition,​ natural state or constitution,​ nature'​. M. W. The self-substance,​ self-nature,​ or unchanging character of anything.
 +
 +[219]
 +
 +自性三寶 The triratna, each with its own characteristic,​ Buddha being wisdom 覺; the Law correctness 正; and the Order purity 淨.
 +
 +自性戒 The ten natural moral laws, i. e. which are natural to man, apart from the Buddha'​s commands; also 自性善.
 +
 +自恣 pravārana, to follow one's own bent, the modern term being 隨意; it means the end of restraint, i. e. following the period of retreat.
 +
 +自恣日 The last day of the annual retreat.
 +
 +自愛 Self-love, cause of all pursuit or seeking, which in turn causes all suffering. All Buddhas put away self-love and all pursuit, or seeking, such elimination being nirvāṇa.
 +
 +自損損他 To harm oneself and harm others, to harm oneself is to harm others, etc.; opposite of 自利利他.
 +
 +自殺 To commit suicide; for a monk to commit suicide is said to be against the rules.
 +
 +自然 svayaṃbhū,​ also 自爾; 法爾 self-existing,​ the self-existent;​ Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and others; in Chinese it is '​self-so',​ so of itself, natural, of course, spontaneous. It also means uncaused existence, certain sects of heretics 自然外道 denying Buddhist cause and effect and holding that things happen spontaneously.
 +
 +自然慈 Intuitive mercy possessed by a bodhisattva,​ untaught and without causal nexus.
 +
 +自然悟道 Enlightenment by the inner light, independent of external teaching; to become Buddha by one's own power, e. g. Śākyamuni who is called 自然釋迦.
 +
 +自然成佛道 svayaṃbhuvaḥ. Similar to 自然悟道,​ independent attainment of Buddhahood.
 +
 +自然智 The intuitive or inborn wisdom of a Buddha, untaught to him and outside the causal nexus.
 +
 +自然虛無身 A Buddha'​s spiritual or absolute body, his dharmakāya;​ also, those who are born in Paradise, i. e. who are spontaneously and independently produced there.
 +
 +自生 Self-produced,​ or naturally existing; also an intp. of bhūta 部多 produced; existing, real; also demons born by transformation 化生 in contrast to the 夜叉 yakṣa who are born from parents.
 +
 +自相 svalakṣaṇa;​ individuality,​ particular, personal, as contrasted with 共相 general or common.
 +
 +自行化他 To discipline, or perform, oneself and (or in order to) convert or transform others. v. 自利利他.
 +
 +自覺悟心 A mind independent of externals, pure thought, capable of enlightenment from within.
 +
 +自覺聖智 The uncaused omniscience of Vairocana; it is also called 法界智 (法界體性智) and 金剛智.
 +
 +自誓受戒 To make the vows and undertake the commandments oneself (before the image of a Buddha), i. e. self-ordination when unable to obtain ordination from the ordained.
 +
 +自語相違 A manifest contradiction,​ one of the nine fallacies of a proposition,​ svārtha-viruddha,​ e. g. 'my mother is barren.'​
 +
 +自調自淨自度 The śrāvaka method of salvation by personal discipline, or '​works';​ 自調 self-progress by keeping the commandments;​ 自淨 self-purification by emptying the mind; 自度 self-release by the attainment of gnosis, or wisdom.
 +
 +自證 The witness within, inner assurance.
 +
 +自證壇 or自證會 The 成身會 assembly of all the Buddha and bodhisattva embodiments in the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.
 +
 +自證聖智 pratyātmāryajñāna,​ personal apprehension of Buddha-truth.
 +
 +自證身 A title of Vairocana, his dharmakāya of self-assurance,​ or realization,​ from which issues his retinue of proclaimers of the truth.
 +
 +自身自佛 One's own body is Buddha.
 +
 +自類因果 Cause and effect of the same order.
 +
 +至 Reach, arrive at; utmost, perfect.
 +
 +至人 The perfect man, i. e. Śākyamuni.
 +
 +至心 With the utmost mind, or a perfect mind.
 +
 +至教 Complete or perfect teaching.
 +
 +至理 The utmost principle, the fundamental law.
 +
 +[220]
 +
 +至眞 Perfect truth.
 +
 +至相尊者 The second patriarch of the Huayan (Kegon) school 智儼 Zhiyan.
 +
 +至言 Perfect words, words of complete explanation.
 +
 +至那 Cīna, China.
 +
 +至那儞 cīnānī, the peach-tree, said to have been imported into India from China.
 +
 +至那[M001173]底 Cīnapati, Lord (from) China, said in the Record of Western Lands 西域記 to have been appointed by the Han rulers; a country so-called because the son of 蕃維質 Fan Weizhi of 河西 Hexi dwelt (and reigned) there. Eitel says, 'A small kingdom in the north-west of India (near Lahore) the inhabitants of which asserted (A. D. 640) that their first kings had come from China.'​
 +
 +至那羅闍弗呾羅 Cīnarājaputra,​ 'son of the China king,' intp. by 漢王子 Prince of Han, which was also an Indian name for a pear-tree, said to have been imported from China in the Han dynasty; v. 西域記 4.
 +
 +至沙 帝沙 Tiṣya, an ancient Buddha. The father of Śāriputra. A son of Śuklodana.
 +
 +舌 jihvā, 時乞縛; the tongue.
 +
 +舌根 the organ of taste.
 +
 +舌識 tongue-perception;​ v. 六根; 六識.
 +
 +舌相 The broad, long tongue of a Buddha, one of the thirty-two physical signs.
 +
 +舌不爛 Tongue-unconsumed,​ a term for Kumārajīva;​ on his cremation his tongue is said to have remained unconsumed.
 +
 +色 rūpa, outward appearance, form, colour, matter, thing; the desirable, especially feminine attraction. It is defined as that which has resistance; or which changes and disappears, i. e. the phenomenal; also as 顯, 形 and 表色 colour and quality, form or the measurable, and mode or action. There are divisions of two, i. e. inner and outer, as the organs and objects of sense; also colour and form; of three, i. e. the visible object, e. g. colour, the invisible object, e. g. sound, the invisible and immaterial; of eleven, i. e. the five organs and five objects of sense and the immaterial object; of fourteen, the five organs and five objects of sense and the four elements, earth, water, fire, air. rūpa is one of the six bāhya-āyatana,​ the 六塵; also one of the five skandhas, 五蘊, i. e. the 色身. Keith refers to rūpa as '​material form or matter which is underived (no-utpādā) and which is derived (utpādā)',​ the underived or independent being the tangible; the derived or dependent being the senses, e. g. of hearing; most of their objects, e. g. sound; the qualities or faculties of feminity, masculinity,​ vitality; intimation by act and speech, space; qualities of matter, e. g. buoyancy and physical nutriment.
 +
 +色入 色處 The entrances, or places, where the organs and objects of physical sense meet, ten in all; cf. 五入. Also, one of the twelve nidānas.
 +
 +色光 Physical light, as contrasted with 心光 light of the mind; every Buddha has both, e. g. his halo.
 +
 +色具 Material objects.
 +
 +色味 The flavour of sexual attraction, love of women.
 +
 +色塵 The quality of form, colour, or sexual attraction, one of the 六塵.
 +
 +色微 Atoms of things, of form, or colour.
 +
 +色心 Matter and mind, the material and immaterial.
 +
 +色有 Material existence.
 +
 +色欲 Sexual desire, or passion.
 +
 +色泡 色焰 The material as a bubble, or a flame; impermanent.
 +
 +色界 rūpadhātu,​ or rūpāvacara,​ or rūpaloka, any material world, or world of form; it especially refers to the second of the Trailokya 三界, the brahmalokas above the devalokas, comprising sixteen or seventeen or eighteen '​Heavens of Form', divided into four dhyānas, in which life lasts from one-fourth of a mahākalpa to 16,000 mahākalpas,​ and the average stature is from one-half a yojana to 16,000 yojanas. The inhabitants are above the desire for sex or food. The rūpadhātu,​ with variants, are given as— 初禪天 The first dhyāna heavens: 梵衆天 Brahmapāriṣadya,​ 梵輔天 Brahmapurohita or Brahmakāyika,​ 大梵天 Mahābrahmā. 二禪天 The second dhyāna heavens: 少光天 Parīttābha,​ 無量光天 Apramāṇābha,​ 光音天 Ābhāsvara. 三禪天 The third dhyāna heavens: 少淨天 Parīttaśubha,​ 無量淨天 Apramāṇaśubha,​ 徧淨天 Śubhakṛtsna. 四禪天 The fourth dhyāna heavens: 無雲天 Anabhraka, 福生天 Puṇyaprasava,​ 廣果天 Bṛhatphala,​ 無想天 Asañjñisattva,​ 無煩天 Avṛha, 無熱天 Atapa, 善現天 Sudṛśa, 善見天 Sudarśana, 色究竟天 Akaniṣṭha,​ 和音天 ? Aghaniṣṭha,​ 大自在天 Mahāmaheśvara.
 +
 +色相 The material, material appearance, or external manifestation,​ the visible.
 +
 +色相土 A Buddha'​s material or visible world.
 +
 +[221]
 +
 +色究竟天 色頂 Akaniṣṭha,​ the highest of the material heavens.
 +
 +色空外道 Heretics who denied material existence (and consequently sought self-control,​ or nirvana).
 +
 +色境 Visible objects, the realm of vision, or form.
 +
 +色聲 The visible and audible.
 +
 +色蓋 The concealing, or misleading, character of the visible or material, the seeming concealing reality.
 +
 +色蘊 The skandha of rūpa, or that which has form, v. 五蘊.
 +
 +色處 idem 色入.
 +
 +色衆 idem 色蘊, 色陰.
 +
 +色諦 idem 假諦.
 +
 +色身 rūpakāya. The physical body, as contrasted with the 法身 dharmakāya,​ the immaterial, spiritual, or immortal body.
 +
 +虫 Insect, reptile; any creeping thing; animal, man as of the animal kingdom.
 +
 +血 Blood. 以血洗血 To wash out blood with blood, from one sin to fall into another.
 +
 +血書 Written with (one's own) blood.
 +
 +血汚池 The pool, or lake, of blood in one of the hells.
 +
 +血海 The sea of blood, i.e. the hells and lower incarnations.
 +
 +血盆經 The sutra describing the blood bath for women in Hades; it is a Chinese invention and is called by Eitel "the placenta tank, which consists of an immense pool of blood, and from this hell, it is said, no release is possible";​ but there are ceremonies for release from it.
 +
 +血脉 The arteries and veins, linked, closely connected.
 +
 +血途 The gati or destiny of rebirth as an animal.
 +
 +行 Go; act; do; perform; action; conduct; functioning;​ the deed; whatever is done by mind, mouth, or body, i.e. in thought, word, or deed. It is used for ayana, going, road, course; a march, a division of time equal to six months; also for saṁskāra,​ form, operation, perfecting, as one of the twelve nidānas, similar to karma, action, work, deed, especially moral action, cf. 業.
 +
 +行乞 To go begging, or asking for alms; also 行鉢; 托鉢.
 +
 +行人 A traveller, wayfarer; a follower of Buddha; a disciple.
 +
 +行住坐卧 Walking, standing, sitting, lying-in every state.
 +
 +行供養 The making of offerings, to go to make offerings.
 +
 +行信 Act and faith, doing and believing, acting out one's belief.
 +
 +行儀 To perform the proper duties, especially of monks and nuns.
 +
 +行化 To go and convert; also 行教化.
 +
 +行厠 To go to the privy; the privy to which one goes, metaphor of the human body as filthy.
 +
 +行善 To do good; deeds that are good; to offer up deeds of goodness.
 +
 +行履 The common acts of daily life-sitting,​ eating, thinking, etc.
 +
 +行德 The virtue of performance,​ or discipline; to perform virtuous deeds.
 +
 +行教 To carry out the vinaya discipline; the vinaya.
 +
 +行果 Deed and result; the inevitable sequence of act and its effect.
 +
 +行業 That which is done, the activities of thought, word, or deed; moral action; karma.
 +
 +行樹 Trees in rows, avenues of trees.
 +
 +行母 mātṛkā, 摩德理迦;​ the "​mother of karma",​ i.e. the Abhidharma-piṭaka,​ which shows that karma produces karma, one act producing another.
 +
 +[222]
 +
 +行滿 Xingman, a monk of the 佛龍寺 Folung monastery, about whom little is known, but who is accredited with supplying Dengyō of Japan with Tiantai scriptures in the latter part of the eighth century.
 +
 +行犍度 The saṃskāraskandha,​ the fourth of the five skandhas. v. 行蘊.
 +
 +行相 Activity; performance;​ mental activity.
 +
 +行籌 To cast lots, divine (length of life).
 +
 +行者 An abbot'​s attendant; also ācārin, performing the duties of a disciple.
 +
 +行脚 (行僧) A wandering monk.
 +
 +行苦 The suffering inevitably consequent on action.
 +
 +行華 To offer flowers.
 +
 +行蘊 The fourth of the five skandhas, saṁskāra,​ action which inevitably passes on its effects.
 +
 +行要 The requirements for action; to do that which is most important.
 +
 +行證 Action and proof; knowledge or assurance derived from doing; practice of religious discipline and the resulting enlightenment.
 +
 +行像 To take an image (of Buddha) in procession; it was a custom observed on Buddha'​s birthday according to the 佛國記.
 +
 +行足 As works are the feet (so wisdom is the eye).
 +
 +行道 To walk in the way, follow the Buddha-truth;​ to make procession round an image, especially of the Buddha, with the right shoulder towards it.
 +
 +行雨 To rain, or produce rain; Varṣākāra,​ name of a minister of king Bimbisāra.
 +
 +行願 Action and vow; act and vow, resolve or intention; to act out one's vows; to vow.
 +
 +行香 To offer incense.
 +
 +衣 Clothes, especially a monk's robes which are of two kinds, the compulsory three garments of five, seven, or nine pieces; and the permissive clothing for the manual work of the monastery, etc. The 三衣 or three garments are (1) 安陀會衣 antarvāsas,​ an inner garment; the five-piece 袈裟 cassock; (2) 鬱多羅僧衣 uttarāsaṇga,​ outer garment, the seven-piece cassock; (3) 僧伽梨衣 saṁghāti,​ assembly cassock of from nine to twenty-five pieces. The permissive clothing is of ten kinds.
 +
 +衣座室 The robe, throne, and abode of the Tathāgata, see Lotus Sutra 法師品.
 +
 +衣法 The robe and the Buddha-truth.
 +
 +衣珠 衣寳 The pearl in the garment, i.e. a man starving yet possessed of a priceless pearl in his garment, of which he was unaware; v. Lotus Sutra 五百授記品.
 +
 +衣服天 The Vajradeva in the Vajradhātu group who guards the placenta and the unborn child; his colour is black and he holds a bow and arrow.
 +
 +衣衣隨念願 The vow of Amitābha that all the devas and men in his realm shall instantly have whatever beautiful clothing they wish.
 +
 +衣裓 A towel, cloth, wrapper, or mantle.
 +
 +衣鉢 Cassock and almsbowl.
 +
 +衣那 The umbilical cord.
 +
 +西 paścima, 跛室制麽;​ west; it is largely used in the limited sense of Kashmir in such terms as 西方 the west, or western regions; but it is also much used for the western heavens of Amitābha; 西天 is India, the western 天竺國.
 +
 +西主 The Lord of the West, Amitābha, who is also the西天教主 lord of the cult, or sovereign teacher, of the western paradise.
 +
 +西乾 A name for India, cf. 西天.
 +
 +西儞迦 先尼 sainika, military.
 +
 +西光 The light of the western paradise.
 +
 +西刹 kṣetra, land, region, country.
 +
 +西域求法高僧傳 Biographies of famous pilgrims, fifty-six in number, with four added; it is by Yijing 義淨.
 +
 +西域記 大唐西域記;​ 西域傳 Records of Western countries, by the Tang dynasty pilgrim 玄奘 Xuanzang, in 12 juan A.D. 646-8. There was a previous 西域傳 by 彦琮 Yancong of the Sui dynasty.
 +
 +西山住部 Avaraśailā 阿伐羅塾羅 the second subdivision of the Mahāsaṅghika school. A monastery of this name was in Dhana-kaṭaka,​ said to have been built 600 B.C., deserted A.D. 600.
 +
 +西序 西班 The western group, i.e. teaching monks stood on the west of the abbot, while those engaged in practical affairs stood on the east; this was in imitation of the Court practice in regard to civil and military officials.
 +
 +[223]
 +
 +西方 The west, especially Amitābha'​s Western Pure Land. 西方淨土,​ Sukhāvāti or Paradise西方極樂世界,​ to which Amitābha is the guide and welcomer 西方接引.
 +
 +西明 Ximing, name of 道宣 Daoxuan of the Tang who founded the Southern Hill school, and also of 圓測 Yuance, both of whom were from the 西明寺 monastery of Western Enlightenment established by Gaozong (650-684) at Chang'​an,​ the capital.
 +
 +西曼陀羅 The "​western"​ maṇḍala is that of the Vajradhātu,​ as the "​eastern"​ is of the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +西河 Xihe, a name for 道綽 Daochuo of the Tang dynasty.
 +
 +西淨 The western cleanser, the privy, situated on the west of a monastery.
 +
 +西牛貨洲 西瞿陀尼 (or 西瞿耶尼) The western continent of a world, Godānīya, v. 瞿, or Aparagodānīya,​ or Aparagodāna,​ "​western-cattle-giving,"​ where cattle are the medium of exchange, possibly referring to the "​pecuniary"​ barter of the north-west.
 +
 +西藏 Tibet.
 +
 +西藏佛教 Tibetan Buddhism.
 +
 +西藏嘛教 Tibetan Lamaism.
 +
 +西行 Going west; practices of the Amitābha cult, leading to salvation in the Western Paradise.
 +7. SEVEN STROKES
 +
 +估 Guess, estimate.
 +
 +估衣 To estimate the value of a deceased monk's personal possessions.
 +
 +估唱 to auction a deceased monk's personal possessions to the other monks.
 +
 +伴 Companion, associate; translit. pan, ban, van, cf. 畔伴僧 Associate or accompanying monks.
 +
 +伴夜 伴靈 To watch with the spirit of a departed monk the night before the cremation.
 +
 +伴談 v. 和南 vandana.
 +
 +伴陀羅縛子尼 (or 伴陀羅縛字尼) v. 半 Pāṇḍaravāsinī.
 +
 +伺 vicāra, 毘遮羅 Investigation,​ consideration,​ search for truth; to spy; wait on.
 +
 +低 To let down, lower.
 +
 +低羅擇迦 (or 低羅釋迦) Tiladhāka, Tiladaka, or Tilaśākya. "A monastery, three yōdjanas west of Nālanda, perhaps the modern village of Thelari near Gayā."​ Eitel.
 +
 +佗 He, she, it; other; i.e. 他; translit. tha, e.g. in sthāna , sthāman.
 +
 +位 Position, seat, throne.
 +
 +位不退 One of the 三不退 q.v. three kinds of never receding.
 +
 +位牌 The board, or record of official position.
 +
 +何 Translit. ha, hai, a, ra, he, cf. 賀 and 曷. What? How?
 +
 +何似生 How does it thus happen?
 +
 +何夷摩柯 Haimaka, a king at the beginning of a kalpa, 金 by name.
 +
 +何履那 hariṇa, a deer.
 +
 +何羅怙羅 Rāhula, name of Śākyamuni'​s son, also of an asura.
 +
 +何耶 Haya, the horse-head form of Guanyin.
 +
 +何耶揭唎婆 Hayagrīva, Horse-neck, a form of Viṣṇu, name of a 明王 mingwang.
 +
 +但 Only.
 +
 +但空 Only non-existence,​ or immateriality,​ a term used by Tiantai to denote the orthodox Hīnayāna system. 不但空 denotes the 通教 intermediate system between the Hīnayāna and the Mahāyāna; v. 空.
 +
 +但荼 單拏 daṇḍa, a staff, club.
 +
 +似 Appearance of, seeming as, like, as; than.
 +
 +似現量 A syllogism assuming e.g. that a vase or garment is real, and not made up of certain elements.
 +
 +似立宗 A fallacious proposition;​ containing any one of the nine fallacies connected with the thesis, or pratijñā, of the syllogism.
 +
 +似能破 A fallacious counter-proposition;​ containing one of the thirty-three fallacies connected with the thesis (pratijñā 宗), reason (hetu 因), or example (udāharaṇa 喩).
 +
 +佉 Translit. kha, also khya, ga, gha, khu, khi; cf. 呿, 喀, 吃, 呵, 珂, 恪, 轗; it is used to represent 虛空 space, empty. Skt. kha inter alia means "​sky",​ "​ether"​.
 +
 +佉加 渴伽 khaḍga, a rhinoceros.
 +
 +佉勒迦 khārī, a measure (or hamper) of grain; khārīka, equal to a khārī.
 +
 +佉吒迦 khaṭaka; a manual sign, wrists together, fingers half-closed;​ M. W. says "the half-closed hand; the doubled fist of wrestlers or boxers"​.
 +
 +佉啁羅 khaṭvā, a bed, couch, cot; a long, narrow bed.
 +
 +佉提羅 (佉提羅迦);​ 佉得羅柯;​ 佉陀羅; 朅地洛 (or朅地洛迦 or 朅達洛 or 朅達洛迦);​ 朅那里酤;​ 羯地羅; 可梨羅; 軻梨羅; Khadiraka, or Karavīka. One of the seven concentric ranges of a world; tr. by jambu timber, or wood; also by 空破 bare, unwooded. Its sea is covered with scented flowers, and in it are four islands. It is also a tree of the Acacia order.
 +
 +佉梨 khāri, or khārī. A 斛, i.e. bushel, or measure of about ten 斗; v. 佉慮; 佉勒.
 +
 +佉樓 佉慮 (佉慮風吒);​ 佉路瑟吒 Kharoṣṭhi,​ tr. by "​Ass'​s lips"; name of an ancient ṛṣi, perhaps Jyotīrasa. Also, "the writing of all the northerners,"​ said to have been introduced by him, consisting of seventy-two characters.
 +
 +佉沙 Kashgar, a country in E. Turkestan, east of the Pamirs, S. of Tianshan; the older name, after the name of its capital, is sometimes given as 疏勒 or 室利訖栗多底 Śrīkrītati.
 +
 +佉盧 khāra; said to be a 斗, the tenth of a佉梨; also Khara, the name of a ṛṣi. For Kharoṣṭhi,​ v. above.
 +
 +[224]
 +
 +佉羅陀, or 佉羅帝, etc.; v. 伽.
 +
 +佉羅騫馱 Kharakaṇṭha;​ kings of demons, kings of asuras present when Buddha preached the Lotus Sutra; also described as rumbling like thunder, or stirring up the waves of the ocean.
 +
 +佉訶囉嚩阿 kha, ha, ra, va, a, the five 種子 roots, or seed-tones of the five elements, space, wind, fire, water, earth respectively.
 +
 +佉陀尼 (or 佉闍尼); 珂但尼 khādanīya,​ to be chewed; edible; a food; defined as edibles not included in regulation meals.
 +
 +住 sthiti. To abide, dwell, stay, stop, settle.
 +
 +生住滅 birth, existence, death.
 +
 +住位 Abiding place, one of the ten stages, resting and developing places or abodes of the bodhisattva,​ which is entered after the stage of belief has been passed; v. 十住; 十地; 地.
 +
 +住劫 vivartasiddhakalpa;​ the abiding or existing kalpa; the kalpa of human existence; v. 劫.
 +
 +住地 Dwelling-place;​ abiding place in the Truth, i.e. the acquirement by faith of a self believing in the dharma and producing its fruits.
 +
 +住定 Fixed, certain, firmly settled.
 +
 +住定菩薩 A bodhisattva firmly fixed, or abiding in certainty. After a bodhisattva has completed three great asaṁkhyeyakalpas he has still one hundred great kalpas to complete. This period is called abiding in fixity or firmness, divided into six kinds: certainty of being born in a good gati, in a noble family, with a good body, a man, knowing the abiding places of his transmigrations,​ knowing the abiding character of his good works.
 +
 +住持 To dwell and control; the abbot of a monastery; resident superintendent;​ to maintain, or firmly hold to (faith in the Buddha, etc.). For住持身 v. 佛具十身.
 +
 +住果 Abiding in the fruit; e.g. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas who rest satisfied in their attainments and do not strive for Buddhahood; they are known as住果緣覺 or住果羅漢.
 +
 +住相 sthiti; abiding, being, the state of existence, one of the four characteristics of all beings and things, i.e. birth, existence, change (or decay), death (or cessation).
 +
 +作 To make, do, act, be; arise.
 +
 +作佛 To become or be a Buddha; to cut off illusion, attain complete enlightenment,​ and end the stage of bodhisattva discipline.
 +
 +作佛事 To do the works of Buddha; perform Buddhist ceremonies. 作善 To do good, e.g. worship, bestow alms, etc.
 +
 +作家 Leader, founder, head of sect, a term used by the 禪 Chan (Zen) or Intuitive school.
 +
 +作惡 To do evil.
 +
 +作意 cittotpāda;​ to have the thought arise, be aroused, beget the resolve, etc.
 +
 +作戒 Obedience to the commandments,​ external fulfillment of them; also called 表色, in contrast with 無作戒, 無表色 the inner grace; moral action in contrast with inner moral character.
 +
 +作持戒 Active keeping of the commandments,​ active law in contrast with 止持戒 passive, such as not killing, not stealing, etc. v. 持犯.
 +
 +作梵 (作梵唄) The call to order in the assembly.
 +
 +作業 Karma produced, i.e. by the action of body, words, and thought, which educe the kernel of the next rebirth.
 +
 +作法 Karma, which results from action, i.e. the "​deeds"​ of body or mouth; to perform ceremonies.
 +
 +作法得 To receive ceremonial ordination as a monk.
 +
 +作法懺 (作法懺悔) One of the three kinds of monastic confession and repentance.
 +
 +作法界 The place of assembly for ceremonial purposes.
 +
 +作犯 Transgression,​ sin by action, active sin.
 +
 +作用 Function, activity, act.
 +
 +作禮 To pay one's respect by worship; to make an obeisance.
 +
 +作者 kartṛ; a doer, he who does things, hence the ātman, ego, or person within; the active element, or principle; one of the sixteen non-Buddhist definitions of the soul. Also kāraṇa, a cause, maker, creator, deity.
 +
 +作擧 The accusation of sin made against particular monks by the virtuous monk who presides at the pravāraṇa gathering on the last day of the summer'​s rest.
 +
 +作願門 To make a vow to benefit self and others, and to fulfil the vow so as to be born in the Pure Land of Amitābha. The third of the five doors or ways of entering the Pure Land.
 +
 +作麽 (作麽生) How? What? What are you doing?
 +
 +伽 Interchanged with 迦 q.v.; translit. ga, gha, ka, khya, g and in one case for ha.
 +
 +伽彌尼 Gamini, a king whom the Buddha is said to have addressed, v. sutra of this name.
 +
 +伽憊 idem 路伽憊 Lokavit.
 +
 +伽梨 Abbrev. for 僧伽梨 saṅghāṭī,​ robe.
 +
 +伽梵 伽婆 Abbrev. for bhagavan, see 婆伽婆.
 +
 +伽婆達摩 Bhagavaddharma. A Western Indian monk who tr. a work on 觀自在.
 +
 +伽梵波提 伽傍簸帝 Gavāṁpati. 牛主 Lord of cattle, name of an arhat; v. 憍.
 +
 +伽毗黎 Kapilavastu,​ v. 劫.
 +
 +伽羅 Abbrev. for 多伽羅tāgara putchuk, incense.
 +
 +伽羅夜叉 Kālaka, a yakṣa who smote Śāriputra on the head while in meditation, without his perceiving it.
 +
 +伽羅尼 羯羅拏 ghrāṇa, smell; scent.
 +
 +伽羅陀 (1) Kharādīya,​ the mountain where Buddha is supposed to have tiered the 地藏十論經,​ the abode of Tizang; other names for it are 佉伽羅, 佉羅帝 (or佉羅帝提耶). (2) A bodhisattva stage attained after many kalpas.
 +
 +伽耶 伽邪; 伽闍 Gayā. (1) A city of Magadha, Buddhagayā (north-west of present Gaya), near which Śākyamuni became Buddha. (2) Gaja, an elephant. (3) 伽耶山 Gajaśirṣa,​ Elephant'​s Head Mountain; two are mentioned, one near "​Vulture Peak", one near the Bo-tree. (4) kāya, the body.
 +
 +伽耶舍多 (or伽耶邪舍多) Gayaśāta (? Jayata), the eighteenth Indian patriarch, who laboured among the Tokhari.
 +
 +伽耶迦葉 Gayākāśyapa,​ a brother of Mahākāśyapa,​ originally a fire-worshipper,​ one of the eleven foremost disciples of Buddha, to become Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.
 +
 +[225]
 +
 +伽胝 Abbrev. for saṇghāṭi,​ robe; v. 僧伽胝.
 +
 +伽藍 僧伽藍摩;​ 僧藍 saṅghārāma or saṅghāgāra. (1) The park of a monastery. (2) A monastery, convent. There are eighteen伽藍神 guardian spirits of a monastery.
 +
 +伽蘭他 grantha, a treatise, section, verse; the scriptures of the Sikhs.
 +
 +伽車提 gacchati, goes, progresses.
 +
 +伽那 gana, ghana; close, solid, thick.
 +
 +伽伽那卑麗叉那 (or 伽伽那必利綺那) gaganaprekṣaṇa,​ beholding the sky, or looking into space.
 +
 +伽那提婆 Kāṇadeva,​ i.e. Āryadeva, fifteenth patriarch, disciple of Nāgārjuna,​ v. 迦.
 +
 +伽那馥力刃 A name of Nāgārjuna.
 +
 +伽陀 伽他 (1) gātha = song; gāthā, a metrical narrative or hymn, with moral purport, described as generally composed of thirty-two characters, and called 孤起頌 a detached stanza, distinguished from geya, 重頌 which repeats the ideas of preceding prose passages. (2) agada as adjective = healthy; as noun = antidote. (3) gata, arrived at, fallen into, or "in a state"​.
 +
 +佛 Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "​conceive",​ "​observe",​ "​wake";​ also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "​completely conscious, enlightened",​ and came to mean the enlightener. he Chinese translation is 覺 to perceive, aware, awake; and 智 gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha,​ is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "​person"​ of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni,​ the title indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment,​ having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations;​ this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation,​ the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment,​ or Omniscience,​ and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes,​ which are infinite in number.
 +
 +佛世 Buddha-age; especially the age when Buddha was on earth.
 +
 +佛世尊 Buddha, the World-honoured,​ or honoured of the worlds, a tr. of bhagavat, revered.
 +
 +佛世界 A Buddha-realm,​ divided into two categories, the pure and the impure, i.e. the passionless and passion worlds.
 +
 +佛乘 The Buddha conveyance or vehicle, Buddhism as the vehicle of salvation for all beings; the doctrine of the 華嚴 Huayan (Kegon) School that all may become Buddha, which is called 一乘 the One Vehicle, the followers of this school calling it the 圓教 complete or perfect doctrine; this doctrine is also styled in the Lotus Sutra 一佛乘 the One Buddha-Vehicle.
 +
 +佛乘戒 The rules and commandments conveying beings to salvation.
 +
 +佛事 Buddha'​s affairs, the work of transforming all beings; or of doing Buddha-work,​ e.g. prayers and worship.
 +
 +佛于逮 Pūrvavideha,​ v. 佛婆, etc.
 +
 +佛五姓 The five surnames of Buddha before he became enlightened:​ 瞿曇 Gautama, a branch of the Śākya clan; 甘蔗Ikṣvāku,​ one of Buddha'​s ancestors; 日種 Sūryavaṁśa,​ of the sun race; 舍夷 ? Śāka; 釋迦 Śākya, the name of Buddha'​s clan. This last is generally used in China.
 +
 +佛位 The state of Buddhahood.
 +
 +佛使 A messenger of the Tathāgata.
 +
 +佛供 An offering to Buddha.
 +
 +[226]
 +
 +佛像 Buddha'​s image, or pratimā. There is a statement that in the fifth century A.D. the images in China were of Indian features, thick lips, high nose, long eyes, full jaws, etc., but that after the Tang the form became "more effeminate"​.
 +
 +佛光 The light of Buddha, spiritual enlightenment;​ halo, glory.
 +
 +佛具 Articles used on an altar in worship of Buddha.
 +
 +佛具十身 The ten perfect bodies or characteristics of Buddha: (1) 菩提身 Bodhi-body in possession of complete enlightenment. (2) 願身 Vow-body, i.e. the vow to be born in and from the Tuṣita heaven. (3) 化身 nirmāṇakāya,​ Buddha incarnate as a man. (4) 住持身 Buddha who still occupies his relics or what he has left behind on earth and thus upholds the dharma. (5) 相好莊嚴身 saṁbhogakāya,​ endowed with an idealized body with all Buddha marks and merits. (6) 勢力身 or 心佛 Power-body, embracing all with his heart of mercy. (7) 如意身 or 意生身 At will body, appearing according to wish or need. (8) 福德身 or 三昧身 samādhi body, or body of blessed virtue. (9) 智身 or 性佛 Wisdom-body,​ whose nature embraces all wisdom. (10) 法身 dharmakāya,​ the absolute Buddha, or essence of all life.
 +
 +佛凡一體 Buddha and the common people are one, i.e. all are of Buddha-nature.
 +
 +佛刹 buddhakṣetra. 佛紇差怛羅 Buddha realm, land or country; see also 佛土, 佛國. The term is absent from Hīnayāna. In Mahāyāna it is the spiritual realm acquired by one who reaches perfect enlightenment,​ where he instructs all beings born there, preparing them for enlightenment. In the schools where Mahāyāna adopted an Ādi-Buddha,​ these realms or Buddha-fields interpenetrated each other, since they were coexistent with the universe. There are two classes of Buddhakṣetra:​ (1) in the Vairocana Schools, regarded as the regions of progress for the righteous after death; (2) in the Amitābha Schools, regarded as the Pure Land; v. McGovern, A Manual of Buddhist Philosophy, pp. 70-2.
 +
 +佛印 Buddha-seal,​ the sign of assurance, see 佛心印.
 +
 +佛吼 Buddha'​s nāda, or roar, Buddha'​s preaching compared to a lion's roar, i.e. authoritative.
 +
 +佛鳴 Buddhaghoṣa,​ the famous commentator and writer of the Hīnayāna School and of the Pali canon. He was "born near the Bo Tree, at Buddha Gayā, and came to Ceylon about A.D. 430". "​Almost all the commentaries now existing (in Pali) are ascribed to him". Rhys Davids.
 +
 +佛因 Buddha-cause,​ that which leads to Buddhahood, i.e. the merit of planting roots of goodness.
 +
 +佛國 buddhakṣetra. The country of the Buddha'​s birth. A country being transformed by a Buddha, also one already transformed;​ v. 佛土 and 佛刹.
 +
 +佛國記 Faxian'​s Record of Buddhist countries.
 +
 +佛圍陀 Buddhaveda, i.e. the Tripiṭaka,​ the Veda of Buddhism.
 +
 +佛圖澄 or 佛圖磴 or 佛圖橙 Fotuzheng, an Indian monk who came to Luoyang about A.D. 310, also known as 竺佛圖澄,​ noted for his magic; his name Buddhacinga,​ or (Eitel) Buddhochinga,​ is doubtful; he is also called 佛陀僧訶 Buddhasiṁha.
 +
 +佛土 buddhakṣetra. 佛國; 紇差怛羅;​ 差多羅; 刹怛利耶;​ 佛刹 The land or realm of a Buddha. The land of the Buddha'​s birth, India. A Buddha-realm in process of transformation,​ or transformed. A spiritual Buddha-realm. The Tiantai Sect evolved the idea of four spheres: (1) 同居之國土 Where common beings and saints dwell together, divided into (a) a realm where all beings are subject to transmigration and (b) the Pure Land. (2) 方便有餘土 or 變易土 The sphere where beings are still subject to higher forms of transmigration,​ the abode of Hīnayāna saints, i.e. srota-āpanna 須陀洹; sakṛdāgāmin 斯陀含; anāgāmin 阿那含; arhat 阿羅漢. (3) 實報無障礙 Final unlimited reward, the Bodhisattva realm. (4) 常寂光土 Where permanent tranquility and enlightenment reign, Buddha-parinirvāṇa.
 +
 +佛地 buddha-bhūmi. The Buddha stage, being the tenth stage of the 通 or intermediate school, when the bodhisattva has arrived at the point of highest enlightenment and is just about to become a Buddha.
 +
 +佛地羅 Bodhila, a native of Kashmir and follower of the Māhāsaṅghika school, author of the 集眞論.
 +
 +佛境 The (spiritual) region of Buddhas.
 +
 +[227]
 +
 +佛壽 Buddha'​s life, or age. While he only lived to eighty as a man, in his saṁbhogakāya he is without end, eternal; cf. Lotus Sutra, 壽量品, where Buddha is declared to be eternal.
 +
 +佛天 Buddha as Heaven; Buddha and the devas.
 +
 +佛婆提 (佛婆提訶) Pūrvavideha;​ 佛提媻; 毗提訶 (佛毗提訶);​ 布嚕婆毗提訶;​ 逋利婆鼻提賀;​ 佛于逮 The continent of conquering spirits 勝神洲; one of the four great continents, east of Meru, semi-lunar in shape, its people having faces of similar shape.
 +
 +佛婆羅部 idem 犢子部 Vātsīputrīyāḥ.
