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 +** [[Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute]] of [[Medicine Buddha Healing Center]] **
 +** [[Nalanda University]] of [[Ayurveda]] and [[Buddhism]] **
  
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 +Part of the List of [[Dharma Terms]] from the [[Buddhist Ayurveda]] Course ([[HUM108]] and [[SKT220]]) on [[Sanskrit Terms]] of [[Ayurveda]],​ [[Tibetan Medicine]] and [[Dharma]] and helpful for patients in [[CLN301|Consultations]]
 +----
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 +[[Buddhism Distance Learning]] | [[Ayurveda Distance Learning]]
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 +[[Recent Changes]] | [[Dharma Terms]] | [[Dharma Teachers]] | [[Ayurveda Terms]]
 +
 +======= Part 5 of 6 of A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous ======= ​
 +
 +Return to [[List of Indian Sanskrit Canon of Buddhist Dharma Texts]] from the List of [[Buddhist Texts]] of the [[Tripitaka]]
 +
 +Return to [[Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms William Soothill Table of Contents]]
 +
 +
 + [362]
 +
 +章 A section, chapter; finished, elegant; essay, document; rule, according to pattern.
 +
 +章服 Regulation dress.
 +
 +笯赤建 Nujkend, or Nujketh in Turkestan, between Taras and Khojend.
 +
 +第 Number, degree, sign of the ordinals; only.
 +
 +第一 The first, chief, prime, supreme.
 +
 +第一乘 The supreme vehicle, Mahāyāna.
 +
 +第一句 The first and supreme letter, a, the alpha of all wisdom.
 +
 +第一寂滅 The supreme reality, nirvāṇa.
 +
 +第一義 The supreme, or fundamental meaning, the supreme reality, i. e. enlightenment.
 +
 +第一義悉檀 The highest siddhānta, or Truth, the highest universal gift of Buddha, his teaching which awakens the highest capacity in all beings to attain salvation.
 +
 +第一義智 The highest knowledge, or wisdom.
 +
 +第一義樂 The highest bliss, i.e. nirvāṇa.
 +
 +第一義空 The highest Void, or reality, the Mahāyāna nirvāṇa, though it is also applied to Hīnayāna nirvāṇa.
 +
 +第一義觀 The highest meditation of Tiantai, that on 中 the Mean.
 +
 +第一義諦 The supreme truth, or reality in contrast with the seeming; also called Veritable truth, sage-truth, surpassing truth, nirvāṇa, bhūtatathatā,​ madhya, śūnyatā, etc.
 +
 +第三禪 The third dhyāna, a degree of contemplation in which ecstasy gives way to serenity; also a state, or heaven, corresponding to this degree of contemplation,​ including the third three of the rūpa heavens.
 +
 +第三能變 The third power of change, i. e. the six senses, or vijñānas, 能變 means 識.
 +
 +第七仙 The seventh '​immortal',​ the last of the seven Buddhas, Śākyamuni.
 +
 +第七情 A seventh sense; non-existent,​ like a 十三入 thirteenth base of perception, or a 十九界 19th dhātu.
 +
 +第二月 A double or second moon, which is an optical illusion, unreal.
 +
 +第二禪 The second dhyāna, a degree of contemplation where reasoning gives way to intuition. The second three rūpa heavens.
 +
 +第二能變 The second power of change, the kliṣṭamano-vijñāna,​ disturbed-mind,​ consciousness,​ or self-consciousness which gives form to the universe. The first power of change is the ālaya-vijñāna.
 +
 +第五大 A fifth element, the nonexistent.
 +
 +第六陰 A sixth skandha: as there are only five skandhas it means the non-existent.
 +
 +第八識 The eighth, or ālaya-vijñāna,​ mind-essence,​ the root and essence of all things.
 +
 +第十八願 The eighteenth of Amitābha'​s forty-eight vows, the one vowing salvation to all believers.
 +
 +第四禪 The fourth dhyāna, a degree of contemplation when the mind becomes indifferent to pleasure and pain; also the last eight rūpa heavens.
 +
 +第耶那 v. 禪 dhyāna.
 +
 +第黎多曷羅殺吒羅 Dhṛtarāṣṭra,​ one of the four mahārājas,​ the white guardian of the east, one of the lokapālas, a king of gandharvas and piśacas; cf. 提.
 +
 +紹 To continue, hand down.
 +
 +紹隆 To continue (or perpetuate) and prosper Buddhist truth, or the triratna.
 +
 +終 End, termination,​ final, utmost, death, the whole; opposite of 始.
 +
 +終南山 Zhongnan Shan, a mountain in Shanxi; a posthumous name for Du Shun 杜順, founder of the Huayan or Avataṃsaka School in China.
 +
 +終教 The 'final teaching',​ i.e. the third in the category of the Huayan School, cf. 五教 the final metaphysical concepts of Mahāyāna, as presented in the Laṅkāvatāra sūtra, Awakening of Faith, etc.
 +
 +終歸於空 All things in the end return to the Void.
 +
 +累 To tie; accumulate; repeatedly; to implicate, involve.
 +
 +累七齋 The sevenfold repetition of masses for the dead.
 +
 +累劫 Repeated, or many kalpas.
 +
 +累形 The body as involved in the distresses of life.
 +
 +累障 The hindrances of many vexations, responsibilities or affairs.
 +
 +紺 A violet or purplish colour, a blend of blue and red; also called紺靑 and紺璢璃,​ the colour of the roots紺髮 or 紺頂 of the Buddha'​s hair.
 +
 +紺宇 紺園; 紺坊; 紺殿 Names for a Buddhist monastery.
 +
 +紺睫 The Buddha'​s violet or red-blue eyebrows.
 +
 +紺蒲 kamboja, described as a round, reddish fruit, the Buddha having something resembling it on his neck, one of his characteristic marks.
 +
 +紺蒲國 The country of Kamboja.
 +
 +細 Fine, small, minute, in detail: careful.
 +
 +細四相 The four states of 生住異滅 birth, abiding, change, extinction, e.g. birth, life, decay, death.
 +
 +細心 Carefully, in detail, similar to 細意議 the vijñāna of detailed, unintermitting attention.
 +
 +細滑欲 Sexual attraction through softness and smoothness.
 +
 +細色 Refined appearance. Cf. 徵.
 +
 +罣 A snare; impediment; cause of anxiety, anxious.
 +
 +罣念 To be anxious about.
 +
 +罣礙 A hindrance, impediment.
 +
 +習 Repetition, practice, habit, skilled; u.f. 習氣 intp. vāsanā.
 +
 +習因習果 The continuity of cause and effect, as the cause so the effect.
 +
 +習氣 Habit, the force of habit; the uprising or recurrence of thoughts, passions, or delusions after the passion or delusion has itself been overcome, the remainder or remaining influence of illusion.
 +
 +習滅 To practise (the good) and destroy (the evil).
 +
 +[363]
 +
 +脚 Foot, leg.
 +
 +脚布 A bath towel, foot-towel.
 +
 +脫 To take the flesh from the bones; to strip, undress, doff; to escape, avoid; let go, relinquish.
 +
 +脫珍著弊 To doff jewels and don rags, as did the Buddha, on leaving home, but it is intp. as a kenosis, the putting off of his celestial body for an incarnate, earthly body.
 +
 +解脫 v. 解.
 +
 +脫闍 dhvaja, a banner, flag.
 +
 +脫體 To strip the body, naked; to get rid of the body.
 +
 +臯 A marsh, pool, bank; high; the fifth month.
 +
 +臯諦 Kuntī, name of one of the rākṣasī,​ a female demon.
 +
 +船 A boat, ship.
 +
 +船師 Captain, i.e. the Buddha as captain of salvation, ferrying across to the nirvāṇa shore.
 +
 +船筏 A boat, or raft, i.e. Buddhism.
 +
 +莽 Jungle; wild; rude; translit. ma, cf. 摩; intp. as 無 and 空.
 +
 +荷 A small-leaved water-lily, a marshmallow;​ to carry bear.
 +
 +荷力皮陀 v. 吠 The Ṛigveda.
 +
 +荷擔 To carry, bear on the back or shoulder.
 +
 +荼 A bitter herb; weeds; to encroach; translit. da, dha, dhya, dhu.
 +
 +荼吉尼 ḍākinī, also荼枳尼;​ 吒吉尼; 拏吉儞 yakṣas or demons in general, but especially those which eat a man's vitals; they are invoked in witchcraft to obtain power.
 +
 +荼毘 闍毘 (or 闍維, or 闍鼻多); also 耶維; 耶旬 jhāpita; cremation.
 +
 +荼矩磨 kuṅkuma, saffron, or turmeric, or the musk-root.
 +
 +莎 A species of grass, or sedge; cf. 娑.
 +
 +莎揭哆 svāgata 善來 'well come', a term of salutation; also 善逝 'well departed'​. It is a title of every Buddha; also 莎迦陀 (or 莎伽陀); 沙伽陀 (or 沙竭陀); 裟婆羯多;​ 蘇揭多.
 +
 +沙羅樹 The Sala-tree.
 +
 +沙髻 A crown of grass put on the head of 不動尊 q.v. as a servant of the Buddhas.
 +
 +莫 Not; none; no; do not; translit. ma, mu; cf. 摩.
 +
 +莫伽 magha, donation, wealth; maghā, seven stars; M. W. says a constellation of five stars α, γ, ζ, η, ν Leonis.
 +
 +莫訶 mahā, cf. 摩; Mahī, or Mahānada, a small river in Magadha, and one flowing into the gulf of Cambay.
 +
 +莫訶僧祇尼迦耶 Mahāsāṅghika-nikāya,​ cf. 摩.
 +
 +莫訶婆伽 The musk deer.
 +
 +莫訶衍磧 The great Shamo (Gobi) desert.
 +
 +莫賀延 The great Shamo (Gobi) desert; also called '​Makhai'​. Eitel.
 +
 +莫醯 v. 摩 Maheśvara, i. e. Śiva.
 +
 +莊 Sedate, serious, proper, stern.
 +
 +莊王 v. 妙 Śubhavyūha,​ reputed father of Guanyin.
 +
 +莊嚴 alaṃkāraka. Adorn, adornment, glory, honour, ornament, ornate; e.g. the adornments of morality, meditation, wisdom, and the control of good and evil forces. In Amitābha'​s paradise twenty-nine forms of adornment are described, v. 淨土論.
 +
 +莊嚴劫 The glorious kalpa to which the thousand Buddhas, one succeeding another, bring their contribution of adornment.
 +
 +莊嚴王 Vyūharāja,​ a bodhisattva in the retinue of Śākyamuni.