 +
 +佛子 Son of Buddha; a bodhisattva;​ a believer in Buddhism, for every believer is becoming Buddha; a term also applied to all beings, because all are of Buddha-nature. There is a division of three kinds: 外子 external sons, who have not yet believed; 度子 secondary sons, Hīnayānists;​ 眞子 true sons, Mahāyānists.
 +
 +佛宗 Buddhism; principles of the Buddha Law, or dharma.
 +
 +佛家 The school or family of Buddhism; the Pure Land, where is the family of Buddha. Also all Buddhists from the srota-āpanna stage upwards.
 +
 +佛寳 See 佛寶.
 +
 +佛寶, 法寳, 僧寳 Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Order; these are the three Jewels, or precious ones, the Buddhist Trinity; v. 三寳.
 +
 +佛弟子 Disciples of Buddha, whether monks or laymen.
 +
 +佛影 buddhachāyā;​ the shadow of Buddha, formerly exhibited in various places in India, visible only to those "of pure mind".
 +
 +佛後普賢 After having attained Buddhahood still to continue the work of blessing and saving other beings; also Buxian, or Samantabhadra,​ as continuing the Buddha'​s work.
 +
 +佛德 Buddha-virtue,​ his perfect life, perfect fruit, and perfect mercy in releasing all beings from misery.
 +
 +佛心 The mind of Buddha, the spiritually enlightened heart. A heart of mercy; a heart abiding in the real, not the seeming; detached from good and evil and other such contrasts.
 +
 +佛心印 The seal of the Buddha heart or mind, the stamp of the universal Buddha-heart in every one; the seal on a Buddha'​s heart, or breast; the svastika.
 +
 +佛心天子 The Son of Heaven of the Buddha-heart,​ a name given to Wudi of the Liang dynasty, A.D. 502-549.
 +
 +佛心宗 The sect of the Buddha-heart,​ i.e. the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive sect of Bodhidharma,​ holding that each individual has direct access to Buddha through meditation.
 +
 +佛性 buddhatā. The Buddha-nature,​ i.e. gnosis, enlightenment;​ potential bodhi remains in every gati, i.e. all have the capacity for enlightenment;​ for the Buddha-nature remains in all as wheat-nature remains in all wheat. This nature takes two forms: 理 noumenal, in the absolute sense, unproduced and immortal, and 行 phenomenal, in action. While every one possesses the Buddha-nature,​ it requires to be cultivated in order to produce its ripe fruit.
 +
 +佛性不受羅 The Buddha-nature does not receive punishment in the hells, because it is 空 void of form, or spiritual and above the formal or material, only things with form can enter the hells.
 +
 +佛性常住 The eternity of the Buddha-nature,​ also of Buddha as immortal and immutable.
 +
 +佛性戒 The moral law which arises out of the Buddha-nature in all beings; also which reveals or evolves the Buddha-nature.
 +
 +佛性眞如 The Buddha-nature,​ the absolute, as eternally existent, i.e. the bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +佛慧 Buddha-wisdom.
 +
 +佛所行讚經 Buddhacarita-kāvya Sutra; a poetic narrative of the life of Śākyamuni by Aśvaghoṣa 馬鳴, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 414-421.
 +
 +佛戒 The moral commandments of the Buddha; also, the laws of reality observed by all Buddhas.
 +
 +佛支提 Buddha'​s caitya, or stūpa, v. 支提. A Buddhist reliquary, or pagoda, where relics of the Buddha, 舍利 śarīra, were kept; a stūpa 塔婆 was a tower for relics; such towers are of varying shape; originally sepulchres, then mere cenotaphs, they have become symbols of Buddhism.
 +
 +佛教 Buddha'​s teaching; Buddhism, v. 釋教.
 +
 +[228]
 +
 +佛敕 Buddha'​s śāsana or orders, i.e. his teaching.
 +
 +佛日 The Buddha-sun which drives away the darkness of ignorance; the day of Buddha.
 +
 +佛智 anuttara-samyak-sambodhi,​ Buddha-wisdom,​ i.e. supreme, universal gnosis, awareness or intelligence;​ sarvajñatā,​ omniscience.
 +
 +佛月 The Buddha-moon,​ Buddha being mirrored in the human heart like the moon in pure water. Also a meaning similar to 佛日.
 +
 +佛本行集經 Buddhacarita;​ a life of Śākyamuni,​ tr. by Jñānagupta,​ A.D. 587.
 +
 +佛果 buddhapala; the Buddha fruit, the state of Buddhahood; the fruition of arhatship, arahattvapala.
 +
 +佛栗持薩儻那 Urddhasthāna,​ ? Ūrdvasthāna,​ Vardhasthāna,​ or Vṛjisthāna,​ "an ancient kingdom, the country of the Vardaks, the Ortospana of Ptolemy, the region about Cabool (Lat. 34°32 N., Long. 68°55 E. )." Eitel.
 +
 +佛樓沙 Purushapura,​ v. 布嚕沙.
 +
 +佛槃勢羅 Pūrvaśailāḥ,​ or Eastern Hill; one of the five divisions of the Māhāsaṇghika school. A monastery east of Dhanakaṭaka,​ i.e. Amarāvatī,​ on the R. Godavery.
 +
 +佛樹 bodhidruma; 道樹 the Bodhi-tree under which Śākyamuni obtained enlightenment or became Buddha, Ficus religiosa.
 +
 +佛檀 buddha-dāna,​ Buddha-giving contrasted with Māra-giving;​ Buddha-charity as the motive of giving, or preaching, and of self-sacrifice,​ or self-immolation.
 +
 +佛歡喜日 The Buddhist joy-day, the 15th of the 7th month, the last day of the summer retreat.
 +
 +佛母 (1) The mother of the Buddha, Mahāmāyā,​ 摩耶 Māyā, or Mātṛkā. (2) His aunt who was his foster-mother. (3) The Dharma or Law which produced him. (4) The prajñā-pāramitā,​ mother or begetter of all Buddhas. (5) Other "​Buddha-mothers",​ e.g. 准提佛母;​ 孔雀佛母,​ etc. Cf. 佛眼.
 +
 +佛母眞三昧 The samādhi, meditation, or trance by means of which the Buddhas, past, present, and future, become incarnate.
 +
 +佛法 buddhadharma;​ the Dharma or Law preached by the Buddha, the principles underlying these teachings, the truth attained by him, its embodiment in his being. Buddhism.
 +
 +佛法僧 Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. the Buddhist Trinity.
 +
 +佛法壽命 The life or extent of a period of Buddhism, i.e. as long as his commandments prevail.
 +
 +佛法藏 The storehouse of Buddha-law, the bhūtatathatā as the source of all things.
 +
 +佛海 Buddha'​s ocean, the realm of Buddha boundless as the sea.
 +
 +佛滅 (佛滅度) Buddha'​s nirvana; it is interpreted as the extinction of suffering, or delusion, and as transport across the 苦海 bitter sea of mortality, v. 滅.
 +
 +佛無礙慧 Unhindered, infinite Buddha-wisdom.
 +
 +佛無差別 The identity of all Buddhas, and of their methods and purposes of enlightenment. One of the three identities, of all Buddhas, of all minds, and of all beings.
 +
 +佛生日 Buddha'​s birthday, the 4th month, 8th day, or 2nd month, 8th day, the former having preference for celebration of his birthday in China.
 +
 +佛田 Buddha field, in which the planting and cultivation of the Buddhist virtues ensure a rich harvest, especially the Buddha as an object of worship and the Order for almsgiving.
 +
 +佛界 The Buddha realm, the state of Buddhahood, one of the ten realms, which consist of the six gati together with the realms of Buddhas, bodhisattvas,​ pratyeka-buddhas,​ and śrāvakas; also a Buddha-land;​ also the Buddha'​s country; cf. 佛土.
 +
 +佛眼 The eye of Buddha, the enlightened one who sees all and is omniscient.
 +
 +佛眼尊 A term of the esoteric cult for the source or mother of all wisdom, also called佛眼部母;​ 佛眼佛母;​ 佛母身; 佛母尊; 虛空佛.
 +
 +[229]
 +
 +佛知見 The penetrative power of Buddha'​s wisdom, or vision.
 +
 +佛祖 The Buddha and other founders of cults; Buddhist patriarchs; two of the records concerning them are the佛祖統紀 and the佛祖通載 (歷代通載).
 +
 +佛種 The seed of Buddhahood; bodhisattva seeds which, sown in the heart of man, produce the Buddha fruit, enlightenment.
 +
 +佛種姓 Those of the Buddha-clan,​ Buddhists.
 +
 +佛立三昧 A degree of samādhi in which the Buddhas appear to the meditator.
 +
 +佛經 Buddhist canonical literature; also Buddha'​s image and sutras, with special reference to those purporting to have been introduced under Han Mingdi; sutras probably existed in China before that reign, but evidence is lacking. The first work, generally attributed to Mingdi'​s reign, is known as The Sutra of Forty-two Sections 四十二章經 but Maspero in B.E.F.E.O. ascribes it to the second century A.D.
 +
 +佛臘日 The Buddhist last day of the old year, i.e. of the summer retreat.
 +
 +佛舍 A Buddhist temple.
 +
 +佛舍利 Buddha'​s śarīra. Relics or ashes left after Buddha'​s cremation, literally Buddha'​s body.
 +
 +佛般泥洹經 佛臨涅槃記法住經 The Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sutra.
 +
 +佛藏 Buddha thesaurus, the sutras of the Buddha'​s preaching, etc., also all the teaching of Buddha.
 +
 +佛見 The correct views, or doctrines, of the Buddha; Buddha doctrines.
 +
 +佛記 Buddha'​s prediction, his foretelling of the future of his disciples.
 +
 +佛說 Buddha'​s preaching; the Buddha said. Buddha'​s utterance of the sutras. There are over 150 sutras of which the titles begin with these two words, e.g. 佛說無量壽經 Aparimitāyus Sutra, tr. by Saṇghavarman A.D. 252.
 +
 +佛語 The words, or sayings, of Buddha.
 +
 +佛語必 The bhūtatathatā,​ as the mind or storehouse of Buddha'​s words.
 +
 +佛跡 佛迹 Buddha'​s relic; any trace of Buddha, e.g. the imprint of his foot in stone before he entered nirvana.
 +
 +佛身 buddhakāya,​ a general term for the trikāya, or threefold embodiment of Buddha. There are numerous categories or forms of the buddhakāya.
 +
 +佛道 The way of Buddha, leading to Buddhahood; intp. as bodhi, enlightenment,​ gnosis.
 +
 +佛部 The groups in which Buddha appears in the Garbhadhātu and Vajradhātu respectively.
 +
 +佛陀 v. 佛 There are numerous monks from India and Central Asia bearing this as part of their names.
 +
 +佛陀什 Buddhajīva,​ who arrived in China from Kashmir or Kabul, A.D. 423.
 +
 +佛陀僧訶 Buddhasiṃha,​ a disciple of Asaṅga, probably fifth century A.D., about whose esoteric practices, lofty talents, and final disappearance a lengthy account is given in the Fan Yi Ming Yi 翻譯名義;​ it is also a title of 佛圖澄 q.v.
 +
 +佛陀多羅 (佛陀多羅多) Buddhatrāta of Kashmir or Kabul, was a translator about 650.
 +
 +佛陀扇多 Buddhaśānta,​ of Central India, translator of some ten works from 525-539.
 +
 +佛陀提婆 Buddhadeva.
 +
 +佛陀槃遮 Buddhavaca.
 +
 +佛陀毱多 Buddhagupta,​ "a Buddhistic king of Magadha, son and successor of Śakrāditya,"​ Eitel.
 +
 +佛陀波利 Buddhapāla,​ came from Kabul to China 676; also Buddhapālita,​ a disciple of Nāgārjuna and founder of the 中論性教.
 +
 +佛陀蜜多羅 Buddhamitra,​ the ninth patriarch.
 +
 +佛陀跋陀羅 Buddhabhadra,​ of Kapilavastu,​ came to China circa 408, introduced an alphabet of forty-two characters and composed numerous works; also name of a disciple of Dharmakoṣa,​ whom Xuanzang met in India, 630-640.
 +
 +佛陀耶舍 Buddhayaśas,​ of Kashmir or Kabul, tr. four works, 408-412.
 +
 +佛陀難提 Buddhanandi,​ of Kāmarūpa, descendant of the Gautama family and eighth patriarch.
 +
 +佛陀馱沙 Buddhadāsa,​ of Hayamukha 阿耶穆佉 author of the 大毗婆沙論.
 +
 +佛陀伐那山 Buddhavanagiri,​ 'a mountain near Rājagṛha famous for its rock caverns, in one of which Śākyamumi lived for a time.' Eitel.
 +
 +[230]
 +
 +佛隴 Name of a peak at the southwest corner of Tiantai; also a name for Zhiyi 智顗 q.v.
 +
 +佛頂 Śākyamuni in the third court of the Garbhadhātu is represented as the佛頂尊 in meditation as Universal Wise Sovereign. The 五佛頂q.v. Five Buddhas are on his left representing his Wisdom. The three 佛頂 on his right are called 廣大佛頂,​ 極廣大佛頂,​ and 無邊音聲佛頂;​ in all they are the eight 佛頂.
 +
 +佛頂印 The characteristic sign on a Buddha'​s head, short curls, topknot, or uṣnīṣa.
 +
 +佛頂咒 楞嚴咒 sitātapatroṣṇīṣa-dhāraṇī;​ the white-umbrella dhāraṇī in the 首楞嚴經.
 +
 +佛頂骨 buddhoṣṇīṣa;​ the skull or cranial protuberance on the Buddha'​s head; one of his characteristic marks.
 +
 +佛願 The vow of Buddha to save all beings.
 +
 +佛馱 佛駄 Used in certain names for 佛陀 Buddha.
 +
 +佛馱什 Buddhajīva.
 +
 +佛馱斯那 Buddhasena.
 +
 +佛馱笈多 Buddhagupta.
 +
 +佛馱耶 ? Buddhāya.
 +
 +佛馱耶舍 Buddhayaśas,​ known as the '​red-beard Vibhāṣā.'​
 +
 +佛馱踐陀羅 Buddhabhadra.
 +
 +佛骨 A bone of the Buddha, especially the bone against whose reception by the emperor Xianzong the famous protest of Hanyu was made in 819.
 +
 +免 Avoid; remit.
 +
 +免僧 A monk whose attendance at the daily assembly is excused for other duties.
 +
 +兎 śaśa; a rabbit; also a hare. The hare in the moon, hence 懷兎者 is the moon or śaśin.
 +
 +兎毛塵 The speck of dust that can rest on the point of a hare's down, one-seventh of that on a sheep'​s hair.
 +
 +兎角 śaśa-viṣāṇa;​ śaśa-śṛṅga;​ a rabbit'​s horns, i.e. the non-existent;​ all phenomena are as unreal as a rabbit'​s horns.
 +
 +冷 Cold.
 +
 +冷暖 Cold and warm.
 +
 +冷淘 Cold swill, a name for冷麪 cold dough-strings.
 +
 +冷河 The cold river Sītā, v. 私多.
 +
 +冶 Smelt, melt; fascinating;​ translit. for ya in akṣaya.
 +
 +冶受皮陀 Yajurveda, one of the four Vedas.
 +
 +删 Cut, excise; translit. s, ś.
 +
 +删地涅暮折那 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra,​ name of the 解深密經 sutra.
 +
 +删提嵐 Described as a fabulous world of the past whose name is given as Śaṇḍilya,​ but this is doubtful.
 +
 +删闍夜 (or 耶毘羅胝子);​ 删逝移毘刺知子 Sañjaya-Vairāṭīputra,​ or Saṁjayin Vairaḍīputra,​ one of the six founders of heretical or non-Buddhist schools, whose doctrine was that pain and suffering would end in due course, like unwinding a ball of silk, hence there was no need of seeking the '​Way'​.
 +
 +判 Divide, judge, decide.
 +
 +判教 Division of the Buddha'​s teaching, e.g. that of Tiantai, into the five periods and eight teachings, that of Huayan into five teachings, etc.
 +
 +判釋 To divide and explain sutras; to arrange in order, analyse the Buddha'​s teaching.
 +
 +利 paṭu, tīkṣṇa;​ sharp, keen, clever; profitable, beneficial; gain, advantage; interest.
 +
 +利人 To benefit or profit men, idem利他 parahita; the bodhisattva-mind is 自利利他 to improve oneself for the purpose of improving or benefiting others; the Buddha-mind is 利他一心 with single mind to help others, pure altruism; 利生 is the extension of this idea to 衆生 all the living, which of course is not limited to men or this earthly life; 利物 is also used with the same meaning, 物 being the living.
 +
 +利使 The sharp or clever envoy, i.e. the chief illusion of regarding the ego and its experiences and ideas as real, one of the five chief illusions.
 +
 +利劍 A sharp sword, used figuratively for Amitābha, and Mañjuśrī,​ indicating wisdom, discrimination,​ or power over evil.
 +
 +利智 Keen intelligence,​ wisdom, discrimination;​ pāṭava.
 +
 +利根 Sharpness, cleverness, intelligence,​ natural powers, endowment; possessed of powers of the pañca-indryāni (faith, etc.) or the five sense-organs,​ v. 五根.
 +
 +利樂 Blessing and joy; the blessing being for the future life, the joy for the present; or aid (for salvation) and the joy of it.
 +
 +利樂有情 To bless and give joy to the living, or sentient, the work of a bodhisattva.
 +
 +利波波 離波多; 黎婆多; 頡隸伐多 Revata; Raivata. (1) A Brahman hermit; one of the disciples of Śākyamuni,​ to be reborn as Samanta-prabhāsa. (2) President of the second synod, a native of Sāṅkāśya. (3) A contemporary of Aśoka, mentioned in connection with the third synod. Cf. Eitel.
 +
 +利益 Benefit, aid, to bless; hence 利益妙 the wonder of Buddha'​s blessing, in opening the minds of all to enter the Buddha-enlightenment.
 +
 +利行攝 saṃgraha-vastu,​ the drawing of all beings to Buddhism through blessing them by deed, word, and will; one of the 四攝法 q.v.
 +
 +利辯 Sharp and keen discrimination,​ or ratiocination,​ one of the seven characteristics 七種辯 of the bodhisattva.
 +
 +利養 To nourish oneself by gain; gain; avarice.
 +
 +利養縛 The bond of selfish greed, one of the two bonds, gain and fame.
 +
 +[231]
 +
 +別 Separate, divide, part from, other, different, differentiate,​ special.
 +
 +別他那 Veṣṭana,​ 吠率努, name of a deva; the second term suggests Viṣṇu, and Veṣṭu might be a conception of Viṣṇu; the intp. 圍 suits both, for Veṣṭana means surrounding,​ enclosing, and Viṣṇu, pervade, encompass.
 +
 +別依 Secondary texts or authorities,​ in contrast with 總依 the principal texts of a school.
 +
 +別傳 Separately handed down; oral tradition; to pass on the teaching from mind to mind without writing, as in the Chan (Zen) or Intuitional school. Also 單傳.
 +
 +別劫 antara-kalpas,​ small or intermediate kalpas, v. 劫.
 +
 +別向圓修 The 向 of the 別教, i. e. the Separatist or Differentiating school, is the 修 of the 圓教 or Perfect school; i.e. when the 別教 Bodhisattva reaches the stage of the 十囘向, he has reached the 修 stage of the perfect nature and observance according to the 圓教 or Perfect school.
 +
 +別圓 The 別教 and 圓教 schools, q. v. and 四教.
 +
 +別境 Different realms, regions, states, or conditions.
 +
 +別境心所 vibhāvanā;​ the ideas, or mental states, which arise according to the various objects or conditions toward which the mind is directed, e.g. if toward a pleasing object, then desire arises.
 +
 +別報 Differentiated rewards according to previous deeds, i.e. the differing conditions of people in this life resulting from their previous lives.
 +
 +別念佛 To intone the name of a special Buddha.
 +
 +別惑 別見 Delusions arising from differentiation,​ mistaking the seeming for the real; these delusions according to the 別教 are gradually eradicated by the Bodhisattva during his first stage.
 +
 +別教 The '​different'​ teaching of the 華嚴宗. Both the Huayan school and the Lotus school are founded on the 一乘 or One Vehicle idea; the Lotus school asserts that the Three Vehicles are really the One Vehicle; the Huayan school that the One Vehicle differs from the Three Vehicles; hence the Lotus school is called the 同教一乘 unitary, while the Huayan school is the 別教一乘 Differentiating school.
 +
 +別時念佛 To call upon Buddha at special times. When the ordinary religious practices are ineffective the Pure Land sect call upon Buddha for a period of one to seven days, or ten to ninety days. Also 如法念佛.
 +
 +別業 Differentiated karma (the cause of different resultant conditions);​ cf. 總業.
 +
 +別理隨緣 The 理 li is the 眞如 bhūtatathatā,​ which one school says is different in operation, while another asserts that it is the same, for all things are the chen-ju .
 +
 +別相 viśeṣa; differentiation;​ difference, one of the 六相 of the Huayan school.
 +
 +別相三觀 The three views of the 別教 in regard to the absolute, the phenomenal, the medial 空假中 as separate ideas.
 +
 +別衆 For a monk schismatically or perversely to separate himself in religious duties from his fellow-monks is called duṣkṛta,​ an offence or wickedness, v. 突吉羅.
 +
 +別見 Unenlightened,​ or heterodox, views.
 +
 +別解脫戒 Another name for the commandments,​ which liberate by the avoidance of evil. Also別解脫律儀.
 +
 +別請 Special deference paid by singling out or inviting one member of the community; which procedure is against monastic rules.
 +
 +別願 Special vows, as the forty-eight of Amitābha, or the twelve of 藥師佛 Yao Shih Fo (Bhaiṣajya),​ as contrasted with general vows taken by all Bodhisattvas.
 +
 +劬 Toil; translit. k, gh.
 +
 +劬嬪 (劬嬪陀) Kapphiṇa, v. 劫賓那.
 +
 +劬師羅 Ghoṣira, v. 具史羅.
 +
 +劬毗耶 瞿波 Gopā, i. e. Yaśodharā,​ wife of Śākyamuni,​ v. 耶.
 +
 +助 Help, aid, assist; auxiliary.
 +
 +助音 To assist in singing, or intoning.
 +
 +助業 Auxiliary karma, i.e. deeds or works, e.g. reciting the sutras about the Pure Land, worship, praise, and offering, as additional to direct karma 正業, i.e. faith in Amitābha, expressed by constant thought of him and calling on his name.
 +
 +[232]
 +
 +助道 Auxiliary means, e.g. of meditation; auxiliary discipline; any aid to faith or virtue.
 +
 +劫 刧 A kalpa, aeon, age; also translit. ka; 'a fabulous period of time, a day of Brahmā or 1, 000 Yugas, a period of four hundred and thirty-two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of the world; (a month of Brahmā is supposed to contain thirty such kalpas; according to the Mahābhārata twelve months of Brahmā constitute his year, and one hundred such years his lifetime; fifty years of Brahmā are supposed to have elapsed... ).' M. W. An aeon of incalculable time, therefore called a 大時節 great time-node. v. 劫波.
 +
 +劫初 The beginning of the kalpa of formation; the kalpa of creation; also 成劫.
 +
 +劫地羅 khadira v. 竭地羅.
 +
 +劫婆吒 劫縛拏 kaparda, a shell, cowrie, small coin.
 +
 +劫婆羅樹 v. 劫波樹 and 劫沙波裟 or 劫具, for both of which it is used.
 +
 +劫布怛那 (or 劫布呾那or 劫布咀那or 劫布俎那) Kapotana, or Kebudhana; an ancient kingdom, the modern Kebud or Keshbūd, north of Samarkand.
 +
 +劫布羅 karpūra, camphor, described as 龍腦香 dragon-brain scent.
 +
 +劫比他 Kapittha. (1) An ancient kingdom of Central India, also called 僧佉尸 Saṃkāśya. (2) A Brahman of Vṛji who ill-treated the Buddhists of his time, was reborn as a fish, and was finally converted, by Śākyamuni,​ Eitel.
 +
 +劫比拏 idem劫賓那.
 +
 +劫比 (劫比羅) kapila; also 劫畢羅; 迦比羅 (or 迦毗羅) The meaning is '​brown',​ but it is chiefly used for 'the sage Kapila, founder of the classical Sāṃkhya'​ philosophy and the school of that name.
 +
 +劫比羅天 金比羅天;​ 倶鞠羅天 A deva, or demon, called Kapila, or Kumbhīra, or Kubera.
 +
 +劫比羅伐窣堵 (or 劫比羅伐窣都) Kapilavastu,​ 劫比羅國;​ 迦毘羅衞;​ 迦毗羅蘇都 (or 伽毗羅蘇都) (or 迦毗羅皤窣都) (or伽毗羅皤窣都);​ 迦羅 (or 迦夷 or 迦維); 伽毗黎, etc. Capital of the principality occupied by the Śākya clan; destroyed during Śākyamuni'​s life, according to legend; about 100 miles due north of Benares, north-west of present Gorakhpur; referred to in 西域記.
 +
 +劫比舍也 Said to be 罽賓 Kashmir.
 +
 +劫水 The flood in the kalpa of destruction,​ v. 三災.
 +
 +劫波 kalpa; also劫簸; 劫跛; v. 劫. Aeon, age. The period of time between the creation and recreation of a world or universe; also the kalpas of formation, existence, destruction,​ and non-existence,​ which four as a complete period are called mahākalpa 大劫. Each great kalpa is subdivided into four asaṇkhyeya-kalpas (阿僧企耶 i.e. numberless, incalculable):​ (1) kalpa of destruction saṃvarta; (2)kalpa of utter annihilation,​ or empty kalpa 増滅劫; 空劫 saṃvarta-siddha;​ (3) kalpa of formation 成劫 vivarta; (4) kalpa of existence 住劫 vivartasiddha;​ or they may be taken in the order 成住壤空. Each of the four kalpas is subdivided into twenty antara-kalpas,​ 小劫 or small kalpas, so that a mahākalpa consists of eighty small kalpas. Each small kalpa is divided into a period of 増 increase and 減 decrease; the increase period is ruled over by the four cakravartīs in succession, i.e. the four ages of iron, copper, silver, gold, during which the length of human life increases by one year every century to 84,000 years, and the length of the human body to 8,400 feet. Then comes the kalpa of decrease divided into periods of the three woes, pestilence, war, famine, during which the length of human life is gradually reduced to ten years and the human body to 1 foot in height. There are other distinctions of the kalpas. A small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as 336,000,000 years, and a mahākalpa as 1,​334,​000,​000 years. There are many ways of illustrating the length of a kalpa, e.g. pass a soft cloth over a solid rock 40 li in size once in a hundred years, when finally the rock has been thus worn away a kalpa will not yet have passed; or a city of 40 li, filled with mustard seeds, one being removed every century till all have gone, a kalpa will not yet have passed. Cf. 成劫.
 +
 +劫波婆 (or 劫波育 or 劫波羅 or 劫波薩); 劫婆羅; 劫具 (劫具婆) kārpāsa is cotton, Gossypium Herbaceum; but this refers especially to kārpāsī, the cotton tree.
 +
 +劫波杯 kapāla, a bowl, skull; the drinking bowl of Śiva, a skull filled with blood.
 +
 +劫波樹 kalpataru A tree in Indra'​s garden bearing fruit according to the seasons.
 +
 +[233]
 +
 +劫波羅 kapāla, a skull; also kārpāsa, see劫波娑.
 +
 +劫波娑天 Yama, as ruler of time, 時分天.
 +
 +劫海 The ocean of kalpas, i.e. their great number.
 +
 +劫濁 The impure or turbid kalpa, when the age of life is decreasing and all kinds of diseases afflict men.
 +
 +劫火 The fire in the kalpa of destruction;​ also 劫盡火; 劫焰; 劫燒 v. 三災.
 +
 +劫灰 kalpa-ash, the ashes after the fire kalpa of destruction.
 +
 +劫災 The calamity of fire, wind, and water, during the 壞劫 kalpa of destruction.
 +
 +劫焰 kalpa-flames,​ idem 劫火.
 +
 +劫燒 idem劫火.
 +
 +劫簸 idem 劫波.
 +
 +劫具 v. 劫波娑.
 +
 +劫賓那 Kapphiṇa; also 劫比拏王;​ 劫庀那 (or 劫比那, or 劫譬那); or Kampilla, 金毗羅; whose monastic name was Mahā-kapphiṇa;​ intp. as 房宿 (born) under the constellation Scorpio; he is said to have understood astronomy and been king of Southern Kośala; he became a disciple of Śākyamuni and is to be reborn as Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.
 +
 +劫跛劫跛夜帝 ? kalpa-kalpāyati,​ perhaps connected with klṛp, intp. as 離分別 (or 無分別) indiscriminate,​ undifferentiate.
 +
 +卵生 aṇḍaja. Egg-born, one of the four ways of coming into existence, v. 四生.
 +
 +却 Decline, reject; but, yet.
 +
 +却入生死 To leave his perfect life to enter into the round of births and deaths, as a Bodhisattva does.
 +
 +吿 To inform; plead; accuse.
 +
 +吿香 To inform by offering incense.
 +
 +吸 To suck up, inhale.
 +
 +呼吸 Exhale and inhale.
 +
 +吟 Chant, hum, mutter.
 +
 +吟詠 吟諷 To intone, repeat.
 +
 +吹 To blow; puff, praise.
 +
 +吹光 To blow out a light, a blown-out light.
 +
 +吹毛 Name of a sharp sword, or Excalibur, that would sever a falling feather; to blow hair or fur.
 +
 +吹法螺 To blow the conch of the Law, the Buddha'​s preaching.
 +
 +吽 M020011 Translit. for hūṃ, which is interpreted as the bodhi, or omniscience,​ of all Buddhas.
 +
 +吽吽 The lowing of oxen.
 +
 +吽迦囉身 Hūṃkāra,​ Puxian 普賢 Samantabhadra in his minatory aspect against demons.
 +
 +呌喚 Raurava; also 號呌; 呼呼. The wailing hells, the fourth of the eight hot hells, where the inmates cry aloud on account of pain.
 +
 +君 Prince, noble, ideal man or woman; translit. kun.
 +
 +君持 君遲; 軍持; 据穉迦 (or 据稚迦) kuṇḍa, kuṇḍikā,​ a pitcher, waterpot; washbowl.
 +
 +君荼 (or 軍荼) kuṇḍa, a hole in the ground for the fire at the fire altar: the homa or fire altar.
 +
 +吠 To bark (as a dog); translit. ve, vi, vai; cf. 毘; 鞞; 衞; 別.
 +
 +吠世師 吠世史迦 Vaiśeṣika,​ v. 衞.
 +
 +吠努璃耶 vaiḍūrya,​ lapis lazuli.
 +
 +吠嚧遮那;​吠路者那 Vairocana v. 毘.
 +
 +吠室囉末拏 Vaiśravaṇa,​ v. 鞞.
 +
 +吠嵐 vairambha, v. 毘.
 +
 +吠摩質怛利 vimalacitra,​ v. 毘.
 +
 +吠率怒 Veṣṭana,​ v. 別.
 +
 +吠瑠璃 (吠瑠璃耶) vaiḍūrya,​ lapis lazuli.
 +
 +吠舍 鞞吠(or 毘吠);​吠奢 vaiśya; the third of the four Indian castes, that of agriculture and trade.
 +
 +吠舍佉 (or 薜舍佉); 鼻奢迦 Vaiśākha; the second Indian month, from 15th of 2nd to 16th of 3rd Chinese months.
 +
 +吠舍釐 (or 吠舍離) Vaiśālī, v. 毘.
 +
 +吠陀 Veda, v. 韋.
 +
 +含 To hold in the mouth: cherish: restrain.
 +
 +含中教 A Tiantai term for the 通教 which was midway between or interrelated with Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna.
 +
 +含情 All beings possessing feeling, sentience.
 +
 +含生 含靈 Living beings, all beings possessing life, especially sentient life.
 +
 +含華 In the closed lotus flower, i.e. those who await the opening of the flower for rebirth in Paradise.
 +
 +含識 含類 All sentient beings.
 +
 +坊 A place, locality; a temple, place of assembly, etc.
 +
 +[234]
 +
 +均 Equal, in balance, all; used for kun.
 +
 +均提 Kunti, (a) said to be a devoted disciple of Śāriputra;​ (b) one of the attendants on Mañjuśrī.
 +
 +坐 niṣad; niṣaṇṇa;​ sit; rest; situated.
 +
 +坐具 given as niṣīdana,​ an article for sitting on, said to be a cloth, or mat.
 +
 +坐久成勞 To accomplish one's labour by prolonged sitting, as did Bodhidharma.
 +
 +坐參 The evening meditation at a monastery (preceding instruction by the abbot).
 +
 +坐堂 A sitting room, the assembly room of the monks.
 +
 +坐夏 坐臘 varṣā; the retreat or rest during the summer rains.
 +
 +坐夏由 A certificate of "​retreat"​ given to a wandering monk.
 +
 +坐禪 To sit in dhyāna, i.e. abstract meditation, fixed abstraction,​ contemplation;​ its introduction to China is attributed to Bodhidharma (though it came earlier), and its extension to Tiantai.
 +
 +坐禪堂 The monks' assembly room.
 +
 +坐證 Another term for dhyāna contemplation.
 +
 +夾 Squeeze, clip, nip; lined.
 +
 +夾山 Name of a monastery and monk in 澧州 Lizhou under the Tang dynasty.
 +
 +妓 A singing-girl,​ courtesan.
 +
 +妓樂 Female musicians and performers.
 +
 +妖 An imp; to bewitch; magical.
 +
 +妖通 The power to change miraculously into trees and animals; v. 五種通.
 +
 +妙 su, sat, mañju, sūkṣma. Wonderful, beautiful, mystic, supernatural,​ profound, subtle, mysterious. su means good, excellent, surpassing, beautiful, fine, easy. sat means existing, real, good. mañju means beautiful, lovely, charming. Intp. in Chinese as 不可思議 beyond thought or discussion; 絕待 special, outstanding;​ 無比 incomparable;​ 精微深遠 subtle and profound.
 +
 +妙中 The profound medium (madhya); the universal life essence, the absolute, the bhūtatathatā which expresses the unity of all things, i.e. the doctrine held by Tiantai as distinguished from the 別教 which holds the madhya doctrine but emphasizes the dichotomy of the 空 transcendental and 假 phenomenal.
 +
 +妙假 The profound meaning of phenomena of Tiantai, that they are the bhūtatathatā (e.g. water and wave) as distinguished from the 別教 view; cf. 妙中.
 +
 +妙光 Varaprabha, Wonderful Light, an ancient incarnation of Mañjuśrī.
 +
 +妙光佛 Sūryaraśmi,​ the 930th Buddha of the present kalpa.
 +
 +妙典 The classics of the wonderful dharma, i.e. Mahāyāna.
 +
 +妙吉祥 Wonderful and auspicious, the meaning of Mañjuśrī,​ 妙 for mañju and 吉祥 for śrī; v. 文殊.
 +
 +妙喜世界 The realm of profound joy, the country of Vimalakīrti 維摩居士,​ who is stated to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni;​ v. 維摩詰經 12.
 +
 +妙喜足天 The heaven full of wonderful joy, idem Tuṣita, v. 兜率天.
 +
 +妙善公主 The princess of wonderful goodness, name of Guanyin as third daughter of King 莊嚴 Zhuangyan.
 +
 +妙因 The profound cause, the discipline of the bodhisattva,​ i.e. chastity, and the six pāramitās,​ etc., as producing the Buddha-fruit.
 +
 +妙土 The wonderful land; a Buddha'​s reward-land;​ especially the Western Paradise of Amitābha.
 +
 +妙宗 Profound principles; the Lotus school.
 +
 +妙幢 Ruciraketu. Name of a Bodhisattva.
 +
 +妙幢相三昧 dhvajāgrakeyūra,​ "the ring on the top of a standard,"​ a degree of ecstatic meditation mentioned in the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +妙德 Wonderful virtue, title of Mañjuśrī;​ also an intp. of the meaning of Kapilavastu,​ v. 劫比, etc.
 +
 +妙心 The mind or heart wonderful and profound beyond human thought. According to Tiantai the 別教 limited this to the mind 眞心 of the Buddha, while the 圓教 universalized it to include the unenlightened heart 妄心 of all men.
 +
 +妙意菩薩 Mānavaka, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation as disciple of Dīpaṅkara 然燈佛.
 +
 +妙應 The miraculous response, or self-manifestation of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.
 +
 +[235]
 +
 +妙教 Admirable, profound teaching; i.e. that of the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +妙明 Profoundly enlightened heart or mind, i.e. the knowledge of the finality of the stream of reincarnation.
 +
 +妙智 The wonderful Buddha-wisdom.
 +
 +妙有 The absolute reality, the incomprehensible entity, as contrasted with the superficial reality of phenomena; supernatural existence.
 +
 +妙果 Wonderful fruit, i.e. bodhi or enlightenment and nirvana.
 +
 +妙樂 Wonderful music (in the Pure Land). Miao-yo, the sixth Tiantai patriarch.
 +
 +妙法 saddharma, 薩達摩 (薩達刺摩) The wonderful law or truth (of the Lotus Sutra).
 +
 +妙法一乘 The One Vehicle of the wonderful dharma, or perfect Mahāyāna.
 +
 +妙法堂 善法堂 The hall of wonderful dharma, situated in the south-west corner of the Trāyastriṃśas heaven, v. 忉, where the thirty-three devas discuss whether affairs are according to law or truth or the contrary.
 +
 +妙法宮 The palace of the wonderful Law, in which the Buddha ever dwells.
 +
 +妙法燈 The lamp of the wonderful Law shining into the darkness of ignorance.
 +
 +妙法船 The bark or boat of wonderful dharma, capable of transporting men over the sea of life into nirvana.