 +
 +莊嚴王經 Vyūharāja sūtra, an exposition of the principal doctrines of the Tantra school.
 +
 +莊嚴門 The gate or school of the adornment of the spirit, in contrast with external practices, ceremonies, asceticism, etc.
 +
 +處 To dwell, abide; fix, decide, punish; a place, state. āyatana, 阿耶怛那,​ also tr. 入, place or entrance of the sense, both the organ and the sensation, or sense datum; hence the 十二處 twelve āyatana, i. e. six organs, and six sense data that enter for discrimination.
 +
 +處不退 Not to fall away from the status attained.
 +
 +處中 To abide in the via media, which transcends ideas both of existence and non-existence.
 +
 +蛇 sarpa, a serpent, snake.
 +
 +毒蛇 A poisonous snake.
 +
 +佛口蛇心 A Buddha'​s mouth but a serpent'​s heart.
 +
 +蛇繩麻 The seeming snake, which is only a rope, and in reality hemp.
 +
 +蛇藥 Snake-medicine,​ name of the Sarpāuṣadhi monastery in Udyāna, where Śākyamuni in a former incarnation appeared as an immense snake, and by giving his flesh saved the starving people from death.
 +
 +蛇行 To crawl, go on the belly.
 +
 +蛇足 Snake'​s legs, i.e. the nonexistent.
 +
 +術 Way or method; art; trick, plan.
 +
 +術婆迦 Śubhakara, a fisherman who was burnt up by his own sexual love.
 +
 +被 A quilt, coverlet; to cover; to suffer; sign of the passive.
 +
 +被位 Covered seats for meditation.
 +
 +被葉衣觀音 Guanyin clad in leaves.
 +
 +袈裟 kaṣāya, the monk's robe, or cassock. The word is intp. as decayed, impure (in colour), dyed, not of primary colour, so as to distinguish it from the normal white dress of the people. The patch-robe, v. 二十五條. A dyed robe 'of a colour composed of red and yellow'​ (M. W. ); it has a number of poetic names, e. g. robe of patience, or endurance. Also 迦沙曳 (迦邏沙曳).
 +
 +[364]
 +
 +袍 a robe.
 +
 +袍休羅蘭 Bahularatna,​ Prabhūtaratna,​ abundance of precious things, the 多寳 Buddha of the Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +袍裳 袍服 Upper and lower garments.
 +
 +許 Grant, permit, admit, promise; very.
 +
 +許可 Grant, permit, admit.
 +
 +設 To set up, establish, institute; arrange, spread; suppose; translit. ś.
 +
 +設利 (設利羅) śarīra, relics, remains, see 舍.
 +
 +設利弗怛羅 Śāriputra,​ v. 舍.
 +
 +設多圖盧 Satadru, 'an ancient kingdom of northern India, noted for its mineral wealth. Exact position unknown.'​ Eitel. Also, the River Sutlej.
 +
 +設施 Śacī, Śakti, v. 舍.
 +
 +設覩嚕 Śatru, an enemy, a destroyer, the enemy, also 設咄嚕; 設都嚧; 捨覩嚧 (or 轢覩嚧); 窣覩喚; 婆訥嚕.
 +
 +設賞迦 Śaśāṅka. 'A king of Karṇasuvarṇa,​ who tried to destroy the sacred Bodhidruma. He was dethroned by Śīladitya.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +貨 Goods, wares.
 +
 +貨利習彌迦 Khārsmiga, an '​ancient kingdom on the upper Oxus, which formed part of Tukhāra, the Kharizm of Arabic geographers.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +貫 To string, thread, pass through.
 +
 +貫花 A string of flowers, a term for the gāthās in sūtras, i. e. the prose recapitulated in verse.
 +
 +貫首 貫頂 A superintendent,​ head.
 +
 +貧 Poor, in poverty.
 +
 +貧女 A poor woman.
 +
 +貧女寳藏 The poor woman in whose dwelling was a treasure of gold of which she was unaware, v. Nirvāṇa sūtra 7. Another incident, of a poor woman'​s gift, is in the 智度論 8, and there are others.
 +
 +貧窮 Poor, poverty.
 +
 +貧道 The way of poverty, that of the monk and nun; also, a poor religion, i.e. without the Buddha-truth.
 +
 +貪 rāga; colouring, dyeing, tint, red; affection, passion, vehement longing or desire; cf. M. W. In Chinese: cupidity, desire; intp. tainted by and in bondage to the five desires; it is the first in order of the 五鈍使 pañca-kleśa q. v., and means hankering after, desire for, greed, which causes clinging to earthly life and things, therefore reincarnation.
 +
 +貪使 (貪欲使) The messenger, or temptation of desire.
 +
 +貪恚痴 v. 貪欲瞋恚愚痴,​ 貪瞋痴.
 +
 +貪惜 To begrudge; be unwilling to give.
 +
 +貪愛 Desire, cupidity.
 +
 +貪染 The taint of desire, or greed.
 +
 +貪欲 Desire for and love of (the things of this life).
 +
 +貪欲卽是道 Desire is part of the universal law, and may be used for leading into the truth, a tenet of Tiantai.
 +
 +貪欲瞋恚愚痴 rāga, dveṣa, moha; desire, anger, ignorance (or stupidity), the three poisons.
 +
 +貪欲蓋 The cover of desire which overlays the mind and prevents the good from appearing.
 +
 +貪毒 The poison of desire.
 +
 +貪水 Desire is like water carrying things along.
 +
 +貪濁 The contamination of desire.
 +
 +貪煩惱 The kleśa, temptation or passion of desire.
 +
 +貪狼 Greedy wolf, wolfish desire or cupidity.
 +
 +貪瞋痴 rāgadveṣamoha,​ the three poisons.
 +
 +貪結 The bond of desire, binding in the chain of transmigration.
 +
 +貪縛 The tie of desire.
 +
 +貪習 The habit of desire, desire become habitual.
 +
 +貪習因 Habitual cupidity leading to punishment in the cold hells, one of the 十因.
 +
 +貪著 The attachment of desire.
 +
 +貪見 The illusions or false views caused by desire.
 +
 +赦 To pardon.
 +
 +赦儞娑 The son of Vaiśravaṇa,​ see 毘.
 +
 +趺 To sit cross-legged.
 +
 +趺坐, cf. 跏.
 +
 +躭摩栗底 Tamluk, v. 多.
 +
 +軟 soft, yielding.
 +
 +軟語 Soft or gentle words adapted to the feelings of men.
 +
 +這 This; these.
 +
 +這裏 This place here.
 +
 +這箇 This.
 +
 +逍 To roam, saunter.
 +
 +逍遙自在 To go anywhere at will, to roam where one will.
 +
 +連 To connect, continue; contiguous; and, even.
 +
 +連河 The Nairaṅjanā river v. 尼; 希.
 +
 +逐 To drive, urge; expel; exorcise.
 +
 +逐機頓 Immediate accordance with opportunity;​ 逐is used as 遂; i.e. to avail oneself of receptivity to expound the whole truth at once instead of gradually.
 +
 +速 Haste, quick; speedily, urgent.
 +
 +速得 Speedily obtain, or ensure.
 +
 +速成 Speedily completed.
 +
 +速疾鬼 Hurrying demons, rākṣasa.
 +
 +速香 Quickly burnt inferior incense.
 +
 +途 A road, way, method.
 +
 +途慮諾檀那 (途慮檀那) Droṇodana,​ a prince of Magadha, father of Devadatta and Mahānāma, and uncle of Śākyamuni.
 +
 +逗 Delay, loiter; skulk; beguile.
 +
 +逗會 逗機 Adaptation of the teaching to the taught.
 +
 +[365]
 +
 +逝 Pass away, depart, die, evanescent.
 +
 +逝多 jeta; jetṛ; v. 祇.
 +
 +逝宮 The transient mansions of Brahmā and of men. Astronomical '​mansions'​.
 +
 +逝瑟吒 The month Jyaiṣṭha (May-June), when the full moon is in the constellation Jyeṣṭhā.
 +
 +逋 Abscond, default, owe; translit. po, pu, va.
 +
 +逋利婆鼻提賀 Pūrvavideha,​ the eastern of the 四大洲 four continents.
 +
 +逋多 (逋多羅) Potalaka, v. 補.
 +
 +逋沙 puruṣa, v. 布.
 +
 +逋沙他 upavasatha, a fast day.
 +
 +逋盧羯底攝伐羅 Avalokiteśvara,​ v. 觀音.
 +
 +造 Create, make, build. Hurried, careless.
 +
 +造像 To make an image; the first one made of the Buddha is attributed to Udayana, king of Kauśāmbī,​ a contemporary of Śākyamuni,​ who is said to have made an image of him, after his death, in sandalwood, 5 feet high.
 +
 +造化 To create; to make and transform.
 +
 +造書天 The deva-creator of writing, Brahmā.
 +
 +造花 To make flowers, especially paper flowers.
 +
 +通 Permeate, pass through, pervade; perceive, know thoroughly; communicate;​ current; free, without hindrance, unimpeded universal; e.g. 神通 supernatural,​ ubiquitous powers. There are categories of 五通, 六通, and 十通, all referring to supernatural powers; the five are (1) knowledge of the supernatural world; (2) deva vision; (3) deva hearing; (4) knowledge of the minds of all others; (5) knowledge of all the transmigrations of self and all others. The six are the above together with perfect wisdom for ending moral hindrance and delusion. The ten are knowing all previous transmigrations,​ having deva hearing, knowing the minds of others, having deva vision, showing deva powers, manifesting many bodies or forms, being anywhere instantly, power of bringing glory to one's domain, manifesting a body of transformation,​ and power to end evil and transmigration.
 +
 +通利 Intelligence keen as a blade, able to penetrate truth.
 +
 +通別二序 The general and specific introductions to a sūtra; 如是我聞 being the 通序 general introduction in every sūtra.
 +
 +通力 The capacity to employ supernatural power without hindrance. Buddhas, bodhisattvas,​ etc., have 神力 spiritual or transcendent power; demons have 業力 power acquired through their karma.
 +
 +通化 Perspicacious,​ or influential teaching; universal powers of teaching.
 +
 +通夜 The whole night, i.e. to recite or intone throughout the night.
 +
 +通念佛 To call on the Buddhas in general, i.e. not limited to one Buddha.
 +
 +通惑 The two all-pervading deluders見 and 思 seeing and thinking wrongly i.e. taking appearance for reality.
 +
 +通慧 Supernatural powers and wisdom, the former being based on the latter.
 +
 +通教 Tiantai classified Buddhist schools into four periods 藏, 通, 別, and 圓. The 藏 Piṭaka school was that of Hīnayāna. The 通Tong, interrelated or intermediate school, was the first stage of Mahāyāna, having in it elements of all the three vehicles, śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha,​ and bodhisattva. Its developing doctrine linked it with Hīnayāna on the one hand and on the other with the two further developments of the 別 '​separate',​ or '​differentiated'​ Mahāyāna teaching, and the 圓 full-orbed, complete, or perfect Mahāyāna. The 通教 held the doctrine of the Void, but had not arrived at the doctrine of the Mean.
 +
 +通明慧 The six 通, three 明, and three 慧 q.v.
 +
 +通會 To harmonize differences of teaching.
 +
 +通行 The thoroughfare,​ or path which leads to nirvāṇa.
 +
 +通途 Thoroughfare,​ an open way.
 +
 +通達 To pervade, perceive, unimpeded, universal.
 +
 +通達心 通達菩提心 To attain to the enlightened mind; the stage of one who has passed through the novitiate and understands the truth.
 +
 +部 A group, tribe, class, division, section; a board, office; school, sect; a work in volumes, a heading or section of a work.
 +
 +部引陀 or 部引陁 The planet Mercury, i.e. Buddha.
 +
 +部主 The founder of a sect, or school, or group.
 +
 +部執 The tenets of a sect or school.
 +
 +部多 bhūta, 'been, become, produced, formed, being, existing,'​ etc. (M. W. ); intp. as the consciously existing; the four great elements, earth, fire, wind, water, as apprehended by touch; also a kind of demon produced by metamorphosis. Also, the 眞如 bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +[366]
 +
 +部教 The sūtras, or canon, and their exposition.
 +
 +野 The country, wilderness, wild, rustic, uncultivated,​ rude.
 +
 +野寐尼 Yamani, Java.
 +
 +野布施 To scatter offerings at the grave to satisfy hungry ghosts.
 +
 +野干 śṛgāla; jackal, or an animal resembling a fox which cries in the night.
 +
 +野狐 A wild fox, a fox sprite.
 +
 +野狐禪 Wild-fox meditation, i.e. non-Buddhist ascetics, heterodoxy in general.
 +
 +野盤僧 A roaming monk without fixed abode.
 +
 +野葬 Burial by abandoning the corpse in the wilds.
 +
 +釣 To angle, fish.
 +
 +釣語 Angling words or questions, to fish out what a student knows.
 +
 +閉 To close, stop, block.
 +
 +閉尸 peśī v. A 八位胎藏 A piece of flesh; a mass; a foetus.
 +
 +閉爐 To cease lighting the stove (in spring).
 +
 +閉關 To shut in; to isolate oneself for meditation.
 +
 +閉黎多 preta, hungry ghost, see 薜.
 +
 +陵 A mound, tomb; cf. 畢陵.
 +
 +陪 To accompany, associated with; add to, assist.
 +
 +陪食 To keep one company at meals.
 +
 +陪臚 陪囉嚩 Bhairava, the terrible, name of Śiva, also of Viṣṇu and other devas, also of a 金剛神.
 +
 +陶 Pottery, kiln.
 +
 +陶家輪 A potter'​s wheel.
 +
 +陳 Arrange, marshal, spread, state; old, stale.
 +
 +陳棄藥 腐爛藥 Purgative medicines.
 +
 +陳那 Dignāga, Dinnāga; a native of southern India, the great Buddhist logician, circa A. D. 500 or 550, founder of the new logic, cf. 因明; he is known also as 童授 and 域龍. Also used for Jina, victorious, the overcomer, a title of a Buddha.
 +
 +陰 Shade, dark, the shades, the negative as opposed to the positive principle, female, the moon, back, secret. In Buddhism it is the phenomenal, as obscuring the true nature of things; also the aggregation of phenomenal things resulting in births and deaths, hence it is used as a translation like 蘊 q.v. for skandha, the 五陰 being the five skandhas or aggregates.
 +
 +陰入界 The five skandhas, the twelve entrances, or bases through which consciousness enters (āyatana), and the eighteen dhātu or elements, called the 三科.
 +
 +陰境 The present world as the state of the five skandhas.
 +
 +陰妄 The skandha-illusion,​ or the unreality of the skandhas.
 +
 +陰妄一念 The illusion of the skandhas like a passing thought.
 +
 +陰幻 The five skandhas like a passing illusion.
 +
 +陰界 The five skandhas and the eighteen dhātu.
 +
 +陰藏 A retractable penis — one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha.
 +
 +陰錢 Paper money for use in services to the dead.
 +
 +陰魔 The five skandhas considered as māras or demons fighting against the Buddha, nature of men.
 +
 +雪 Snow.
 +
 +雪山 雪嶺 The snow mountains, the Himālayas.
 +
 +雪山大士 雪山童子The great man, or youth of the Himālayas, the Buddha in a former incarnation.
 +
 +雪山部 Haimavatāḥ,​ the Himālaya school, one of the five divisions of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ.
 +
 +頂 Top of the head, crown, summit, apex, zenith; highest; to rise; oppose; an official'​s '​button'​.
 +
 +頂光 The halo round the head of an image.
 +
 +頂巢 Contemplation so profound that a bird may build its nest on the individual'​s head.
 +
 +頂珠 The gem in the head-dress, or coiffure; the protuberance on the Buddha'​s brow.
 +
 +頂生王 Mūrdhaja-rāja,​ the king born from the crown of the head, name of the first cakravartī ancestors of the Śākya clan; the name is also applied to a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.
 +
 +頂相 The protuberance on the Buddha'​s brow, one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha; also an image, or portrait of the upper half of the body.
 +
 +頂石 Like a heavy stone on the head, to be got rid of with speed, e.g. transmigration.
 +
 +頂禮 To prostrate oneself with the head at the feet of the one reverenced.
 +
 +頂輪 A wheel or disc at the top, or on the head, idem 金輪佛頂 q.v.
 +
 +頂門眼 The middle upstanding eye in Maheśvara'​s forehead.
 +
 +魚 matsya. Fish.
 +
 +魚兎 Like a fish or a hare, when caught the net may be ignored, i.e. the meaning or spirit of a sūtra more valuable than the letter.
 +
 +魚子 Spawn, vast in multitude compared with those that develop.
 +
 +魚板 The wooden fish in monasteries,​ beaten to announce meals, and to beat time at the services.
 +
 +魚母 The care of a mother-fish for its multitudinous young, e.g. Amitābha'​s care of all in leading them to his Pure Land.
 +
 +魚鼓 Similar to魚板.
 +
 +鳥 A bird.
 +
 +鳥迹 The tracks left in the air by a flying bird, unreal.
 +
 +鳥道 The path of the birds, evasive, mysterious, difficult, as is the mystic life. Also a fabulous island only reached by flight.
 +
 +鳥鼠僧 A 'bat monk', i. e. one who breaks the commandments,​ with the elusiveness of a creature that is partly bird and partly mouse; also who chatters without meaning like the twittering of birds or the squeaking of rats.
 +
 +[367]
 +
 +鹿 mṛga; a deer; as Śākyamuni first preached the four noble truths in the Deer-garden,​ the deer is a symbol of his preaching.
 +
 +鹿仙 Śākyamuni as royal stag: he and Devadatta had both been deer in a previous incarnation.
 +
 +鹿戒 Deer morals i.e. to live, as some ascetics, like deer.
 +
 +鹿苑 鹿野園 Mṛgadāva,​ known also as 仙人園, etc., the park, abode, or retreat of wise men, whose resort it formed; 'a famous park north-east of Vārāṇasī,​ a favourite resort of Śākyamuni. The modern Sārnāth (Śāraṅganātha) near Benares.'​ M. W. Here he is reputed to have preached his first sermon and converted his first five disciples. Tiantai also counts it as the scene of the second period of his teaching, when during twelve years he delivered the Āgama sūtras.
 +
 +鹿車 Deer carts, one of the three kinds of vehicle referred to in the Lotus Sūtra, the medium kind; v. 三車.
 +
 +麥 yava. 耶婆 corn, wheat, barley, etc. Corn, especially barley; a grain of barley is the 2,688,000th part of a yojana.
 +
 +麻 Hemp, flax, linen, translit. ma, cf. 牟, 麽, etc.
 +
 +麻蹉 matsya, a fish.
 +
 +麻豆瞿羅 madhugola, sweet balls, or biscuits.
 +12. TWELVE STROKES
 +
 +傅 To superintend,​ teach; a tutor; to paint; a function; annex.
 +
 +傅訓 The instructions of a teacher: to instruct.
 +
 +傀 Gigantic, monstrous, part man part devil; a puppet.
 +
 +傀儡子 A puppet, marionette.
 +
 +傍 Near, adjoining, side, dependent.
 +
 +傍生 tiryagyoni, 'born of or as an animal'​ (M. W.); born to walk on one side, i.e. belly downwards, because of sin in past existence.
 +
 +傍生趣 The animal path, that of rebirth as an animal, one of the six gati.
 +
 +囘鶻 高車; 高昌. M067729彝 Uighurs, M067729胡; A branch of the Turks first heard of in the seventh century in the Orkhon district where they remained until A. D. 840, when they were defeated and driven out by the Kirghiz; one group went to Kansu, where they remained until about 1020; another group founded a kingdom in the Turfan country which survived until Mongol times. They had an alphabet which was copied from the Soghdian. Chingis Khan adopted it for writing Mongolian. A. D. 1294 the whole Buddhist canon was translated into Uighur.
 +
 +割 To cut, gash, sever.
 +
 +割斷 To cut off.
 +
 +勞 Toil, labour, trouble; to reward.
 +
 +勞侶 Troublesome companions, e.g. the passions.
 +
 +勞怨 The annoyance or hatred of labour, or trouble, or the passions, or demons.
 +
 +勞結 The troublers, or passions, those which hold one in bondage.
 +
 +勝 jina, victorious, from ji, to overcome, surpass.
 +
 +勝乘 The victorious vehicle, i.e. Mahāyāna.
 +
 +勝友 Jinamitra, friend of the Jina, or, having the Jina for friend; also the name of an eloquent monk of Nālandā, circa A. D. 630, author of Sarvāstivādavinaya-saṅgrāha,​ tr. A. D. 700.
 +
 +勝士 Victor, one who keeps the commandments.
 +
 +勝子樹 v. 祇. The Jeta grove, Jetavana.
 +
 +勝宗 v. 勝論宗.
 +
 +勝州 Uttarakuru, v. 鬱 the continent north of Meru.
 +
 +勝心 The victorious mind, which carries out the Buddhist discipline.
 +
 +勝應身 A Tiantai term for the superior incarnational Buddha-body,​ i.e. his compensation-body under the aspect of 他受用身 saving others.