 +
 +妙法華 idem妙法蓮華.
 +
 +妙法藏 The treasury of the wonderful dharma.
 +
 +妙法輪 The wheel of the wonderful Law, Buddha'​s doctrine regarded as great cakra or wheel.
 +
 +妙法蓮華 法華 The wonderful truth as found in the Lotus Sutra. the One Vehicle Sutra; which is said to contain 實法 Buddha'​s complete truth as compared with his previous 權法 or 方便法, i.e. partial, or expedient teaching, but both are included in this perfect truth. The sutra is the Saddhamapuṇḍarīka 正法華經 or (添品妙法蓮華經) 妙法蓮華經,​ also known as 薩曇芥陀利經,​ of which several translations in whole or part were made from Sanskrit into Chinese, the most popular being by Kumārajīva. It was the special classic of the Tiantai school, which is sometimes known as the 蓮宗 Lotus school, and it profoundly influenced Buddhist doctrine in China, Japan, and Tibet. The commentaries and treatises on it are very numerous; two by Chih-i 智顗 of the Tiantai school being the妙法蓮華經文句 and the 玄義.
 +
 +妙無 asat, the mystery of non-existence.
 +
 +妙玄 Wonderful and profound; an abbreviation for妙法蓮華經玄義 the Tiantai commentary on the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +妙眞如性 The profound nature of the bhūtatathatā,​ the totality, or fundamental nature, of all things.
 +
 +妙臂菩薩 Subāhu-kumāra,​ the Bodhisattva of the wonderful arm; there is a sutra of this name.
 +
 +妙色 surūpa, 蘇樓波. The wonderful form or body, i.e. of a Buddha'​s saṃbhogakāya and his Buddha-land.
 +
 +妙色身如來 Surūpakāya Tathāgata (Akṣobhya,​ the Buddha of the East), who is thus addressed when offerings are made to the hungry spirits.
 +
 +妙莊王 (妙莊嚴王) Śubhavyūha,​ the king who is the subject and title of the twenty-seventh chapter of the Lotus Sutra. He is also reputed to be the father of Guanyin.
 +
 +妙蓮華 The wonderful lotus, symbol of the pure wisdom of Buddha, unsullied in the midst of the impurity of the world.
 +
 +妙行 The profound act by which a good karma is produced, e.g. faith; v. 一行一切行.
 +
 +妙見 The beautiful sight, i.e. Ursa Major, or the Bodhisattva who rules there, styled 妙見大士 (or 妙見菩薩),​ though some say Śākyamuni,​ others Guanyin, others 藥師 Bhaiṣajya,​ others the seven Buddhas. His image is that of a youth in golden armour.
 +
 +妙覺 The wonderful enlightenment of Mahāyāna, or self-enlightenment to enlighten others.
 +
 +妙覺地 The stage of wonderful enlightenment,​ Buddhahood.
 +
 +妙覺性 The profound, enlightened nature, that of Buddha, one of the 六性.
 +
 +妙觀 The wonderful system of the three Tiantai meditations;​ v. 三諦, 三觀.
 +
 +妙語藏 The storehouse of miraculous words, mantras, dhāraṇī,​ or magic spells of Shingon.
 +
 +妙賢 Subhadra, 善賢 A monk referred to in the 西域記 Records of Western Lands.
 +
 +[236]
 +
 +妙趣 The wonderful destiny or metempsychosis,​ i.e. that of Mahāyāna.
 +
 +妙車 The wonderful vehicles (mentioned in the Lotus Sutra).
 +
 +妙門 The wonderful door of dharma; nirvana; the six Tiantai methods leading through meditation to enlightenment and the state of nirvana.
 +
 +妙音 Wonderful sound. (1) Gadgadasvara,​ 妙音菩薩 (or 妙音大士) a Bodhisattva,​ master of seventeen degrees of samādhi, residing in Vairocanaraśmi-pratimaṇḍita,​ whose name heads chap. 24 of the Lotus Sutra. (2) Sughoṣa, a sister of Guanyin; also a Buddha like Varuṇa controlling the waters 水天德佛,​ the 743rd Buddha of the present kalpa. (3) Ghoṣa, 瞿沙 an arhat, famous for exegesis, who "​restored the eyesight of Dharmavivardhana by washing his eyes with the tears of people who were moved by his eloquence."​ Eitel.
 +
 +妙音徧滿 Universal wonderful sound, Manojña-śabdābhigarjita,​ the kalpa of Ānanda as Buddha.
 +
 +妙音天 (妙音樂天) Sarasvatī, the wife or female energy of Brahmā. Also called 辨才天 (辨才天女) Jap. Benzaiten, or Benten; goddess of eloquence, learning, and music, bestower of the Sanskrit language and letters, and the bestower of 財 riches; also the river goddess. Sometimes considered as masculine. Honoured among the seven gods of luck, and often represented as mounted on a dragon or a serpent.
 +
 +妙音鳥 The wonderful-voice bird, the kalaviṅka.
 +
 +妙顯山 The mountain of marvelous appearance, i.e. Sumeru.
 +
 +妙高山 (妙高山王) The wonderful high mountain, Sumeru; the king of mountains.
 +
 +孝 Filial, obedient.
 +
 +孝子 A filial son.
 +
 +孝服 Mourning clothes for parents.
 +
 +孝順 Obedient.
 +
 +孛 Po; plants shooting; a comet.
 +
 +孛伽夷 Bhagai. A city south of Khotan, formerly famous for a statue exhibiting all the thirty-two lakṣanas or marks on the body of Buddha.
 +
 +宏 Vast, spacious.
 +
 +宏智 Hung-chih, posthumous name of a monk of 天童 Tiant'​ung monastery, Ningpo, early in the twelfth century.
 +
 +宋 The Sung dynasty, A.D. 960-1280.
 +
 +宋元入藏諸大小乘經 Sutras of the Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna admitted into the canon during the Northern and Southern Sung (A.D. 960-1127 and 1127-1280) and Yuan (A.D. 1280-1368) dynasties. B.N., 782-1081.
 +
 +宋帝王 The third of the ten rulers of Hades, who presides over the Kālasūtra,​ the hell of black ropes.
 +
 +尾 Tail: end.
 +
 +尾儞也 vibhā, to shine, illuminate, tr, by 明, a name for the Shingon sect 眞言 because of its power to dispel the darkness of delusion.
 +
 +尾嚕愽乞叉 virūpākṣa,​ epithet for the three-eyed deva, Śiva. See also 毘流波叉.
 +
 +尾嚕茶迦 Virūḍhaka idem 毘璢璃, one of the four maharāja-devas.
 +
 +尿 Urine, urinate.
 +
 +尿牀鬼子 A urinating ghost; a term of abuse.
 +
 +尿闥 A urinal.
 +
 +希 Rare, seldom, few; to hope for.
 +
 +希奇 Rare and extraordinary.
 +
 +希天施;​希求施 Giving in hope of heaven, or bliss; one of the 八種布施.
 +
 +希有 Rare, extraordinary,​ uncommon, few.
 +
 +希有人 There are few, a sad exclamation,​ indicating that those who accept Buddha'​s teaching are few, or that those who do evil and repent, or give favours and remember favours, etc., are few.
 +
 +希法 adbhutadharma;​ supernatural things, prodigies, miracles, a section of the twelve classical books.
 +
 +希祀鬼 Ghosts that hope for sacrificial offerings (from their descendants).
 +
 +希連河 希連禪 The river Nairañjanā,​ v. 尼.
 +
 +希麟音義 The dictionary compiled by Hsi-lin of the Tang dynasty, supplementing the 慧琳音義 Hui-lin-yin-i. Sound and meaning accord with Hui-lin, and terms used in translations made subsequent to that work are added.
 +
 +序 Seriatim; preface, introduction;​ the opening phrase of a sutra, "Thus have I heard;"​ an opening phrase leading up to a subject.
 +
 +序王 The introduction by Chih-i to the Lotus Sutra. Introductions are divided into 序, 正, and 流通, the first relating to the reason for the book; the second to its method; and the third to its subsequent history.
 +
 +弟 Younger brother.
 +
 +弟子 Disciple, disciples.
 +
 +形 Form, figure, appearance, the body.
 +
 +形像 pratimā, an image or likeness (of Buddha).
 +
 +形山 The body, comparable to a mountain.
 +
 +形貌 Form, appearance.
 +
 +形貌欲 The desire awakened on seeing a beautiful form, one of the 六欲 six desires.
 +
 +[237]
 +
 +形色 saṃsthānarūpa,​ the characteristics of form— long, short, square, round, high, low, straight, crooked. It is also associated with rūpāvacara as personal appearance, and as a class of gods in the realm of form.
 +
 +志 Will, resolve, 志意; 心志; also data, records.
 +
 +快 Glad, joyful; quick, sharp.
 +
 +快樂 Joyful.
 +
 +快目王 The quick-eyed king, Sudhīra, or highly intelligent,​ who could see through a wall 40 li away, yet who took out his eyes to give as alms; v. 賢愚經 6.
 +
 +忻 Delight, joy.
 +
 +忌 Avoid, tabu, dread; hate, jealous.
 +
 +忌日 諱日 The tabu day, i.e. the anniversary of the death of a parent or prince, when all thoughts are directed to him, and other things avoided.
 +
 +忍 kṣānti, 羼提 (or 羼底); patience, endurance, (a) in adverse circumstances,​ (b) in the religious state. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten, and fourteen, indicating various forms of patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance,​ endurance, constancy, or "​perseverance of the saints,"​ both in mundane and spiritual things.
 +
 +忍不墮惡趣 The stage of patience ensures that there will be no falling into the lower paths of transmigration.
 +
 +忍仙 The patient ṛṣi, or immortal of patience, i.e. the Buddha.
 +
 +忍位 The stage of patience.
 +
 +忍加行 The discipline of patience, in the 四加行 four Hīnayāna disciplines;​ also in the Mahāyāna.
 +
 +忍善 The patient and good; or patient in doing good.
 +
 +忍土 The place of patience or endurance, this world.
 +
 +忍地 The stage of patience, i.e. of enlightenment separating from the chain of transmigration.
 +
 +忍智 Patience and wisdom. In the Hīnayāna, patience is cause, wisdom effect; in Mahāyāna, the two are merged, though patience precedes wisdom.
 +
 +忍水 Patience in its depth and expanse compared to water.
 +
 +忍法 (忍法位) The method or stage of patience, the sixth of the seven stages of the Hīnayāna in the attainment of arhatship, or sainthood: also the third of the four roots of goodness.
 +
 +忍波羅蜜 The patience pāramitā, v. 忍辱.
 +
 +忍界 sahā, or sahāloka, or sahālokadhātu. The universe of persons subject to transmigration,​ the universe of endurance.
 +
 +忍調 Patiently to harmonize, i.e. the patient heart tempers and subdues anger and hatred.
 +
 +忍辱 羼提波羅蜜多 (or 羼底波羅蜜多) kṣānti pāramitā; patience, especially bearing insult and distress without resentment, the third of the six pāramitās 六度. Its guardian Bodhisattva is the third on the left in the hall of space in the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +忍辱仙 kṣāntyṛṣi;​ the ṛṣi who patiently suffered insult, i.e. Śākyamuni,​ in a former life, suffering mutilation to convert Kalirāja.
 +
 +忍辱地 The stage of patience. Two kinds are distinguished,​ patience which endures (1) insults originating in men, such as hatred, or abuse, (2) distresses arising from natural causes such as heat, cold, age, sickness, etc.
 +
 +忍辱太子 The patient prince, of Vārāṇaśī (Benares), who gave a piece of his flesh to heal his sick parents, which was efficacious because he had never given way to anger.
 +
 +忍辱衣 The robe of patience, a patient heart which, like a garment, wards off all outward sin. A general name for the kaṣāya, monk's robe.
 +
 +忍鎧 (忍辱鎧) Patience as armour, protecting against evils; also the kaṣāya, monk's robe.
 +
 +成 Complete, finish, perfect, become.
 +
 +成佛 To become Buddha, as a Bodhisattva does on reaching supreme perfect bodhi.
 +
 +成佛得脫 To become Buddha and obtain deliverance (from the round of mortality).
 +
 +成劫 vivarta kalpa, one of the four kalpas, consisting of twenty small kalpas during which worlds and the beings on them are formed. The others are: 住劫 vivarta-siddha kalpa, kalpa of abiding, or existence, sun and moon rise, sexes are differentiated,​ heroes arise, four castes are formed, social life evolves. 壞劫saṃvarta kalpa, that of destruction,​ consisting of sixty-four small kalpas when fire, water, and wind destroy everything except the fourth dhyāna. 空劫 saṃvarta-siddha kalpa, i.e. of annihilation. v. 劫波. ​
 +
 +成唯識論 Vidya-matrāṣiddhi śāstra, in 10 juan, being Vasubandhu'​s 唯識 in 30 juan reduced by Xuanzang, also by others, to 10. There are works on it by various authors.
 +
 +成實 Completely true, or reliable, perfect truth, an abbreviation for成實宗,​ 成實論, 成實師.
 +
 +成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect (Jap. Jōjitsu-shū),​ based upon the Satyasiddhi śāstra of Harivarman, v. 訶. tr. by Kumārajīva. In China it was a branch of the 三論 San Lun sect. It was a Hīnayāna variation of the śūnya 空 doctrine. The term is defined as perfectly establishing the real meaning of the sutras.
 +
 +成實論 tr. as above is in 16 juan; there are other works on it.
 +
 +成就 siddhi: accomplishment,​ fulfillment,​ completion, to bring to perfection.
 +
 +成就衆生 To transform all beings by developing their Buddha-nature and causing them to obtain enlightenment.
 +
 +成熟者 The ripe; those who attain; those in whom the good nature, immanent in all the living, completes their salvation.
 +
 +[238]
 +
 +成等正覺 To attain to perfect enlightenment,​ become Buddha.
 +
 +成自然覺 To attain to natural enlightenment as all may do by beholding eternal truth 實相 within their own hearts.
 +
 +成身會 根本會; 羯磨會 The first group in the nine Vajradhātu groups.
 +
 +成道 To attain the Way, or become enlightened,​ e.g. the Buddha under the bodhi tree.
 +
 +成道會 臘八 The annual commemoration of the Buddha'​s enlightenment on the 8th day of the 12th month.
 +
 +我 I, my, mine; the ego, the master of the body, compared to the ruler of a country. Composed of the five skandhas and hence not a permanent entity. It is used for ātman, the self, personality. Buddhism takes as a fundamental dogma 無我, i.e. no 常我, no permanent ego, only recognizing a temporal or functional ego. The erroneous idea of a permanent self continued in reincarnation is the source of all illusion. But the Nirvana Sutra definitely asserts a permanent ego in the transcendental world, above the range of reincarnation;​ and the trend of Mahāyāna supports such permanence; v. 常我樂淨.
 +
 +我事 My body; myself; my affair.
 +
 +我人四相 The four ejects of the ego in the Diamond Sutra: (1) 我相 the illusion that in the five skandhas there is a real ego; (2) 人相 that this ego is a man, and different from beings of the other paths; (3) 衆生相 that all beings have an ego born of the five skandhas; (4) 壽相 that the ego has age, i.e. a determined or fated period of existence.
 +
 +我倒 The illusion of an ego, one of the four inverted or upside-down ideas.
 +
 +我劣慢 ūnamāna; the pride of thinking myself not much inferior to those who far surpass me. One of the 九慢 q.v.
 +
 +我勝慢 adhimāna; the pride of thinking oneself superior to equals. One of the 九慢.
 +
 +我執 ātma-grāha;​ holding to the concept of the ego; also 人執.
 +
 +我室 The ego as the abode (of all suffering).
 +
 +我德 Power or virtue of the ego, the ego being defined as 自在 sovereign, master, free; v. 我波羅蜜.
 +
 +我愚 Ego ignorance, holding to the illusion of the reality of the ego.
 +
 +我想 The thought that the ego has reality.
 +
 +我愛 Self-love; the love of or attachment to the ego, arising with the eighth vijñāna.
 +
 +我慢 abhimāna, ātma-mada. Egoism exalting self and depreciating others; self-intoxication,​ pride.
 +
 +我我所 I and mine: the self and its possessions.
 +
 +我所 我所有; 我所事 Mine, personal, subjective; personal conditions, possessions,​ or anything related to the self.
 +
 +我所心 The mind that thinks it is owner of things.
 +
 +我所見 The incorrect view that anything is really mine, for all things are but temporal combinations.
 +
 +我有 The illusion that the ego has real existence.
 +
 +我法 Self (or the ego), and things.
 +
 +我法倶有宗 The school that regards the ego and things as real; the 犢子部 Vātsīputrīya school.
 +
 +我波羅蜜 The ego pāramitā in the four based on the Nirvana Sutra in which the transcendental ego is 自在, i.e. has a real and permanent nature; the four are 常 permanency, 樂 joy, 我 personality,​ 淨 purity.
 +
 +我痴 Ego-infatuation,​ confused by the belief in the reality of the ego.
 +
 +我相 Egoism, the concept of the ego as real. Anyone who believes in我相, 人我, 衆生我, 壽我 is not a true Bodhisattva,​ v. 我人四相.
 +
 +我空 生空 (衆生空);​ 人空 Illusion of the concept of the reality of the ego, man being composed of elements and disintegrated when these are dissolved.
 +
 +我空眞如 The Hīnayāna doctrine of impersonality in the absolute, that in truth there is no ego; this position abrogates moral responsibility,​ cf. 原人論.
 +
 +[239]
 +
 +我等慢 mānātimāna;​ the pride of thinking oneself equal to those who surpass us. One of the 九慢.
 +
 +我見 身見 The erroneous doctrine that the ego, or self, composed of the temporary five skandhas, is a reality and permanent.
 +
 +我語取 The attachment to doctrines or statements about the ego. One of the 四取.
 +
 +我顚倒 The illusion that the ego is real; also the incorrect view that the nirvana-ego is non-ego. One of the 四顚倒.
 +
 +戒 śīla, 尸羅. Precept, command, prohibition,​ discipline, rule; morality. It is applied to the five, eight, ten, 250, and other commandments. The five are: (1) not to kill; (2 ) not to steal; (3) not to commit adultery; (4) not to speak falsely; (5) not to drink wine. These are the commands for lay disciples; those who observe them will be reborn in the human realm. The Sarvāstivādins did not sanction the observance of a limited selection from them as did the 成實宗 Satyasiddhi school. Each of the five precepts has five guardian spirits, in all twenty-five,​ 五戒二十五神. The eight for lay disciples are the above five together with Nos. 7, 8, and 9 of the following; the ten commands for the ordained, monks and nuns, are the above five with the following: (6) not to use adornments of flowers, nor perfumes; (7) not to perform as an actor, juggler, acrobat, or go to watch and hear them; (8) not to sit on elevated, broad, and large divans (or beds); (9) not to eat except in regulation hours; (10) not to possess money, gold or silver, or precious things. The 具足戒full commands for a monk number 250, those for a nun are 348, commonly called 500. Śīla is also the first of the 五分法身,​ i.e. a condition above all moral error. The Sutra of Brahma'​s Net has the following after the first five: (6) not to speak of the sins of those in orders; (7) not to vaunt self and depreciate others; (8) not to be avaricious; (9) not to be angry; (10) not to slander the triratna.
 +
 +戒力 The power derived from observing the commandments,​ enabling one who observes the five commandments to be reborn among men, and one who observes the ten positive commands 十善 to be born among devas, or as a king.
 +
 +戒取 Clinging to the commandments of heterodox teachers, e.g. those of ultra-asceticism,​ one of the four attachments,​ 四取 catuḥ-parāmarśa.
 +
 +戒取使 The delusion resulting from clinging to heterodox commandments.
 +
 +戒取見 戒禁取見 Clinging to heterodox ascetic views; one of the five darśana 五見.
 +
 +戒品 The different groupings or subjects of the commandments,​ or discipline; i.e. the 5, 10, 250. etc.
 +
 +戒善 The good root of keeping the commandments,​ from which springs the power for one who keeps the five to be reborn as a man; or for one who keeps the ten to be reborn in the heavens, or as a king.
 +
 +戒器 A utensil fit to receive the rules, i.e. one who is not debarred from entering the order, as is a eunuch, slave, minor, etc.
 +
 +戒垢 The source of defiling the commandments,​ i.e. woman.
 +
 +戒場 The place where monks are given the commandments.
 +
 +戒壇 The altar at which the commandments are received by the novice; the 方等戒壇 is the Mahāyāna altar.
 +
 +戒學 The study of the rules or discipline; one of the three departments 三學, the other two being meditation and philosophy.
 +
 +戒定慧 Discipline, meditation, wisdom; discipline wards off bodily evil, meditation calms mental disturbance,​ wisdom gets rid of delusion and proves truth.
 +
 +戒師 The teacher of the discipline, or of the commandments (to the novice); also 戒和尚.
 +
 +戒師五德 The five virtues of the teacher of the discipline: obedience to the rules, twenty years as monk, ability to explain the vinaya, meditation, ability to explain the abhidharma.
 +
 +戒律 śīla and vinaya. The rules.
 +
 +戒律藏 The Vinaya Piṭaka, the second main division of the Buddhist canon.
 +
 +戒德 The power of the discipline.
 +
 +[240]
 +
 +戒忍 Patience acquired by the observance of the discipline; the first of the ten kṣānti.
 +
 +戒急乘緩 Zealous for the discipline rather than for knowledge, e.g. Hīnayāna.
 +
 +乘急戒緩 One who is zealous for knowledge rather than the discipline, e.g. Vimalakīrti 維摩.
 +
 +乘戒倶急 One who emphasizes both precepts and meditative insight, the Bodhisattva.
 +
 +乘戒倶緩 One who is indifferent to both meditative insight and moral discipline.
 +
 +戒本 The Prātimokṣa 波羅提木叉 q.v.
 +
 +戒本經 is the latter half of the 梵網經.
 +
 +戒波羅密 Moral precepts, the second of the six pāramitās.
 +
 +戒渡離 Upāli, a śūdra, disciple of Śākyamuni,​ famous for his knowledge of the Vinaya; v. 優波離.
 +
 +戒海 The rules are pure and purify like the waters of the ocean.
 +
 +戒牒 戒驗; 度牒 Certificate of ordination of a monk.
 +
 +戒珠 The commandments,​ or rules, are like pure white pearls, adorning the wearer.
 +
 +戒相 The commandments or rules in their various forms; also the commandments as expressions for restraining evil, etc.
 +
 +戒禁 Prohibitions arising out of the fundamental rules; by-laws.
 +
 +戒禁取見 v. 戒取.
 +
 +戒膝 The "​commandments'​ knee," i.e. the right knee bent as when receiving the commandments.
 +
 +戒臘 The number of years a monk has been ordained. 臘 is the name of an offering made at the end of the year in ancient times. Also戒蠟; 戒臈; 僧臘.
 +
 +戒藏 The Vinaya Piṭaka; the collection of rules.
 +
 +戒賢 Śīlabhadra,​ see 尸.
 +
 +戒躅 The rut or way of the commandments;​ the rules.
 +
 +戒門 The way or method of the commandments or rules: obedience to the commandments as a way of salvation.
 +
 +戒香 The perfume of the commandments,​ or rules, i.e. their pervading influence.
 +
 +戒體 The embodiment of the commandments in the heart of the recipient. v. 無表; also the basis, or body, of the commandments.
 +
 +技人 A magician, trickster, conjurer.
 +
 +批 An order of a court, rescript; a contract, lease; to comment, criticize.
 +
 +批那 vīṇā; the Indian lute.
 +
 +抖 To shake.
 +
 +抖擻 斗藪 dhūta; stirring up to duty; discipline. v. 頭陀.
 +
 +折 To snap, break; decide; compound; fold.
 +
 +折伏攝受 To subdue the evil and receive the good; cf. 抑.
 +
 +折利怛羅 (or 折利但羅) Caritra, 發行城 "A port on the south-east frontier of Uḍa (Orissa) whence a considerable trade was carried on with Ceylon."​ Eitel.
 +
 +折句迦 斫折句 (or 所折句) Cakoka, i.e. Karghalik in Turkestan.
 +
 +折石 A broken stone, i.e. irreparable.
 +
 +折蘆 The snapped-off reed on which Bodhidharma is said to have crossed the Yangtsze from Nanking.
 +
 +投 To cast, throw into, surrender, tender.
 +
 +投子 T'​ou-tzu,​ name of a hill and monastery at 舒州 Shu-chou and of 義靑 I-ch'​ing its noted monk.
 +
 +投機 To avail oneself of an opportunity;​ to surrender oneself to the principles of the Buddha in the search for perfect enlightenment.
 +
 +投淵 To cast oneself into an abyss (hoping for eternal life).
 +
 +投華 To cast, or offer flowers in worship.
 +
 +投身 To cast away, or surrender, one's body, or oneself.
 +
 +抑 Curb, repress; or.
 +
 +抑揚教 The third of the five periods of Buddha'​s teaching, as held by the Nirvana sect of China 涅槃宗, during which the 維摩思益 is attributed to him.
 +
 +抑止 To suppress, e. g. 抑止惡事 suppress evil deeds.
 +
 +抑止攝取 The suppression or universal reception of evil beings; pity demands the latter course.
 +
 +扶 Aid, support, uphold.
 +
 +扶塵根 The external organs, i.e. of sight, etc., which aid the senses; 扶塵根 is also written 浮塵根 meaning fleeting, vacuous, these external things having an illusory existence; the real organs, or indriya, are the 正根 or 勝義根 which evolve the ideas.
 +
 +[241]
 +
 +扶律談常 (扶律談常教) The teaching which supports the rules and speaks of the eternal, i. e. the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa Sūtra.
 +
 +扶疏 '​Supporting commentary',​ another name for the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa Sūtra, because according to Tiantai it is an amplification of the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +扶薩 Bodhisattva,​ idem 菩薩.
 +
 +改 To change, correct.
 +
 +改宗 To change one's cult, school of thought, or religion.
 +
 +改悔 To repent and reform.
 +
 +更 To change; a night watch; again; the more.
 +
 +更藥 Medicines that should be taken between dawn and the first watch, of which eight are named, v. 百一羯磨 5.
 +
 +李 Plum.
 +
 +李園 āmravana, the wild-plum (or mango) grove, see 菴.
 +
 +束蘆 To tie reeds together in order to make them stand up, illustration of the interdependence of things and principles.
 +
 +杖林 Yaṣṭivana,​ 洩瑟知林;​ the forest in which a Brahman tried to measure Buddha'​s height with a 16 ft. bamboo pole, but the more he measured the higher the body became; another part of the legend is that the forest grew from the bamboo which he left behind in chagrin.
 +
 +杜 Stop, prevent; azalea.
 +
 +杜口 To shut the mouth, render speechless.
 +
 +杜嚕 turuṣka olibanum, Indian incense, resin, gum used for incense. It is said to resemble peach resin and to grow in Aṭali. Its leaves resemble the pear's and produce pepper; it is said to flourish in the sands of Central Asia and its gum to flow out on to the sands.
 +
 +杜多 杜茶; 頭陀 q. v. dhūta, discipline (to shake off sin, etc. ).
 +
 +杜底 dūta, a messenger; dūtī, a female messenger.
 +
 +杜魯婆跋吒 Dhruvpaṭu,​ a king of Valabhī, son-in-law of Śīladitya.
 +
 +步 (歩) pada; step, pace.
 +
 +步他 v. 佛 Buddha.
 +
 +步擲金剛 or 步擲明王;​ 播般曩結使波 A form of 普賢 Samantabhadra as a vajra-king.
 +
 +每 Each, every.
 +
 +每恒里 v. 彌勒 Maitreya.
 +
 +每恒里末那 maitrīmanas,​ of kindly mind, tr. by 慈悲 merciful.
 +
 +汲 Draw water; emulate, eager.
 +
 +汲井輪 The round of reincarnations is like the waterwheel at the well ever revolving up and down.
 +
 +沐 To bathe; translit. mu, mo.
 +
 +沐魄太子 is 慕魄 one of the former incarnations of Śākyamuni.
 +
 +沈 沉 To sink; heavy.
 +
 +沈冥 Sunk in the gloom of reincarnations and ignorance.
 +
 +沈檀 agaru, or aguru, sandal incense.
 +
 +沈香 (沈水香) aguru, the tree and incense of that name.
 +
 +沈空 To sink into emptiness, or uselessness.
 +
 +沃 Wet, wash, enrich.
 +
 +沃焦石 (or 沃焦山) The rock, or mountain, Pātāla, on the bottom of the ocean, just above the hot purgatory, which absorbs the water and thus keeps the sea from increasing and overflowing. 沃焦海 is the ocean which contains this rock, or mountain.
 +
 +汚 Filthy, impure. kleśa; contamination of attachment to the pleasures of sense, to heretical views, to moral and ascetic practices regarded as adequate to salvation, to the belief in the self, all which cause misery.
 +
 +沒 Sunk, gone; not; translit. m, mu, mo, mau, ma, bu, v, etc.
 +
 +沒交渉 No inter-relation.
 +
 +沒劫 moha, delusion, bewilderment,​ infatuation,​ tr. by 愚 foolishness;​ cf. 謨.
 +
 +沒哩底野吠 Derived from mṛtyu, death; one of Yama's 明王 or rājas.
 +
 +沒巴鼻 No nose to lay hold of; no lead, no bases.
 +
 +沒度 Buddha, v. 佛.
 +
 +沒栗度 mṛdu, soft, pliant, weak.
 +
 +沒栗多 vrata, temporary chastity, or observance.
 +
 +沒曳達利瑟致 māyādṛḍṭi,​ illusion-views,​ intp. by 我見 egoism, the false doctrine that there is a real ego.
 +
 +沒滋味 Tasteless, valueless, useless, e. g. the discussion of the colour of milk by blind people.
 +
 +沒特伽羅子 (or 沒刀伽羅子) v. 目連 (目犍連) Maudgalaputra,​ or Maudgalyāyana.
 +
 +沒馱 buddha, v. 佛.
 +
 +求 To seek, beseech, pray.
 +
 +求不得苦 The pain which results from not receiving what one seeks, from disappointed hope, or unrewarded effort. One of the eight sorrows.
 +
 +求名菩薩 The Qiuming (fame-seeking) bodhisattva,​ v. Lotus Sutra, a name of Maitreya in a previous life. Also, Yaśaskāma,​ 'A disciple of Varaprabhā noted for his boundless ambition and utter want of memory.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +求寂 Seeking nirvāṇa, i. e. the disciple who accepts the ten commandments.
 +
 +求那 guṇa, a quality, characteristic,​ or virtue, e. g. sound, taste, etc.
 +
 +[242]
 +
 +求那毘地 Guṇavṛddhi,​ 德進, an Indian monk who came to China 492-5, tr. three works, d. 502.
 +
 +求那跋摩 Guṇavarman,​ tr. 功德鐙, a prince of Kubhā (Cashmere), who refused the throne, wandered alone, reached China, tr. ten works, two of which were lost by A. D. 730. Born in 367, he died in Nanjing in A. D. 431. He taught that truth is within, not without, and that the truth (dharma) is of oneself, not of another. The centre of his work is placed in 揚州 Yangzhou. It is said that he started the order of nuns in China, v. 翻譯名義 Fan-yi-ming-yi.
 +
 +求那跋陀羅 Guṇabhadra,​ tr. 德賢. (1) A follower of the Mahīśāsakā in Kapiśā. (2) A Brāhmaṇa of Central India, tr. into Chinese some seventy-eight works A. D. 435-443; b. 394, d. 468.
 +
 +沙 bālukā. Sand; sands, e. g. of Ganges 恒河, implying countless; translit. s, ś, ṣ. Cf. 莎.
 +
 +沙劫 Kalpas countless as the sands of Ganges.
 +
 +沙婆婆瑟 saḍ-varṣa;​ the sexennial assembly.
 +
 +沙彌 śrāmaṇera,​ 室羅摩拏洛迦;​ 室末那伊洛迦;​ 室羅摩尼羅 The male religious novice, who has taken vows to obey the ten commandments. The term is explained by 息惡行慈 one who ceases from evil and does works of mercy, or lives altruistically;​ 勤策男 a zealous man; 求寂 one who seeks rest; 求涅槃寂 one who seeks the peace of nirvāṇa. Three kinds are recognized according to age, i. e. 7 to 13 years old, old enough to 驅鳥 'drive away crows';​ 14 to 19, called 應法 able to respond to or follow the doctrine; 20 to 70.
 +
 +沙彌尼 (沙尼) śrāmaṇerikā 室羅摩拏理迦. A female religious novice who has taken a vow to obey the ten commandments,​ i. e. 勤策女 a zealous woman, devoted.
 +
 +沙彌尼戒 The ten commandments taken by the śrāmaṇerikā:​ not to kill living beings, not to steal, not to lie or speak evil, not to have sexual intercourse,​ not to use perfumes or decorate oneself with flowers, not to occupy high beds, not to sing or dance, not to possess wealth, not to eat out of regulation hours, not to drink wine.
 +
 +沙彌戒 The ten commandments of the śrāmaṇera;​ v. 十戒.
 +
 +沙心 Mind like sand in its countless functionings.
 +
 +沙摩帝 Saṃmatīya,​ 正量部 one of the eighteen Hīnayāna sects.
 +
 +沙波訶 svāhā, hail! 裟訶 v. 蘇.
 +
 +沙界 Worlds as numerous as the sands of Ganges.
 +
 +沙羅 sāla, or śāla, 裟羅 the Sāl or Śal tree; the teak tree; the Shorea (or Valeria) Robusta; a tree in general.
 +
 +沙羅王 sālarāja, a title of the Buddha.
 +
 +沙羅那 (or 沙羅拏); 娑刺拏王 ? Śāraṇa (said to be a son of King Udayana) who became a monk.
 +
 +沙羅雙樹 The twin trees in the grove 娑羅林 in which Śākyamuni entered nirvāṇa.
 +
 +沙落迦 '​Charaka,​ a monastery in Kapiśa.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +沙訶 sahā, 娑訶; 索訶 the world around us, the present world. Also svāhā, see above.
 +
 +沙那利迦 ṣāṇṇagarika,​ one of the eighteen Hīnayāna sects.
 +
 +沙門 śramaṇa. 桑門; 娑門; 喪門; 沙門那; 舍羅磨拏;​ 沙迦懣曩;​ 室摩那拏 (1) Ascetics of all kinds; 'the Sarmanai, or Samanaioi, or Germanai of the Greeks, perhaps identical also with the Tungusian Saman or Shaman.'​ Eitel. (2) Buddhist monks 'who 'have left their families and quitted the passions',​ the Semnoi of the Greeks'​. Eitel. Explained by 功勞 toilful achievement,​ 勤息 diligent quieting (of the mind and the passions), 淨志 purity of mind, 貧道 poverty. 'He must keep well the Truth, guard well every uprising (of desire), be uncontaminated by outward attractions,​ be merciful to all and impure to none, be not elated to joy nor harrowed by distress, and able to bear whatever may come.' The Sanskrit root is śram, to make effort; exert oneself, do austerities.
 +
 +沙門果 The fruit, or rebirth, resulting from the practices of the śramaṇa.
 +
 +沙門統 The national superintendent or archbishop over the Order appointed under the Wei dynasty.
 +
 +牢 A gaol, fold, pen; secure, firm.
 +
 +牢關 A firm barrier, a place shut tight, type of the deluded mind.
 +
 +牢籠 Pen, pit, or fold (for animals) and cage (for birds).
 +
 +狂 Deranged, mad, wild.
 +
 +狂亂往生 Saved out of terror into the next life; however distressed by thoughts of hell as the result of past evil life, ten repetitions,​ or even one, of the name of Amitābha ensures entry into his Paradise.
 +
 +狂慧 Foolish wisdom; clever but without calm meditation.
 +
 +狂狗 A mad dog.
 +
 +[243]
 +
 +狂華 muscæ volitantes, dancing flowers before the eyes.
 +
 +狂象 A mad elephant, such is the deluded mind.
 +
 +男 Male.
 +
 +男女 Male and female.
 +
 +男根 The male organ.
 +
 +矣 A particle of finality, pronounced yi, used in 矣栗駄 hṛd, the heart; the essence of a thing.
 +
 +禿 Bald.
 +
 +禿人 禿居士; 禿奴 A monk; a nun, sometimes used as a term of abuse.
 +
 +秀能 The two patriarchs 神秀 Shenxiu and 慧能 Huineng, q. v.
 +
 +私 Private, secret, selfish, illicit.
 +
 +私印 A monk's private seal, which should resemble a skull as reminder of the brevity of life.
 +
 +私婆吒 Vasiṣtha, v. 婆.
 +
 +私婆婆 svabhāva, 'own state, essential or inherent property, innate or peculiar disposition,​ natural state or constitution nature'​ (M. W.), intp. as 自體體 or 自性性.
 +
 +私多 私陀; 悉陀; 徒多; 枲多 Sītā. Described as the '​cold'​ river; one of the four great rivers flowing from the Anavatpta or Anavadata Lake 阿耨達池 in Tibet. One account makes it 'an eastern outflux'​ which subsequently becomes the Yellow River. It is also said to issue from the west. Again, 'the Ganges flows eastward, the Indus south, Vatsch (Oxus) west, Sītā north.'​ Vatsch = Vākṣu. '​According to Xuanzang, however, it is the northern outflux of the Sirikol [Sarikkol] Lake (Lat. 38°20′N.,​ Long. 74°E.) now called Yarkand daria, which flows into Lake Lop, thence underneath the desert of Gobi, and reappears as the source of the Huanghe.'​ Eitel. According to Richard, the Huanghe 'rises a little above two neighbouring lakes of Khchara (Charingnor) and Khnora (Oring-nor). Both are connected by a channel and are situated at an elevation of 14,000 feet. It may perhaps be at first confounded with Djaghing-gol,​ a river 110 miles long, which flows from the south and empties into the channel joining the two lakes'​.
 +
 +究 To go to the bottom of; inquire into; end, fundamental,​ supreme. v. 鳩 for究槃荼 Kumbhāṇḍa and究磨羅 Kumāra; v. 拘尸那 for究施 Kuśināgra.
 +
 +究究吒 kukkuṭa, a cock, or fowl.
 +
 +究竟 Examine exhaustively;​ utmost, final, at the end, a tr. of uttarā, upper, superior, hence 至極 ultimate, supreme.
 +
 +究竟佛 The fundamental,​ ultimate, or supreme Buddha, who has complete comprehension of truth; Buddha in his supreme reality.
 +
 +究竟位 The supreme class or stage, i. e. that of Buddhahood. The Mahāyāna groups the various stages in the attainment of Buddhahood into five, of which this is the highest.
 +
 +究竟卽 The stage of complete comprehension of truth, being the sixth stage of the Tiantai School, v. 六卽.
 +
 +究竟樂 The supreme joy, i. e. nirvāṇa.
 +
 +究竟法身 The supreme dharmakāya,​ the highest conception of Buddha as the absolute.
 +
 +究竟覺 Supreme enlightenment,​ that of Buddha; one of the four kinds of enlightenment in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith.
 +
 +肘 hasta, forearm, the 16,000th part of a yojana; it varies from 1ft. 4in. to 1ft. 8in. in length.
 +
 +良 Good, virtuous, beneficial.
 +
 +良日 吉日 A good, or auspicious, day.
 +
 +良忍 Ryōnin, founder of the Japanese 融通念佛 school.
 +
 +良賁 Liangben, the Tang monk who assisted Amogha in the translation of the 仁王經 Ren Wang Jing.
 +
 +良福田 The field of blessedness,​ cultivated by offerings to Buddha, the Law, and the Order.
 +
 +虬宮 The dragon palace in which Nāgārjuna recited the 華嚴經 Huayan jing.
 +
 +見 darśana, 捺喇捨曩;​ also dṛṣṭi;​ seeing, discerning, judgment, views, opinions; it is thinking, reasoning, discriminating,​ selecting truth, including the whole process of deducing conclusions from premises. It is commonly used in the sense of wrong or heterodox views or theories, i. e. 邪見 or 有見, especially such as viewing the seeming as real and the ego as real. There are groups of two, four, five, seven, ten and sixty-two kinds of 見.
 +
 +見佛 Beholding Buddha; to see Buddha. Hīnayāna sees only the nirmāṇakāya or body of incarnation,​ Mahāyāna sees the spiritual body, or body in bliss, the saṃbhogakāya.
 +
 +見修 Views and practice; heterodoxy; cf. 見思.
 +
 +見地 The stage of insight, or discernment of reality, the fourth of the ten stages of progress toward Buddhahood, agreeing with the 預流果 of Hīnayāna.
 +
 +見大 Visibility (or perceptibility) as one of the seven elements of the universe.
 +
 +[244]
 +
 +見性 To behold the Buddha-nature within oneself, a common saying of the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive School.
 +
 +見思 Views and thoughts, in general 見惑思惑 illusory or misleading views and thoughts; 見 refers partly to the visible world, but also to views derived therefrom, e. g. the ego, with the consequent illusion; 思 to the mental and moral world also with its illusion. The 三惑 three delusions which hinder the 三諦 three axioms are 見思, 塵沙, and 無明 q. v. Hīnayāna numbers 88 kinds and the Mahāyāna 112 of 見惑, of 思惑 10 and 16 respectively.
 +
 +見愛 views and desires, e. g. the illusion that the ego is a reality and the consequent desires and passions; the two are the root of all suffering.
 +
 +見慧 The wisdom of right views, arising from dhyāna meditation.
 +
 +見正 Seeing correctly; said to be the name of a disciple of the Buddha who doubted a future life, to whom the Buddha is said to have delivered the contents of the 見正經.
 +
 +見毒 The poison of wrong views.
 +
 +見漏 The illusion of viewing the seeming as real, v. 四漏.
 +
 +見濁 dṛṣṭi-kaṣāya. Corruption of doctrinal views, one of the five final corruptions.
 +
 +見王齋 The service on the third day when the deceased goes to see King Yama.
 +
 +見相 The state or condition of visibility, which according to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith arises from motion, hence is also called 轉相.
 +
 +見眞 To behold truth, or ultimate reality.
 +
 +見結 The bond of heterodox views, which fastens the individual to the chain of transmigration,​ one of the nine attachments;​ v. 見縛.
 +
 +見網 The net of heterodox views, or doctrines.
 +
 +見縛 The bond of the illusion of heterodox opinions, i. e. of mistaking the seeming for the real, which binds men and robs them of freedom: v. 見結.
 +
 +見取 Clinging to heterodox views, one of the four 取; or as 見取見, one of the 五見 q. v.
 +
 +見取使 The trials of delusion and suffering from holding to heterodox doctrines; one of the ten sufferings or messengers.
 +
 +見取見 dṛṣṭiparāmarśa:​ to hold heterodox doctrines and be obsessed with the sense of the self, v. 五見.
 +
 +見聞 Seeing and hearing, i. e. beholding Buddha with the eyes and hearing his truth with the ears.
 +
 +見處 The state of wrong views, i. e. the state of transmigration,​ because wrong views give rise to it, or maintain it.
 +
 +見諦 The realization of correct views, i. e. the Hīnayāna stage of one who has entered the stream of holy living; the Mahāyāna stage after the first Bodhisattva stage.
 +
 +見諍 Wrangling on behalf of heterodox views; striving to prove them.
 +
 +見道 The way or stage of beholding the truth (of no reincarnation),​ i. e. that of the śrāvaka and the first stage of the Bodhisattva. The second stage is 修道 cultivating the truth; the third 無學道 completely comprehending the truth without further study.
 +
 +見障 The obstruction of heterodox views to enlightenment.
 +
 +見非見 The visible and invisible; phenomenal and noumenal.
 +
 +見顚倒 To see things upside down; to regard illusion as reality.
 +
 +角 viṣāna ; a horn, a trumpet: also a corner, an angle; to contend.
 +
 +角馱 Perverted doctrines and wrong thoughts, which weigh down a monk as a pack on an animal.
 +
 +言 Words, speech; to speak.
 +
 +言依 Word-dependence,​ i. e. that which can be expressed in words.
 +
 +[245]
 +
 +言句 Sentences.
 +
 +言詮 Words as explaining meaning; explanation.
 +
 +離言詮 beyond explanation.
 +
 +言教 The teaching of Buddha as embodied in words.
 +
 +言行 Words and deeds.
 +
 +言語 言說 Words, speech, verbal expression.
 +
 +言陳 Set out in words, i. e. a syllogism.
 +
 +谷 A gully.
 +
 +谷呱呱 gu-wa-wa, the cry of a ghost, made in proof of its existence to one who had written a treatise on the non-existence of 鬼 ghosts.
 +
 +豆 māṣa, 摩沙; 磨灑 Legumes, beans, peas, lentils, etc.
 +
 +豆伽藍 Masūra Saṅghārāma,​ Lentil Monastery, 'an ancient vihāra about 200 li southeast of Moñgali.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +豆佉 duḥkha, trouble, suffering, pain, defined by 逼惱 harassed, distressed. The first of the four dogmas, or 'Noble Truths'​ 四諦 is that all life is involved, through impermanence,​ in distress. There are many kinds of 苦 q. v.
 +
 +貝 śaṅkha a shell, cowry, conch; valuables, riches; a large trumpet sounded to call the assembly together.
 +
 +貝鐘 conch and bell.
 +
 +貝多 貝多羅 (貝多羅葉);​ 貝葉 pattra; palm leaves from-the borassus flabelliformis,​ used for writing material.
 +
 +貝文 The scriptures written on palm leaves.
 +
 +貝支迦 pratyeka, v. 辟支迦.
 +
 +貝牒 pattra tablets, sūtras written on them.
 +
 +赤 kaṣāya 袈沙野, red, hot; south; naked.
 +
 +赤梅檀 A tree used for incense.
 +
 +赤白二渧 The '​drops'​ of red and white, i. e. female and male sperm which unite in conception.
 +
 +赤眼 The red-eye, i. e. a turtle.
 +
 +赤肉團 (赤肉) The red flesh (lump), the heart.
 +
 +赤鄂衍那 Chagayana. 'An ancient province and city of Tukhāra, the present Chaganian in Lat. 38° 21 N' Long. 69°21 E.' Eitel.
 +
 +赤髭毘婆沙 The red-moustached (or bearded) Vibhāṣā,​ a name for 佛陀耶舍 Buddhayaśas.
 +
 +赤鬼 The red demons of purgatory, one with the head of a bull, another with that of a horse, etc.
 +
 +走 To walk, go.
 +
 +走海 To travel by sea.
 +
 +足 Foot, leg; enough, full.
 +
 +足目 'Eyes in his feet,' name of Akṣapāda Gotama, to whom is ascribed the beginning of logic; his work is seen 'in five books of aphorisms on the Nyāya.'​ Keith.
 +
 +身 kāya; tanu; deha. The body; the self.
 +
 +身入 The sense of touch, one of the 六入 six senses.
 +
 +身三口四意三 The three commandments dealing with the body, prohibiting taking of life, theft, unchastity; the four dealing with the mouth, against lying, exaggeration,​ abuse, and ambiguous talk; the three belonging to the mind, covetousness,​ malice, and unbelief.
 +
 +身光 The glory shining from the person of a Buddha, or Bodhisattva;​ a halo.
 +
 +身命 Body and life; bodily life.
 +
 +身器 The body, as a utensil, i. e. containing all the twelve parts, skin. flesh, blood, hair, etc.
 +
 +身土 Body, and environment. The body is the direct fruit of the previous life; the environment is the indirect fruit of the previous life.
 +
 +身城 The body as the citadel of the mind.
 +
 +身如意通 ṛddhividhi-jñāna. Also 身通, 身足通; the power to transfer oneself to various regions at will, also to change the body at will.
 +
 +身座 The body as the throne of Buddha.
 +
 +身心 Body and mind, the direct fruit of the previous life. The body is rūpa, the first skandha; mind embraces the other four, consciousness,​ perception, action, and knowledge; v. 五蘊.
 +
 +身根 kāyendriya;​ the organ of touch, one of the six senses.
 +
 +身業 The karma operating in the body; the body as representing the fruit of action in previous existence. One of the three karmas, the other two referring to speech and thought.
 +
 +身毒 Sindhu, Scinde, v. 印度.
 +
 +身毛上靡相 The hairs on Buddha'​s body curled upwards, one of the thirty-two marks.
 +
 +身燈 The body as a lamp, burnt in offering to a Buddha, e. g. the Medicine King in the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +身田 The body regarded as a field which produces good and evil fruit in future existence.
 +
 +[246]
 +
 +身相 Bodily form; the body.
 +
 +身蓮 The lotus in the body, i. e. the heart, or eight-leaved lotus in all beings; it represents also the Garbhadhātu,​ which is the matrix of the material world out of which all beings come.
 +
 +身見 satkāyadṛṣṭi;​ the illusion that the body, or self, is real and not simply a compound of the five skandhas; one of the five wrong views 五見.
 +
 +身識 kāya-vijñāna. Cognition of the objects of touch, one of the five forms of cognition; v. 五根.
 +
 +身車 The body as the vehicle which, according with previous karma, carries one into the paths of transmigration.
 +
 +身通 The power to transfer the body through space at will, one of the marks of the Buddha.
 +
 +身雲 The numberless bodies of Buddhas, hovering like clouds over men; the numberless forms which the Buddhas take to protect and save men, resembling clouds; the numberless saints compared to clouds.
 +
 +車 A cart, wheeled conveyance.
 +
 +車也 chāyā, 陰 shade, shadow.
 +
 +車匿 闡鐸迦 Chandaka, the driver of Śākyamuni when he left his home.
 +
 +車帝 The name of a cave, said to be Śataparṇa,​ or Saptaparṇaguhā.
 +
 +車軸 The hub of a cart; applied to large drops (of rain).
 +
 +車鉢羅婆 Name of a spirit.
 +
 +辛頭 The Indus; Sindh; idem 信度.
 +
 +辛頭波羅香 sindhupāra (? sindhuvāra),​ incense or perfume, from a fragrant plant said to grow on the banks (pāra) of the Indus (Sindhu).
 +
 +辰 Hour; time; the celestial bodies.
 +
 +辰那 jina, victorious, applied to a Buddha, a saint, etc.; forms part of the names of 辰那呾邏多 Jinatrāta; 辰那弗多羅 Jinaputra; 辰那飯荼 Jinabandhu; three Indian monks in China, the first and last during the seventh century.
 +
 +巡 Wander about, patrol, inspect.
 +
 +巡堂 To patrol, or circumambulate the hall.
 +
 +巡寮 To inspect all the buildings of a monastery.
 +
 +巡案 To patrol and receive any complaints.
 +
 +巡更 To patrol as night-watchman.
 +
 +巡火 Guarding against fire.
 +
 +巡錫 To walk about with a metal staff, i. e. to teach.
 +
 +邠 The ancient state of Bin, south-west Shanxi; translit. p, e. g. in Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra 邠祁文陀弗,​ Anāthapiṇḍada 阿那邠抵,​ etc.
 +
 +邪 Deflected, erroneous, heterodox, depraved; the opposite of 正; also erroneously used for 耶.
 +
 +邪倒見 Heterodoxy; perverted views or opinions.
 +
 +邪命 (邪命食) Heterodox or improper ways of obtaining a living on the part of a monk, e. g. by doing work with his hands, by astrology, his wits, flattery, magic, etc. Begging, or seeking alms, was the orthodox way of obtaining a living.
 +
 +邪命說法 The heterodox way of preaching or teaching, for the purpose of making a living.
 +
 +邪執 Heterodox tenets and attachment to them.
 +
 +邪婬 Adultery.
 +
 +邪山 A mountain of error or heterodox ideas; such ideas as great as a mountain.
 +
 +邪性定 (邪性定聚) The accumulation (of suffering) to be endured in purgatory by one of heterodox nature; one of the three accumulations 三聚.
 +
 +邪慢 mithyāmāna ; perverse or evil pride, doing evil for self-advancement;​ to hold to heterodox views and not to reverence the triratna.
 +
 +邪扇 Heterodox fanning, i. e. to influence people by false doctrines.
 +
 +邪旬 jhāpita, 旬 being erroneously used to represent the syllable pi, v. 荼.
 +
 +邪法 Heterodoxy, false doctrines or methods.
 +
 +邪私 Depraved and selfish desires, lust.
 +
 +邪網 The net of heterodoxy, or falsity.
 +
 +邪聚 The accumulation of misery produced by false views, one of the 三聚.
 +
 +[247]
 +
 +邪行 Erroneous ways, the ninety-six heretical ways; the disciplines of non-Buddhist sects.
 +
 +邪行眞如 The phenomenal bhūtatathatā,​ from which arises the accumulation of misery.
 +
 +邪見 Heterodox views, not recognizing the doctrine of moral karma, one of the five heterodox opinions and ten evils 五見十惡.
 +
 +邪見乘 The Hīnayāna, the Vehicle of perverted views.
 +
 +邪見稠林 The thickets of heterodoxy.
 +
 +邪道 Heterodox ways, or doctrines.
 +
 +邪雲 Clouds of falsity or heterodoxy, which cover over the Buddha-nature in the heart.
 +
 +邪魔 Evil demons and spirits, māras.
 +
 +邪魔外道 māras and heretics.
 +
 +那 Where ? How ? What ? That. Translit. na, ne, no, nya; cf. 娜, 拏, 曩.
 +
 +那他 nāda, a river.
 +
 +那伽 nāga. Snake, dragon, elephant. It is tr. by 龍 dragon and by 象 elephant. (1) As dragon it represents the chief of the scaly reptiles; it can disappear or be manifest, increase or decrease, lengthen or shrink; in spring it mounts in the sky and in winter enters the earth. The dragon is of many kinds. Dragons are regarded as beneficent, bringing the rains and guarding the heavens (again Draco); they control rivers and lakes, and hibernate in the deep. nāga and mahānāga are titles of a Buddha, (also of those freed from reincarnation) because of his powers, or because like the dragon he soars above earthly desires and ties. One of his former reincarnations was a powerful poisonous dragon which, out of pity, permitted itself to be skinned alive and its flesh eaten by worms. (2) A race of serpent-worshippers.
 +
 +那伽閼剌樹那 (or 那伽閼曷樹那) Nāgārjuna,​ 龍樹 the dragon-arjuna tree, or nāgakrośana,​ intp. probably wrongly as 龍猛 dragon-fierce. One of the 'four suns' and reputed founder of Mahāyāna (but see 阿 for Aśvaghoṣa),​ native of South India, the fourteenth patriarch; he is said to have cut off his head as an offering. 'He probably flourished in the latter half of the second century A. D.' Eliot, v. 龍樹. He founded the Mādhyamika or 中 School, generally considered as advocating doctrines of negation or nihilism, but his aim seems to have been a reality beyond the limitations of positive and negative, the identification of contraries in a higher synthesis, e. g. birth and death, existence and non-existence,​ eternal and non-eternal;​ v. 中論.
 +
 +那先 Nāgasena 那伽犀那. The instructor of the king in the Milindapaṅha,​ v. 那先經 (那先比丘經).
 +
 +那利羅 (那利薊羅) nārikela, nārikera, 捺唎羅吉唎 The coco-nut. Nārikeladvīpa is described as 'an island several thousand li south of Ceylon, inhabited by dwarfs 3 feet high, who have human bodies with beaks like birds, and live upon coco-nuts'​. Eitel.
 +
 +那吒 Naṭa, said to be the eldest son of Vaiśravaṇa,​ and represented with three faces, eight arms, a powerful demon-king.
 +
 +那含 那金含 anāgāmin, v. 阿.
 +
 +那婆 (那婆摩利) nava; navamālikā. Variegated or mixed flowers.
 +
 +那律 Aniruddha, v. 阿那律.
 +
 +那提 nadī, river, torrent; name of Punyopāya, 布如那提,​ 布焉伐耶 a noted monk of Central India.
 +
 +那提迦葉 捺地迦葉波 Nadīkāśyapa,​ brother of Mahākāśyapa,​ to become Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.
 +
 +那揭 (那揭羅喝羅) Nagara; Nagarahāra. 曩哦囉賀囉 'An ancient kingdom and city on the southern bank of the Cabool River about 30 miles west of Jellalabad (Lat. 34°28 N., Long. 70°30 E. ). The Nagara of Ptolemy.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +那摩 nāman 娜麽 (or曇麽). A name 名.
 +
 +那爛陀 Nālandā, a famous monastery 7 miles north of Rājagṛha,​ built by the king Śakrāditya. Nālandā is intp. as 施無厭 '​Unwearying benefactor',​ a title attributed to the nāga which dwelt in the lake Āmra there. The village is identified in Eitel as Baragong, i. e. Vihāragrāma. For Nālandā excavations see Archæological Survey Reports, and cf. Xuanzang'​s account.
 +
 +那由他 nayuta, 那庾多 (or 那由多); 那術 (or 那述) a numeral, 100,000, or one million, or ten million.
 +
 +[248]
 +
 +那羅 Naṭa; cf. 那吒; a dancer or actor 伎戲; or perhaps narya, manly, strong, one definition being 力.
 +
 +那羅延 (那羅延那);​ 那羅野拏 Nārāyaṇa,​ 'son of Nara or the original man, patronymic of the personified Purusha or first living being, author of the Purusha hymn,' M. W. He is also identified with Brahmā, Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa;​ intp. by 人生本 the originator of human life; 堅固 firm and stable; 力士 or 天界力士 hero of divine power; and 金剛 vajra; the term is used adjectivally with the meaning of manly and strong. Nārāyaṇa is represented with three faces, of greenish-yellow colour, right hand with a wheel, riding a garuḍa-bird.
 +
 +那羅延天 Nārāyaṇa-deva,​ idem Nārāyaṇa. His 那羅延天后 śakti or female energy is shown in the Garbhadhātu group.
 +
 +那羅摩那 (or那羅摩納) Naramānava,​ a young Brahman, a descendant of Manu.
 +
 +那羅那里 nara-nari union of the male and female natures.
 +
 +那羅陀 ? narādhāra,​ a flower, tr. 人持花 carried about for its scent.
 +
 +那耶 naya; leading, conduct, politic, prudent, method; intp. by 正理 right principle; 乘 conveyance, i. e. mode of progress; and 道 way, or method.
 +
 +那耶修摩 Nāya is a name of Jñātṛ, v. 尼 Nīrgrantha.
 +
 +那落迦 naraka, 'hell, the place of torment,... the lower regions'​ (M. W. ), intp. by 地獄 q. v.
 +
 +那謨 nāmaḥ, namo, idem 南無 q. v.
 +
 +那辣遮 nārāca, an arrow, intp. 錐 a pointed implement.
 +
 +那連耶舍 (那連提黎耶舍) Narendrayaśas,​ a monk of Udyāna, north-west India; sixth century A. D.; tr. the Candra-garbha,​ Sūrya-garbha,​ and other sūtras.
 +
 +那阿賴耶曼荼羅 nālaya-maṇḍala,​ the non-ālayamaṇḍala,​ or the 道場 bodhi-site or seat, which is 無依處 without fixed place, independent of place, and entirely pure.
 +
 +那鞞 nabhi; navel, nave of a wheel.
 +
 +那麻 nāmaḥ, namo, idem 南無.
 +
 +里 A village, neighbourhood,​ third of an English mile; translit. r and ṛ; perhaps also for l and lṛ.
 +
 +防 Ward of, protect, beware; to counter.
 +
 +防難 To counter, or solve difficulties,​ especially difficult questions.
 +
 +防羅 (idem 邏) Warders or patrols in Hades.
 +
 +防那 vāna, weaving, sewing: tr. as a tailoress.
 +8. EIGHT STROKES
 +
 +乳 Milk, which in its five forms illustrates the Tiantai 五時教 five periods of the Buddha'​s teaching.
 +
 +乳味 The flavour of fresh milk, to which the Buddha'​s teaching in the 華嚴經 Huayan jing is compared.
 +
 +乳木 Resinous wood (for homa, or fire sacrifice).
 +
 +乳水眼 The eye able to distinguish milk from water; as the goose drinks the milk and rejects the water, so the student should distinguish orthodox from heterodox teaching.
 +
 +乳經 Tiantai compares the Avataṃsavka-sūtra 華嚴經 to milk, from which come all its other products.
 +
 +乳香 kunduruka, boswellia thurifera, both the plant and its resin.
 +
 +事 artha 日迦他 (迦 being an error for 遏); affair, concern, matter; action, practice; phenomena; to serve. It is '​practice'​ or the thing, affair, matter, in contrast with 理 theory, or the underlying principle.
 +
 +事度 Salvation by observing the five commandments,​ the ten good deeds, etc.
 +
 +事教 Teaching dealing with phenomena. The characterization by Tiantai of the Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching as 界内事教 within the three realms of desire, form, and formlessness;​ and the 別教 '​different teaching'​ as 界外事教 outside or superior to those realms; the one dealt with the activities of time and sense, the other transcended these but was still involved in the transient; the 別教 was initial Mahāyāna incompletely developed.
 +
 +事法界 The phenomenal world, phenomenal existence. v. 四法界.
 +
 +事法身 The Buddha-nature in practice, cf. 理法身, which is the Buddha-nature in principle, or essence, or the truth itself.
 +
 +事火 Phenomenal fire, v. 性火 fire as an element; also, fire-worship.
 +
 +[249]
 +
 +事理 Practice and theory; phenomenon and noumenon, activity and principle, or the absolute; phenomena ever change, the underlying principle, being absolute, neither changes nor acts, it is the 眞如 q. v. also v. 理. For 事理法界 (事理無礙法界) v. 四法界.
 +
 +事理三千 The three thousand phenomenal activities and three thousand principles, a term of the Tiantai School.
 +
 +事理五法 v. 五法.
 +
 +事相 Phenomenon, affair, practice. The practices of the esoterics are called 事理部 as contrasted with their open teaching called 教相部.
 +
 +事理禪師 A mystic, or monk in meditation, yet busy with affairs: an epithet of reproach.
 +
 +事論 Discussion of phenomena in contrast with 理論.
 +
 +事造 Phenomenal activities. According to Tiantai there are 3,000 underlying factors or principles 理具 giving rise to the 3,000 phenomenal activities.
 +
 +事迹 Traces of the deeds or life of an individual; biography.
 +
 +事障 Phenomenal hindrances to entry into nirvāṇa, such as desire, etc.; 理障 are noumenal hindrances, such as false doctrine, etc.
 +
 +亟 Haste, urgency.
 +
 +亟縛屣 Leather sandals.
 +
 +亞 Second, inferior; used in translit. as 阿 '​a',​ e. g. 亞畧 Ārya.
 +
 +享 Offer up; enjoy.
 +
 +享堂 The hall of offerings, an ancestral hall.
 +
 +侍 Attend; wait on; attendant.
 +
 +侍者 An attendant, e. g. as Ānanda was to the Buddha; assistants in general, e. g. the incense-assistant in a temple.
 +
 +使 To send; cause; a messenger; a pursuer, molester, lictor, disturber, troubler, intp. as 煩惱 kleśa, affliction, distress, worldly cares, vexations, and as consequent reincarnation. There are categories of 10, 16, 98, 112, and 128 such troublers, e. g. desire, hate, stupor, pride, doubt, erroneous views, etc., leading to painful results in future rebirths, for they are karma-messengers executing its purpose. Also 金剛童子 q. v.
 +
 +供 pūjā; to offer (in worship), to honour; also to supply; evidence.
 +
 +供佛 To offer to Buddha.
 +
 +供具 供物 Offerings, i. e. flowers, unguents; water, incense, food, light.
 +
 +供天 天供 The devas who serve Indra.
 +
 +供奉 To offer; the monk who serves at the great altar.
 +
 +供帳 The Tang dynasty register, or census of monks and nuns, supplied to the government every three years.
 +
 +供帳雲 The cloud of Bodhisattvas who serve the Tathāgata.
 +
 +供養 To make offerings of whatever nourishes, e. g. food, goods, incense, lamps, scriptures, the doctrine, etc., any offering for body or mind.
 +
 +來 āgama; āgam-; āgata. Come, the coming, future.
 +
 +來世 Future world, or rebirth.
 +
 +來應 To come in response to an invitation; to answer prayer (by a miracle).
 +
 +來果 The fruit or condition of the next rebirth, regarded as the result of the present.
 +
 +來生 Future rebirth; the future life.
 +
 +來迎 The coming of Buddhas to meet the dying believer and bid welcome to the Pure Land; the three special welcomers are Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara,​ and Mahāsthāmaprāpta.
 +
 +依 To depend, rely on; dependent, conditioned;​ accord with.
 +
 +依他 Dependent on or trusting to someone or something else; trusting on another, not on self or '​works.'​
 +
 +依他性 (依他起性) Not having an independent nature, not a nature of its own, but constituted of elements.
 +
 +依他自性 One of the 三性 dependent on constructive elements and without a nature of its own.
 +
 +依他心 The mind in a dependent state, that of the Buddha in incarnation.
 +
 +依他十喩 The unreality of dependent or conditioned things, e. g. the body, or self, illustrated in ten comparisons:​ foam, bubble, flame, plantain, illusion, dream, shadow, echo, cloud, lightning; v. 維摩詰經 2.
 +
 +依圓 Dependent and perfect, i. e. the dependent or conditioned nature, and the perfect nature of the unconditioned bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +依地 The ground on which one relies; the body, on which sight, hearing, etc., depend; the degree of samādhi attained; cf. 依身.
 +
 +依報 v. 依正.
 +
 +依怙 To rely on, depend on.
 +
 +依果 idem 依報 v. 依正.
 +
 +依止 To depend and rest upon.
 +
 +依止甚深 The profundity on which all things depend, i. e. the bhūtatathatā;​ also the Buddha.
 +
 +依止師, 依止阿闍梨 The ācārya, or master of a junior monk.
 +
 +依正 The two forms of karma resulting from one's past; 正報 being the resultant person, 依報 being the dependent condition or environment,​ e. g. country, family, possessions,​ etc.
 +
 +依法不依人 To rely upon the dharma, or truth itself, and not upon (the false interpretations of) men.
 +
 +依版 禪版 A board to lean against when in meditation.
 +
 +依言眞如 The bhūtatathatā in its expressible form, as distinguished from it as 離言 inexpressible.
 +
 +依身 The body on which one depends, or on which its parts depend, cf. 依他.
 +
 +[250]
 +
 +依通 The magical powers which depend upon drugs, spells, etc., v. 五通.
 +
 +兩 Two, a couple, both; an ounce, or tael.
 +
 +兩卷經 The Two Fascicle Sutra, i. e. the 佛說無量壽經.
 +
 +兩垢 (兩垢如如) The contaminated and uncontaminated bhūtatathatā,​ or Buddha-nature,​ v. 止觀 2 and 起信論 Awakening of Faith.
 +
 +兩權 The two temporary vehicles, śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha,​ as contrasted with the 實 complete Bodhisattva doctrine of Mahāyāna.
 +
 +兩河 The 'two rivers',​ Nairañjanā,​ v. 尼, where Buddha attained enlightenment,​ and Hiraṇyavatī,​ see 尸, where he entered Nirvāṇa.
 +
 +兩翅 The two wings of 定 and 慧 meditation and wisdom.
 +
 +兩肩神 The two recording spirits, one at each shoulder, v. 同名 and 同坐神.
 +
 +兩界 v. 兩部.
 +
 +兩舌 Double tongue. One of the ten forms of evil conduct 十惡業.
 +
 +兩財 The two talents, or rewards from previous incarnations,​ 内 inner, i. e. bodily or personal conditions, and 外 external, i. e. wealth or poverty, etc.
 +
 +兩足尊 The most honoured among men and devas (lit. among two-footed beings), a title of the Buddha. The two feet are compared to the commandments and meditation, blessing and wisdom, relative and absolute teaching (i. e. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna),​ meditation and action.
 +
 +兩部 兩界 Two sections, or classes.
 +
 +兩部曼荼羅 maṇḍala of the two sections, i. e. dual powers of the two Japanese groups symbolizing the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu v. 金剛界 and 胎藏界.
 +
 +兩鼠 The two rats (or black and white mice), night and day.
 +
 +典 Canon, rule; allusion; to take charge of; mortgage.
 +
 +典客 (or典賓); 知客 The one who takes charge of visitors in a monastery.
 +
 +典座 The verger who indicates the order of sitting, etc.
 +
 +典攬 Summary of the essentials of a sutra, or canonical book.
 +
 +辭典 A dictionary, phrase-book.
 +
 +具 All; complete; to present; implements; translit. gh.
 +
 +具史羅 (or 瞿史羅) or 劬師羅 Ghoṣira, a wealthy householder of Kauśāmbī,​ who gave Śākyamuni the Ghoṣiravana park and vihāra.
 +
 +具壽 ? āyuṣmant. Having long life, a term by which monk, a pupil or a youth may be addressed.
 +
 +具戒 idem 具足戒.
 +
 +具戒方便 The '​expedient'​ method of giving the whole rules by stages.
 +
 +具戒地 The second of the bodhisattva ten stages in which all the rules are kept.
 +
 +具支灌頂 One of the three abhiṣeka or baptisms of the 大日經. A ceremonial sprinkling of the head of a monarch at his investiture with water from the seas and rivers (in his domain). It is a mode also employed in the investiture of certain high officials of Buddhism.
 +
 +具縛 Completely bound, all men are in bondage to illusion.
 +
 +具說 To discuss completely, state fully.
 +
 +具譚 Gautama, v. 瞿.
 +
 +具足 All, complete.
 +
 +具足戒 The complete rules or commandments— 250 for the monk, 500 (actually 348) for the nun.
 +
 +具足德本願 The forty-fourth of Amitābha'​s forty-eight vows, that all universally should acquire his virtue.
 +
 +凾 A box, receptacle; to enfold: a letter.
 +
 +凾蓋相應 Agreeing like a box and lid.
 +
 +刻 Cut, carve, engrave; oppress; a quarter of an hour, instant.
 +
 +刻藏 To engrave the canon.
 +
 +到 Arrive, reach, to.
 +
 +到彼岸 pāramitā, cf. 波; to reach the other shore, i. e. nirvāṇa.
 +
 +到頭 At the end, when the end is reached.
 +
 +制 Restrain, govern; regulations;​ mourning.
 +
 +制多 制底 (or 質底); 制體 caitya, a tumulus, mausoleum, monastery, temple, spire, flagstaff on a pagoda, sacred place or thing, idem 支提 (or 支帝), cf. 刹.
 +
 +制多山部 Jetavanīyāḥ,​ a Hīnayāna sect.
 +
 +制底畔睇 (or 畔彈那) caitya-vandana,​ to pay reverence to, or worship a stūpa, image, etc.
 +
 +制怛羅 Caitra, the spring month in which the full moon is in this constellation,​ i. e. Virgo or 角; M. W. gives it as March-April,​ in China it is the first month of spring from the 16th of the first moon to the 15th of the second. Also idem 制多 caitya.
 +
 +制戒, 制教 The restraints, or rules i. e. of the Vinaya.
 +
 +制門 The way or method of discipline, contrasted with the 化門, i. e. of teaching, both methods used by the Buddha, hence called 化制二門.
 +
 +刹 cha; translit. kṣ.
 +
 +刹土 乞叉; 乞漉 kṣetra, land, fields, country, place; also a universe consisting of three thousand large chiliocosms;​ also, a spire, or flagstaff on a pagoda, a monastery but this interprets caitya, cf. 制. Other forms are 刹多羅 (or 制多羅 or 差多羅); 紇差怛羅.
 +
 +刹塵 Lands, countless as the dust.
 +
 +刹利 (刹帝利);​ 刹怛利耶 kṣatriya. The second, or warrior and ruling caste; Chinese render it as 田主 landowners and 王種 royal caste; the caste from which the Buddha came forth and therefore from which all Buddhas (如來) spring.
 +
 +刹摩 kṣema, a residence, dwelling, abode, land, property; idem 刹 and 刹竿.
 +
 +刹海 Land and sea. The flagpole of a monastery, surmounted by a gilt ball or pearl, symbolical of Buddhism; inferentially a monastery with its land. Also 刹柱, 金刹 (or 表刹).
 +
 +刹那 kṣaṇa. An indefinite space of time, a moment, an instant; the shortest measure of time, as kalpa is the longest; it is defined as 一念 a thought; but according to another definition 60 kṣaṇa equal one finger-snap,​ 90 a thought 念, 4,500 a minute; there are other definitions. In each kṣaṇa 900 persons are born and die.
 +
 +[251]
 +
 +刹那三世 The moments past, present, future.
 +
 +刹那無常 Not a moment is permanent, but passes through the stages of birth, stay, change, death.
 +
 +刹那生滅 All things are in continuous flow, born and destroyed every instant.
 +
 +初 To cut cloth for clothes; beginning, first.
 +
 +初夜 The first of the three divisions of the night.
 +
 +初位 The initial stage on the road to enlightenment.
 +
 +初住 The first of the ten stages, or resting-places,​ of the bodhisattva. 住 is the resting-place or stage for a particular course of development;​ 地 is the position or rank attained by the spiritual characteristics achieved in this place.
 +
 +初僧祗 The first of the three asaṃkhyeya or incalculable kalpas.
 +
 +初刹那識 The initial kṣaṇa, initial consciousness,​ i. e. the eighth or ālaya-vijñāna,​ from which arises consciousness.
 +
 +初地 The first of the 十地 ten bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirvāṇa.
 +
 +初心 The initial resolve or mind of the novice.
 +
 +初日分 The first of the three divisions of the day, beginning, middle, end 初中後.
 +
 +初更 The first watch of the night.
 +
 +初時教 A term of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, the first of the three periods of the Buddha'​s teaching, in which he overcame the ideas of heterodox teachers that the ego is real, and preached the four noble truths and the five skandhas, etc.
 +
 +初果 The initial fruit, or achievement,​ the stage of srota-āpanna,​ illusion being discarded and the stream of enlightenment entered.
 +
 +初果向 The aiming at the stage of srota-āpanna. The other stages of Hīnayāna are sakṛdāgāmin,​ anāgāmin, and arhat.
 +
 +初歡喜地 The first of the ten stages toward Buddhahood, that of joy.
 +
 +初發心 The initial determination to seek enlightenment;​ about which the 晉 Jin dynasty Huayan jing says: 初發心時便成正覺 at this very moment the novice enters into the status of perfect enlightenment;​ but other schools dispute the point.
 +
 +初禪天 The first of the four dhyāna heavens, corresponding to the first stage of dhyāna meditation.
 +
 +初禪梵天 devas in the realms of form, who have purged themselves from all sexuality.
 +
 +初禪定 The first dhyāna, the first degree of dhyāna-meditation,​ which produces rebirth in the first dhyāna heaven.
 +
 +初能變 The initiator of change, or mutation, i. e. the ālaya-vijñāna,​ so called because the other vijñānas are derived from it.
 +
 +卓 Lofty, tall erect.
 +
 +卓錫 Tall or erect staves, i. e. their place, a monastery.
 +
 +卑 Low, inferior; translit. p, pi, v, vy, m.
 +
 +卑慢 (下慢) The pride of regarding self as little inferior to those who far surpass one; one of the 七慢.
 +
 +卑先匿 Prasenajit, v. 波.
 +
 +卑帝利 pitṛ, a kind of hungry demon.
 +
 +卑鉢羅 pippala, the bodhidruma, v. 菩.