 +
 +勝林 v. 祇 The Jeta grove, Jetavana.
 +
 +勝果 The surpassing fruit, i.e. that of the attainment of Buddhahood, in contrast with Hīnayāna lower aims; two of these fruits are transcendent nirvāṇa and complete bodhi.
 +
 +勝業 Surpassing karma.
 +
 +勝神州 Pūrvavideha,​ Videha, the continent east of Meru.
 +
 +勝義 Beyond description,​ that which surpasses mere earthly ideas; superlative,​ inscrutable.
 +
 +勝義根 The surpassing organ, i.e. intellectual perception, behind the ordinary organs of perception, e.g. eyes, ears, etc.
 +
 +勝義法 The superlative dharma, nirvāṇa.
 +
 +勝義空 nirvāṇa as surpassingly real or transcendental.
 +
 +勝義諦 The superior truth, enlightened truth as contrasted with worldly truth.
 +
 +勝義諦論 Paramārtha-satya-śāstra,​ a philosophical work by Vasubandhu.
 +
 +勝者 Pradhāna, pre-eminent,​ predominant.
 +
 +勝論 v. 吠 Vaiśeṣika-śāstra.
 +
 +勝論宗 The Vaiśeṣika school of Indian philosophy, whose foundation is ascribed to Kaṇāda (Ulūka); he and his successors are respectfully styled 論師 or slightingly 論外道; the school, when combined with the Nyāya, is also known as Nyāya-vaiśeṣika .
 +
 +勝軍 Prasenajit, conquering army, or conqueror of an army; king of Kośala and patron of Śākyamuni;​ also one of the Maharājas, v. 明王.
 +
 +[368]
 +
 +勝鬘夫人 Mālyaśrī,​ daughter of Prasenajit, wife of the king of Kośala (Oudh), after whom the Śrīmālādevi-siṃhanāda 會 and 經 are named.
 +
 +博 Wide, universal; widely read, versed in; to cause; gamble; barter.
 +
 +博叉 Vaṅkṣu; Vakṣu; v. 縛 the Oxus.
 +
 +博叉般荼迦 博叉半擇迦 pakṣa-paṇḍakās;​ partial eunuchs, cf. 半.
 +
 +博吃蒭 pakṣa, half a lunar month; also used for Māra'​s army.
 +
 +厥 Third personal pronoun; demonstrative pronoun; also used instead of 倶.
 +
 +喫 To eat.
 +
 +喫素 To eat ordinary, or vegetarian food.
 +
 +喫棄羅 khakkhara, a beggar'​s staff; an abbot'​s staff.
 +
 +喝 To shout, bawl, call, scold; to drink.
 +
 +喝捍 Gahan, an ancient kingdom, also called 東安國, i.e. Eastern Parthia, west of Samarkand, now a district of Bukhara.
 +
 +喚 To call, summon.
 +
 +喚鐘 半鐘 (or飯鐘) The dinner bell or gong.
 +
 +啼 To wail; crow.
 +
 +啼哭 To weep and wail; to weep.
 +
 +啼哭佛 The ever-wailing Buddha, the final Buddha of the present kalpa; cf. 薩陀.
 +
 +喬 Lofty.
 +
 +喬答魔 Gautama.
 +
 +喬答彌 Gautami; v. 瞿.
 +
 +喪 Mourning. To lose; destroy.
 +
 +喪? Gifts to monks for masses for the dead.
 +
 +喇嘛 Lama, the Lamaistic form of Buddhism found chiefly in Tibet, and Mongolia, and the smaller Himālayan States. In Tibet it is divided into two schools, the older one wearing red robes, the later, which was founded by Tson-kha-pa in the fifteenth century, wearing yellow; its chiefs are the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama, respectively.
 +
 +單 Single, alone; only; the odd numbers; poor, deficient; a bill, cheque, etc.; cf. 但.
 +
 +單位 A single seat, or position; also a fixed, or listed position, or seat.
 +
 +單前 In front of one's listed name, i.e. in one's allotted place.
 +
 +單麻 The single hempseed a day to which the Buddha reduced his food before his enlightenment.
 +
 +喩 Illustrate, example; to know 宗因喩q.v. The example (dṛṣṭānta) in a syllogism.
 +
 +喩依 The subject of the example, e.g. a vase, or bottle; as contrasted with 喩體 the predicate, e.g. (the vase) is not eternal.
 +
 +喜 prīti; ānanda. Joy; glad; delighted, rejoice; to like.
 +
 +喜受 The sensation, or receptivity,​ of joy; to receive with pleasure.
 +
 +喜忍 The '​patience'​ of joy, achieved on beholding by faith Amitābha and his Pure Land; one of the 三忍.
 +
 +喜悅 喜歡; 喜樂 Pleased, delighted.
 +
 +喜捨 Joyful giving.
 +
 +喜林苑 Joy-grove garden, a name for Indra'​s garden or paradise.
 +
 +喜見 priyadarśana. Joyful to see, beautiful, name of a kalpa.
 +
 +喜見城 Sudarśana, the city, beautiful, the chief city or capital, of the thirty-three Indra-heavens;​ also 善見域.
 +
 +喜見天 The Trāyastriṃśas,​ or thirty-three devas or gods of Indra'​s heaven, on the summit of Meru.
 +
 +喜見菩薩 The Bodhisattva Beautiful, an incarnation of藥王.
 +
 +喜覺支 The third bodhyaṅga,​ the stage of joy on attaining the truth.
 +
 +善 su; sādhu; bhadra; kuśala. Good, virtuous, well; good at; skilful.
 +
 +善人 A good man, especially one who believes in Buddhist ideas of causality and lives a good life.
 +
 +善來 svāgata, susvāgata; '​welcome';​ well come, a title of a Buddha; v. 善逝.
 +
 +善劫 A good kalpa, bhadrakalpa,​ especially that in which we now live.
 +
 +善友 kalyāṇamitra,​ 'a friend of virtue, a religious counsellor,'​ M. W.; a friend in the good life, or one who stimulates to goodness.
 +
 +善哉 sādhu. Good! excellent!
 +
 +善因 Good causation, i.e. a good cause for a good effect.
 +
 +善宿 Abiding in goodness, disciples who keep eight commandments,​ upavasatha, poṣadha.
 +
 +善巧 Clever, skilful, adroit, apt.
 +
 +善心 A good heart, or mind.
 +
 +[369]
 +
 +善性 Good nature, good in nature, or in fundamental quality.
 +
 +善惡 Good and evil; good, inter alia, is defined as 順理, evil as 違理; i.e. to accord with, or to disobey the right. The 十善十惡 are the keeping or breaking of the ten commandments.
 +
 +善慧地 sādhumatī,​ v. 十地.
 +
 +善月 Good month, i.e. the first, fifth, and ninth; because they are the most important in which to do good works and thus obtain a good report in the spirit realm.
 +
 +善本 Good stock, or roots, planting good seed or roots; good in the root of enlightenment.
 +
 +善果 Good fruit from 善因 q.v.; good fortune in life resulting from previous goodness.
 +
 +善現 Well appearing, name of Subhūti, v. 蘇.
 +
 +善現天 (or 善現色) Suḍṛśa,​ the seventh brahmaloka; the eighth region of the fourth dhyāna.
 +
 +善生 Sujāta, 'well born, of high birth,'​ M. W. Also tr. of Susaṃbhava,​ a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.
 +
 +善男子 Good sons, or sons of good families, one of the Buddha'​s terms of address to his disciples, somewhat resembling '​gentlemen'​.
 +
 +善男信女 Good men and believing women.
 +
 +善知 vibhāvana, clear perception.
 +
 +善知識 A good friend or intimate, one well known and intimate.
 +
 +善神 The good devas, or spirits, who protect Buddhism, 8, 16, or 36 in number; the 8 are also called 善鬼神.
 +
 +善見 sudarśana, good to see, good for seeing, belle vue, etc., similar to 喜見 q.v.
 +
 +善財童子 Sudhana, a disciple mentioned in the 華嚴經 34 and elsewhere, one of the 四勝身 q.v.; the story is given in Divyāvadāna,​ ed. Cowell and Neil, pp. 441 seq.
 +
 +善逝 sugata, well departed, gone as he should go; a title of a Buddha; cf. 善來.
 +
 +圍 Surround, enclose, encircle, go round.
 +
 +圍繞 To surround, go round; especially to make three complete turns to the right round an image of Buddha.
 +
 +堙羅那 Airāvana, a king of the elephants; Indra'​s white elephant, cf. 伊. It is also confused with Airāvata in the above senses, and for certain trees, herbs, etc.; also with Elāpattra, name of a nāga.
 +
 +場 Area, arena, field, especially the bodhi-plot, or place of enlightenment,​ etc.; cf. 道場; 菩提場.
 +
 +堪 To bear, sustain, be adequate to.
 +
 +堪忍 sahā; to bear, patiently endure.
 +
 +堪忍世界 The sahā world of endurance of suffering; any world of transmigration.
 +
 +堪忍地 The stage of endurance, the first of the ten bodhisattva stages.
 +
 +堪能 Ability to bear, or undertake.
 +
 +報 Recompense, retribution,​ reward, punishment, tell.
 +
 +報佛 To thank the Buddha; also idem報身.
 +
 +報命 The life of reward or punishment for former deeds.
 +
 +報因 The cause of retribution.
 +
 +報土 The land of reward, the Pure Land.
 +
 +報恩 To acknowledge,​ or requite favours.
 +
 +報恩施 Almsgiving out of gratitude.
 +
 +報恩田 The field for requiting blessings received, e.g. parents, teachers, etc.
 +
 +報應 Recompense, reward, punishment; also the 報身 and 應身 q.v.
 +
 +報果 The reward-fruit,​ or consequences of past deeds.
 +
 +報沙 Pauṣa, the first of the three Indian winter months, from the 16th of the 10th Chinese month.
 +
 +報生三昧 A degree of bodhisattva samādhi in which transcendental powers are obtained.
 +
 +報緣 The circumstantial cause of retribution.
 +
 +報身 Reward body, the saṃbhoga-kāya of a Buddha, in which he enjoys the reward of his labours, v. 三身 trikāya.
 +
 +報謝 To acknowledge and thank; also, retribution ended.
 +
 +報通 The supernatural powers that have been acquired as karma by demons, spirits, nāgas, etc.
 +
 +報障 The veil of delusion which accompanies retribution.
 +
 +奠 To settle, offer, condole.
 +
 +奠茶 To make an offering of tea to a Buddha, a spirit, etc.
 +
 +[370]
 +
 +奢 To spread out; profuse; extravagant.