 +
 +卑摩羅叉 Vimalākṣa,​ the pure-eyed, described as of Kabul, expositor of the 十誦律, teacher of Kumārajīva at Karashahr; came to China A. D. 406, tr. two works.
 +
 +卑栗蹉 蔑戻車 mlecchas, border people, hence outside the borders of Buddhism, non-Buddhist.
 +
 +叔 A father'​s younger brother; translit. śi, śu.
 +
 +叔叔羅 (叔叔摩羅) śiśumāra,​ a crocodile.
 +
 +叔迦 (or M003764迦) (叔婆) śuka, a parrot.
 +
 +叔離 Śukla, or Śukra, white, silvery; the waxing half of the moon, or month; one of the asterisms, 'the twenty-fourth of the astronomical Yogas, ' M. W.; associated with Venus.
 +
 +取 upādāna. To grasp, hold on to, held by, be attached to, love; used as indicating both 愛 love or desire and 煩惱 the vexing passions and illusions. It is one of the twelve nidānas 十二因緣 or 十二支 the grasping at or holding on to self-existence and things.
 +
 +取次語 Easy, facile, loose talk or explanations.
 +
 +取相 The state of holding to the illusions of life as realities.
 +
 +取相懺 To hold repentance before the mind until the sign of Buddha'​s presence annihilates the sin.
 +
 +取與 The producing seed is called 取果, that which it gives, or produces, is called 與果.
 +
 +取著 To grasp, hold on to, or be held by any thing or idea.
 +
 +取蘊 The skandhas which give rise to grasping or desire, which in turn produces the skandhas. 見取 v. 見.
 +
 +受 To receive, be, bear; intp. of vedana, '​perception,'​ '​knowledge obtained by the senses, feeling, sensation.'​ M. W. It is defined as mental reaction to the object, but in general it means receptivity,​ or sensation; the two forms of sensation of physical and mental objects are indicated. It is one of the five skandhas; as one of the twelve nidānas it indicates the incipient stage of sensation in the embryo.
 +
 +取具 To receive the entire commandments,​ as does a fully ordained monk or nun.
 +
 +取想行識 The four immaterial skandhas— vedanā, saṃjñā, saṃskāra,​ vijñāna, i. e. feeling, ideation, reaction, consciousness.
 +
 +取戒 To receive, or accept, the commandments,​ or rules; a disciple; the beginner receives the first five, the monk, nun, and the earnest laity proceed to the reception of eight, the fully ordained accepts the ten. The term is also applied by the esoteric sects to the reception of their rules on admission.
 +
 +取持 To receive and retain, or hold on to, or keep (the Buddha'​s teaching).
 +
 +取業 Duties of the receiver of the rules; also to receive the results or karma of one's deeds.
 +
 +取歳 To receive, or add, a year to his monastic age, on the conclusion of the summer'​s retreat.
 +
 +[252]
 +
 +受用 Received for use.
 +
 +受用身 The saṃbhogakāya 報身 v. 三身 trikāya, i. e. the functioning glorious body, 自受用 for a Buddha'​s own use, or bliss; 他受用 for the spiritual benefit of others.
 +
 +受用土 The realm of the saṃbhogakāya.
 +
 +受者 A recipient (e. g. of the rules). The illusory view that the ego will receive reward or punishment in a future life, one of the sixteen false views.
 +
 +受蘊 vedanā, sensation, one of the five skandhas.
 +
 +受記 受決; 受別 To receive from a Buddha predestination (to become a Buddha); the prophecy of a bodhisattva'​s future Buddhahood.
 +
 +受隨 To receive the rules and follow them out 受體隨行.
 +
 +呿 To gape; translit. kha.
 +
 +咃 Translit. tha.
 +
 +咄嚕瑟劍 turuṣka, olibanum, incense; also the name of an Indo-Scythian or Turkish race.
 +
 +呼 Call; breathe out.
 +
 +呼呼The raurava or fourth hot hell.
 +
 +呼圖克圖 (or 胡土克圖) Hutuktu, a chief Lama of Mongolian Buddhism, who is repeatedly reincarnated.
 +
 +呼摩 護摩 homa, an oblation by fire.
 +
 +呬摩怛羅 Himatala 雪山下. 'An ancient kingdom ruled in A. D. 43 by a descendant of the Śākya family. Probably the region south of Kundoot and Issar north of Hindukush near the principal source of the Oxus.' Eitel. 西域記 3.
 +
 +呵 he, ko. Breathe out, yawn, scold; ha, laughter; used for 訶 and 阿.
 +
 +呵也怛那 āyatana, an organ of sense, v. 六入.
 +
 +呵利陀 (or 阿利陀) (or 呵梨陀) Hāritī, the demon-mother;​ also Harita, Haridrā, tawny, yellow, turmeric.
 +
 +呵吒迦 (or 訶吒迦) hāṭaka; gold, thorn-apple.
 +
 +呵婆婆 Hahava, or Ababa, the fourth of the eight cold hells, in which the sufferers can only utter this sound..
 +
 +呵羅羅 Aṭaṭa the third of the eight cold hells, in which the sufferers can only utter this sound.
 +
 +呵責犍度 The eleventh of the twenty rules for monks, dealing with rebuke and punishment of a wrongdoer.
 +
 +呾 da. Call; stutter; translit. ta.
 +
 +呾你也他 (or 呾儞也他) tadyathā, i. e. 所謂, as or what is said or meant, it means, i. e., etc.
 +
 +呾刹那 tatkṣaṇa,​ 'the 2250th part of an hour.' Eitel.
 +
 +呾喇健 Talekān, 'an ancient kingdom on the frontiers of Persia,'​ its modem town is Talikhan.
 +
 +呾叉始羅 竺刹尸羅 Takṣaśīlā,​ '​ancient kingdom and city, the Taxila of the Greeks, the region near Hoosum Abdaul in Lat. 35°48 N., Long. 72° 44 E.' Eitel.
 +
 +呾摩栗底 (or 躭摩栗底);​ 多摩梨帝 Tāmralipti (or tī), the modem Tamluk near the mouth of the Hooghly, formerly 'the principal emporium for the trade with Ceylon and China'​. Eitel.
 +
 +呾羅斯 Talas, or Taras; '(1) an ancient city in Turkestan 150 li west of Ming bulak (according to Xuanzang). (2) A river which rises on the mountains west of Lake Issikoul and flows into a large lake to the north-west.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +呾蜜 Termed, or Tirmez, or Tirmidh. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the Oxus in Lat. 37° 5 N., Long. 67 ° 6 E.' Eitel.
 +
 +味 rasa. Taste, flavour; the sense of taste. One of the six sensations.
 +
 +味塵 Taste-dust, one of the six '​particles'​ which form the material or medium of sensation.
 +
 +味欲 味著 The taste-desire,​ hankering after the pleasures of food, etc.; the bond of such desire.
 +
 +味道 Taste, flavour; the taste of Buddha-truth or tasting the doctrine.
 +
 +咒 dhāraṇī 陀羅尼; mantra; an incantation,​ spell, oath, curse; also a vow with penalties for failure. Mystical, or magical, formulae employed in Yoga. In Lamaism they consist of sets of Tibetan words connected with Sanskrit syllables. In a wider sense dhāraṇī is a treatise with mystical meaning, or explaining it.
 +
 +咒咀 咒殺; 咒起死鬼 (or 咒起屍鬼) An incantation for raising the vetāla 畏陀羅 or corpse-demons to cause the death of another person.
 +
 +咒心 The heart of a spell, or vow.
 +
 +咒藏 One of the four piṭakas, the thesaurus of dhāraṇīs.
 +
 +咒術 Sorcery, the sorcerer'​s arts.
 +
 +咒願 Vows, prayers, or formulas uttered in behalf of donors, or of the dead; especially at the All Souls Day's offerings to the seven generations of ancestors. Every word and deed of a bodhisattva should be a dhāraṇī.
 +
 +命 jīvita . Life, vital, length of life, fate, decree.
 +
 +命光 The light of a life, i. e. soon gone.
 +
 +命命鳥 耆婆耆婆迦 jīvajīvaka;​ jīvaṃjīva,​ a bird with two heads, a sweet songster; 生生鳥 or 共命鳥 is the same bird.
 +
 +命寳 The precious possession of life.
 +
 +命根 A root, or basis for life, or reincarnation,​ the nexus of Hīnayāna between two life-periods,​ accepted by Mahāyāna as nominal but not real.
 +
 +命梵 Life and honour, i. e. perils to life and perils to noble character.
 +
 +命濁 One of the 五濁, turbidity or decay of the vital principle, reducing the length of life.
 +
 +命終 Life's end; nearing the end.
 +
 +命者 The living being; the one possessing life; life.
 +
 +命藤 The rope of life (gnawed by the two rats, i. e. night and day).
 +
 +命道沙門 A śramaṇa who makes the commandments,​ meditation, and knowledge his very life, as Ānanda did.
 +
 +命難 Life's hardships; the distress of living.
 +
 +[253]
 +
 +周 Around, on every side, complete.
 +
 +周利槃陀加 (or 周梨槃陀加) Kṣudrapanthaka;​ little (or mean) path. Twin brothers were born on the road, one called Śuddhipanthaka,​ Purity-path,​ the other born soon after and called as above, intp. 小路 small road, and 繼道 successor by the road. The elder was clever, the younger stupid, not even remembering his name, but became one of the earliest disciples of Buddha, and finally an arhat. The records are uncertain and confusing. Also 周利般兎;​ 周稚般他迦,​ 周利槃特 (周利槃特迦);​ 朱茶半託迦;​ 周陀.
 +
 +周忌 周關 The first anniversary of a death, when 周忌齋 anniversary masses are said.
 +
 +周祥 The anniversary of Buddha'​s birthday.
 +
 +周羅 (周羅髮);​ 首羅 cūḍā; a topknot left on the head of an ordinand when he receives the commandments;​ the locks are later taken off by his teacher as a sign of his complete devotion.
 +
 +周遍 Universal, everywhere, on every side.
 +
 +周遍法界 The universal dharmadhātu;​ the universe as an expression of the dharmakāya;​ the universe; cf. 法界.
 +
 +周那 Cundā, said to be the same as 純陀.
 +
 +周陀 ?Kṣudra, said to be the same as 周利 supra.
 +
 +和 Harmony, peace; to blend, mix; with, unite with; respond, rhyme.
 +
 +和順 Harmonious and compliant.
 +
 +和會 To blend, unite.
 +
 +和伽羅 (和伽羅那);​ 和伽那; 和羅那 vyākaraṇa,​ grammar, analysis, change of form; intp. as 授記 prediction, i. e. by the Buddha of the future felicity and realm of a disciple, hence Kauṇḍinya is known as Vyākaraṇa-Kauṇḍinya.
 +
 +和南 婆南; 伴談 (or 伴題); 畔睇; 畔彈南; 槃淡; 槃那寐; 盤荼味; 煩淡 vandana. Obeisance, prostration,​ bowing the head, reverencing,​ worshipping.
 +
 +和合 To blend, unite, be of one mind, harmonize.
 +
 +和僧 (和合僧);​ 和衆 (和合衆) A saṃgha 僧伽, a monastery.
 +
 +和僧海 A monastery where all are of one mind as the sea is of one taste.
 +
 +和尚 A general term for a monk. It is said to be derived from Khotan in the form of 和闍 or 和社 (or 烏社) which might be a translit. of vandya (Tibetan and Khotani ban-de), '​reverend.'​ Later it took the form of 和尚 or 和上. The 律宗 use 和上, others generally 和尚. The Sanskrit term used in its interpretation is 鳥波陀耶 upādhyāya,​ a '​sub-teacher'​ of the Vedas, inferior to an ācārya; this is intp. as 力生 strong in producing (knowledge),​ or in begetting strength in his disciples; also by 知有罪知無罪 a discerner of sin from not-sin, or the sinful from the not-sinful. It has been used as a synonym for 法師 a teacher of doctrine, in distinction from 律師 a teacher of the vinaya, also from 禪師 a teacher of the Intuitive school.
 +
 +和夷羅 vajra.
 +
 +和夷羅洹閱叉 跋闍羅波膩 Vajrapāṇi,​ the 金剛手 Bodhisattva holding the sceptre or thunderbolt,​ or 金剛神 one of the names of Indra, as a demon king and protector of Buddhism.
 +
 +和闐 Khotan, Kustana, cf. 于.
 +
 +和須吉 Vāsuki, lord of nāgas, name of a '​dragon-king',​ with nine heads, hydra-headed;​ also 和修吉.
 +
 +和須蜜 (和須蜜多) Vasumitra. A distinction is made (probably in error) between Vasumitra, noted as a libertine and for his beauty, and Vasumitra 筏蘇蜜呾羅 q. v., a converted profligate who became president of the synod under Kaniṣka.
 +
 +和香丸 A pill compounded of many kinds of incense typifying that in the one Buddha-truth lies all truth.
 +
 +垂 Drop, droop, let down, pass down; regard.
 +
 +垂示 垂語 To make an announcement.
 +
 +垂迹 Traces, vestiges; manifestations or incarnations of Buddhas and bodhisattvas in their work of saving the living.
 +
 +夜 Night; translit ya.
 +
 +夜他跋 yathāvat, suitably, exactly, solid, really.
 +
 +夜叉 乞叉; 藥叉; 閱叉 yakṣa, (1) demons in the earth, or in the air, or in the lower heavens; they are malignant, and violent, and devourers (of human flesh). (2) The 八大將, the eight attendants of Kuvera, or Vaiśravaṇa,​ the god of wealth; those on earth bestow wealth, those in the empyrean houses and carriages, those in the lower heavens guard the moat and gates of the heavenly city. There is another set of sixteen. The names of all are given in 陀羅尼集經 3. See also 羅 for rakṣa and 吉 for kṛtya. yakṣa-kṛtya are credited with the powers of both yakṣa and kṛtya.
 +
 +夜摩 Yama, '​originally the Aryan god of the dead, living in a heaven above the world, the regent of the South; but Brahminism transferred his abode to hell. Both views have been retained by Buddhism.'​ Eitel. Yama in Indian mythology is ruler over the dead and judge in the hells, is 'grim in aspect, green in colour, clothed in red, riding on a buffalo, and holding a club in one hand and noose in the other':​ he has two four-eyed watch-dogs. M. W. The usual form is 閻摩 q. v.
 +
 +夜摩天 Yamadeva; the third devaloka, which is also called 須夜摩 or 蘇夜摩, intp. as 時分 or 善時分 the place where the times, or seasons, are always good.
 +
 +夜摩盧迦 Yamaloka, the realm of Yama, the third devaloka.
 +
 +夜殊 Yajurveda, 'the sacrificial Veda' of the Brahmans; the liturgy associated with Brahminical sacrificial services.
 +
 +奉 To receive respectfully;​ honoured by, have the honour to, be favoured by, serve, offer.
 +
 +奉事 To carry out orders.
 +
 +奉加, 奉納 To make offerings.
 +
 +奉行 To obey and do (the Buddha'​s teaching).
 +
 +奈 Remedy, alternative,​ how ? what ? a yellow plum.
 +
 +奈利 idem 泥梨 niraya, hell.
 +
 +奈河 The inevitable river in purgatory to be crossed by all.
 +
 +[254]
 +
 +奈河橋 The bridge in one of the hells, from which certain sinners always fall.
 +
 +奈取羅訶羅 Rudhirāhāra,​ name of a yakṣa.
 +
 +奇 āścarya, adbhuta; wonderful, rare, extraordinary;​ odd.
 +
 +奇妙 Beautiful, or wonderful beyond compare.
 +
 +奇特 Wonderful, rare, special, the three incomparable kinds of 神通奇特 power to convert all beings, 慧心奇特 Buddha-wisdom,​ and 攝受奇特Buddha-power to attract and save all beings.
 +
 +奇異 Extraordinary,​ uncommon, rare.
 +
 +奔 To run; translit. pun and p.
 +
 +奔攘舍羅 puṇyaśālā,​ almshouse or asylum for sick and poor.
 +
 +奔荼 (奔荼利迦) puṇḍarīka,​ the white lotus, v. 分 or 芬; also the last of the eight great cold hells, v. 地獄.
 +
 +奔那伐戰那 Puṇḍra-vardhana,​ an ancient kingdom and city in Bengal.
 +
 +奔那伽 puṣpanāga,​ the flowering dragon-tree under which Maitreya is said to have attained enlightenment.
 +
 +委 To throw down, depute; really; crooked; the end.
 +
 +委順 To die, said of a monk.
 +
 +妬 Jealous, envious.
 +
 +妬不男 irṣyāpaṇḍaka. Impotent except when aroused by jealousy, one of the five classes of '​eunuchs'​.
 +
 +姑 Paternal aunt, husband'​s sister, a nun; to tolerate; however; leave.
 +
 +姑尸草, 矩奢 kuśa grass, grass of good omen for divination.
 +
 +姑臧 Ku-tsang, formerly a city in Liangchow, Kansu, and an important centre for communication with Tibet.
 +
 +始 Beginning, first, initial; thereupon.
 +
 +始士 An initiator; a Bodhisattva who stimulates beings to enlightenment.
 +
 +始教 According to Tiantai, the preliminary teaching of the Mahāyāna, made by the Avataṃsaka (Kegon) School; also called 相始教; it discussed the nature of all phenomena as in the 唯識論, 空始教; and held to the immateriality of all things, but did not teach that all beings have the Buddha-nature.
 +
 +始終 Beginning and end, first and last.
 +
 +始行人 A beginner.
 +
 +始覺 The initial functioning of mind or intelligence as a process of '​becoming',​ arising from 本覺 which is Mind or Intelligence,​ self-contained,​ unsullied, and considered as universal, the source of all enlightenment. The '​initial intelligence'​ or enlightenment arises from the inner influence 薰 of the Mind and from external teaching. In the '​original intelligence'​ are the four values adopted and made transcendent by the Nirvāṇa-sūtra,​ viz. 常, 樂, 我, 淨 Perpetuity, joy, personality,​ and purity; these are acquired through the 始覺 process of enlightenment. Cf. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.
 +
 +孟 Eldest, first; Mencius; rude.
 +
 +孟八郞 The eight violent fellows, a general term for plotters, ruffians, and those who write books opposed to the truth.
 +
 +孟婆神 The Meng family dame, said to have been born under the Han dynasty, and to have become a Buddhist; later deified as the bestower of 孟婆湯 the drug of forgetfulness,​ or oblivion of the past, on the spirits of the dead.
 +
 +孤 Orphan, solitary.
 +
 +孤山 An isolated hill; a monastery in Kiangsu and name of one of its monks.
 +
 +孤地獄 (孤獨地獄) Lokāntarika,​ solitary hells situated in space, or the wilds, etc.
 +
 +孤園 (孤獨園);​ 給園; 祗洹; 逝多林 Jetavana, the seven-story abode and park presented to Śākyamuni by Anāthapiṇḍaka,​ who bought it from the prince Jeta. It was a favourite resort of the Buddha, and 'most of the sūtras (authentic and suppositious) date from this spot'. Eitel.
 +
 +孤獨園 is also a term for an orphanage, asylum, etc.
 +
 +孤落迦 A fruit syrup.
 +
 +孤調 Self-arranging,​ the Hīnayāna method of salvation by individual effort.
 +
 +官 Official, public.
 +
 +官難 In danger from the law; official oppression.
 +
 +定 To fix, settle. samādhi. '​Composing the mind'; '​intent contemplation';​ '​perfect absorption of thought into the one object of meditation.'​ M. W. Abstract meditation, the mind fixed in one direction, or field. (1) 散定 scattered or general meditation (in the world of desire). (2) 禪定 abstract meditation (in the realms of form and beyond form). It is also one of the five attributes of the dharmakāya 法身, i. e. an internal state of imperturbability or tranquility,​ exempt from all external sensations, 超受陰; cf. 三摩提.
 +
 +定侶 Fellow-meditators;​ fellow-monks.
 +
 +定光 (1) Dīpaṃkara 提洹羯; 然燈佛, to whom Śākyamuni offered five lotuses when the latter was 儒童 Rutong Bodhisattva,​ and was thereupon designated as a coming Buddha. He is called the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni. He appears whenever a Buddha preaches the Lotus Sutra. (2) Crystal, or some other bright stone.
 +
 +定判 To determine, adjudge, settle.
 +
 +[255]
 +
 +定力 samādhibala. The power of abstract or ecstatic meditation, ability to overcome all disturbing thoughts, the fourth of the five bāla 五力; described also as 攝心 powers of mind-control.
 +
 +定聚 One of the 三聚 q. v.
 +
 +定命 Determined period of life; fate.
 +
 +定妃 The female figures representing meditation in the maṇḍalas;​ male is wisdom, female is meditation.
 +
 +定學 Learning through meditation, one of the three forms of learning 三學.
 +
 +定心 定意 A mind fixed in meditation.
 +
 +定心三昧 A fixed mind samādhi, i. e. fixed on the Pure Land and its glories.
 +
 +定忍 Patience and perseverance in meditation.
 +
 +定性 Fixed nature; settled mind. A classification of 'five kinds of nature'​ 五種性 is made by the 法相宗, the first two being the 定性二乘,​ i. e. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas,​ whose mind is fixed on arhatship, and not on Buddhahood. The 定性喜樂地 is the second dhyāna heaven of form, in which the occupants abide in surpassing meditation or trance, which produces mental joy.
 +
 +定慧 Meditation and wisdom, two of the six pāramitās;​ likened to the two hands, the left meditation, the right wisdom.
 +
 +定散 A settled, or a wandering mind; the mind organized by meditation, or disorganized by distraction. The first is characteristic of the saint and sage, the second of the common untutored man. The fixed heart may or may not belong to the realm of transmigration;​ the distracted heart has the distinctions of good, bad, or indifferent.
 +
 +定散二善 Both a definite subject for meditation and an undefined field are considered as valuable.
 +
 +定智 Meditation and wisdom.
 +
 +定根 samādhīndriya. Meditation as the root of all virtue, being the fourth of the five indriya 五根.
 +
 +定業 Fixed karma, rebirth determined by the good or bad actions of the past. Also, the work of meditation with its result.
 +
 +定業亦能轉 Even the determined fate can be changed (by the power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas).
 +
 +定水 Calm waters; quieting the waters of the heart (and so beholding the Buddha, as the moon is reflected in still water).
 +
 +定相 Fixity, determined, determination,​ settled, unchanging, nirvāṇa. The appearance of meditation.
 +
 +定覺支 The enlightenment of meditation, the sixth of the sapta bodhyaṅga 七菩提分 q. v.
 +
 +定身 The dharmakāya of meditation, one of the 五分法身 five forms of the Buddha-dharmakāya.
 +
 +宗 Ancestors, ancestral; clan; class, category. kind; school, sect; siddhānta, summary, main doctrine, syllogism, proposition,​ conclusion, realization. Sects are of two kinds: (1) those founded on principles having historic continuity, as the twenty sects of the Hīnayāna, the thirteen sects of China, and the fourteen sects of Japan: (2) those arising from an individual interpretation of the general teaching of Buddhism, as the sub-sects founded by Yongming 永明 (d. 975), 法相宗, 法性宗, 破相宗, or those based on a peculiar interpretation of one of the recognized sects, as the Jōdo-shinshū 淨土眞宗 found by Shinran-shōnin. There are also divisions of five, six, and ten, which have reference to specific doctrinal differences. Cf. 宗派.
 +
 +宗乘 The vehicle of a sect, i. e. its essential tenets.
 +
 +宗元 The basic principles of a sect; its origin or cause of existence.
 +
 +宗儀 The rules or ritual of a sect.
 +
 +宗依 That on which a sect depends, v. 宗法.
 +
 +宗匠 The master workman of a sect who founded its doctrines.
 +
 +宗因喩 Proposition,​ reason, example, the three parts of a syllogism.
 +
 +[256]
 +
 +宗學 The study or teaching of a sect.
 +
 +宗客巴 Sumatikīrti (Tib. Tsoṅ-kha-pa),​ the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Yellow Sect (黃帽教);​ according to the 西藏新志 b. A. D. 1417 at Hsining, Kansu. His sect was founded on strict discipline, as opposed to the lax practices of the Red sect, which permitted marriage of monks, sorcery, etc. He is considered to be an incarnation of Mañjuśrī;​ others say of Amitābha.
 +
 +宗密 Zongmi, one of the five patriarchs of the Huayan (Avataṃsaka) sect, d. 841.
 +
 +宗旨 The main thesis, or ideas, e. g. of a text.
 +
 +宗極 Ultimate or fundamental principles.
 +
 +宗法, 宗體 The thesis of a syllogism consisting of two terms, each of which has five different names: 自性 subject; 差別 its differentiation;​ 有法 that which acts; 法 the action; 所別 that which is differentiated;​ 能別 that which differentiates;​ 前陳 first statement; 後陳 following statement; 宗依 that on which the syllogism depends, both for subject and predicate.
 +
 +宗派 Sects (of Buddhism). In India, according to Chinese accounts, the two schools of Hīnayāna became divided into twenty sects. Mahāyāna had two main schools, the Mādhyamika,​ ascribed to Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva about the second century A. D., and the Yogācārya,​ ascribed to Asaṅga and Vasubandhu in the fourth century A. D. In China thirteen sects were founded: (1) 倶舍宗 Abhidharma or Kośa sect, representing Hīnayāna, based upon the Abhidharma-kosa-śāstra or 倶舍論. (2) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect, based on the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra,​ tr. by Kumārajīva;​ no sect corresponds to it in India; in China and Japan it became incorporated in the 三論宗. (3) 律宗 Vinaya or Discipline sect, based on 十誦律, 四分律, 僧祗律, etc. (4) 三論宗 The three śāstra sect, based on the Mādhyamika-śāstra 中觀論 of Nāgārjuna,​ the Sata-śāstra 百論 of Āryadeva, and the Dvādasa-nikāya-śāstra 十二門論 of Nāgārjuna;​ this school dates back to the translation of the three śāstras by Kumārajīva in A. D. 409. (5) 涅槃宗 Nirvāṇa sect, based upon the Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra 涅槃經 tr. by Dharmaraksa in 423; later incorporated in Tiantai, with which it had much in common. (6) 地論宗 Daśabhūmikā sect, based on Vasubandhu'​s work on the ten stages of the bodhisattva'​s path to Buddhahood, tr. by Bodhiruci 508, absorbed by the Avataṃsaka school, infra. (7) 淨土宗 Pure-land or Sukhāvatī sect, founded in China by Bodhiruci; its doctrine was salvation through faith in Amitābha into the Western Paradise. (8) 禪宗 dhyāna, meditative or intuitional sect, attributed to Bodhidharma about A. D. 527, but it existed before he came to China. (9) 攝論宗, based upon the 攝大乘論 Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra by Asaṅga, tr. by Paramārtha in 563, subsequently absorbed by the Avataṃsaka sect. (10) 天台宗 Tiantai, based on the 法華經 Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra, or the Lotus of the Good Law; it is a consummation of the Mādhyamika tradition. (11) 華嚴宗 Avataṃsaka sect, based on the Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra,​ or Gandha-vyūha 華嚴經 tr. in 418. (12) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, established after the return of Xuanzang from India and his trans. of the important Yogācārya works. (13) 眞言宗 Mantra sect, A. D. 716. In Japan twelve sects are named: Sanron, Hossō, Kegon, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Ritsu, Tendai, Shingon; these are known as the ancient sects, the two last being styled mediaeval; there follow the Zen and Jōdo; the remaining two are Shin and Nichiren; at present there are the Hossō, Kegon, Tendai, Shingon, Zen, Jōdo, Shin, and Nichiren sects.
 +
 +宗用 Principles and their practice, or application.
 +
 +宗祖 The founder of a sect or school.
 +
 +宗家 A name for Shandao 善導 (d. 681), a writer of commentaries on the sutras of the Pure Land sect, and one of its principal literary men; cf. 念佛宗.
 +
 +宗義 The tenets of a sect.
 +
 +宗致 The ultimate or fundamental tenets of a sect.
 +
 +宗要 The fundamental tenets of a sect; the important elements, or main principle.
 +
 +宗說倶通 In doctrine and expression both thorough, a term applied to a great teacher.
 +
 +宗門 Originally the general name for sects. Later appropriated to itself by the 禪 Chan (Zen) or Intuitional school, which refers to the other schools as 教門 teaching sects, i. e. those who rely on the written word rather than on the 'inner light'​.
 +
 +[257]
 +
 +宗風 The customs or traditions of a sect. In the Chan sect it means the regulations of the founder.
 +
 +宗骨 The '​bones'​ or essential tenets of a sect.
 +
 +宗體 The body of doctrine of a sect. The thesis of a syllogism, v. 宗法.
 +
 +居 Dwell, reside; be.
 +
 +居士 倶欏鉢底;​ 迦羅越 kulapati. A chief, head of a family; squire, landlord. A householder who practises Buddhism at home without becoming a monk. The female counterpart is 女居士. The 居士傳 is a compilation giving the biography of many devout Buddhists.
 +
 +居倫 居鄰 (or 倶鄰); 拘輪 idem Ājñāta-kauṇḍinya,​ v. 憍.
 +
 +屈 To bend; oppression, wrong.
 +
 +屈屈吒播陀 (or屈屈吒波陀) Kukkuṭapādagiri;​ Cock's foot, a mountain said to be 100 li east of the bodhi tree, and, by Eitel, 7 miles south-east of Gayā, where Kāśyapa entered into nirvāṇa; also known as 窶盧播陀山 tr. by 尊足 '​honoured foot'. The legend is that these three sharply rising peaks, on Kāśyapa entering, closed together over him. Later, when Mañjuśrī ascended, he snapped his fingers, the peaks opened, Kāśyapa gave him his robe and entered nirvāṇa by fire. 屈叱阿濫摩 Kukkuṭa-ārāma,​ a monastery built on the above mountain by Aśoka, cf. 西域記 8.
 +
 +屈支 屈茨; 庫車; 龜弦; 丘玆 Kutche (Kucha). An ancient kingdom and city in Turkestan, north-east of Kashgar.
 +
 +屈浪那 (or 屈浪拏) Kūrān, anciently a kingdom Tokhara, 'the modern Garana, with mines of lapis lazuli (Lat. 36°28 N., Long. 71° 2 E. ).' Eitel.
 +
 +屈摩羅 屈滿囉 A lotus bud.
 +
 +屈眴 A cottony material of fine texture.
 +
 +屈陀迦阿含 The Pali Khuddakāgama,​ the fifth of the Āgamas, containing fifteen (or fourteen), works, including such as the Dharmapāda ,​Itivṛttaka,​ Jātaka, Buddhavaṃsa,​ etc.
 +
 +屈霜儞迦 Kashanian, a region near Kermina, Lat. 39°50 N., Long. 65°25 E. Eitel.
 +
 +屈露多 Kulūta. An ancient Kingdom in north India famous for its rock temples; Kulu, north of Kangra.
 +
 +岸 kūla. Shore, bank.
 +
 +岸樹 A tree on a river'​s brink, life's uncertainty.
 +
 +岸頭 The shore of the ocean of suffering.
 +
 +彼岸 The other shore; nirvāṇa.
 +
 +帕 Kerchief, veil.
 +
 +帕克斯巴 Bashpa, v. 八 and 巴.
 +
 +庚 Age; change; west; to reward; the seventh of the ten celestial stems.
 +
 +庚申會 An assembly for offerings on the night of Keng-shen to an image in the form of a monkey, which is the shen symbolical animal; a Taoist rite adopted by Buddhism.
 +
 +底 Bottom, basis; translit. t, d, dh.
 +
 +底下 At the bottom, below, the lowest class (of men).
 +
 +底哩 tri, three, in trisamaya, etc.
 +
 +底彦多 丁岸哆 tiṅanta, tryanta, described as the singular, dual, and plural endings in verbs.
 +
 +底栗車 tiryagyoni, the animal species, animals, especially the six domestic animals.
 +
 +底沙 Tiṣya. (1) The twenty-third of the twenty-eight constellations 鬼宿 γδηθ in Cancer; it has connection with Śiva. (2) Name of a Buddha who taught Śākyamuni and Maitreya in a former incarnation.
 +
 +底理 The fundamental principle or law.
 +
 +廻 v. 囘 6.
 +
 +延 Prolong, prolonged, delay; invite.
 +
 +延年 延壽; 延命; Prolonged life.
 +
 +延年轉壽 Prolonged years and returning anniversaries.
 +
 +延命法 Methods of worship of the 延命菩薩 life-prolonging bodhisattvas to increase length of life; these bodhisattvas are 普賢; 金剛薩埵;​ 地藏; 觀音, and others.
 +
 +延促劫智 Buddha-wisdom,​ which surmounts all extending or shrinking kalpas, v. 劫波.
 +
 +延壽 Prolonged life, the name of Yanshou, a noted Hangzhou monk of the Song dynasty.
 +
 +延壽堂 The hall or room into which a dying person is taken to enter upon his 'long life'.
 +
 +延慶寺 Yanqing si, the monastery in which is the ancient lecture hall of Tiantai at 四明山 Siming Shan in Zhejiang.
 +
 +弩 Crossbow, bow.
 +
 +弩達囉灑 Durdharṣa,​ hard to hold 難執持, or hard to overcome 難降伏, or hard to behold 無能見, guardian of the inner gate in Vairocana'​s maṇḍala.
 +
 +弩蘖帝 anvāgati, approaching,​ arriving.
 +
 +彼 That, the other, in contrast with 此 this.
 +
 +彼岸 波羅 parā, yonder shore i. e. nirvāṇa. The saṃsāra life of reincarnation is 此岸 this shore; the stream of karma is 中流 the stream between the one shore and the other. Metaphor for an end to any affair. pāramitā (an incorrect etymology, no doubt old) is the way to reach the other shore.
 +
 +彼茶 peta, or piṭaka, a basket.
 +
 +往 To go; gone, past; to be going to, future.
 +
 +往生 The future life, the life to which anyone is going; to go to be born in the Pure Land of Amitābha. (1) 往相囘向 To transfer one's merits to all beings that they may attain the Pure Land of Amitābha. (2) 還相囘向 Having been born in the Pure Land to return to mortality and by one's merits to bring mortals to the Pure Land.
 +
 +[258]
 +
 +忠 Loyal.
 +
 +忠心 Loyal, faithful, honest.
 +
 +忽 Suddenly; hastily; a millionth.
 +
 +忽懍 Khulm, an ancient kingdom and city between Balkh and Kunduz.
 +
 +忽露摩 Shadumān, 'a district of ancient Tukhāra, north of the Wakhan.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +怖 uttras-; santras-; fear, afraid.
 +
 +怖捍 霍罕 Ferghana, in Russian Turkestan.
 +
 +怖畏施 Almsgiving to remove one's fears.
 +
 +怖魔 Scare-demon,​ a supposed tr. of the term bhikṣu.
 +
 +怛 Distressed; pity. Translit. for t, ta, tan, etc.
 +
 +怛他 tadyathā, 所謂 whereas, as here follows.
 +
 +怛他揭多 (or 怛他蘖多);​ 怛陀竭多;​ 怛佗議多;​ 怛薩阿竭 (or 怛闥阿竭) tathāgata, v. 多.
 +
 +怛利耶怛喇舍 (or 怛利耶怛喇奢) Trayastriṃśa,​ the thirty-three heavens of lndra, cf. 多羅夜登陵舍.
 +
 +怛刹那 ? tṛṇa, a length of time consisting of 120 kṣaṇa, or moments; or 'a wink', the time for twenty thoughts.
 +
 +怛哩支伐離迦 tricīvaraka,​ the three garments of a monk.
 +
 +怛囉麽洗 Caitra-māsa,​ tr. as the 正月 or first month; M. W. gives March-April.
 +
 +怛索迦 Takṣaka, name of a dragon-king.
 +
 +怛縛 tvam, thou, you.
 +
 +怛羅夜耶 traya, three, with special reference to the triratna .
 +
 +怛荼 daṇḍa, cf. 檀拏 a staff.
 +
 +怛那 idem 檀那 dāna, alms, giving, charity.
 +
 +怛鉢那 tapana, an ego, or self, personal, permanent existence, both 人我 and 法我 q. v.
 +
 +忿 Anger.
 +
 +忿怒 Anger, angry, fierce, over-awing: a term for the 忿王 or 忿怒王 (忿怒明王) the fierce mahārājas as opponents of evil and guardians of Buddhism; one of the two bodhisattva forms, resisting evil, in contrast with the other form, manifesting goodness. There are three forms of this fierceness in the Garbhadhātu group and five in the Diamond group.
 +
 +忿怒鉤 A form of Guanyin with a hook.
 +
 +忿結 The bond of anger.
 +
 +念 smṛti. Recollection,​ memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment.
 +
 +念力 smṛtibala,​ one of the five bāla or powers, that of memory. Also one of the seven bodhyaṅga 七菩提分.
 +
 +念佛 To repeat the name of a Buddha, audibly or inaudibly.
 +
 +念佛者 One who repeats the name of a Buddha, especially of Amitābha, with the hope of entering the Pure Land.
 +
 +念佛宗 or 念佛門. The sect which repeats only the name of Amitābha, founded in the Tang dynasty by 道綽 Daochuo, 善道 Shandao, and others.
 +
 +念佛三昧 The samādhi in which the individual whole-heartedly thinks of the appearance of the Buddha, or of the dharmakāya,​ or repeats the Buddha'​s name. The one who enters into this samādhi, or merely repeats the name of Amitābha, however evil his life may have been, will acquire the merits of Amitābha and be received into Paradise, hence the term.
 +
 +念佛往生 This is the basis or primary cause of such salvation (念佛三昧).
 +
 +念佛爲本 or 念佛爲先. Amitābha'​s merits by this means revert to the one who repeats his name 念佛廻向.
 +
 +念佛往生願 The eighteenth of Amitābha'​s forty-eight vows.