 +
 +奢利 奢利弗多羅(or 奢利富多羅);​ 奢利補擔羅 v. 舍 Śāriputra.
 +
 +奢彌 奢弭 śamī, a leguminous tree associated with Śiva.
 +
 +奢摩他 (or 奢摩陀); 舍摩他 śamatha, '​quiet,​ tranquility,​ calmness of mind, absence of passion.'​ M. W. Rest, peace, power to end (passion, etc.), one of the seven names for dhyāna.
 +
 +奢羯羅 Śākala, the ancient capital of Takka and (under Mihirakula) of the whole Punjab; the Sagala of Ptolemy; Eitel gives it as the present village of Sanga a few miles south-west of Amritsar, but this is doubtful.
 +
 +奢薩擔羅 舍薩擔羅;​ 設娑擔羅 śāstra, intp. by 論 treatise, q.v.
 +
 +奢陀 śāṭhya, knavery, fawning, crooked.
 +
 +寓 To dwell, lodge; appertain, belong to, resemble.
 +
 +寓宗 A branch sect; one school appertaining to another.
 +
 +寓錢 Semblance money, i.e. paper money.
 +
 +寒 śīta. Cold; in poverty; plain.
 +
 +寒暑 Cold and heat.
 +
 +寒林 The cold forest, where the dead were exposed (to be devoured by vultures, etc.); a cemetery; v. 尸 for śītavana and śmaśāna.
 +
 +寒獄 The cold hells, v. 地獄.
 +
 +富 Rich, wealthy, affluent, well supplied; translit. pu and ve sounds; cf. 不, 布, 補, 婆.
 +
 +富單那 (or 富陀那) pūtana. A class of pretas in charge of fevers, v. 布.
 +
 +富婁沙富羅 (or 富留沙富羅) Puruṣapura,​ the ancient capital of Gandhara, the modern Peshawar, stated to be the native country of Vasubandhu.
 +
 +富樓沙 puruṣa, v. 布; a man, mankind. Man personified as Nārāyaṇa;​ the soul and source of the universe; soul. Explained by 神我 the spiritual self; the ātman whose characteristic is thought, and which produces, through successive modifications,​ all forms of existence.
 +
 +富樓那 Pūrṇa; also富樓那彌多羅尼子 and other similar phonetic forms; Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra,​ or Maitrāyaṇīputra,​ a disciple of Śākyamuni,​ son of Bhava by a slave girl, often confounded with Maitreya. The chief preacher among the ten principal disciples of Śākyamuni;​ ill-treated by his brother, engaged in business, saved his brothers from shipwreck by conquering Indra through samādhi; built a vihāra for Śākyamuni;​ expected to reappear as 法明如來 Dharmaprabhāsa Buddha.
 +
 +富沙 Puṣya. An ancient ṛṣi. A constellation,​ v. 弗.
 +
 +富伽羅 (富特伽羅) pudgala, that which has (handsome) form; body; soul; beings subject to metempsychosis. Cf. 弗, 補.
 +
 +富羅 A translit. for a short-legged,​ or ornamented boot, as 富維跋陀羅 is boot or shoe ornamentation. 富羅 is also intp. as land, country; perhaps pura, a city.
 +
 +富蘭那 Purāṇas. A class of Brahmanic mythological literature; also 布剌拏 (or 補剌拏).
 +
 +富蘭那迦葉 布剌拏 (or布剌那,​ 晡剌拏, 晡剌那, 棓剌拏, 棓剌那); 不蘭; 補剌那, etc. Purāṇa Kāśyapa; one of the six heretics opposed by Śākyamuni;​ he taught the non-existence of all things, that all was illusion, and that there was neither birth nor death; ergo, neither prince nor subject, parent nor child, nor their duties.
 +
 +富蘭陀羅 Purandara; stronghold-breaker,​ fortress-destroyer,​ a name for Indra as thunder-god.
 +
 +富那 Puṇya; Punar; Pūrṇa.
 +
 +富那奇 Name of a preta, or hungry ghost; and of a monk named Pūrṇeccha .
 +
 +富那婆蘇 Punarvasu; an asterism, i. e. the 弗宿; name of a monk.
 +
 +富那耶舍 Puṇyayaśas;​ 富那奢 (富那夜奢) the tenth (or eleventh) patriarch; a descendant of the Gautama family; born in Pāṭaliputra,​ laboured in Vārāṇasī and converted Aśvaghoṣa.
 +
 +富那跋陀 Pūrṇabhadra,​ name of a spirit-general.
 +
 +尋 To seek; investigate;​ to continue; usually; a fathom, 8 Chinese feet.
 +
 +尋伺 vitarka and vicāra, two conditions in dhyāna discovery and analysis of principles; vitarka 毘擔迦 a dharma which tends to increase, and vicāra 毘遮羅one which tends to diminish, definiteness and clearness in the stream of consciousness;​ cf. 中間定.
 +
 +尋常念佛 Normal or ordinary worship of Buddha, in contrast with special occasions.
 +
 +尊 To honour. ārya; honoured, honourable.
 +
 +尊敕 The honourable commands, Buddha'​s teaching.
 +
 +尊勝 Honoured and victorious, the honoured victorious one, one of the five 佛頂, also known as 除障佛頂,​ one of the divinities of the Yoga school.
 +
 +尊宿 A monk honoured and advanced in years.
 +
 +尊者 ārya, honourable one, a sage, a saint, an arhat.
 +
 +尊記 The prediction of Buddhahood to his disciples by the Honoured One; the honourable prediction.
 +
 +尊貴 尊重 Honoured, honourable; to honour.
 +
 +[371]
 +
 +屠人 To butcher, kill; a butcher.
 +
 +屠沽 Butcher and huckster; caṇḍāla is 'the generic name for a man of the lowest and most despised of the mixed tribes'​. M. W.
 +
 +嵐 Mountain mist; vapour.
 +
 +嵐毘尼 Lumbinī, the park in which Māyā gave birth to Śākyamuni,​ 15 miles east of Kapilavastu;​ also Limbinī, Lambinī, Lavinī. 嵐鞞尼; 藍毘尼 (or 留毘尼, 流毘尼, 林毘尼, 樓毘尼); 流彌尼; 林微尼; 臘伐尼; 龍彌你; 論民尼; 藍軬尼.
 +
 +強 Strong, forceful, violent; to force; to strengthen.
 +
 +強伽 The Ganges, v. 恒.
 +
 +復 Again, return, revert, reply.
 +
 +復活 To live again, return to life.
 +
 +復飾 To return to ordinary garments, i.e. to doff the robe for lay life.
 +
 +循 To follow accord with, according to.
 +
 +循環 pradakṣina;​ moving round so that the right shoulder is towards the object of reverence.
 +
 +循身觀 The meditation which observes the body in detail and considers its filthiness.
 +
 +徧 sarvatraga. On every side, ambit, everywhere, universal, pervade, all, the whole.
 +
 +徧一切處 Pervading everywhere, omnipresent,​ an epithet for Vairocana.
 +
 +徧吉 Universally auspicious, a tr. of 普賢 Samantabhadra.
 +
 +徧成 To complete wholly, fulfil in every detail.
 +
 +徧淨 Universal purity.
 +
 +徧照 Universally shining, everywhere illuminating.
 +
 +徧界 The whole universe.
 +
 +徧行因 sarvatragahetu,​ '​omnipresent causes, like false views which affect every act.' Keith.
 +
 +徧覺 The omniscience,​ absolute enlightenment,​ or universal awareness of a Buddha.
 +
 +徧計 parakalpita. Counting everything as real, the way of the unenlightened.
 +
 +徧計所執性 The nature of the unenlightened,​ holding to the tenet that everything is calculable or reliable, i.e. is what it appears to be.
 +
 +悶 Depressed, oppressed, sad, melancholy; to cover, shut down, or in.
 +
 +憂悶 愁悶 Distress, grief, sadness.
 +
 +惱 Vexation, irritation, annoyance, e. g. 懊惱 and especially 煩惱 kleśa, q.v.
 +
 +惠 Kind, gracious, forbearing, accordant.
 +
 +恩惠 Grace, kindness.
 +
 +施惠 To bestow kindness, or charity.
 +
 +惠利 To show kindness to and benefit others.
 +
 +惑 moha. Illusion, delusion, doubt, unbelief; it is also used for kleśa, passion, temptation, distress, care, trouble.
 +
 +惑人 A deluded person, to delude others.
 +
 +惑染 The taint of delusion, the contamination of illusion.
 +
 +惑業苦 Illusion, accordant action, and suffering; the pains arising from a life of illusion.
 +
 +惑著 The bond of illusion, the delusive bondage of desire to its environment.
 +
 +惑趣 The way or direction of illusion, delusive objective, intp. as deluded in fundamental principles.
 +
 +惑障 The hindrance, or obstruction of the delusive passions to entry into truth.
 +
 +悲 karuṇā; kṛpā. Sympathy, pity for another in distress and the desire to help him, sad.
 +
 +悲心 A heart of pity, of sympathy, or sadness.
 +
 +悲手 A pitying hand.
 +
 +悲智 Pity and wisdom; the two characteristics of a bodhisattva seeking to attain perfect enlightenment and the salvation of all beings. In the esoteric sects pity is represented by the Garbadhātu or the womb treasury, while wisdom is represented by the Vajradhātu,​ the diamond treasury. Pity is typified by Guanyin, wisdom by Mahāsthāmaprāpta,​ the two associates of Amitābha.
 +
 +悲無量心 Infinite pity for all.
 +
 +悲田 The field of pity, cultivated by helping those in trouble, one of the three fields of blessing.
 +
 +悲觀慈觀 The pitying contemplation for saving beings from suffering, and the merciful contemplation for giving joy to all beings.
 +
 +悲願 The great pitying vow of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to save all beings.
 +
 +悲願船 The boat of this vow for ferrying beings to salvation.
 +
 +惡 agha. Bad, evil, wicked, hateful; to hate, dislike; translit. a, cf. 阿.
 +
 +惡世界 An evil world.
 +
 +惡作 Evil doings; also to hate that which one has done, to repent.
 +
 +惡叉 akṣa, 'a seed of which rosaries are made (in compound words, like Indrāksha, Rudrāksha);​ a shrub producing that seed ( Eleocarpus ganitrus).'​ M. W. It is called the 惡叉聚 because its seeds are said to be formed in triplets, and illustrate the simultaneous character of 惑行苦 illusion, action, and suffering; another version is that the seeds fall in clusters, and illustrate numbers, or numerous; they are also known as 金剛子.
 +
 +惡取空 To have evil ideas of the doctrine of voidness, to deny the doctrine of cause and effect.
 +
 +[372]
 +
 +惡口 Evil mouth, evil speech; a slanderous, evil-speaking person.
 +
 +惡因 A cause of evil, or of a bad fate; an evil cause.
 +
 +惡報 Recompense for ill, punishment.
 +
 +惡察那 (or 惡察羅) akṣara; imperishable,​ unalterable;​ a syllable; words; intp. as unchanging word, a root word, or word-root. Also 惡刹羅; 阿乞史羅.
 +
 +惡師 An evil teacher who teaches harmful doctrines.
 +
 +惡律儀 Bad, or evil rules and customs.
 +
 +惡揭嚕 aguru, lignum aloes, v. 沉水香.
 +
 +惡果 Evil fruit from evil deeds.
 +
 +惡業 Evil conduct in thought, word, or deed, which leads to evil recompense; evil karma.
 +
 +惡無過 That it is not wrong to do evil; that there are no consequences at attached to an evil life.
 +
 +惡癩野干心 A scabby pariah, a phrase describing the evil of the mind.
 +
 +惡知識 A bad intimate, or friend, or teacher.
 +
 +惡祁尼 Agni; intp. by 火神 the god of fire, cf. 阿.
 +
 +惡緣 External conditions or circumstances which stir or tempt one do evil.
 +
 +惡見 Evil or heterodox views.
 +
 +惡見處 The place in Hades whence the sinner beholds the evil done in life, one of the sixteen special hells.
 +
 +惡覺 Contemplation or thought contrary to Buddhist principles.
 +
 +惡觸 Evil touch; contaminated as is food by being handled or touched.
 +
 +惡趣 The evil directions, or incarnations,​ i. e. those of animals, pretas, and beings in purgatory; to which some add asuras.
 +
 +惡道 Evil ways; also the three evil paths or destinies— animals, pretas, and purgatory.
 +
 +惡露 Foul discharges from the body; also evil revealed.
 +
 +惡鬼神 Evil demons and evil spirits, yakṣas, rākṣasas,​ etc.
 +
 +惡魔 Evil māras, demon enemies of Buddhism.
 +
 +插 To insert, stick in.
 +
 +插單 To insert one's slip, or credentials.
 +
 +掌 A palm, a paw; to grasp, control, administer.
 +
 +掌果 (As easy to see) as a mango in the hand.
 +
 +揀 To pick, choose, select.
 +
 +揀擇 To choose, select.
 +
 +揀師 One chosen to be a teacher, but not yet fit for a full appointment.
 +
 +揵達婆 gandharva, v. 乾.
 +
 +揣 To estimate, conjecture, guess; said also to mean 摶 to roll into a ball, roll together.
 +
 +揣食 The Indian way of eating by first rolling the food into a ball in the hand; also 團食.
 +
 +揄 To draw out, extol.
 +
 +揄旬 yojana, v. 由.
 +
 +揭 To lift up, or off, uncover; make known, stick up, publish; translit. g, ga, kha.
 +
 +揭利呵跋底 grḥapati, an elder, householder,​ proprietor, landlord.
 +
 +揭底 gati, 'a particular high number'​ (M. W.), 10 sexillions; 大揭底 100 sexillions, v. 洛叉 lakṣa.
 +
 +揭盤陀 Khavandha, an ancient kingdom and city, '​modern Kartchou'​ south-east of the Sirikol Lake. Eitel.
 +
 +揭職 Gachi, an ancient kingdom between Balkh and Bamian, about Rui. Eitel.
 +
 +揭路茶 garuḍa, the mythical bird on which Viṣṇu rides, v. 迦樓羅.
 +
 +提 To raise, mention, bring forward, summon, lead.
 +
 +提和 deva.
 +
 +提和竭羅 Dīpaṃkara,​ v. 然燈.
 +
 +[373]
 +
 +提唱 To mention, to deliver oral instruction,​ or the gist of a subject, as done in the Intuitional School. Also 提綱; 提要.
 +
 +提多羅吒 Dhṛtarāṣṭra,​ one of the four mahārājas,​ the yellow guardian eastward of Sumeru; also 頭賴吒; 第黎多曷羅殺吒羅.
 +
 +提多迦 Dhṛtaka; the fifth patriarch '​unknown to Southern Buddhists, born in Magadha, a disciple of Upagupta, he went to Madhyadeśa where he converted the heretic Micchaka and his 8,000 followers'​. Eitel.
 +
 +提婆 deva. Explained by 天 celestial; also by 梵天人 inhabitants of the brahmalokas,​ or by 天神 celestial spirits. General designation of the gods of Brahmanism, and of all the inhabitants of devalokas who are subject to metempsychosis. Also 提波; 提和; 提桓. Used also for Devadatta, infra.
 +
 +提婆地提婆 Devātideva,​ the god of gods, Viṣṇu; also name of the Buddha before he left home.
 +
 +提婆宗 The school of Nāgārjuna,​ so called after Āryadeva, infra.
 +
 +提婆犀那 Devasena, celestial host, name of an arhat.
 +
 +提婆菩薩 Devabodhisattva,​ or Āryadeva, or Kāṇadeva,​ the one-eyed deva, disciple of Nāgārjuna,​ and one of the 'four sons' of Buddhism; fourteenth patriarch; a monk of Pāṭaliputra;​ along with Nāgārjuna he is counted as founder of the 三論宗 q.v.
 +
 +提婆設摩 Devakṣema,​ or Devaśarman,​ an arhat who wrote the 阿毘達磨識身足論 tr. by Xuanzang, A. D. 649, in which he denied the ego.
 +
 +提婆達多 提婆; 提婆達; 提婆達兜;​ 達兜; 地婆達多 (or 地婆達兜);​ 禘婆達多;​ 調婆達多 Devadatta, son of Droṇodana rāja 斛飯王, and cousin of Śākyamuni,​ of whom he was enemy and rival, cultivating magical powers. For his wicked designs on the Buddha he is said to have been swallowed up alive in hell; nevertheless,​ he is predicted to become a Buddha as Devarāja; he was worshipped as a Buddha by a sect 'up to A. D. 400'. Eitel.
 +
 +提婆魔囉播稗 Deva-māra-pāpīyān,​ Māra, the evil one, king of demons.
 +
 +提撕 To arouse or stimulate a student.
 +
 +提桓 deva, v. 提婆.
 +
 +提樹 The bodhidruma tree, v. 菩.
 +
 +提波 deva, v. 提婆.
 +
 +提洹竭 Dīpaṃkara,​ cf. 然燈.
 +
 +提羅 One with abnormal sexual organs; abbreviation of ṣaṇḍhilā,​ cf. 般, 半.
 +
 +提舍 Intp. as preaching to and ferrying people over the stream of transmigration;​ also 底沙.
 +
 +提舍尼 pratideśanīya,​ v. 波.
 +
 +提舍那 deśanīya, confession.
 +
 +提訶 deha; the body. Also v. 八中洲.
 +
 +提調 To arrange, or manage, as deputy; a deputy manager or director.
 +
 +提謂波利 Trapusa and Bhallika, the two merchants who offered Śākyamuni barley and honey after his enlightenment.
 +
 +提那婆 '​Dinabha,'​ or Dineśvara, the sun-god, worshipped by '​heretics in Persia'​. Eitel.
 +
 +提雲般若 Devaprajñā,​ a śramaṇa of Kustana (Khotan) who tr. six works A. D. 689-691; in B. N. eight works are ascribed to him. Also 提曇陀若那.
 +
 +提鞞 devī. Female devas; apsaras.
 +
 +提鞞沙 dveṣa, hatred, dislike, enmity, one of the 三毒 three poisons.
 +
 +提鞞波 dvīpa, an island, or continent; four dvīpa compose a world, v. 四洲.
 +
 +敢 To dare, venture.
 +
 +敢曼 kambala, a woollen or hair mantle; a loin cloth.
 +
 +敦 Staunch, honest, substantial;​ to consolidate;​ urge, etc.
 +
 +敦煌 (or 燉煌) The city in Kansu near which are the 千佛洞 Cave-temples of the thousand Buddhas; where a monk in A. D. 1900, sweeping away the collected sand, broke through a partition and found a room full of MSS. ranging in date from the beginning of the 5th to the end of the 10th century, together with block prints and paintings, first brought to light by Sir Aurel Stein.
 +
 +散 viprakrī. Scatter, disperse, dismiss; scattered; broken, powder; translit. saṃ, san.
 +
 +散亂 Scattered, dispersed, unsettled, disturbed, restless.
 +
 +散供 To scatter paper money, etc., as offerings.
 +
 +散善 Goodness cultivated during normal life, not as 定善, i.e. by meditation.
 +
 +散地 The stage of distraction,​ i.e. the world of desire.
 +
 +散心 A distracted or unsettled mind; inattentive.
 +
 +散拓羅 saṃsāra, course, passage, transmigration.
 +
 +散支 散脂 (散脂迦);​ 半只迦 (or半支迦) Pañcika, one of the eight generals of Vaiśravaṇa,​ cf. 毘.
 +
 +[374]
 +
 +散日 The dispersing day, the last of an assembly.
 +
 +散業 The good karma acquired in a life of activity.
 +
 +散業念佛 To repeat the name of Buddha generally and habitually.
 +
 +散生齋 Almsgiving in petition for restoration from illness.
 +
 +散疑三昧 A samādhi free from all doubt.
 +
 +散花 散華 To scatter flowers in honour of a Buddha, etc.
 +
 +散錢 To scatter paper money as offerings.
 +
 +散陀那 sandānikā,​ a kind of flower.
 +
 +斑 Spotted, striped, streaked, variegated.
 +
 +斑足王 The king with the marks on his feet, Kalmāṣapāda,​ said to be the name of a previous incarnation of the Buddha.
 +
 +斯 This, these; to rive; forthwith; translit. s.
 +
 +斯哩牙 Sūrya, the sun, the sun-deva.
 +
 +斯陀含 sakṛdāgāmin,​ once more to arrive, or be born; the second grade of arhatship involving only one rebirth. Cf. 四向 and 四果.
 +
 +景 Prospect, view, circumstances.
 +
 +景命日 The day of the king's accession, when services were conducted monthly on that day for his welfare.
 +
 +景教 The Luminous Religion, i.e. Nestorian Christianity.
 +
 +普 viśva; universal, all; pervasive, ubiquitous; translit. po, pa, pu.
 +
 +普光 Universal light, to shine everywhere.
 +
 +普化 Universal change, or transformation.
 +
 +普明 Samantaprabhāsa,​ pervading-light,​ name of 500 arhats on their attaining Buddhahood.
 +
 +普法 Universal dharmas, or things; all things.
 +
 +普渡 Universally to ferry across.
 +
 +普王 Universal king, title of Yama when he has expiated all his sins.