 +
 +念天 One of the six devalokas, that of recollection and desire.
 +
 +念定 Correct memory and correct samādhi.
 +
 +念念 kṣaṇa of a kṣaṇa, a kṣaṇa is the ninetieth part of the duration of a thought; an instant; thought after thought.
 +
 +念念無常 Instant after instant, no permanence, i. e. the impermanence of all phenomena; unceasing change.
 +
 +念念相續 Unbroken continuity; continuing instant in unbroken thought or meditation on a subject; also unceasing invocation of a Buddha'​s name.
 +
 +念持 To apprehend and hold in memory.
 +
 +念根 smṛtīndriya. The root or organ of memory, one of the five indriya 五根.
 +
 +念漏 The leakages; or stream of delusive memory.
 +
 +念珠 To tell beads.
 +
 +念經 To repeat the sutras, or other books; to intone them.
 +
 +念著 Through perverted memory to cling to illusion.
 +
 +念處 smṛtyupasthāna. The presence in the mind of all memories, or the region which is contemplated by memory.
 +
 +四念處 Four objects on which memory or the thought should dwell— the impurity of the body, that all sensations lead to suffering, that mind is impermanent,​ and that there is no such thing as an ego. There are other categories for thought or meditation.
 +
 +念覺支 Holding in memory continually,​ one of the sapta bodhyaṅga 七覺支.
 +
 +念言 (As) the mind remembers, (so) the mouth speaks; also the words of memory.
 +
 +念誦 To recite, repeat, intone, e. g. the name of a Buddha; to recite a dhāraṇī,​ or spell.
 +
 +性 svabhāva, prakṛti, pradhāna. The nature intp. as embodied, causative, unchanging; also as independent or self-dependent;​ fundamental nature behind the manifestation or expression. Also, the Buddha-nature immanent in all beings, the Buddha heart or mind. 
 +
 +性佛 The dharmakāya 法性佛, v. 法身.
 +
 +性具 The Tiantai doctrine that the Buddha-nature includes both good and evil; v. 觀音玄義記 2. Cf. 體具; 理具 of similar meaning.
 +
 +性分 The nature of anything; the various nature of various things.
 +
 +[259]
 +
 +性命 The life of conscious beings; nature and life.
 +
 +性善 Good by nature (rather than by effort); naturally good; in contrast with 性惡 evil by nature. Cf. 性具.
 +
 +性土 The sphere of the dharma-nature,​ i. e. the bhūtatathatā,​ idem 法性土.
 +
 +性地 Spiritual nature, the second of the ten stages as defined by the 通教 Intermediate School, in which the illusion produced by 見思 seeing and thinking is subdued and the mind obtains a glimmer of the immateriality of things. Cf. 十地.
 +
 +性宗 v. 法性宗.
 +
 +性得 Natural attainment, i. e. not acquired by effort; also 生得.
 +
 +性德 Natural capacity for good (or evil), in contrast with 修性 powers (of goodness) attained by practice.
 +
 +性心 The perfectly clear and unsullied mind, i. e. the Buddha mind or heart. The Chan (Zen) school use 性心 or 心性 indifferently.
 +
 +性念處 citta-smṛtyupasthāna,​ one of the four objects of thought, i. e. that the original nature is the same as the Buddha-nature,​ v. 四念處.
 +
 +性戒 The natural moral law, e. g. not to kill, steal, etc, not requiring the law of Buddha.
 +
 +性我 The Buddha-nature ego, which is apperceived when the illusory ego is banished.
 +
 +性橫修縱 A division of the triratna in its three aspects into the categories of 橫 and 縱, i. e. cause and effect, or effect and cause; a 別教 division, not that of the 圓教.
 +
 +性欲 Desires that have become second nature; desires of the nature.
 +
 +性海 The ocean of the bhūtatathatā,​ the all-containing,​ immaterial nature of the dharmakāya.
 +
 +性火 Fire as one of the five elements, contrasted with 事火 phenomenal fire.
 +
 +性相 The nature (of anything) and its phenomenal expression xing being 無爲 non-functional,​ or noumenal and xiang 有爲 functional, or phenomenal.
 +
 +性相學 The philosophy of the above (性相), i. e. of the noumenal and phenomenal. There are ten points of difference between the 性相二宗,​ i. e. between the 性 and 相 schools, v. 二宗.
 +
 +性種性 Nature-seed nature, i. e. original or primary nature, in contrast with 習性性 active or functioning nature; it is also the bodhisattva 十行 stage.
 +
 +性種戒 idem 性戒.
 +
 +性空 The nature void, i. e. the immateriality of the nature of all things.
 +
 +性空教 One of the three 南山 Nanshan sects which regarded the nature of things as unreal or immaterial, but held that the things were temporally entities.
 +
 +性空觀 The meditation of the 性空教 sect on the unreality, or immateriality,​ of the nature of things.
 +
 +性罪 Sins that are such according to natural law, apart from Buddha'​s teaching, e. g. murder, etc.
 +
 +性色 Transcendent rūpa or form within or of the tathāgatagarbha;​ also 眞色.
 +
 +性覺 Inherent intelligence,​ or knowledge, i. e. that of the bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +性識 Natural powers of perception, or the knowledge acquired through the sense organs; mental knowledge.
 +
 +性起 Arising from the primal nature, or bhūtatathatā,​ in contrast with 緣起 arising from secondary causes.
 +
 +性遮 Natural and conventional sins, i. e. sins against natural law, e. g. murder, and sins against conventional or religious law, e. g. for a monk to drink wine, cut down trees, etc.
 +
 +房 House, room. The rooms for monks and nuns in a monastery or nunnery.
 +
 +房宿 Scorpio, idem 劫賓那.
 +
 +所 A place; where, what, that which, he (etc. ) who.
 +
 +所作 That which is done, or to be done, or made, or set up, etc.
 +
 +[260]
 +
 +所依 āśraya, that on which anything depends, the basis of the vijñānas.
 +
 +所別 The subject of the thesis of a syllogism in contrast with 能別 the predicate; that which is differentiated.
 +
 +所化 The one who is transformed or instructed.
 +
 +所引 That which is brought forward or out; a quotation.
 +
 +所有 What one has, what there is, whatever exists.
 +
 +所知依 That on which all knowledge depends, i. e. the ālayavijñāna,​ the other vijñānas being derived from it; cf. 八識.
 +
 +所知障 The barrier of the known, arising from regarding the seeming as real.
 +
 +所立 A thesis; that which is set up.
 +
 +所緣 ālambana; that upon which something rests or depends, hence object of perception; that which is the environmental or contributory cause; attendant circumstances.
 +
 +所緣緣 adhipatipratyaya. The influence of one factor in causing others; one of the 四緣.
 +
 +所詮 That which is expounded, explained, or commented on.
 +
 +所遍計 That by which the mind is circumscribed,​ i. e. impregnated with the false view that the ego and things possess reality.
 +
 +所量 That which is estimated; the content of reasoning, or judgment.
 +
 +拄 A prop, a post.
 +
 +拄杖 (拄杖子) A crutch, staff.
 +
 +抹 Rub out or on, efface.
 +
 +抹香 Powdered incense to scatter over images.
 +
 +拓 Carry (on the palm), entrust to, pretext, extend.
 +
 +拓林羅 One of the twelve generals in the Yaoshi (Bhaiṣajya) sutra.
 +
 +拍掌 拍手 Clapping of hands at the beginning and end of worship, a Shingon custom.
 +
 +抱 Embrace, enfold, cherish.
 +
 +抱佛脚 (Only when old or in trouble) to embrace the Buddha'​s feet.
 +
 +承 Receive, succeed to, undertake, serve.
 +
 +承事 Entrusted with duties, serve, obey, and minister.
 +
 +承露盤 or 承露槃 The '​dew-receivers',​ or metal circles at the top of a pagoda.
 +
 +拙 Stupid, clumsy.
 +
 +拙具羅 (or 窶具羅); 求求羅 kukura, kukkura; a plant and its perfume.
 +
 +拙度 A stupid, powerless salvation, that of Hīnayāna.
 +
 +抵 Knock; arrive; resist, bear; substitute.
 +
 +抵彌 timi, timiṅgila,​ a huge fish, perhaps a whale.
 +
 +折 Tear open, break down.
 +
 +折摩駄那 Calmadana or 涅末 Nimat, 'An ancient kingdom and city at the south-east borders of the desert of Gobi.' Eitel.
 +
 +抽 Draw, withdraw, pull out.
 +
 +抽籤 To draw lots, seek divine indications,​ etc.
 +
 +抽脫 To go to the latrine.
 +
 +拖 Tow, tug; delay; implicate.
 +
 +拖泥帶水 和泥合水 Mud and water hauler, or made of mud and water, a Chan (Zen) school censure of facile remarks.
 +
 +拂 To rub, wipe, dust.
 +
 +拂子 A duster, fly brush.
 +
 +拂石 盤石劫 A kalpa as measured by the time it would take to wear away an immense rock by rubbing it with a deva-garment;​ cf. 芥 and 劫波.
 +
 +拂迹入玄 To rub out the traces of past impurity and enter into the profundity of Buddha.
 +
 +招 Call, beckon, notify, cause; confess.
 +
 +招魂 To call back the spirit (of the dead).
 +
 +招提 拓鬪提舍 caturdiśaḥ,​ the four directions of space; cāturdiśa,​ belonging to the four quarters, i. e. the saṃgha or Church; name for a monastery.
 +
 +披 To spread open, unroll, thrown on (as a cloak). 披 is to wear the garment over both shoulders; 袒 is to throw it over one shoulder.
 +
 +披剃 The first donning of the robe and shaving of the head (by a novice).
 +
 +拈 To take in the fingers, pluck, pinch.
 +
 +拈古 拈提 To refer to ancient examples.
 +
 +拈花微笑 '​Buddha held up a flower and Kāśyapa smiled'​. This incident does not appear till about A. D. 800, but is regarded as the beginning of the tradition on which the Chan (Zen) or Intuitional sect based its existence.
 +
 +拈衣 To gather up the garment.
 +
 +拈香 To take and offer incense.
 +
 +拈語 To take up and pass on a verbal tradition, a Chan (Zen) term.
 +
 +拔 Pull up, or out; raise.
 +
 +拔婆 拔波 vatsa, calf, young child.
 +
 +拔底耶 upādhyāya,​ a spiritual teacher, or monk 和尚 v. 烏.
 +
 +拔提 -vatī, a terminal of names of certain rivers, e. g. Niraṇyavatī.
 +
 +拔提達多 Bhadradatta,​ name of a king.
 +
 +拔濟 To rescue, save from trouble.
 +
 +拔舌地獄 The hell where the tongue is pulled out, as punishment for oral sins.
 +
 +拔苦與樂 To save from suffering and give joy.
 +
 +拔羅魔囉 bhramara, a kind of black bee.
 +
 +拔思發 拔合思巴;​ 八思巴 Baschpa (Phags-pa), Tibetan Buddhist and adviser of Kublai Khan, v. 八發 (八發思).
 +
 +[261]
 +
 +拘 Seize, take, arrest; translit. k sounds, cf. 巨, 矩, 倶, 憍.
 +
 +拘利 拘胝 koṭī. A million. Also explained by 億 100, 000; or 100 lakṣa, i. e. ten millions. Also 倶利 or 倶胝.
 +
 +拘利太子 Kolita, the eldest son of Droṇodana,​ uncle of Śākyamuni;​ said to be Mahānāma, but others say Mahāmaudgalyāyana. Also 拘栗; 拘肄多.
 +
 +拘吒賒摩利 Kūṭaśālmali. Also 居吒奢摩利 (or 居吒奢摩離) A fabulous tree on which garuḍas find nāgas to eat: M. W. describes it as 'a fabulous cotton tree with sharp thorns with which the wicked are tortured in the world of Yama'.
 +
 +拘吒迦 kuṭaṅgaka,​ thatched; a hut.
 +
 +拘尸那 Kuśinagara;​ 拘尸那竭 or拘尸那揚羅;​ 拘夷那竭 (or 倶夷那竭);​ 倶尸那; 究施 a city identified by Professor Vogel with Kasiah, 180 miles north-west of Patna, '​capital city of the Mallas'​ (M. W.); the place where Śākyamuni died; 'so called after the sacred Kuśa grass.'​ Eitel. Not the same as Kuśāgārapura,​ v. 矩.
 +
 +拘摩羅 kumāra; also 矩摩羅 (or 鳩摩羅); a child, youth, prince, tr. by 童子 a youth, 拘摩羅天;​ 鳩摩羅伽天 Kumārakadeva,​ Indra of the first dhyāna heaven whose face is like that of a youth, sitting on a peacock, holding a cock, a bell, and a flag.
 +
 +拘摩羅尊 Kumārata, v. 鳩.
 +
 +拘沙 A branch of the Yüeh-chih people, v. 月.
 +
 +拘流沙 Kuru, the country where Buddha is said to have delivered the sutra 長阿合大緣方便經.
 +
 +拘物頭 kumuda; also 拘物陀; 拘物度; 拘勿頭 (or 拘勿投); 拘牟頭 ( or拘貿頭or 拘某頭or 拘那頭); 拘母陀; 句文羅; 倶勿頭; 屈摩羅; 究牟陀 a lotus; an opening lotus; but kumuda refers especially to the esculent white lotus. M. W.
 +
 +拘理迦 Kulika. 'A city 9 li south-west of Nālanda in Magadha.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +拘瑟耻羅 Kauṣṭhila,​ also 倶瑟祉羅;​ an arhat, maternal uncle of Śāriputra,​ who became an eminent disciple of Śākyamuni.
 +
 +拘留孫佛 Krakucchanda;​ also 拘留泰佛;​ 拘樓秦; 倶留孫; 鳩樓孫; 迦羅鳩餐陀 (or 迦羅鳩村馱);​ 羯洛迦孫馱;​ 羯羅迦寸地;​ 羯句忖那,​ etc. The first of the Buddhas of the present Bhadrakalpa,​ the fourth of the seven ancient Buddhas.
 +
 +拘盧舍 (拘盧) krośa; also 拘樓賒; 拘屢; 倶盧舍; the distance a bull's bellow can be heard, the eighth part of a yojana, or 5 li; another less probable definition is 2 li. For 拘盧 Uttarakuru, see 倶.
 +
 +拘睒彌 Kauśāmbī,​ or Vatsapattana 拘邊; 憍賞彌; a country in Central India; also called 拘羅瞿 v. 巨.
 +
 +拘羯羅 cakra, v. 斫.
 +
 +拘耆 (拘耆那羅) Kokila, also 拘翅羅, the cuckoo, M. W.
 +
 +拘蘇摩 kusuma, 'the white China aster.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +拘蘇摩補羅 Kusumapura, city of flower-palaces;​ two are named, Pāṭaliputra,​ ancient capital of Magadha, the modern Patna; and Kanyākubja,​ Kanauj (classical Canogyza), a noted city in northern Hindustan; v. 羯.
 +
 +拘謎陀 Kumidha, 'An ancient kingdom on the Beloortagh to the north of Badakhshan. The vallis Comedorum of Ptolemy.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +拘那牟尼 (拘含牟尼) Kanakamuni, 拘那含; 迦諾迦牟尼 q. v., lit. 金寂 the golden recluse, or 金仙 golden ṛṣi; Brahman of the Kāśyapa family, native of Śobhanavatī,​ second of the five Buddhas of the present Bhadra-kalpa fifth of the seven ancient Buddhas; possibly a sage who preceded Śākyamuni in India.
 +
 +拘那羅 Kuṇāla; also 拘拏羅, 拘浪拏; 鳩那羅 a bird with beautiful eyes; name of Dharmavivardhana (son of Aśoka), whose son Sampadi '​became the successor of Aśoka'​. Eitel. Kuṇāla is also tr. as an evil man, possibly of the evil eye.
 +
 +拘那羅陀 (or拘那羅他);​ 拘那蘭難陀 ? Guṇarata, name of Paramārtha,​ who was known as 眞諦三藏,​ also as Kulanātha, came to China A. D. 546 from Ujjain in Western India, tr. many books, especially the treatises of Vasubandhu.
 +
 +拘鄰 Kauṇḍinya;​ also 拘輪 (or 倶輪); 倶鄰;鄰 (or 居倫). v. 憍.
 +
 +[262]
 +
 +拘鞞陀羅 Kovidāra, bauhinia variegata, fragrant trees in the great pleasure ground (of the child Śākyamuni).
 +
 +放 To let go, release, send out; put, place.
 +
 +放下 To put down, let down, lay down.
 +
 +放光 Light-emitting;​ to send out an illuminating ray.
 +
 +放光三昧 A samādhi in which all kinds and colours of light are emitted.
 +
 +放光瑞 The auspicious ray emitted from between the eyebrows of the Buddha before pronouncing the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +放燈 Lighting strings of lanterns, on the fifteenth of the first month, a custom wrongly attributed to Han Ming Ti, to celebrate the victory of Buddhism in the debate with Taoists; later extended to the seventh and fifteenth full moons.
 +
 +放生 To release living creatures as a work of merit.
 +
 +放逸 Loose, unrestrained.
 +
 +於 At, in, on, to, from, by, than.
 +
 +於諦 All Buddha'​s teaching is 'based upon the dogmas'​ that all things are unreal, and that the world is illusion; a 三論 phrase.
 +
 +於麾 A name for Ladakh. 'The upper Indus valley under Cashmerian rule but inhabited by Tibetans.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +易 Change; easy.
 +
 +易行 Easy progress, easy to do.
 +
 +變易 To change.
 +
 +昔 Of old, formerly.
 +
 +昔哩 śrī, fortunate, idem 室利 (or 尸利).
 +
 +昆勒 piṭaka, also 蜫勒 defined as the śāstras; a misprint for 毘.
 +
 +昏 Dusk, dull, confused.
 +
 +昏城 The dim city, the abode of the common, unenlightened man.
 +
 +昏識 Dull, or confused, knowledge.
 +
 +昏醉 matta, drunk, intoxicated.
 +
 +昏鐘 昏鼓 The bell, or drum, at dusk.
 +
 +昏默多 Kandat, the capital of Tamasthiti, perhaps the modern Kunduz, but Eitel says '​Kundoot about 40 miles above Jshtrakh, Lat. 36° 42N., Long. 71° 39E.''​
 +
 +明 vidyā, knowledge. ming means bright, clear, enlightenment,​ intp. by 智慧 or 聰明 wisdom, wise; to understand. It represents Buddha-wisdom and its revelation; also the manifestation of a Buddha'​s light or effulgence; it is a term for 眞言 because the 'true word' can destroy the obscurity of illusion; the '​manifestation'​ of the power of the object of worship; it means also dhāraṇīs or mantras of mystic wisdom. Also, the Ming dynasty A. D. 1368-1644.
 +
 +明了 To understand thoroughly; complete enlightenment.
 +
 +無明 Commonly tr. '​ignorance',​ means an unenlightened condition, non-perception,​ before the stirrings of intelligence,​ belief that the phenomenal is real, etc.
 +
 +明信佛智 To believe clearly in Buddha'​s wisdom (as leading to rebirth in the Pure Land).
 +
 +明冥 The (powers of) light and darkness, the devas and Yama, gods and demons, also the visible and invisible.
 +
 +明利 Clear and keen (to penetrate all mystery).
 +
 +明地 The stage of illumination,​ or 發光地 the third of the ten stages, v. 十地.
 +
 +明妃 Another name for dhāraṇī as the queen of mystic knowledge and able to overcome all evil. Also the female consorts shown in the maṇḍalas.
 +
 +明度無極 An old intp. of prajñā 明 pāramitā 度, the wisdom that ferries to the other shore without limit; for which 明炬 a shining torch is also used.
 +
 +明得 (明定) A samādhi in the Bodhisattva'​s 四加行 in which there are the bright beginnings of release from illusion.
 +
 +明德菩薩 The Bodhisattva who has reached the stage of 明得, i. e. the 煗位.
 +
 +明心 The enlightened heart.
 +
 +明慧 The three enlightenments 三明, and the three wisdoms 三慧.
 +
 +明敏 Śīghrabodhi. 'A famous priest of the Nālanda monastery.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +明星 Venus; 太白 and the 天子 deva-prince who dwells in that planet; but it is also said to be Aruṇa, which indicates the Dawn.
 +
 +明月 The bright moon.
 +
 +明月珠 明珠; 摩尼 The bright-moon maṇi or pearl, emblem of Buddha, Buddhism, the Buddhist Scriptures, purity, etc.
 +
 +明月天子 The moon-deva, in Indra'​s retinue.
 +
 +明法 The law or method of mantras, or magic formulæ.
 +
 +[263]
 +
 +明薫 The inner light, enlightenment censing and overcoming ignorance, like incense, perfuming and interpenetrating.
 +
 +明王 The rājas, ming-wang, or fence sprits who are the messengers and manifestation of Vairocana'​s wrath against evil spirits.
 +
 +明相 Early dawn, the proper time for the monk's breakfast; brightness.
 +
 +明神 The bright spirits, i. e. devas, gods, demons.
 +
 +明脫 Enlightenment (from ignorance) and release (from desire).
 +
 +明藏 The Buddhist canon of the Ming dynasty; there were two editions, one the Southern at Nanjing made by T'ai Tsu, the northern at Beijing by Tai Tsung. A later edition was produced in the reign of Shen Tsung (Wan Li), which became the standard in Japan.
 +
 +明處 The regions or realms of study which produce wisdom, five in number, v. 五明 (五明處).
 +
 +明行足 vidyā-caraṇa-saṃpañña;​ knowledge-conduct-perfect 婢侈遮羅那三般那. (1) The unexcelled universal enlightenment of the Buddha based upon the discipline, meditation, and wisdom regarded as feet; one of the ten epithets of Buddha. Nirvāṇa Sūtra 18. (2) The 智度論 2 interprets 明 by the 三明 q. v., the 行 by the 三業 q. v., and the 足 by complete, or perfect.
 +
 +明道 The bright or clear way; the way of the mantras and dhāraṇīs.
 +
 +明達 Enlightenment 明in the case of the saint includes knowledge of future incarnations of self others, of the past incarnation of self and others, and that the present incarnation will end illusion. In the case of the Buddha such knowledge is called 達 thorough or perfect enlightenment.
 +
 +服 Submit, serve; clothing, to wear; mourning; to swallow; a dose.
 +
 +服水論師 The sect of non-Buddhist philosophers who considered water the beginning and end of all things.
 +
 +板 A board; a board struck for calling e. g. to meals.
 +
 +杯 A cup.
 +
 +杯度 Beidu, a fifth-century Buddhist monk said to be able to cross a river in a cup or bowl, hence his name.
 +
 +枉 Oppression, wrong; crooked; in vain.
 +
 +枉死 Wrongly done to death.
 +
 +析 To divide, separate, differentiate,​ explain.
 +
 +分析 To divide; leave the world; separation.
 +
 +析小 To traverse or expose the fallacy of Hīnayāna arguments.
 +
 +析微塵 To subdivide molecules till nothing is reached.
 +
 +析水 To rinse (the alms-bowl).
 +
 +析智 Analytical wisdom, which analyses Hīnayāna dharmas and attains to the truth that neither the ego nor things have a basis in reality.
 +
 +枝 A branch.
 +
 +枝香 Incense made of branches of trees, one of the three kinds of incense, the other two being from roots and flowers.
 +
 +枝末惑 or枝末無明 Branch and twig illusion, or ignorance in detail, contrasted with 根本無明root,​ or radical ignorance, i. e. original ignorance out of which arises karma, false views, and realms of illusion which are the '​branch and twig' condition or unenlightenment in detail or result. Also, the first four of the 五住地 five causal relationships,​ the fifth being 根本無明.
 +
 +林 A grove, or wood; a band.
 +
 +林微尼 (or 林毘尼); 嵐毘尼; 龍彌你 (or流彌你);​ 臘伐尼; 論民; 林毘, etc. Lumbinī, the park in which Śākyamuni was born, '15 miles east of Kapilavastu.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +林葬 Forest burial, to cast the corpse into a forest to be eaten by animals.
 +
 +林藤 Vegetable food, used by men at the beginning of a kalpa.
 +
 +林變 The trees of the wood turned white when the Buddha died.
 +
 +東 pūrva, east.
 +
 +東勝身洲 (佛婆毘提訶) 毘提訶; 佛婆提; 佛于逮; 逋利婆; 鼻提賀; 布嚕婆, etc. Pūrvavideha. The eastern of the four great continents of a world, east of Mt. Meru, semicircular in shape.
 +
 +東司 東淨; 東厠 The privy in a monastery.
 +
 +東土 The eastern land, i. e. China.
 +
 +東密 The eastern esoteric or Shingon sect of Japan, in contrast with the Tiantai esoteric sect.
 +
 +東山 An eastern hill, or monastery, general and specific, especially the 黃梅東山 Huangmei eastern monastery of the fourth and fifth patriarchs of the Chan (Zen) school.
 +
 +東山部 佛媻勢羅部 Pūrvaśailāḥ;​ one of the five divisions of the Mahāsāṃghikaḥ school.
 +
 +東山寺 Pūrvaśailā-saṃghārāma,​ a monastery east of Dhanakaṭaka.
 +
 +東嶽 The Eastern Peak, Tai Shan in Shandong, one of the five sacred peaks; the god or spirit of this peak, whose protection is claimed all over China.
 +
 +[264]
 +
 +東庵 The eastern hall of monastery.
 +
 +東方 The east, or eastern region.
 +
 +東曼陀羅 The eastern maṇḍala,​ that of the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +果 phala, 頗羅 fruit; offspring; result, consequence,​ effect; reward, retribution;​ it contrasts with cause, i. e. 因果 cause and effect. The effect by causing a further effect becomes also a cause.
 +
 +果上 In the stage when the individual receives the consequences of deeds done.
 +
 +果人 Those who have obtained the fruit, i. e. escaped the chain of transmigration,​ e. g. buddha, pratyekabuddha,​ arhat.
 +
 +果位 The stage of attainment, or reward as contrasted with the cause-stage,​ i. e. the deed.
 +
 +果佛性 Fruition of the Buddha-enlightenment,​ its perfection, one of the five forms of the Buddha-nature.
 +
 +果分 The reward, e. g. of ineffable nirvāṇa, or dharmakāya.
 +
 +果名 果號 Attamentment-name,​ or reward-name or title, i. e. of every Buddha, indicating his enlightenment.
 +
 +果唯識 The wisdom attained from investigating and thinking philosophy, or Buddha-truth,​ i. e. of the sūtras and abhidharmas;​ this includes the first four under 五種唯識.
 +
 +果圓 Fruit complete, i. e. perfect enlightenment,​ one of the eight Tiantai perfections.
 +
 +果地 The stage of attainment of the goal of any disciplinary course.
 +
 +果報 異熟 Retribution for good or evil deeds, implying that different conditions in this (or any) life are the variant ripenings, or fruit, of seed sown in previous life or lives.
 +
 +果報土 The realm of reward, where bodhisattvas attain the full reward of their deeds, also called 實報無障礙土,​ one of the 四土 of Tiantai.
 +
 +果報四相 The four forms of retribution — birth, age, sickness, death.
 +
 +果德 The merits nirvāṇa, i. e. 常樂我淨 q. v., eternal, blissful, personal (or autonomous),​ and pure, all transcendental.
 +
 +果斷 To cut off the fruit, or results, of former karma. The arhat who has a '​remnant of karma',​ though he has cut off the seed of misery, has not yet cut off its fruits.
 +
 +果果 The fruit of fruit, i. e. nirvāṇa, the fruition of bodhi.
 +
 +果果佛性 The fruit of the fruit of Buddhahood, i. e. parinirvāṇa,​ one of the 五佛性.
 +
 +果極 Fruition perfect, the perfect virtue or merit of Buddha-enlightenment.
 +
 +果極法身 The dharmakāya of complete enlightenment.
 +
 +果海 The ocean of bodhi or enightenment.
 +
 +果滿 The full or complete fruition of merit; perfect reward.
 +
 +果熟識 The ālaya-vijñāna,​ i. e. storehouse or source of consciousness,​ from which both subject and object are derived.
 +
 +果界圓現 In the Buddha-realm,​ i. e. of complete bodhi-enlightenment,​ all things are perfectly manifest.
 +
 +果相 Reward, retribution,​ or effect; especially as one of the three forms of the ālaya-vijñāna.
 +
 +果縛 Retribution-bond;​ the bitter fruit of transmigration binds the individual so that he cannot attain release. This fruit produces 子縛 or further seeds of bondage.
 +
 +果縛斷 Cutting off the ties of retribution,​ i. e. entering nirvāṇa, e. g. entering salvation.
 +
 +果脣 Fruit lips, Buddha'​s were 'red like the fruit of the Bimba tree'.
 +
 +果遂 The fruit follows.
 +
 +果遂願 The assurance of universal salvation, the twentieth of Amitābha'​s forty-eight vows.
 +
 +果頭 The condition of retribution,​ especially the reward of bodhi or enlightenment,​ idem 果上, hence 果頭佛 is he who has attained the Buddha-condition,​ a Tiantai term.
 +
 +[265]
 +
 +欣 Joyful, elated, elevated.
 +
 +欣求 To seek gladly.
 +
 +欣界 The joyful realm (of saints and sages).
 +
 +毒 Poison.
 +
 +毒器 The poison vessel, the body.
 +
 +毒天二鼓 The two kinds of drum: poison-drum,​ harsh or stern words for repressing evil, and devadrum, gentle words for producing good; also, misleading contrasted with correct teaching. The毒鼓 is likened also to the Buddha-nature which can slay all evil.
 +
 +毒樹 Poison tree, an evil monk.
 +
 +毒氣 Poison vapour, emitted by the three poisons, 貪瞋痴, desire, hate (or anger), stupor (or ignorance).
 +
 +毒箭 Poison arrow, i. e. illusion.
 +
 +毒藥 Poison, cf. the sons who drank their father'​s poisons in the 善門 chapter of The Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +毒蛇 Poisonous snakes, the four elements of the body— earth, water, fire, wind (or air)— which harm a man by their variation, i. e. increase and decrease. Also, gold.
 +
 +毒龍 The poisonous dragon, who accepted the commandments and thus escaped from his dragon form, i. e. Śākyamuni in a former incarnation. 智度論 14.
 +
 +注 Fix, record; flow.
 +
 +注荼半托迦 Cūḍapanthaka,​ the sixteenth of the sixteen arhats.
 +
 +油 Oil.
 +
 +油鉢 A bowl of oil.
 +
 +持油鉢 As careful as carrying a bowl of oil.
 +
 +泡 A bubble, a blister; to infuse.
 +
 +泡影 Bubble and shadow, such is everything.
 +
 +河 River (in north), canal (in south), especially the Yellow River in China and the Ganges 恒河in India.
 +
 +河沙 The sands of Ganges, vast in number.
 +
 +河鼻旨 Avīci, the hell of uninterrupted suffering, where the sufferers die and are reborn to torture without intermission.
 +
 +沓 Ripple, babble; join. Translit. t, d, etc.
 +
 +沓婆 沓婆摩羅 Dravya Mallaputra, an arhat who was converted to the Mahāyāna faith.
 +
 +治 Rule, govern; prepare; treat, cure; repress, punish.
 +
 +治國天 (or 持國天) One of the four devas or maharājas, guarding the eastern quarter.
 +
 +治地住 One of the 十住 q. v.
 +
 +治生 A living, that by which one maintains life.
 +
 +泯 Vast; to flow off; ruin, confusion.
 +
 +泯權歸實 To depart from the temporary and find a home in the real, i. e. forget Hīnayāna, partial salvation, and turn to Mahāyāna for full and complete salvation.
 +
 +泥 Mud; paste; clogged; bigoted; translit. n; v. 尼.
 +
 +泥人 A sufferer in niraya, or hell, or doomed to it.
 +
 +泥哩底 Nirṛti, one of the rakṣa-kings.
 +
 +泥塔 Paste pagoda; a mediaeval Indian custom was to make a small pagoda five or six inches high of incense, place scriptures in and make offerings to it. The esoterics adopted custom, and worshipped for the purpose of prolonging life and ridding themselves of sins, or sufferings.
 +
 +泥洹 Nirvāṇa; also泥丸; 泥日; 泥垣; 泥畔; v. 涅槃.
 +
 +泥犁 niraya, intp. as joyless, i. e. hell; also 泥梨 (泥梨耶);​ 泥梨迦; 泥黎; 泥囉耶; 泥底 v. 捺趣迦 naraka.
 +
 +泥盧鉢羅 nīla-utpala;​ the blue lotus, portrayed in the hand of Mañjuśrī.
 +
 +泥盧都 One of the sixteen hells.
 +
 +泥縛些那 nivāsana, a garment, a skirt. Also 泥婆娑; 泥伐散娜;​ 涅般僧.
 +
 +波 taraṅga. A wave, waves; to involve; translit. p, b, v; cf. 婆; 般; 鉢 etc.
 +
 +波儞尼 or (波你尼) Pāṇini, the great Indian grammarian and writer of the fourth century B. C., also known as Śālāturīya.
 +
 +波利 pari round, round about; complete, all.
 +
 +波利伽羅,​ 波伽羅 parikara, an auxiliary garment, loincloth, towel, etc.
 +
 +波利婆沙 parivāsa, sent to a separate abode, isolation for improper conduct.
 +
 +波利質羅 (波利質多羅),​ 波疑質姤;​ 波利樹 paricitra, a tree in the trāyastriṃśas heavens which fills the heavens with fragrance; also Pārijāta, a tree in Indra'​s heaven, one of the five trees of paradise, the coral-tree, erythina indica.
 +
 +波利涅縛南 波利暱縛M003660 parinirvāṇa,​ v, 般.
 +
 +波卑 idem 波旬.
 +
 +波叉 Virūpākṣa,​ 毘留愽叉,​ 鼻溜波阿叉 irregular-eyed,​ a syn. of Śiva; the guardian king of the West.
 +
 +波吒羅 Pāṭalī, 鉢怛羅 a tree with scented lossoms, the trumpet-flower,​ Bignonia Suaveolens. A kingdom i. e. 波吒釐 (波吒釐子);​ 波吒利弗;​ 波吒梨耶;​ 波羅利弗多羅;​ 巴蓮弗 Pāṭaliputra,​ originally Kusumapura, the modern Patna; capital of Aśoka, where the third synod was held.
 +
 +波哆迦 patākā, a flag.
 +
 +波夷羅 Vajra, one of the generals of Yaoshi, Bhaiṣajya,​ the Buddha of Healing.
 +
 +[266]
 +
 +波奴 ? Vidhu, a syn. for the moon.
 +
 +波婆利 (or 波和利) Pravarī, or perhaps Pravara, woollen or hairy cloth, name of a monastery, the 波婆梨奄婆. Also 波婆利or 波婆離 name of a maternal aunt of Maitreya.
 +
 +波尼 波抳 pāna, drink, beverage; tr. as water (to drink); 波尼藍 tr. as '​water',​ but may be pānila, a drinking vessel.
 +
 +波崙 v. 薩陀.
 +
 +波帝 pati, 鉢底 master, lord, proprietor, husband.
 +
 +波戌 paśu, any animal.
 +
 +波斯 Pārasī, Persian, Persia. 波嘶; 波刺斯 or 波刺私; 波羅悉. In its capital of Surasthāna the Buddha'​s almsbowl was said to be in A. D. 600. Eitel.
 +
 +波斯匿 鉢邏犀那特多 (or 鉢邏斯那特多) (or 鉢邏犀那時多);​ 波刺斯 Prasenajit, king of Śrāvastī,​ contemporary of the Buddha, and known inter alia as (勝光王) 光王; father of Virūḍhaka,​ who supplanted him.
 +
 +波旬 (波旬踰);​ 波鞞 Pāpīyān. Pāpīmān. Pāpīmā. Pāpīyān is very wicked. Pāpīyān is a Buddhist term for 惡者 the Evil One; 殺者 the Murderer; Māra; because he strives to kill all goodness; v. 魔. Also 波卑面 or 波卑椽 or 波卑緣.
 +
 +波濕縛 (波栗濕縛);​ 波奢 pārśva, the ribs. Pārśva, the tenth patriarch, previously a Brahman of Gandhāra, who took a vow not to lie down until he had mastered the meaning of the Tripiṭaka,​ cut off all desire in the realms of sense, form and non-form, and obtained the six supernatural powers and eight pāramitās. This he accomplished after three years. His death is put at 36 B. C. His name is tr. as 脇尊者 his Worship of the Ribs.
 +
 +波樓那 A fierce wind, hurricane, perhaps Vātyā.
 +
 +波樓沙迦 Paruṣaka, a park in the trāyastriṃśas heaven.
 +
 +波波 Running hither and thither. Also, Pāvā, a place near Rājagṛha.
 +
 +波波劫劫 Running about for ever.
 +
 +波波羅 Pippala, ficus religiosa.
 +
 +波浪 taraṅga, a wave, waves.
 +
 +波演那 (or 波衍那) ? paryayaṇa,​ suggesting an ambulatory; intp. as a courtyard.
 +
 +波羅伽 pāraka, carrying over, saving; the pāramitā boat.
 +
 +波羅迦 Pāraga, a title of the Buddha who has reached the other shore.
 +
 +波羅伽羅 鉢囉迦羅 prākāra, a counting wall, fence.
 +
 +波羅夷 pārājika. The first section of the Vinaya piṭaka containing rules of expulsion from the order, for unpardonable sin. Also 波羅闍巳迦;​ 波羅市迦. Cf. 四波羅夷. There are in Hīnayāna eight sins for expulsion of nuns, and in Mahāyāna ten. The esoteric sects have their own rules.
 +
 +波羅夷四喩 The four metaphors addressed by the Buddha to monks are: he who breaks the vow of chastity is as a needle without an eye, a dead man, a broken stone which cannot be united, a tree cut in two which cannot live.