 +
 +普現 Universal manifestation,​ especially the manifestation of a Buddha or bodhisattva in any shape at will.
 +
 +普知 Omniscience,​ hence 普知者 the Omniscient, i.e. Buddha.
 +
 +普禮 To worship all the Buddhas.
 +
 +普等 Everywhere alike, universal equality, all equally.
 +
 +普莎 Puṣya, the asterism Tiṣya, and the month Pauṣa; blossom, form, scum; but intp. as 吉祥 auspicious.
 +
 +普賢 Samantabhadra,​ Viśvabhadra;​ cf. 三曼 Universal sagacity, or favour; lord of the 理 or fundamental law, the dhyāna, and the practice of all Buddhas. He and Mañjuśrī are the right- and left-hand assistants of Buddha, representing 理 and 智 respectively. He rides on a white elephant, is the patron of the Lotus Sūtra and its devotees, and has close connection with the Huayan Sūtra. His region is in the east. The esoteric school has its own special representation of him, with emphasis on the sword indicative of 理 as the basis of 智. He has ten vows.
 +
 +普通 Universal, reaching everywhere, common to all.
 +
 +普遍 普循 Universal, everywhere, on all sides.
 +
 +普門 Universal door, the opening into all things, or universality;​ the universe in anything; the unlimited doors open to a Buddha, or bodhisattva,​ and the forms in which he can reveal himself.
 +
 +普陀 Potala, cf. 補, 布; it is also Pattala, an ancient port near the mouth of the Indus; the Potala in Lhasa, etc., but in this form especially the sacred island of Pootoo, off Ningpo; also called普陀洛伽山 Potaraka monastery.
 +
 +智 jñāna 若那; 闍那 Knowledge; wisdom; defined as 於事理決斷也 decision or judgment as to phenomena or affairs and their principles, of things and their fundamental laws. There are numerous categories, up to 20, 48, and 77, v. 一智; 二智 and others. It is also used as a tr. of prajñā, cf. 智度.
 +
 +智儼 Fourth patriarch of the 華嚴 Huayan school, also called 雲華 Yunhua, A. D. 600-668.
 +
 +智光 Jñānaprabha. Having the light of knowledge; name of a disciple of Śīlabhadra.
 +
 +智刃 The sword of knowledge; knowledge like a sword.
 +
 +智力 Knowledge and supernatural power; power of knowledge; the efficient use of mystic knowledge.
 +
 +智度 prajñā-pāramitā,​ the sixth of the six pāramitās,​ wisdom which brings men to nirvāṇa.
 +
 +智度論 (大智度論) The śāstra or commentary on the Prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra;​ cf. 般若. It is a famous philosophical Mahāyāna work.
 +
 +智城 The city of mystic wisdom, Buddhahood.
 +
 +智境 The objects of wisdom, or its state, or conditions.
 +
 +智妙 Mystic knowledge (which reveals spiritual realities).
 +
 +智山 The mountain of knowledge; knowledge exalted as a mountain.
 +
 +智心 The mind of knowledge; a wise mind.
 +
 +[375]
 +
 +智悲 All-knowing and all-pitying;​ these two with 定 '​contemplative'​ make up the 三德 three virtues or qualities of a Buddha.
 +
 +智惑 Wisdom and delusion.
 +
 +智慧 jñāna as 智 knowledge and prajñā as 慧 discernment,​ i.e. knowledge of things and realization of truth; in general knowledge and wisdom; but sometimes implying mental and moral wisdom.
 +
 +智慧力 Wisdom, insight.
 +
 +智慧光佛 Wisdom light Buddha, i.e. Amitābha.
 +
 +智慧劍 (智劍) The sword of wisdom which cuts away passion and severs the link of transmigration.
 +
 +智慧水 The water of wisdom which washes away the filth of passion.
 +
 +智慧海 Buddha-wisdom deep and wide as the ocean.
 +
 +智慧觀 One of the meditations of Guanyin, insight into reality.
 +
 +智慧門 The gate of Buddha-wisdom which leads into all truth.
 +
 +智手 The knowing hand, the right hand.
 +
 +智斷 Mystic wisdom which attains absolute truth, and cuts off misery.
 +
 +智智 Wisdom of wisdom; Buddha-omniscience.
 +
 +智月 Jñānacandra. Knowledge bright as the moon; name of a prince of Karashahr who became a monk A. D. 625.
 +
 +智杵 The wisdom hammer, the vajra or '​diamond club'.
 +
 +智果 The fruit of knowledge, enlightenment.
 +
 +智楫 Oar of wisdom, that rows across to nirvāṇa.
 +
 +智母 The mother of knowledge; wisdom-mother;​ v. mātṛkā 摩.
 +
 +智波羅蜜 prajñā-pāramitā,​ see 智度.
 +
 +智淨相 Pure-wisdom-aspect;​ pure wisdom; wisdom and purity.
 +
 +智火 Te fire of knowledge which burns up misery.
 +
 +智炬 The torch of wisdom.
 +
 +智界 The realm of knowledge in contrast with 理界 that of fundamental principles or law.
 +
 +智相 Wise mien or appearance, the wisdom-light shining from the Buddha'​s face; also human intelligence.
 +
 +智眼 The eye of wisdom; wisdom as an eye.
 +
 +智礙 Obstacles to attaining Buddha-wisdom,​ especially original ignorance.
 +
 +智積 Jñānākara. Accumulation of knowledge. Eldest son of Mahābhijñā;​ also said to be Akṣobhya. Prajñākūṭa. A Bodhisattva in the retinue of Prabhūtratna,​ v. Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +智者 The knower, or wise man; a name for 智顗 q.v.
 +
 +智藏 The treasury of Buddha-wisdom;​ posthumous title of Amogha.
 +
 +智證 Wisdom assurance, the witness of knowledge, the wisdom which realizes nirvāṇa.
 +
 +智辯 Wisdom and dialectic power; wise discrimination;​ argument from knowledge.
 +
 +智象 prajñā, or Wisdom, likened to an elephant, a title of Buddha, famous monks, the Nirvāṇa-sūtra,​ the Prajñā-pāramitā sūtra, etc.
 +
 +智身 jñānakāya,​ wisdom-body,​ the Tathāgata.
 +
 +智鏡 The mirror of wisdom.
 +
 +智門 Wisdom gate; Buddha-wisdom and Buddha-pity are the two gates or ways through which Buddhism expresses itself: the way of enlightenment directed to the self, and the way of pity directed to others.
 +
 +智顗 Zhiyi, founder of the Tiantai school, also known as 智者 and 天台 (天台大師);​ his surname was 陳 Chen; his 字 was 德安, De-an; born about A. D. 538, he died in 597 at 60 years of age. He was a native of 頴川 Ying-chuan in Anhui, became a neophyte at 7, was fully ordained at 20. At first a follower of 慧思, Huisi, in 575 he went to the Tiantai mountain in Chekiang, where he founded his famous school on the Lotus Sūtra as containing the complete gospel of the Buddha.
 +
 +[376]
 +
 +替 Substitute, deputy, on behalf of, for, exchange.
 +
 +替僧 A youth who becomes a monk as deputy for a new-born prince.
 +
 +最 Most, very, superlative.
 +
 +最上 Supreme, superlative.
 +
 +最上乘 The supreme vehicle, or teaching.
 +
 +最上大悉地 The stage of supreme siddhi or wisdom, Buddhahood.
 +
 +最勝 jina; vijaya; conquering, all-conquering,​ pre-eminent,​ peerless, supreme.
 +
 +最勝乘 The supreme vehicle, Mahāyāna.
 +
 +最勝尊 The most honoured one, Buddha.
 +
 +最後 (最末後) The last of all, ultimate; final, finally, at death.
 +
 +最後十念 To call on Amitābha ten times when dying.
 +
 +最後心 最後念 The final mind, or ultimate thought, on entering final nirvāṇa.
 +
 +最後身 最後生 The final body, or rebirth, that of an arhat, or a bodhisattva in the last stage.
 +
 +最正覺 Supreme perfect enlightenment,​ i.e. Buddhahood.
 +
 +期 A set time; a limit of time; times, seasons; to expect.
 +
 +滿期 The time fulfilled.
 +
 +過期 Beyond the time.
 +
 +期望 To look for, expect, hope.
 +
 +朝 Morning. Court, dynasty; towards.
 +
 +朝夕 朝暮 Morning and evening.
 +
 +朝山 To worship (towards) the hills, pay court to a noted monastery, especially to pay court to the Dalai Lama.
 +
 +朝露 Morning dew, e.g. man's life as transient.
 +
 +朝鮮 Korea, Chosen.
 +
 +棲 Roost, rest.
 +
 +棲光 To bring his light to rest, the Buddha'​s nirvāṇa.
 +
 +棲身 To take one's rest, retire from the world.
 +
 +棲神 To rest the spirit, or mind, be unperturbed.
 +
 +植 To plant, set up.
 +
 +植衆德本 To plant all virtuous roots, cultivate all capacities and powers.
 +
 +椎 A hammer, especially for a gong, etc.; idem 槌.
 +
 +棺 A coffin 棺材.
 +
 +棱 A corner, a shaped edge, trimmed timber, corner-like;​ intractable,​ uncertain.
 +
 +棱嚴經 The Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, v. 楞.
 +
 +棒 A stick, cudgel.
 +
 +棒喝 To bang and bawl, in rebuke of a student.
 +
 +棓 A flail.
 +
 +棓剌拏 Pūraṇa, v. 富.
 +
 +森 Dense, forest-like.
 +
 +森羅萬象 The myriad forms dense and close, i.e. the universe.
 +
 +森羅萬象卽法身 The universe in its vast variety is the dharmakāya,​ or Buddha-body;​ in the esoteric school it is the Vairocana-body.
 +
 +棄 To cast aside, reject, abandon.
 +
 +棄世 To leave the world; to die.
 +
 +自棄 To throw oneself away.
 +
 +欽 Imperial; to respect, reverence.
 +
 +欽婆羅 kambala, a woollen or hair mantle, v. 敢 12.
 +
 +殘 To spoil, injure; cruel.
 +
 +殘果 Spoiled fruit, i.e. a corpse.
 +
 +殼 Husk, shell.
 +
 +殼漏子 (or可漏子) A leaking husk or shell, i.e. the body of a man.
 +
 +毳 Down, feathered.
 +
 +毳衣 A garment wadded with down.
 +
 +減 v. 减.
 +
 +湛 Deep, clear, placid, to soak.
 +
 +湛然 Zhanran, the sixth Tiantai patriarch, also known as 荆溪 Jingqi; died A. D. 784; author of many books.