 +
 +波羅奈 (波羅奈斯) Vārāṇasī. Ancient kingdom and city on the Ganges, now Benares, where was the Mṛgadāva park. Also 波羅捺 (波羅捺寫);​ 波羅痆斯;​ 波刺那斯.
 +
 +波羅奢華 palāśa; a leaf, petal, foliage; the blossom of the Butea frondosa, a tree with red flowers, whose sap is used for dye; said to be black before sunrise, red during the day, and yellow after sunset.
 +
 +波羅尼密婆舍跋提天 Paranirmita-vaśavartin,​ '​obedient to the will of those who are transformed by others,'​ M. W.; v. 他化自在天.
 +
 +波羅提舍尼 (波羅提提舍尼) pratideśanīya. A section of the Vinaya concerning public confession of sins. Explained by 向彼悔罪 confession of sins before another or others. Also 波羅舍尼;​ 提舍尼; 波胝提舍尼;​ 鉢刺底提舍尼.
 +
 +波羅提木叉 prātimokṣa;​ emancipation,​ deliverance,​ absolution. Prātimokṣa;​ the 250 commandments for monks in the Vinaya, v. 木叉, also 婆; the rules in the Vinaya from the four major to the seventy-five minor offences; they should be read in assembly twice a month and each monk invited to confess his sins for absolution.
 +
 +波羅提毘 (or波羅梯毘) pṛthivī, the earth. Also 鉢里體尾. See 地.
 +
 +[267]
 +
 +波羅末陀 paramārtha,​ the highest truth, ultimate truth, reality, fundamental meaning, 眞諦. Paramārtha,​ name of a famous monk from Western India, Guṇarata, v. 拘, whose title was 眞諦三藏;​ reached China 547 or 548, but the country was so disturbed that he set of to return by sea; his ship was driven back to Canton, where he translated some fifty works.
 +
 +波羅蜜多 pāramitā, 播囉弭多,​ derived from parama, highest, acme, is intp. as to cross over from this shore of births and deaths to the other shore, or nirvāṇa. The six pāramitās or means of so doing are: (1) dāna, charity; (2) śīla, moral conduct; (3) kṣānti, patience; (4) vīrya, energy, or devotion; (5) dhyāna, contemplation,​ or abstraction;​ (6) prajñā, knowledge. The 十度 ten are the above with (7) upāya, use of expedient or proper means; (8) praṇidhāna,​ vows, for bodhi and helpfulness;​ (9) bāla, strength purpose; (10) wisdom. Childers gives the list of ten as the perfect exercise of almsgiving, morality, abnegation of the world and of self, wisdom, energy, patience, truth, resolution, kindness, and resignation. Each of the ten is divisible into ordinary, superior, and unlimited perfection, or thirty in all. pāramitā is tr. by 度; 度無極; 到彼岸; 究竟.
 +
 +波羅赴 Prabhu, 鉢唎部 surpassing, powerful; a title of Viṣṇu 'as personification of the sun', of Brahmā, Śiva, Indra, etc. prabhū, come into being, originate, original.
 +
 +波羅越 Pārāvata, a dove; the fifth row of a rock-cut temple in the Deccan, said to resemble a dove, described by Faxian.
 +
 +波羅門 Brahmin, v. 婆.
 +
 +波羅頗婆底 Prabhāvatī,​ younger sister of Aśoka.
 +
 +波羅頗迦羅密多羅 Prabhākaramitra,​ enlightener,​ v. 波頗.
 +
 +波耶 payas, water; in Sanskrit it also means milk, juice, vital force.
 +
 +波謎羅 Pamira, the Pamirs, 'the centre of the Tsung-ling mountains with the Sirikol lake (v. Anavatapta) in Lat. 38° 20 N., Long. 74° E.' Eitel.
 +
 +波輸鉢多 Pāśupata; a particular sect of Sivaites who smeared their bodies with ashes.
 +
 +波逸提 波藥致 pātaka. A sin causing one to fall into purgatory. Also 波逸底迦;​ 波夜迦; 波羅逸尼柯;​ 波質胝迦 (波羅夜質胝迦);​ but there seems to be a connection with prāyaścitta,​ meaning expiation, atonement, restitution.
 +
 +波那姿 panasa, 半那娑 the bread-fruit tree, jaka or jack-fruit.
 +
 +波里衣多羅 Pāriyātra,​ 'an ancient kingdom 800 li south-west of Śatadru, a centre of heretical sects. The present city of Birat, west of Mathurā.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +波闍波提 Prajāpatī,​ 波闍鉢提 (波邏闍鉢提) aunt and nurse of the Buddha, v. 摩訶.
 +
 +波闍羅 vajra, the diamond sceptre, v. 金剛杵.
 +
 +波陀 pada; a step, footprint, position; a complete word; u. f. 阿波陀那 avadāna.
 +
 +波陀劫 跋達羅劫 Bhadra-kalpa,​ v. 賢劫 and 颰.
 +
 +波離 Upāli, v. 優.
 +
 +波鞞 v. 波旬.
 +
 +波頗 Prabhāmitra,​ (Prabhākaramitra),​ an Indian monk, who came to China in A. D. 626.
 +
 +波頭摩 padma; 波曇摩; 波暮; etc., the red lotus; v. 鉢; tr. 華 or 蓮.
 +
 +波頭摩巴尼 Padmapāṇi,​ one of the forms of Guanyin, holding a lotus.
 +
 +法 Dharma, 達磨; 曇無 (or 曇摩); 達摩 (or 達謨) Law, truth, religion, thing, anything Buddhist. Dharma is 'that which is held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice, custom';​ '​duty';​ '​right';​ '​proper';​ '​morality';​ '​character'​. M. W. It is used in the sense of 一切 all things, or anything small or great, visible or invisible, real or unreal, affairs, truth, principle, method, concrete things, abstract ideas, etc. Dharma is described as that which has entity and bears its own attributes. It connotes Buddhism as the perfect religion; it also has the second place in the triratna 佛法僧, and in the sense of 法身 dharmakāya it approaches the Western idea of '​spiritual'​. It is also one of the six media of sensation, i. e. the thing or object in relation to mind, v. 六塵.
 +
 +法主 Dharma-lord,​ Buddha.
 +
 +[268]
 +
 +法乳 The milk of the dharma which nourishes the spiritual nature.
 +
 +法事 佛事 Religious affairs, e. g. assemblies and services; discipline and ritual.
 +
 +法位 (1) Dharma-state,​ the bhūtatathatā. (2) The grade or position of a monk.
 +
 +法住 Dharma abode, i. e. the omnipresent bhūtatathatā in all things. dharmasthititā,​ continuity of dharma.
 +
 +法佛 idem 法身佛, or 法性佛.
 +
 +法侶 A companion of the Dharma, a disciple.
 +
 +法供養 dharmapūjā. Serving the Dharma, i. e. believing, explaining, keeping, obeying it, cultivating the spiritual nature, protecting and assisting Buddhism. Also, offerings of or to the Dharma.
 +
 +法光定 samādhi of the light of Truth, that of the bodhisattva in the first stage.
 +
 +法入 法處 The sense-data of direct mental perception, one of the 十二入 or 處.
 +
 +法公 Signior of the Law, a courtesy title of any monk.
 +
 +法典 The scriptures of Buddhism.
 +
 +法利 The blessing, or benefits, of Buddhism.
 +
 +法劍 The sword of Buddha-truth,​ able to cut off the functioning of illusion.
 +
 +法力 The power of Buddha-truth to do away with calamity and subdue evil.
 +
 +法化 Transformation by Buddha-truth;​ teaching in or by it.
 +
 +法化生身 The nirmāṇakāya,​ or corporeal manifestation of the spiritual Buddha.
 +
 +法匠 Dharma workman, a teacher able to mould his pupils.
 +
 +法印 The seal of Buddha-truth,​ expressing its reality and immutability,​ also its universality and its authentic transmission from one Buddha or patriarch to another.
 +
 +法句經 Dharmapāda,​ 曇鉢經 a work by Dharmatrāta,​ of which there are four Chinese translations,​ A. D. 224, 290-306, 399, 980-1001.
 +
 +法名 A monk's name, given to him on ordination, a term chiefly used by the 眞 Shin sect, 戒名 being the usual term.
 +
 +法同舍 A communal religious abode, i. e. a monastery or convent where religion and food are provided for spiritual and temporal needs.
 +
 +法味 The taste or flavour of the dharma.
 +
 +法命 The wisdom-life of the dharmakāya,​ intp. as 法身慧命. The age or lifetime of a monk.
 +
 +法喜 Joy in the Law, the joy of hearing or tasting dharma. Name of Dharmanandi,​ v. 曇.
 +
 +法喜食 The food of joy in the Law.
 +
 +法號 The name received by a monk on ordination, i. e. his 戒名; also his posthumous title.
 +
 +法器 Implements used in worship; one who obeys the Buddha; a vessel of the Law.
 +
 +法四依 The four trusts of dharma: trust in the Law, not in men; trust in sūtras containing ultimate truth; trust in truth, not in words; trust in wisdom growing out of eternal truth and not in illusory knowledge.
 +
 +法城 Dharma as a citadel against the false; the secure nirvāṇa abode; the sūtras as the guardians of truth.
 +
 +法域 The realm of dharma, nirvāṇa; also 法性土.
 +
 +法堂 The chief temple, so called by the Chan (Zen) sect; amongst others it is 講堂 preaching hall.
 +
 +法堅那羅王 Druma, king of the Kinnaras.
 +
 +[269]
 +
 +法場 Any place set aside for religious practices, or purposes; also 道場.
 +
 +法執 Holding to things as realities, i. e the false tenet that things are real.
 +
 +法報化三身 The trikāya: 法 dharmakāya,​ the absolute or spiritual body; 報 saṃbhogakāya,​ the body of bliss; 化 nirmāṇakāya,​ the body of incarnation. In Hīnayāna 法身 is described as the commandments,​ meditations,​ wisdom, nirvāṇa, and nirvāṇa-enlightenment;​ 報身 is the reward-body of bliss; 化 or 應 (化) is the body in its various incarnations. In Mahāyāna, the three bodies are regarded as distinct, but also as aspects of one body which pervades all beings. Cf. 三身.
 +
 +法塵 A mental object, any direct mental perception, not dependent on the sense organs. Cf. 六塵.
 +
 +法夏 Dharma summers, the years or age of a monk; v. 法臘.
 +
 +法天 Dharmadeva, a monk from the Nālandāsaṃghārāma who tr. under this name forty-six works, 973-981, and under the name of Dharmabhadra seventy-two works, 982-1001.
 +
 +法子 Child of the Dharma, one who makes his living by following Buddhism.
 +
 +法宇 Dharma roof, or canopy, a monastery.
 +
 +法定 One of the twelve names for the Dharma-nature,​ implying that it is the basis of all phenomena.
 +
 +法家 Buddhism; cf. 法門.
 +
 +法密 Dharmagupta,​ founder of the school of this name in Ceylon, one of the seven divisions of the Sarvāstivādaḥ.
 +
 +法寶 Dharmaratna. (1) Dharma-treasure,​ i. e. the Law or Buddha-truth,​ the second personification in the triratna 三寶. (2) The personal articles of a monk or nun— robe, almsbowl, etc.
 +
 +法寶藏 The storehouse of all law and truth, i. e. the sūtras.
 +
 +法尼 A nun.
 +
 +法山 Buddha-truth mountain, i. e. the exalted dharma.
 +
 +法帝 Dharma emperor, i. e. the Buddha.
 +
 +法師 A Buddhist teacher, master of the Law; five kinds are given— a custodian (of the sūtras), reader, intoner, expounder, and copier.
 +
 +法幢 The standard of Buddha-truth as an emblem of power over the hosts of Māra.
 +
 +法平等 dharmasamatā;​ the sameness of truth as taught by all Buddhas.
 +
 +法度 Rules, or disciplines and methods.
 +
 +法弟 A Buddhist disciple.
 +
 +法律 Laws or rules (of the Order).
 +
 +法忍Patience attained through dharma, to the overcoming of illusion; also ability to bear patiently external hardships.
 +
 +法念處 The position of insight into the truth that nothing has reality in itself; v. 四念處.
 +
 +法性 dharmatā. Dharma-nature,​ the nature underlying all thing, the bhūtatathatā,​ a Mahāyāna philosophical concept unknown in Hīnayāna, v. 眞如 and its various definitions in the 法相, 三論 (or法性), 華嚴, and 天台 Schools. It is discussed both in its absolute and relative senses, or static and dynamic. In the Mahāparinirvāṇa sūtra and various śāstras the term has numerous alternative forms, which may be taken as definitions,​ i. e. 法定 inherent dharma, or Buddha-nature;​ 法住 abiding dharma-nature;​ 法界 dharmakṣetra,​ realm of dharma; 法身 dharmakāya,​ embodiment of dharma; 實際 region of reality; 實相 reality; 空性 nature of the Void, i. e. immaterial nature; 佛性 Buddha-nature;​ 無相 appearance of nothingness,​ or immateriality;​ 眞如 bhūtatathatā;​ 如來藏 tathāgatagarbha;​ 平等性 universal nature; 離生性 immortal nature; 無我性 impersonal nature; 虛定界: realm of abstraction;​ 不虛妄性 nature of no illusion; 不變異性 immutable nature; 不思議界 realm beyond thought; 自性淸淨心 mind of absolute purity, or unsulliedness,​ etc. Of these the terms 眞如, 法性, and 實際 are most used by the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
 +
 +[270]
 +
 +法性土 The kṣetra or region of the dharma-nature,​ i. e. the bhūtatathatā,​ or 眞如, in its dynamic relations.
 +
 +法性宗 The sects, e. g. 華嚴宗, 天台宗, 眞言宗 Huayan, Tiantai, Shingon, which hold that all things proceed from the bhūtatathatā,​ i. e. the dharmakāya,​ and that all phenomena are of the same essence as the noumenon.
 +
 +法性山 The dharma-nature as a mountain, i. e. fixed, immovable.
 +
 +法性常樂 The eternity and bliss of the dharma-nature,​ v. 常樂我淨.
 +
 +法性水 The water of the dharma-nature,​ i. e. pure.
 +
 +法性海 The ocean of the dharma-nature,​ vast, unfathomable,​ v. 法水.
 +
 +法性眞如 Dharma-nature and bhūtatathatā,​ different terms but of the same meaning.
 +
 +法性身 idem 法身.
 +
 +法性隨妄 The dharma-nature in the sphere of delusion; i. e. 法性隨緣;​ 眞如隨緣 the dharma-nature,​ or bhūtatathatā,​ in its phenomenal character; the dharma-nature may be static or dynamic; when dynamic it may by environment either become sullied, producing the world of illusion, or remain unsullied, resulting in nirvāṇa. Static, it is likened to a smooth sea; dynamic, to its waves.
 +
 +法恩 Dharma-grace,​ i. e. the grace of the triratna.
 +
 +法悅 Joy from hearing end meditating on the Law.
 +
 +法慳 Meanness in offering Buddha-truth,​ avariciously holding on to it for oneself.
 +
 +法愛 Religious love in contrast with 欲愛 ordinary love; Dharma-love may be Hīnayāna desire for nirvāṇa; or bodhisattva attachment to illusory things, both of which are to be eradicated; or Tathāgata-love,​ which goes out to all beings for salvation.
 +
 +法成就 siddhi 悉地 ceremony successful, a term of the esoteric sect when prayer is answered.
 +
 +法我 A thing per se, i. e. the false notion of anything being a thing in itself, individual, independent,​ and not merely composed of elements to be disintegrated. 法我見 The false view as above, cf. 我見.
 +
 +法教 Buddhism.
 +
 +法數 The categories of Buddhism such as the three realms, five skandhas, five regions, four dogmas, six paths, twelve nidānas, etc.
 +
 +法文 The literature of Buddhism.
 +
 +法施 The almsgiving of the Buddha-truth,​ i. e. its preaching or explanation;​ also 法布施.
 +
 +法明 Dharmaprabhāsa,​ brightness of the law, a Buddha who will appear in our universe in the Ratnāvabhāsa-kalpa in a realm called Suviśuddha 善淨, when there will be no sexual difference, birth taking place by transformation.
 +
 +法明道 The wisdom of the pure heart which illumines the Way of all Buddhas.
 +
 +法明門 The teaching which sheds light on everything, differentiating and explaining them.
 +
 +法智 Dharma-wisdom,​ which enables one to understand the four dogmas 四諦; also, the understanding of the law, or of things.
 +
 +法會 An assembly for worship or preaching.
 +
 +法會社 A monastery.
 +
 +法有 The false view of Hīnayāna that things, or the elements of which they are made, are real.
 +
 +法有我無宗 The Sarvāstivādins who while: disclaiming the reality of personality claimed the reality of things.
 +
 +法服 法衣 Dharma garment, the robe.
 +
 +法本 The root or essence of all things, the bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +法樂 Religious joy, in contrast with the joy of common desire; that of hearing the dharma, worshipping Buddha, laying up merit, making offerings, repeating sūtras, etc.
 +
 +法樹 The dharma-tree which bears nirvāṇa-fruit.
 +
 +法橋 The bridge of Buddha-truth,​ which is able to carry all across to nirvāṇa.
 +
 +法殿 The temple, or hall, of the Law, the main hall of a monastery; also the Guanyin hall.
 +
 +法比量 Inferring one thing from another, as from birth deducing death, etc.
 +
 +法水 Buddha-truth likened to water able to wash away the stains of illusion; 法河 to a deep river; 法海 to a vast deep ocean.
 +
 +[271]
 +
 +法妙 Kashgar, "or (after the name of the capital) 疏勒. An ancient Buddhistic kingdom in Central Asia. The casia regis of the ancients."​ Eitel.
 +
 +法波羅蜜 One of the four pāramitā bodhisattavas in the Diamond realm.
 +
 +法滅 The extinction of the Law, or Buddhism, after the third of the three stages 正像末.
 +
 +法炬 The torch of Buddhism.
 +
 +法照 Dharma-shining;​ name of the fourth patriarch of the 蓮宗 Lotus sect.
 +
 +法然 According to rule, naturally; also 法爾; 自然.
 +
 +法燈 The lamp of dharma, which dispels the darkness of ignorance.
 +
 +法無我 dharmanairātmya. Things are without independent individuality,​ i.e. the tenet that things have no independent reality, no reality in themselves. 法無我智 The knowledge or wisdom of the above.
 +
 +法無礙 (法無礙解 or法無礙智) Wisdom or power of explanation in unembarrassed accord with the Law, or Buddha-truth.
 +
 +法爾 idem 法然.
 +
 +法將 Dharma-generals,​ i.e. monks of high character and leadership.
 +
 +法王 Dharmarāja,​ King of the Law, Buddha.
 +
 +法王子 Son of the Dharma-king,​ a bodhisattva.
 +
 +法界 dharmadhātu,​ 法性; 實相; 達磨馱都 Dharma-element,​ -factor, or-realm. (1) A name for "​things"​ in general, noumenal or phenomenal; for the physical universe, or any portion or phase of it. (2) The unifying underlying spiritual reality regarded as the ground or cause of all things, the absolute from which all proceeds. It is one of the eighteen dhātus. These are categories of three, four, five, and ten dharmadhātus;​ the first three are combinations of 事 and 理 or active and passive, dynamic and static; the ten are: Buddha-realm,​ Bodhisattva-realm,​ pratyekabuddha-realm,​ śrāvaka, deva, Human, asura, Demon, Animal, and Hades realms-a Huayan category. Tiantai has ten for meditaton, i.e. the realms of the eighteen media of perception (the six organs, six objects, and six sense-data or sensations),​ of illusion, sickness, karma, māra, samādhi, (false) views, pride, the two lower Vehicles, and the Bodhisattva Vehicle.
 +
 +法界一相 The essential unity of the phenomenal realm.
 +
 +法界佛 The dharmadhātu Buddha, i.e. the dharmakāya;​ the universal Buddha; the Buddha of a Buddha-realm.
 +
 +法界加持 Mutual dependence and aid of all beings in a universe.
 +
 +法界唯心 The universe is mind only; cf. Huayan Sutra, Laṅkāvatāra Sutra, etc.
 +
 +法界圓融 The perfect intercommunion or blending of all things in the dharmadhātu;​ the 無礙 of Huayan and the 性具 of Tiantai.
 +
 +法界定 In dharmadhātu meditation, a term for Vairocana in both maṇḍalas.
 +
 +法界宮 The dharmadhātu-palace,​ i.e. the shrine of Vairocana in the garbhadhātu.
 +
 +法界實相 dharmadhātu-reality,​ or dharmadhātu is Reality, different names but one idea, i.e. 實相 is used for 理 or noumenon by the 別教 and 法界 by the 圓教.
 +
 +法界性 idem 法界 and 法性.
 +
 +法界無礙智 法界佛邊智 The unimpeded or unlimited knowledge or omniscience of a Buddha in regard to all beings and things in his realm.
 +
 +法界等流 The universal outflow of the spiritual body of the Buddha, i.e. his teaching.
 +
 +法界緣起 The dharmadhātu as the environmental cause of all phenomena, everything being dependent on everything else, therefore one is in all and all in one.
 +
 +法界藏 The treasury or storehouse or source of all phenomena, or truth.
 +
 +法界身 The dharmakāya (manifesting itself in all beings); the dharmadhātu as the buddhakāya,​ all things being Buddha.
 +
 +法界體性智 Intelligence as the fundamental nature of the universe; Vairocana as cosmic energy and wisdom interpenetrating all elements of the universe, a term used by the esoteric sects.
 +
 +法相 The aspects of characteristics of things-all things are of monad nature but differ in form. A name of the 法相宗 Faxiang or Dharmalakṣaṇa sect (Jap. Hossō), called also 慈恩宗 Cien sect from the Tang temple, in which lived 窺基 Kuiji, known also as 慈恩. It "aims at discovering the ultimate entity of cosmic existence n contemplation,​ through investigation into the specific characteristics (the marks or criteria) of all existence, and through the realization of the fundamental nature of the soul in mystic illumination"​. "An inexhaustible number"​ of "​seeds"​ are "​stored up in the Ālaya-soul;​ they manifest themselves in innumerable varieties of existence, both physical and mental"​. "​Though there are infinite varieties. . . they all participate in the prime nature of the ālaya."​ Anesaki. The Faxiang School is one of the "eight schools",​ and was established in China on the return of Xuanzang, consequent on his translation of the Yogācārya works. Its aim is to understand the principle underlying the 萬法性相 or nature and characteristics of all things. Its foundation works are the 解深密經,​ the 唯識論, and the 瑜伽論. It is one of the Mahāyāna realistic schools, opposed by the idealistic schools, e.g. the 三論 school; yet it was a "​combination of realism and idealism, and its religion a profoundly mystic one". Anesaki.
 +
 +[272]
 +
 +法相教 (大乘法相教) The third of the five periods of doctrinal development as distinguished by 圭峯 Guifeng.
 +
 +法眼 The (bodhisattva) dharma-eye able to penetrate all things. Name of the founder of the法眼宗 Fayan sect, one of the five Chan (Zen) schools.
 +
 +法眼淨 To see clearly or purely the truth: in Hīnayāna, to see the truth of the four dogmas; in Mahāyāna, to see the truth which releases from reincarnation.
 +
 +法空 The emptiness or unreality of things, everything being dependent on something else and having no individual existence apart from other things; hence the illusory nature of all things as being composed of elements and not possessing reality.
 +
 +法空眞如 The bhūtatathatā as understood when the non-individuality or unreality of "​things"​ is perceived.
 +
 +法空觀 Meditative insight into the unreality of all things.
 +
 +法緣 Dharma-caused,​ i.e. the sense of universal altruism giving rise to pity and mercy.
 +
 +法縛 idem 法執.
 +
 +法臘 The end of the monk's year after the summer retreat; a Buddhist year; the number of 夏 or 戒臘 summer or discipline years indicating the years since a monk's ordination.
 +
 +法臣 Ministers of the Law, i.e. bodhisattvas;​ the Buddha is King of the Law, these are his ministers.
 +
 +法自在 A bodhisattva'​s complete dialectical freedom and power, so that he can expound all things unimpeded.
 +
 +法自相相違因 One of the four fallacies connected with the reason (因), in which the reason is contrary to the truth of the premiss.
 +
 +法舟 法船 The barque of Buddha-truth which ferries men out from the sea of mortality and reincarnation to nirvana.
 +
 +法芽 The sprout or bud of Buddhism.
 +
 +法苑 The garden of Dharma, Buddhism.
 +
 +法華 The Dharma-flower,​ i.e. the Lotus Sutra, the法華經 or 妙法蓮華經 q.v. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sutra; also the法華宗 Lotus sect, i.e. that of Tiantai, which had this sutra for its basis. There are many treatises with this as part of the title. 法華法, 法華會, 法華講 ceremonials,​ meetings, or explications connected with this sutra.
 +
 +法華一實 The one perfect Vehicle of the Lotus gospel.
 +
 +法華八年 The last eight years of the Buddha'​s life, when, according to Tiantai, from 72 to 80 years of age he preached the Lotus gospel.
 +
 +法華三昧 The samādhi which sees into the three 諦 dogmas of 空假中 unreality, dependent reality and transcendence,​ or the noumenal, phenomenal, and the absolute which unites them; it is derived from the "​sixteen"​ samādhis in chapter 24 of the Lotus Sutra. There is a法華三昧經 independent of this samādhi.
 +
 +法藏 Dharma-store;​ also 佛法藏; 如來藏 (1) The absolute, unitary storehouse of the universe, the primal source of all things. (2) The Treasury of Buddha'​s teaching the sutras, etc. (3) Any Buddhist library. (4) Dharmākara,​ mine of the Law; one of the incarnations of Amitābha. (5) Title of the founder of the Huayan School 賢首法藏Xianshou Fazang.
 +
 +法藥 The medicine of the Law, capable of healing all misery.
 +
 +法蘊 The Buddha'​s detailed teaching, and in this respect similar to 法藏.
 +
 +法蘭 Gobharana, 竺法蘭, companion of Mātaṅga, these two being the first Indian monks said to have come to China, in the middle of the first century A.D.
 +
 +法螺 Conch of the Law, a symbol of the universality,​ power, or command of the Buddha'​s teaching. Cf. 商佉 śaṅkha.
 +
 +[273]
 +
 +法衆 The Buddhist monkhood; an assembly of monks or nuns.
 +
 +法衣 The religious dress, general name of monastic garments.
 +
 +法要 The essentials of the Truth; v. 法會.
 +
 +法見 Maintaining one tenet and considering others wrong; narrow-minded,​ bigoted.
 +
 +法語 Dharma-words,​ religious discourses.
 +
 +法誓 A religious vow.
 +
 +法譬 Similes or illustrations of the Dharma.
 +
 +法財 The riches of the Law, or the Law as wealth.
 +
 +法身 dharmakāya,​ embodiment of Truth and Law, the "​spiritual"​ or true body; essential Buddhahood; the essence of being; the absolute, the norm of the universe; the first of the trikāya, v.三身. The dharmakāya is divided into 總 unity and 別 diversity; as in the noumenal absolute and phenomenal activities, or potential and dynamic; but there are differences of interpretation,​ e.g. as between the 法相 and 法性 schools. Cf. 法身體性. There are many categories of the dharmakāya. In the 2 group 二法身 are five kinds: (1) 理 "​substance"​ and 智 wisdom or expression; (2) 法性法身 essential nature and 應化法身 manifestation;​ the other three couples are similar. In the 3 group 三法身 are (1) the manifested Buddha, i.e. Śākyamuni;​ (2) the power of his teaching, etc.; (3) the absolute or ultimate reality. There are other categories.
 +
 +法身佛 The dharmakāya Buddha.
 +
 +法身如來 The dharmakāyatathāgata,​ the Buddha who reveals the spiritual body.
 +
 +法身塔 The pagoda where abides a spiritual relic of Buddha: the esoteric sect uses the letter पं as such an abode of the dharmakāya.
 +
 +法身流轉 dharmakāya in its phenomenal character, conceived as becoming, as expressing itself in the stream of being.
 +
 +法舍利 (法身舍利);​ 法身偈 The śarīra, or spiritual relics of the Buddha, his sutras, or verses, his doctrine and immutable law.
 +
 +法身菩薩 法身大士 dharmakāyamahāsattva,​ one who has freed himself from illusion and attained the six spiritual powers 六神通; he is above the 初地, or, according to Tiantai, above the 初住.
 +
 +法身藏 The storehouse of the dharmakāya,​ the essence of Buddhahood, by contemplating which the holy man attains to it.
 +
 +法身觀 Meditation on, or insight into, the dharmakāya,​ varying in definition in the various schools.
 +
 +法身體性 The embodiment, totality, or nature of the dharmakāya. In Hīnayāna the Buddha-nature in its 理 or absolute side is described as not discussed, being synonymous with the 五分 five divisions of the commandments,​ meditation, wisdom, release, and doctrine, 戒, 定, 慧, 解脫, and 知見. In the Mahāyāna the 三論宗 defines the absolute or ultimate reality as the formless which contains all forms, the essence of being, the noumenon of the other two manifestations of the triratna. The 法相宗 defines it as (a) the nature or essence of the whole triratna; (b) the particular form of the Dharma in that trinity. The One-Vehicle schools represented by the 華嚴宗, 天台, etc., consider it to be the bhūtatathatā,​ 理 and 智 being one and undivided. The Shingon sect takes the six elements-earth,​ water, fire, air, space, mind-as the 理 or fundamental dharmakāya and the sixth, mind, intelligence,​ or knowledge, as the 智 Wisdom dharmakāya.
 +
 +法輪 dharmacakra,​ the Wheel of the Law, Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil and all opposition, like Indra'​s wheel, and which rolls on from man to man, place to place, age to age. 轉法輪To turn, or roll along the Law-wheel, i.e. to preach Buddha-truth.
 +
 +法鈴 The dharma-bell;​ the pleasing sound of intoning the sutras.
 +
 +法鏡 The Dharma mirror, reflecting the Buddha-wisdom.
 +
 +法門 dharmaparyāya. The doctrines, or wisdom of Buddha regarded as the door to enlightenment. A method. Any sect. As the living have 84,000 delusions, so the Buddha provides 84,000 methods法門of dealing with them. Hence the法門海 ocean of Buddha'​s methods.
 +
 +法門身 A Tiantai definition of the dharmakāya of the Trinity, i.e. the qualities, powers, and methods of the Buddha. The various representations of the respective characteristics of buddhas and bodhisattvas in the maṇḍalas.
 +
 +法陀羅尼 One of the four kinds of dhāraṇī:​ holding firmly to the truth one has heard, also called 聞法陀羅.
 +
 +法阿育 Dharmāśoka;​ name given to Aśoka on his conversion; cf. 阿育.
 +
 +[274]
 +
 +法集 idem 佛會.
 +
 +法雨 The rain of Buddha-truth which fertilizes all beings.
 +
 +法雲 dharmamegha. Buddhism as a fertilizing cloud.
 +
 +法雲地 The tenth bodhisattva stage, when the dharma-clouds everywhere drop their sweet dew.
 +
 +法雲等覺 The stage after the last, that of universal knowledge, or enlightenment.
 +
 +法雷 The thunder of dharma, awakening man from stupor and stimulating the growth of virtue, the awful voice of Buddha-truth. 法電 The lightning of the Truth.
 +
 +法非法 dharmādharma;​ real and unreal; thing and nothing; being and non-being, etc.
 +
 +法音 The sound of the Truth, or of preaching.
 +
 +法顯 Faxian, the famous pilgrim who with fellow-monks left Chang'​an A.D. 399 overland for India, finally reached it, remained alone for six years, and spent three years on the return journey, arriving by sea in 414. His 佛國記 Records of the Buddhistic Kingdoms were made, for his information,​ by Buddhabhadra,​ an Indian monk in China. His own chief translation is the 僧祗律, a work on monastic discipline.
 +
 +法食 dharmāhāra. Diet in harmony with the rules of Buddhism; truth as food. 法食時 The regulation time for meals, at or before noon, and not after.
 +
 +法體 Embodiment of the Law, or of things. (1) Elements into which the Buddhists divided the universe; the Abhidharmakośa has 75, the 成實論 Satyasiddhi Sāstra 84, the Yogācārya 100. (2) A monk.
 +
 +法魔 Bemused by things; the illusion that things are real and not merely seeming.
 +
 +法鼓 The drum of the Law, stirring all to advance in virtue.
 +
 +法齋日 The day of abstinence observed at the end of each half month, also the six abstinence days, in all making the eight days for keeping the eight commandments.
 +
 +炙 Broil, burn, roast, dry; intimate.
 +
 +炙茄會 A Chan (Zen) School winter festival at which roasted lily roots were eaten.
 +
 +炎 Blazing, burning.
 +
 +炎熱地獄 Tapana, the hell of burning or roasting, the sixth of the eight hot hells, where 24 hours equal 2,600 years on earth, life lasting 16,000 years.
 +
 +炎經 A name for the Nirvana Sutra, referring to the Buddha'​s cremation; also to its glorious teaching.
 +
 +炎點 Nirvana, which burns up metempsychosis.
 +
 +牧 To herd, pastor.
 +
 +牧牛 Cowherd.
 +
 +物 Thing, things in general, beings, living beings, matters; "​substance,"​ cf. 陀羅驃 dravya.
 +
 +物施 One of the three kinds of almsgiving, that of things.
 +
 +物機 That on which anything depends, or turns; the motive or vital principle.
 +
 +狐 A fox; seems to be used also for a jackal.
 +
 +狗 A dog.
 +
 +狗心 A dog's heart, satisfied with trifles, unreceptive of Buddha'​s teaching.
 +
 +狗戒 Dog-rule, dog-morals, i.e. heretics who sought salvation by living like dogs, eating garbage, etc.
 +
 +狗法 Dog-law, fighting and hating, characteristics of the monks in the last days of the world.
 +
 +狗臨井吠 Like the dog barking at its own reflection in the well.
 +
 +狗著獅子皮 The dog in the lion's skin-all the dogs fear him till he barks.
 +
 +盂蘭盆 (盂蘭); 鳥藍婆 (鳥藍婆拏) ullambana 盂蘭 may be another form of lambana or avalamba, "​hanging down," "​depending,"​ "​support";​ it is intp. "to hang upside down", or "to be in suspense",​ referring to extreme suffering in purgatory; but there is a suggestion of the dependence of the dead on the living. By some 盆 is regarded as a Chinese word, not part of the transliteration,​ meaning a vessel filled with offerings of food. The term is applied to the festival of All Souls, held about the 15th of the 7th moon, when masses are read by Buddhist and Taoist priests and elaborate offerings made to the Buddhist Trinity for the purpose of releasing from purgatory the souls of those who have died on land or sea. The Ullambanapātra Sutra is attributed to Śākyamuni,​ of course incorrectly;​ it was first tr. into Chinese by Dharmaraksha,​ A.D. 266-313 or 317; the first masses are not reported until the time of Liang Wudi, A.D. 538; and were popularized by Amogha (A.D. 732) under the influence of the Yogācārya School. They are generally observed in China, but are unknown to Southern Buddhism. The "idea of intercession on the part of the priesthood for the benefit of" souls in hell "is utterly antagonistic to the explicit teaching of primitive Buddhism'"​ The origin of the custom is unknown, but it is foisted on to Śākyamuni,​ whose disciple Maudgalyāyana is represented as having been to purgatory to relieve his mother'​s sufferings. Śākyamuni told him that only the united efforts of the whole priesthood 十方衆會 could alleviate the pains of the suffering. The mere suggestion of an All Souls Day with a great national day for the monks is sufficient to account for the spread of the festival. Eitel says: "​Engrafted upon the narrative ancestral worship, this ceremonial for feeding the ghost of deceased ancestors of seven generations obtained immense popularity and is now practised by everybody in China, by Taoists even and by Confucianists."​ All kinds of food offerings are made and paper garments, etc., burnt. The occasion, 7th moon, 15th day, is known as the盂蘭會 (or 盂蘭盆會 or 盂蘭齋 or 盂蘭盆齋) and the sutra as 盂蘭經 (or 盂蘭盆經).
 +
 +[275]
 +
 +盲 Blind.
 +
 +盲冥 Blind and in darkness, ignorant of the truth.
 +
 +盲跛 Blind and lame, an ignorant teacher.
 +
 +盲龍 The blind dragon who appealed to the Buddha and was told that his blindness was due to his having been formerly a sinning monk.
 +
 +盲龜 It is as easy for a blind turtle to find a floating long as it is for a man to be reborn as a man, or to meet with a buddha and his teaching.
 +
 +直 Straight, upright, direct; to arrange.
 +
 +直傳 Direct information or transmission (by word of mouth).
 +
 +直堂 The servant who attends in the hall; an announcer.
 +
 +直心 Straightforward,​ sincere, blunt.
 +
 +直掇 直裰 A monk's garment, upper and lower in one.
 +
 +直歳 A straight year, a year's (plans, or duties).
 +
 +直說 Straight, or direct, speech; the sutras.
 +
 +直道 The direct way (to nirvana and Buddha-land).
 +
 +知 To know. Sanskrit root vid, hence vidyā, knowledge; the Vedas, etc. 知 vijñā is to know, 智 is vijñāna, wisdom arising from perception or knowing.
 +
 +知一切法智 The Buddha-wisdom of knowing every thing or method (of salvation).
 +
 +知一切衆生智 The Buddha-wisdom which knows (the karma of) all beings.
 +
 +知世間 lokavid. He who knows the world, one of the ten characteristics of a Buddha.
 +
 +知事 To know affairs. The karmadāna, or director of affairs in a monastery, next below the abbot.
 +
 +知客 The director of guests, i.e. the host.
 +
 +知寮 Warden of the monasterial abodes.
 +
 +知庫 The bursar (of a monastery).
 +
 +知根 The organs of perception. To know the roots, or capacities (of all beings, as does a bodhisattva;​ hence he has no fears).
 +
 +知殿 The warden of a temple.
 +
 +知法 To know the Buddha-law, or the rules; to know things; in the exoteric sects, to know the deep meaning of the sutras; in the esoteric sects, to know the mysteries.
 +
 +知無邊諸佛智 To have the infinite Buddha-wisdom (of knowing all the Buddha-worlds and how to save the beings in them).
 +
 +知禮 Knowing the right modes of respect, or ceremonial; courteous, reverential;​ Zhili, name of the famous tenth-century monk of the Song dynasty, Siming 四明, so called after the name of his monastery, a follower of the Tiantai school, sought out by a Japanese deputation in 1017.
 +
 +知者 The knower, the cognizer, the person within who perceives.
 +
 +知苦斷集 To know (the dogma of) suffering and be able to cut off its accumulation;​ cf. 四諦.
 +
 +知見 To know, to know by seeing, becoming aware, intellection;​ the function of knowing; views, doctrines.
 +
 +知見波羅蜜 The prajñāpāramitā,​ v. 般若.
 +
 +知論 A name for the prajñāpāramitā,​ v. 般若.
 +
 +知識 (1) To know and perceive, perception, knowledge. (2) A friend, an intimate. (3) The false ideas produced in the mind by common, or unenlightened knowledge; one of the 五識 in 起信論.
 +
 +知識衆 A body of friends, all you friends.
 +
 +[276]
 +
 +知足 Complete knowledge; satisfaction.
 +
 +知足天 (知足) Tuṣita, the fourth devaloka, Maitreya'​s heaven of full knowledge, where all bodhisattvas are reborn before rebirth as buddhas; the inner court is知足院.
 +
 +知道者 The one who knows the path to salvation, an epithet of the Buddha.
 +
 +社 Gods of the land; a village, clan, society.
 +
 +社伽 jagat, all the living.
 +
 +社得迦 jātaka, previous births or incarnations (especially of buddhas or bodhisattvas).
 +
 +社得迦摩羅 Jātakamālā,​ a garland of incarnation stories in verse.
 +
 +秉 To lay hold of, grasp.
 +
 +秉拂 To hold the fly-brush, or whisk, the head of an assembly, the five heads of a monastery have this privilege.
 +
 +秉持 To hold firmly (to the discipline, or rules).
 +
 +秉炬 To carry the torch (for cremation).
 +
 +空 śūnya, empty, void, hollow, vacant, nonexistent. śūnyatā, 舜若多, vacuity, voidness, emptiness, non-existence,​ immateriality,​ perhaps spirituality,​ unreality, the false or illusory nature of all existence, the seeming 假 being unreal. The doctrine that all phenomena and the ego have no reality, but are composed of a certain number of skandhas or elements, which disintegrate. The void, the sky, space. The universal, the absolute, complete abstraction without relativity. There are classifications into 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, and 18 categories. The doctrine is that all things are compounds, or unstable organisms, possessing no self-essence,​ i.e. are dependent, or caused, come into existence only to perish. The underlying reality, the principle of eternal relativity, or non-infinity,​ i.e. śūnya, permeates all phenomena making possible their evolution. From this doctrine the Yogācārya school developed the idea of the permanent reality, which is Essence of Mind, the unknowable noumenon behind all phenomena, the entity void of ideas and phenomena, neither matter nor mind, but the root of both.
 +
 +空一切處 Universal emptiness, or space; the samādhi which removes all limitations of space; also 空徧處.
 +
 +空三昧 The samādhi which regards the ego and things as unreal; one of the 三三昧.
 +
 +空假中 Unreality, reality, and the middle or mean doctrine; noumenon, phenomenon, and the principle or absolute which unifies both. 空Unreality,​ that things do not exist in reality; 假 reality, that things exist though in "​derived"​ or "​borrowed"​ form, consisting of elements which are permanent; 中 the "​middle"​ doctrine of the Madhyamaka School, which denies both positions in the interests of the transcendental,​ or absolute. 空以破一切法,​ 假以立一切法,​ 中以妙一切法 other 卽 空卽假卽中. śūnya (universality) annihilates all relativities,​ particularity establishes all relativities,​ the middle path transcends and unites all relativities. Tiantai asserts that there is no contradiction in them and calls them a unity, the one including the other 即空即假即中.
 +
 +空劫 The empty kalpa, v. 劫.
 +
 +空卽是色 The immaterial is the material, śūnya is rūpa, and vice versa, 色不異空.
 +
 +空執 v. 空有二執.
 +
 +空塵 śūnya as sub-material,​ ghostly, or spiritual, as having diaphanous form, a non-Buddhist view of the immaterial as an entity, hence the false view of a soul or ego that is real.
 +
 +空大 Space, one of the five elements (earth, water, fire, wind, space); v. 五大.
 +
 +空如來藏 The bhūtatathatā in its purity, or absoluteness.
 +
 +空始教 The initial teaching of the undeveloped Mahāyāna doctrines is the second of the five periods of Śākyamuni'​s teaching as defined by the Huayan School. This consists of two parts: 空始教 the initial doctrine of śūnya, the texts for which are the 般若, 三論, etc.; and 相始教, the initial doctrine of the essential nature as held by the esoterics; intp. in the 深密 and 瑜伽 texts.
 +
 +空定 The meditation which dwells on the Void or the Immaterial; it is divided into 内道, i.e. the 三三昧, and 外道, the latter limited to the four dhyānas 四空定 q.v., except the illusion that things have a reality in themselves, as individuals 法我 q.v.
 +
 +空宗 The śūnya sects, i.e. those which make the unreality of the ego and things their fundamental tenet.
 +
 +[277]
 +
 +空寂 Immaterial; a condition beyond disturbance,​ the condition of nirvana.
 +
 +空居天 devas dwelling in space, or the heavenly regions, i.e. the devalokas and rūpalokas.
 +
 +空徧處 idem 空一切處.
 +
 +空心 An empty mind, or heart; a mind meditating on the void, or infinite; a mind not entangled in cause and effect, i.e. detached from the phenomenal.
 +
 +空忍 Patience attained by regarding suffering as unreal; one of the 十忍.
 +
 +空性 śūnyata, v. 空, the nature of the Void, or immaterial, the bhūtatathatā,​ the universal substance, which is not 我法 ego and things, but while not Void is of the Void-nature.
 +
 +空想 Thinking of immateriality. Also, vainly thinking, or desiring.
 +
 +空慧 The wisdom which beholds spiritual truth.
 +
 +空拳 riktamuṣṭi;​ empty fist, i.e. deceiving a child by pretending to have something for it in the closed hand; not the Buddha'​s method.
 +
 +空教 The teaching that all is unreal. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa School divided Buddha'​s teaching into three periods: (1) the Hīnayāna period, teaching that 法有 things are real; (2) the 般若 prajñā period, that 法 空things are unreal; (3) the Huayan and Lotus period of the middle or transcendental doctrine 中道教.
 +
 +空有 Unreal and real, non-existent and existent, abstract and concrete, negative and positive.
 +
 +空有二執 (or 空有二見). The two (false) tenets, or views, that karma and nirvana are not real, and that the ego and phenomena are real; these wrong views are overcome by the 空有二觀 meditating on the unreality of the ego and phenomena, and the reality of karma and nirvana.
 +
 +空有二宗 The two schools 空and 有 in Hīnayāna are given as 倶舍 Kośa for 有 in 成實 Satyasiddhi for 空, in Mahāyāna 法相 for 有 and 三論 for 空.
 +
 +空果 Empty fruit; also fruit of freedom from the illusion that things and the ego are real.
 +
 +空法 (1) To regard everything as unreal, i.e. the ego, things, the dynamic, the static. (2) The nirvana of Hīnayāna.
 +
 +空海 Like sky and sea: like space and the ocean for magnitude.
 +
 +空無 Unreality, or immateriality,​ of things, which is defined as nothing existing of independent or self-contained nature.
 +
 +空無我 Unreal and without ego. 空無邊處. v. 空處.
 +
 +空王 The king of immateriality,​ or spirituality,​ Buddha, who is lord of all things.
 +
 +空王佛 Dharmagahanābhyudgata-rāja. A Buddha who is said to have taught absolute intelligence,​ or knowledge of the absolute, cf. Lotus Sutra 9.
 +
 +空理 The śūnya principle, or law, i.e. the unreality of the ego and phenomena.
 +
 +空生 The one who expounded vacuity or immateriality,​ i.e. Subhūti, one of the ten great pupils of the Buddha.
 +
 +空界 The realm of space, one of the six realms, earth, water, fire, wind, space, knowledge. The空界色 is the visible realm of space, the sky, beyond which is real space.
 +
 +空相 Voidness, emptiness, space, the immaterial, that which cannot be expressed in terms of the material. The characteristic of all things is unreality, i.e. they are composed of elements which disintegrate. v. 空.
 +
 +空空 Unreality of unreality. When all has been regarded as illusion, or unreal, the abstract idea of unreality itself must be destroyed.
 +
 +空空寂寂 Void and silent, i.e. everything in the universe, with form or without form, is unreal and not to be considered as real.
 +
 +空經 The sutras of unreality or immateriality,​ e.g. the Prajñāpāramitā.
 +
 +空聖 A saint who bears the name without possessing the character.
 +
 +空聚 (1) An empty abode or place. (2) The body as composed of the six skandhas, which is a temporary assemblage without underlying reality.
 +
 +[278]
 +
 +空色 Formless and with form; noumena and phenomena.
 +
 +空華 空花 khapuṣpa, flowers in the sky, spots before the eyes, Muscœ volitantes; illusion. The Indian Hīnayānists style Mahāyānists空華外道 śūnyapuṣpa,​ sky-flower heretics, or followers of illusion.
 +
 +空處 空無邊處 Ākāśānantyāyatana;​ the abode of infinite space, the formless, or immaterial world 無色界 the first of the arūpaloka heavens, one of the four brahmalokas.
 +
 +空處定 (or 空無邊處定) The dhyāna, or meditation connected with the above, in which all thought of form is suppressed.
 +
 +空行 The discipline or practice of the immaterial, or infinite, thus overcoming the illusion that the ego and all phenomena are realities.
 +
 +空見 The heterodox view that karma and nirvana are not real, v. 空有.
 +
 +空觀 v. 空有二觀.
 +
 +空解 The interpretation (or doctrine) of ultimate reality.
 +
 +空解脫門 The gate of salvation or deliverance by the realization of the immaterial, i.e. that the ego and things are formed of elements and have no reality in themselves; one of the three deliverances.
 +
 +空諦 The doctrine of immateriality,​ one of the three dogmas of Tiantai, that all things animate and inanimate, seeing that they result from previous causes and are without reality in themselves, are therefore 空or not material, but "​spiritual"​.
 +
 +空輪 The wheel of space below the water and wind wheels of a world. The element space is called the wheel of space.
 +
 +空門 (1) The teaching which regards everything as unreal, or immaterial. (2) The school of unreality, one of the four divisions made by Tiantai (3) The teaching of immateriality,​ the door to nirvana, a general name for Buddhism; hence空門子 are Buddhist monks. ​
 +
 +空閑處 A tr. of 阿蘭若 araṇya, i.e. "​forest"​. A retired place, 300 to 600 steps away from human habitation, suitable for the religious practices of monks.
 +
 +空際 The region of immateriality,​ or nirvana. Also called 實際, the region of reality.
 +
 +空魔 The demons who arouse in the heart the false belief that karma is not real.
 +
 +空鳥 The bird that cries 空空, the cuckoo, i.e. one who, while not knowing the wonderful law of true immateriality (or spirituality),​ yet prates about it.
 +
 +空點 The dot over the ṃ or ṅ in Sanskrit, symbolizing that all things are empty or unreal; used by the Shingon sect with various meanings.
 +
 +竺 Indian. 竺土; 天竺; 竺India.
 +
 +竺經 Indian, i.e. Buddhist, sutras. Several Indians are known by this term.
 +
 +竺曇摩羅察 竺法護 Dharmarakṣa,​ or Indu-dharmarakṣa,​ a native of Tukhāra, who knew thirty-six languages and tr. (A.D. 266-317) some 175 works.
 +
 +竺法蘭 Dharmarakṣa,​ or Indu-dharmāraṇya,​ to whom with Kāśyapa Mātaṅga the translation of the sutra of 42 sections is wrongly attributed; he tr. five works in A.D. 68-70.
 +
 +竺法力 Dharmabala, translator A.D. 419 of the larger Sukhāvatī-vyūha,​ now lost.
 +
 +竺葉摩騰 Kāśyapa Mātaṅga, v. 迦葉摩騰.
 +
 +竺刹尸羅 Taksaśīla,​ v. 呾叉始羅.
 +
 +肥 Fat.
 +
 +肥者耶? Vajradhātrī,​ the wife or female energy of Vairocana.
 +
 +肥膩 A grass or herb said to enrich the milk of cattle.
 +
 +肩 Shoulder.
 +
 +肩次 肩下; 下肩 shoulder by shoulder, one next to another.
 +
 +育 To rear, nurture.
 +
 +育坻 育抵 yukti, yoking, joining, combination,​ plan.
 +
 +育坻華 yuktā, a kind of celestial flower.
 +
 +育多婆提?​ yukta-bodhi,​ steps in Yoga wisdom.
 +
 +卧 śayana, lying down, sleeping.
 +
 +卧具 A couch, bed, mat, bedding, sleeping garments, etc.
 +
 +卧佛寺 A shrine of the "​sleeping Buddha",​ i.e. of the dying Buddha.
 +
 +舍 A shelter, cottage; used as a term of humility for "​my";​ to lodge; let go, relinquish.
 +
 +舍利 (1) śārī, śārikā; a bird able to talk, intp. variously, but, M. W. says the mynah. Śārikā was the name of Śāriputra'​s mother, because her eyes were bright and clever like those of a mynah; there are other interpretation (2) śarīra(m). 設利羅 (or 室利羅); 實利; 攝 M004215 藍 Relics or ashes left after the cremation of a buddha or saint; placed in stupas and worhipped. The white represent bones; the black, hair; and the red, flesh. Also called dhātu-śarīra or dharma-śarīra. The body, a dead body. The body looked upon as dead by reason of obedience to the discipline, meditation, and wisdom. The Lotus Sutra and other sutras are counted as relics, Śākyamuni'​s relics are said to have amounted to 八斛四斗 84 pecks, for which Aśoka is reputed to have built in one day 84,000 stupas; but other figures are also given. śarīra is also intp. by grains of rice, etc., and by rice as food.
 +
 +[279]
 +
 +舍利塔 śarīra-stūpa,​ a reliquary, or pagoda for a relic (of Buddha).
 +
 +舍利婆婆 sarṣapa, a mustard seed, 芥子 q.v., the 10,​816,​000th part of a yojana 由旬 q.v.
 +
 +舍利弗 奢利弗羅 (or 奢利弗多羅 or 奢利富羅or 奢利富多羅);​ 奢利補担羅;​ 舍利子Śāriputra. One of the principal disciples of Śākyamuni,​ born at Nālandāgrāṃa,​ the son of Śārikā and Tiṣya, hence known as Upatiṣya; noted for his wisdom and learning; he is the "​right-hand attendant on Śākyamuni"​. The followers of the Abhidharma count him as their founder and other works are attributed, without evidence, to him. He figures prominently in certain sutras. He is said to have died before his master; he is represented as standing with Maudgalyāyana by the Buddha when entering nirvana. He is to reappear as Padmaprabha Buddha 華光佛.
 +
 +舍囉摩拏 śramaṇa. 室拏; 沙迦滿囊;​ 沙門; 桑門; v. 沙門.
 +
 +舍多提婆魔 M077447 舍諵 śāstādevamanuṣyāṇām,​ intp. as 天人師 teacher of gods and men, one of the ten titles of a buddha.
 +
 +舍多毘沙 Śatabhiṣā,​ a constellation identified with 危 in Aquarius.
 +
 +舍夷 ? Śākya, one of the five surnames of the Buddha.
 +
 +舍婆提 v. 舍衞.
 +
 +舍摩 śama, calm, quiet, a name for the bodhi tree. For舍摩陀 v. 奢.
 +
 +舍支 śaśa, 設施 a hare; śaśī, or śaśin, the moon; śakti, energy. (1) The hare (which threw itself into the fire to save starving people), transferred by Indra to the centre of the moon. (2) śakti is the wife or female energy of a deity, cf. 舍脂. (3) The female organ.
 +
 +舍樓伽 śāluka, esculent lotus roots; intp. as a kind of cooked liquid food.
 +
 +舍磨奢那 śmaśāna, a cemetery or crematorium;​ a low mound of stone under which the remains of monks are buried in countries west of China. Also 奢舍磨奢.
 +
 +舍羅 śārikā, śārī, v.舍利. śālakā, bamboo or wooden tallies used in numbering monks.
 +
 +舍羅婆迦 śrāvaka; a hearer, disciple, 聲聞 q. v. (1) He who has heard ( the voice of Buddha). All the personal disciples of Śākyamuni,​ the chief disciples being called mahāśrāvaka. (2) The lowest degree of saintship, the others being pratyekabuddha,​ bodhisattva,​ buddha.
 +
 +舍脂 śācī, 舍支; 設施 power of speech and action. Name of Indra'​s chief consort. Indra is known as舍脂鉢低 Śacīpati.
 +
 +舍舍迦 śaśaka, a hare, rabbit, v. 舍支.
 +
 +舍衞 Śrāvastī,​ 舍婆提; 室羅伐 (室羅伐悉底);​ 尸羅跋提;​ 捨羅婆悉帝耶;​ intp as 聞物 the city of famous things, or men, or the famous city; it was a city and ancient kingdom 500 li northwest of Kapilavastu,​ now Rapetmapet south of Rapti River (M. W. says Sāhet-Māhet). It is said to have been in 北憍薩羅 norhern Kośala, distinct from the southern kingdom of that name. It was a favourite resort of Śākyamuni,​ the 祗園 Jetavana being there.
 +
 +舍那身 The body or person of Vairocana; 舍那尊特 is defined as Locana; the 舍那 in both cases seems to be "​cana",​ an abbreviation of Vairocana, or Locana.
 +
 +舍勒 śāṭaka, 舍吒迦; 舍那 (or 奢那) An inner garment, a skirt.
 +
 +舍頭諫 Śārdūla-karṇa. The original name of Ānanda, intp. 虎耳 tiger'​s ears.
 +
 +芝 A felicitous plant; sesamum.
 +
 +芝苑 Name for 元照 Yuanzhao of 靈芝 Lingzhi monastery, Hangzhou.
 +
 +[280]
 +
 +芬 Fragrant; confused; translit. puṇ in芬陀利 (or芬陁利) puṇḍarīka. The white lotus, v. 分陀利.
 +
 +花 華 puṣpa, a flower, flowers; especially the lotus, and celestial flowers. 花座 The lotus throne on which buddhas and bodhisattvas sit.
 +
 +花筥 花籠; 花皿 Flower baskets for scattering lotus flowers, or leaves and flowers in general.
 +
 +芥子 sarṣapa, 薩利刹跛;​ 舍利沙婆 Mustard seed. (1) A measure of length, 10,​816,​000th part of a yojana, v. 由旬. (2) A weight, the 32nd part of a 賴提 or 草子 raktikā, 2 3/16 grains. (3) A trifle. (4) On account of its hardness and bitter taste it is used as a symbol for overcoming illusions and demons by the esoteric sects. (5) The appearance of a buddha is as rare as the hitting of a needle'​s point with a mustard seed thrown from afar.
 +
 +芥子劫 A mustard-seed kalpa, i.e. as long as the time it would take to empty a city 100 yojanas square, by extracting a seed once every century.
 +
 +芥石 Mustard-seed kalpa and rock kalpa, the former as above, the latter the time required to rub away a rock 40 li square by passing a soft cloth over it once every century.
 +
 +虎 vyāghra, 弭也竭羅 a tiger.
 +
 +虎丘山 Huqiu Shan, a monastery at Suzhou, which gave rise to a branch of the Chan (Zen) school, founded by 紹隆 Shaolong.
 +
 +虎虎婆 Hahava, the fifth hell. For 虎耳 v. 舍頭.
 +
 +表 Indicate, manifest, express, expose; external.
 +
 +表刹 The flagpole on a pagoda.
 +
 +表德 To manifest virtue, in contrast with 遮情 to repress the passions; the positive in deed and thought, as expounded by the 華嚴宗 Huayan school.
 +
 +表無表戒 The expressed and unexpressed moral law, the letter and the spirit.
 +
 +表白 To explain, expound, clear up.
 +
 +表示 To indicate, explain.
 +
 +表色 Active expression, as walking, sitting, taking, refusing, bending, stretching, etc.; one of the three 色 forms, the other two being 顯 the colours, red, blue, etc., and 形 shape, long, short, etc.
 +
 +表銓 Positive or open exposition, contrasted with 遮銓 negative or hidden exposition; a term of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school.
 +
 +迎 Go to meet, receive, welcome.
 +
 +迎接 To receive, or be received, e.g. by Amitābha into Paradise.
 +
 +近 Near, near to, approach, intimate, close.
 +
 +近事 Those who attend on and serve the triratna, the近事男 upāsaka, male servant or disciple, and近事女 upāsikā, female servant or disciple, i.e. laymen or women who undertake to obey the five commandments. 近住 Laymen or women who remain at home and observe the eight commandments,​ i.e. the近事律儀.
 +
 +近圓 Nearing perfection, i.e. the ten commands, which are "near to" nirvana.
 +
 +近童 A devotee, or disciple, idem upāsaka.
 +
 +邲輸跋陀 Viśvabhadra,​ name of 普顯 Puxian, Samanatabhadra.
 +
 +金 hiraṇya, 伊爛拏 which means cold, any precious metal, semen, etc.; or 蘇伐刺 suvarṇa, which means "of a good or beautiful colour",​ "​golden",​ "​yellow",​ "​gold",​ "a gold coin", etc. The Chinese means metal, gold, money.
 +
 +金人 Buddha; an image of Buddha of metal or gold, also 金佛.
 +
 +金仙 Golden ṛṣi, or immortal, i.e. Buddha; also Taoist genī.
 +
 +金光 (金光明) Golden light, an intp. of suvarṇa, prabhāsa, or uttama. It is variously applied, e. g. 金光明女 Wife of 金天童子;​ 金光明鼓 Golden-light drum. 金光明經 Golden-light Sutra, tr. in the sixth century and twice later, used by the founder of Tiantai; it is given in its fullest form in the 金光明最勝王經 Suvarṇa-prabhāsa-uttamarāja Sutra.
 +
 +金光佛刹 The lowest of the Buddha-kṣetra,​ or lands.
 +
 +金刹 A "​golden"​ pagoda; the nine "​golden"​ circles on top of a pagoda.
 +
 +金剛 vajra, 伐闍羅; 跋折羅 (or跋闍羅);​ 縛曰羅(or 縛日羅) The thunderbolt of Indra, often called the diamond club; but recent research considers it a sun symbol. The diamond, synonym of hardness, indestructibility,​ power, the least frangible of minerals. It is one of the saptaratna 七寶.
 +
 +金剛杵 The vajra, or thunderbolt;​ it is generally shaped as such, but has various other forms. Any one of the beings represented with the vajra is a 金剛. The vajra is also intp. as a weapon of Indian soldiers. It is employed by the esoteric sects, and others, as a symbol of wisdom and power over illusion and evil spirits. When straight as a sceptre it is 獨股 one limbed, when three-pronged it is 三股, and so on with five and nine limbs.
 +
 +金剛不壞 (金剛不壞身) The diamond indestructible (body), the Buddha.
 +
 +[281]
 +
 +金剛乘 vajrayāna. The diamond vehicle, another name of the 眞言 Shingon.
 +
 +金剛夜叉 (or 金剛藥叉) Vajrayakṣa. One of the five 大明王, fierce guardian of the north in the region of Amoghasiddhi,​ or Śākyamuni,​ also styled the bodhisattva with the fangs.
 +
 +金剛佛 vajra-buddha. Vairocana, or 大日 the Sun-buddha; sometimes applied to Śākyamuni as embodiment of the Truth, of Wisdom, and of Purity.
 +
 +金剛佛子 A son of the vajra-buddha,​ i.e. of Vairocana, a term applied to those newly baptized into the esoteric sect.
 +
 +金剛刹 vajrakṣetra,​ a vajra or Buddhist monastery or building.
 +
 +金剛力 vajra-power,​ irresistible strength; 金剛力 (or 金剛力士) is the 金剛神 q.v.
 +
 +金剛口 Diamond mouth, that of a buddha.
 +
 +金剛天 The vajradevas twenty in number in the vajradhātu group.
 +
 +金剛子 rudrākṣa,​ a seed similar to a peach-stone used for beads, especially in invoking one of the 金剛. Also a vajra son.
 +
 +金剛定 vajrasamādhi,​ 金剛喩定;​ 金剛三昧;​ 金剛滅定 diamond meditation, that of the last stage of the bodhisattva,​ characterized by firm, indestructible knowledge, penetrating all reality; attained after all remains of illusion have been cut off.
 +
 +金剛密迹 The deva-guardians of the secrets of Vairocana, his inner or personal group of guardians in contrast with the outer or major group of Puxian, Mañjuśrī,​ etc. Similarly, Śāriputra,​ the śrāvakas, etc., are the '​inner'​ guardians of Śākyamuni,​ the bodhisattvas being the major group. Idem 金剛手; 金剛力士;​ 密迹力士,​ etc.
 +
 +金剛寶戒 The Mahāyāna rules according to the 梵網 Sutra.
 +
 +金剛寶藏 The '​Diamond'​ treasury i.e. nirvana and the pure bodhi-mind, as the source of the mind of all sentient beings, v. Nirvana Sutra.
 +
 +金剛山 (or 金剛圍山 or金剛輪山) The concentric iron mountains about the world; also Sumeru; also the name of a fabulous mountain. Cf. 金山.
 +
 +金剛幡 vajraketu. A flag, hung to a pole with a dragon'​s head.
 +
 +金剛幡菩薩 Vajraketu Bodhisattva,​ the flag-bearer,​ one of the sixteen in the vajradhātu group.
 +
 +金剛座 (or金剛座床) vajrāsana, or bodhimaṇḍa,​ Buddha'​s seat on attaining enlightenment,​ the '​diamond'​ throne. Also a posture or manner of sitting. M.W.
 +
 +金剛心 Diamond heart, that of the bodhisattva,​ i.e. infrangible,​ unmoved by '​illusion'​.
 +
 +金剛心殿 The vajradhātu (maṇḍala),​ in which Vairocana dwells, also called 不壞金剛光明心殿 the shrine of the indestructible diamond-brilliant heart.
 +
 +金剛念誦 Silent repetition; also 金剛語言.
 +
 +金剛慧 Diamond wisdom, which by its reality overcomes all illusory knowledge.
 +
 +金剛手 vajrapāṇi,​ a holder of the vajra, a protector, any image with this symbol; 金剛部 Groups of the same in the 金 and 胎 maṇḍalas.
 +
 +金剛手菩薩 (or 金剛手薩埵) Vajrapāṇi Bodhisattva,​ especially Puxian 普賢 Samantabhadra.
 +
 +金剛拳 vajra-fist, the hands doubled together on the breast.
 +
 +金剛拳菩薩 One of the bodhisattvas in the Diamond group.
 +
 +金剛智 vajramati. The indestructible and enriching diamond wisdom of the Buddha. Also the name of an Indian who came to China A.D. 619; he is said to have introduced the Yogācāra system and founded the esoteric school, but this is attributed to Amoghavajra,​ v. 大教. 金剛智三藏 Vajrabodhi may be the same person, but there is doubt about the matter, cf. 大教.
 +
 +金剛曼荼羅 v. 金剛界.
 +
 +金剛杵 (or 金剛杖) v. 金剛.
 +
 +金剛水 Diamond or vajra water, drunk by a prince on investiture,​ or by a person who receives the esoteric baptismal rite; also 誓水.
 +
 +[282]
 +
 +金剛法界宮 The palace or shrine of Vairocana in the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +金剛炎 Diamond-blaze,​ a circle of fire to forbid the entry of evil spirits, also called 金炎; 火院 (or 火院界印 or火院密縫印).
 +
 +金剛王 The vajra-king, i.e. the strongest, or finest, e.g. a powerful bull.
 +
 +金剛王寶覺 The diamond royal-gem enlightenment,​ i.e. that of the Buddha.
 +
 +金剛王菩薩 One of the sixteen bodhisattvas in the Diamond-realm,​ one of Akṣobhya'​s retinue; also known as 金剛鉤王 the vajra hook king.
 +
 +金剛界 vajradhātu,​ 金界 The '​diamond',​ or vajra, element of the universe; it is the 智 wisdom of Vairocana in its indestructibility and activity; it arises from the garbhadhātu 胎藏界q.v.,​ the womb or store of the Vairocana 理 reason or principles of such wisdom, v. 理智. The two, garbhadhātu and vajradhātu,​ are shown by the esoteric school, especially in the Japanese Shingon, in two maṇḍalas,​ i.e. groups or circles, representing in various portrayals the ideas arising from the two, fundamental concepts. vajradhātu is intp. as the 智 realm of intellection,​ and garbhadhātu as the 理 substance underlying it, or the matrix; the latter is the womb or fundamental reason of all things, and occupies the eastern position as '​cause'​ of the vajradhātu,​ which is on the west as the resultant intellectual or spiritual expression. But both are one as are Reason and Wisdom, and Vairocana (the illuminator,​ the 大日 great sun) presides over both, as source and supply. The vajradhātu represents the spiritual world of complete enlightenment,​ the esoteric dharmakāya doctrine as contrasted with the exoteric nirmāṇakāya doctrine. It is the sixth element 識 mind, and is symbolized by a triangle with the point downwards and by the full moon, which represents 智 wisdom or understanding;​ it corresponds to 果 fruit, or effect, garbhadhātu being 因 or cause. The 金剛王五部 or five divisions of the vajradhātu are represented by the Five dhyāni-buddhas,​ thus: centre 大日Vairocana;​ east 阿閦 Akṣobhya; south 寶生Ratnasambhava;​ west 阿彌陀 Amitābha; north 不 空 成就 Amoghasiddhi,​ or Śākyamuni. They are seated respectively on a lion, an elephant, a horse, a peacock, and a garuda. v. 五佛; also 胎.
 +
 +金剛神 The guardian spirits of the Buddhist order; the large idols at the entrance of Buddhist monasteries;​ also 金剛手; 金剛力士.
 +
 +金剛童子 vajrakumāra,​ 金剛使者 a vajra-messenger of the buddhas or bodhisattvas;​ also an incarnation of Amitābha in the form of a youth with fierce looks holding a vajra.
 +
 +金剛索 vajrapāśa,​ the diamond lasso, or noose; in the hand of 不動明王 and others.
 +
 +金剛菩薩 Vajrapāśa Bodhisattva in the vajradhātumaṇḍala,​ who carries the snare of compassion to bind the souls of the living.
 +
 +金剛經 The Diamond Sutra; Vajracchedikā-prājñāpāramitā Sutra 金剛能斷般若波羅蜜經 A condensation of the Prājñāpāramitā Sutratitle>;​ first tr. by Kumārajīva,​ later by others under slightly varying titles.
 +
 +金剛菩薩 There are many of these vajra-bodhisattvas,​ e.g.: 金剛因菩薩 Vajrahetu, 金剛手菩薩 Vajrapāṇi,​ 金剛寳菩薩 Vajraratna, 金剛藏菩薩 Vajragarbha,​ 金剛針菩薩 Vajrasūci, 金剛將菩薩 Vajrasena, 金剛索菩薩 Vajrapāśa,​ 金剛鉤菩薩 Vajrāṅkuśa,​ 金剛香菩薩 Vajradhūpa,​ 金剛光菩薩 Vajratejaḥ,​ 金剛法菩薩 Vajradharma,​ 金剛利菩薩 Vajratīkṣṇa,​ and others.
 +
 +金剛藏 Vajragarbha,​ the bodhisattva in the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra.
 +
 +金剛藏王 A form of the next entry; also Śākyamuni.
 +
 +金剛薩埵 Vajrasattva(-mahāsattva). 金薩 A form of Puxian (Samantabhadra),​ reckoned as the second of the eight patriarchs of the 眞言宗 Shingon sect, also known as 金剛手 (金剛手祕密王 or金剛手菩薩) and other similar titles. The term is also applied to all vajra-beings,​ or vajra-bodhisattvas;​ especially those in the moon-circle in the east of the Diamond maṇḍala. Śākyamuni also takes the vajrasattva form. (1) All beings are vajrasattva,​ because of their Buddha-nature. (2) So are all beginners in the faith and practice. (3) So are the retinue of Akṣobhya. (4) So is Great Puxian.
 +
 +金剛衆 The retinue of the 金剛神 vajradevas.
 +
 +金剛觀 The diamond insight or vision which penetrates into reality.
 +
 +金剛語言 idem 金剛念誦.
 +
 +金剛身 The diamond body, the indestructible body of Buddha.
 +
 +[283]
 +
 +金剛輪 The diamond or vajra wheel, symbolical of the esoteric sects. The lowest of the circles beneath the earth.
 +
 +金剛部 The various groups in the two maṇḍalas,​ each having a 主 or head; in the Diamond maṇḍala Akṣobhya, or Vajrasattva,​ is spoken of as such.
 +
 +金剛部母 忙莽鷄 māmakī is '​mother'​ in this group.
 +
 +金針 (金剛針) The straight vajra, or sceptre; also v. 金針菩薩.
 +
 +金剛鈴 The diamond or vajra bell for attracting the attention of the objects of worship, and stimulating all who hear it.
 +
 +金剛鈴菩薩 Vajraghaṇṭā,​ a bodhisattva holding a bell in the vajradhātumaṇḍala.
 +
 +金剛鏁 vajra-śṛṅkhalā. The vajra chain, or fetter.
 +
 +金剛鏁菩薩 The chain-bearer in the Diamond group.
 +
 +金剛門 The diamond door of the garbhadhātumaṇḍala.
 +
 +金剛頂 The diamond apex or crown, a general name of the esoteric doctrines and sutras of Vairocana. The sutra金剛頂經 is the authority for the金剛頂宗 sect.
 +
 +金剛體 The diamond body, that of Buddha, and his merits.
 +
 +金口 The golden mouth of the Buddha, a reference inter alia to 金剛口 the diamond-like firmness of his doctrine.
 +
 +金口相承 金口祖承 The doctrines of the golden mouth transmitted in '​apostolic succession'​ through generations (of patriarchs).
 +
 +金地 A Buddhist monastery; v. also 逝 Jetavana.
 +
 +金地國 Suvarṇabhūmi,​ said to be a country south of Śrāvastī,​ to which Aśoka sent missionaries. Also 金出; 金田.
 +
 +金大王 Protector of travellers, shown in the train of the 1, 000-hand Guanyin.
 +
 +金山 Metal or golden mountain, i.e. Buddha, or the Buddha'​s body.
 +
 +金山王 Buddha, especially Amitābha. The 七金山 are the seven concentric ranges around Sumeru, v. 須; viz. Yugaṃdhara,​ Īśādhara,​ Khadiraka, Sudarśana, Aśvakarṇa,​ Vinataka, Nemiṃdhara,​ v. respectively 踰, 伊, 竭, 蘇, 頞, 毘, and 尼.
 +
 +金星 Śukra, the planet Venus.
 +
 +金杖 The golden staff broken into eighteen pieces and the skirt similarly torn, seen in a dream by king Bimbisāra, prophetic of the eighteen divisions of Hīnayāna.
 +
 +金毘羅 kumbhīra, 金毘囉; 金波羅; 禁毘羅 (or 宮毘羅); a crocodile, alligator, described as 蛟龍 a '​boa-dragon';​ cf. 失. A yakṣa-king who was converted and became a guardian of Buddhism, also known as 金毘羅陀 (金毘羅陀迦毘羅);​ 金毘羅神;​ 金毘羅大將. For 金毘羅比丘 Kampilla, v. 劫.
 +
 +金毛獅子 The lion with golden hair on which Mañjuśrī (Wenshu) rides; also a previous incarnation of the Buddha.
 +
 +金水 Golden water, i.e. wisdom.
 +
 +金沙 Golden-sand (river), an imaginary river in the Nirvana Sutra 10. Also the Hiraṇyavatī,​ v. 尸.
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 +金河 Hiraṇyavatī,​ v. 尸賴拏伐底;​.
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 +金粟如來 The golden grain tathāgata, a title of Vimalakīrti 維摩 in a previous incarnation.
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 +金翅鳥 (金翅鳥王) Garuda, 妙翅; 迦樓羅 the king of birds, with golden wings, companion of Viṣṇu; a syn. of the Buddha.
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 +金胎 idem 金剛界 and 胎藏界.
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 +金色 Golden coloured.
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 +金色世界 The golden-hued heaven of Mañjuśrī (Wenshu).
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 +金色女 The princess of Vārāṇaśī,​ who is said to have been offered in marriage to Śākyamuni because he was of the same colour as herself.
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 +金色孔雀王 The golden-hued peacock king, protector of travellers, in the retinue of the 1,000-hands Guanyin.
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 +金色王 A previous incarnation of the Buddha.
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 +金色迦葉 金色尊者;​ 金色頭陀 Names for Mahākāśyapa,​ as he is said to have 飮光 swallowed light, hence his golden hue.
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 +[[Fair Use]]
part_3_of_dictionary_of_chinese_buddhist_terms_with_sanskrit_and_english_equivalents_by_william_soothill.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:12 (external edit)