 +
 +湖 A lake.
 +
 +湖南 The province of Hunan.
 +
 +湯 Hot liquid, hot water, soup, etc.
 +
 +湯頭 The monk in charge of the kettles, etc.
 +
 +溫 Warm, mild, bland, gentle; acquainted with; to warm.
 +
 +溫室 Bath-house; bathroom.
 +
 +溫宿 Wensu, a district in Sinkiang, on the river Aksu.
 +
 +溫陀羅 uttara, cf. 嗢.
 +
 +游 bhrāmyati; to ramble, travel; swim.
 +
 +游藍 Ambrosia, nectar.
 +
 +渴 tṛṣṇā. Thirst, thirsty; translit. kha.
 +
 +渴仰 To long for as one thirsts for water.
 +
 +渴伽 khaḍga, a rhinoceros.
 +
 +渴地獄 The thirst-hell,​ where red-hot iron pills are administered.
 +
 +渴愛 Thirsty desire or longing; the will to live.
 +
 +[377]
 +
 +渴樹羅 kharjūra, a date, the wild date, the Persian date.
 +
 +渴法 To thirst for the truth, or for the Buddha-way.
 +
 +渴鹿 The thirsty deer which mistakes a mirage for water, i.e. human illusion.
 +
 +湼 Black mud at the bottom of pools; to defile, black.
 +
 +湼槃 nirvāṇa, v. 涅槃.
 +
 +湼末 Nimat, or Calmadana, 'an ancient kingdom and city at the south-east borders of the desert of Gobi.' Eitel.
 +
 +湼疊般那 niṣṭapana,​ burning, cremation.
 +
 +焦 Scorch, harass.
 +
 +焦熱地獄 Tapana, the sixth of the eight hot hells; the 焦熱大焦熱 is the seventh, i.e. Pratāpana.
 +
 +焚 To burn, consume by fire.
 +
 +焚香 To burn incense.
 +
 +然 To burn, simmer; so, yes; but, however.
 +
 +然燈佛 Dīpaṃkara Buddha, the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni,​ who always appears when a Buddha preaches the gospel found in the Lotus Sūtra, in which sūtra he is an important hearer; also 錠光; 提洹竭 (or 提和竭); 大和竭羅.
 +
 +焰 Flame, blaze; nirvāṇa; translit. ya. Cf. 炎; 閻; 夜.
 +
 +焰慧地 The stage of flaming wisdom, the fourth of the ten Bodhisattva-stages.
 +
 +焰摩大火仙 Jamadagni, one of the seven ancient sage-ṛṣis.
 +
 +焰摩天 Yamadevaloka,​ the third of the desire-heavens,​ above the trāyastriṃśas;​ also deva Yama, v. 夜, whose wife is 焰摩天妃 in the Yama-maṇḍala.
 +
 +焰王光佛 The fifth of the twelve shining Buddhas.
 +
 +焰網 The flaming, or shining net of Buddha, the glory of Buddha, which encloses everything like the net of Indra.
 +
 +焰胎 The flaming womb, the Garbhadhātu which surrounds with light.
 +
 +無 Sanskrit a, or before a vowel an, similar to English un-, in- in a negative sense; not no, none, non-existent,​ v. 不, 非, 否; opposite of 有.
 +
 +無一 Not one.
 +
 +無二無三 Neither two nor three, but only 一乘 one Vehicle.
 +
 +無上 anuttara. Unsurpassed,​ unexcelled, supreme, peerless.
 +
 +無上上 Above the supreme, the supreme of the supreme, i.e. Buddha.
 +
 +無上乘 (無上上乘) The most supreme Vehicle, the Mahāyāna.
 +
 +無上尊 (無上兩足尊) The peerless (two-legged) honoured one.
 +
 +無上士 The peerless nobleman, the Buddha.
 +
 +無上妙覺 The supreme mystic enlightenment.
 +
 +無上忍 The highest patient equanimity in receiving the truth; also, to believe the truth of impermanence without doubt, v. 十忍.
 +
 +無上慧 Supreme wisdom, that of Buddha.
 +
 +無上慚愧衣 The supreme garment of sensitiveness to the shameful, the monk's robe.
 +
 +無上福田衣 The supreme garment of the field of blessedness,​ i.e. good works.
 +
 +無上正徧智,​ or 無上正徧道 or 無上正徧覺,​ the last being the later tr., anuttara-samyak-saṃbodhi,​ supreme perfect enlightenment,​ or wisdom.
 +
 +無上法 The supreme dharma, nirvāṇa.
 +
 +無上法王 Lord of the supreme dharma, Buddha.
 +
 +無上法輪 Preaching, or propagation,​ of the supreme dharma.
 +
 +無上涅槃 The supreme nirvāṇa, that of Mahāyāna in contrast with the inferior nirvāṇa of Hīnayāna.
 +
 +無上燈 The supreme lamp, that of nirvāṇa, as dispersing the gloom of passion-illusion.
 +
 +無上眼 The supreme eye, able to discern the inward significance of all things.
 +
 +無上菩提 The supreme bodhi or enlightenment,​ that of Buddha.
 +
 +無上覺 see無上菩提.
 +
 +無上道 The supreme way, or truth, that of Buddha.
 +
 +無不 A double negative, making a positive; also 無非; 無沒.
 +
 +無住 Not abiding; impermanence;​ things having no independent nature of their own, they have no real existence as separate entities.
 +
 +無住三昧 The samādhi which contemplates all things as temporal and evanescent.
 +
 +無依 Nothing on which to rely; unreliable.
 +
 +無依湼槃 Final nirvāṇa, v. 無餘, nothing for reincarnation to lay hold of.
 +
 +無倒 Not upside-down,​ seeing things right-side up, or correctly, i.e. correct views of truth and things, e.g. not regarding the seeming as real, the temporal as eternal, etc.
 +
 +無作 Not creating; uncreated; not doing; inactive, physically or mentally; independent of action, word, or will i.e. natural, intuitive.
 +
 +無作戒 無表戒 The intangible, invisible moral law that influences the ordinand when he receives visible ordination; i.e. the internal spiritual moral law and its influence; the invisible grace of which the visible ordination is a sign; v. 無表 avijñapti.
 +
 +無光佛 An unilluminating Buddha, a useless Buddha who gives out no light.
 +
 +無刀大賊 A bandit without a sword, e.g. a virtueless monk robbing others of their virtue.
 +
 +[378]
 +
 +無分別 nirvikalpa. Non-discriminating.
 +
 +無分別心 The mind free from particularization,​ especially from affection and feelings; passionless;​ translates avikalpa; (a) unconditioned or absolute, as in the 眞如; (b) conditioned,​ as in dhyāna. Particularization includes memory, reason, self-consciousness;​ the mind free from particularization is free from these.
 +
 +無分別智 The unconditioned or passionless mind, see 無分別心.
 +
 +無分別法 The absolute dharma underlying all particular dharmas, the absolute as contrasted with the relative.
 +
 +無功用 Without effort.
 +
 +無功德 Without merit, or virtue.
 +
 +無動 akṣobha; imperturbable,​ calm, serene, unagitated.
 +
 +無動佛 Akṣobhya, cf. 阿閦婆 and 不動佛 The unperturbed Buddha, sometimes tr. as motionless, but the reference is to his calmness, serenity, and absence of passion; he is one of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas,​ and generally reigns over the east, his kingdom being Abhirati; realm of mystic pleasure. In the Lotus Sūtra he is named as the first of the sixteen sons of Mahābhijñābhibhu. One of his principal characteristics is that of subduing the passions.
 +
 +無動尊 idem 不動明王.
 +
 +無勝 ajita; invincible, unsurpassed.
 +
 +無勝國 The unexcelled land, the Pure Land located west of this universe.
 +
 +無厭足 Insatiable, name of a rākṣasī,​ v. 十羅刹女.
 +
 +無去無來 Neither going nor coming, eternal like the dharmakāya.
 +
 +無叉羅 Mokṣala, also 無羅叉 'A native of Kustana who laboured in China as a translator and introduced there a new alphabet (A. D. 291) for the transliteration of Sanskit.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +無問 Unasked; not to ask; volunteered.
 +
 +無問自說 udāna, that part of the canon spoken voluntarily and not in reply to questions or appeals; but Kern defines udāna as '​enthusiastic utterances in prose and verse'​.
 +
 +無垢 vimala; amala. Undefiled, stainless; similar to 無漏.
 +
 +無垢地 The stage of undefilement,​ the second stage of a bodhisattva;​ also applied to the final stage before attaining Buddhahood.
 +
 +無垢忍 The stage of undefiled endurance, the final stage of a bodhisattva,​ see無垢地.
 +
 +無垢衣 The stainless garment, the monastic robe of purity.
 +
 +無垢識 amala, undefiled or pure knowing or knowledge, formerly considered as the ninth, later as the eighth vijñāna.
 +
 +無塵 Dustless, without an atom of the material or unclean, immaterial, pure.
 +
 +無塵法界 The immaterial realm out of which all things come.
 +
 +無央數劫 asaṅkhyeya kalpa, a period of numberless kalpas.
 +
 +無始 Without beginning, as is the chain of transmigration.
 +
 +無始曠劫 Transmigration which has existed without beginning through vast kalpas.
 +
 +無始無明 元品無明 (or 根本無明) The period of unenlightenment or ignorance without beginning, primal ignorance, also called 無始間隔,​ the period of transmigration which has no beginning; since under the law of causality everything has a cause, therefore no beginning is possible; for if there were a beginning it would be without cause, which is impossible. Also primal ignorance is without beginning; and the 眞如 is without beginning, the two terms connoting the same idea. 生死 Birth and death, or transmigration are 無始無終 also without beginning or end, but about the '​end'​ there is difference of interpretation.
 +
 +無始無邊 The Buddha-truth is without beginning and infinite.
 +
 +無始空 Without beginning and unreal, void without beginning, the abstract idea of 無始 i.e. without beginning.
 +
 +無學 aśaikṣa. No longer learning, beyond study, the state of arhatship, the fourth of the śrāvaka stages; the preceding three stages requiring study; there are nine grades of arhats who have completed their course of learning.
 +
 +無學道 The way of the arhat, especially his attainment to complete truth and freedom from all illusion, with nothing more to learn.
 +
 +無常 anitya. Impermanent;​ the first of the 三明 trividyā; that all things are impermanent,​ their birth, existence, change, and death never resting for a moment.
 +
 +無常依 The reliance of the impermanent,​ i.e. Buddha, upon whom mortals can rely.
 +
 +無常堂 無常院; 延壽堂; 湼槃堂 The room where a dying monk was placed, in the direction of the sunset at the north-west corner.
 +
 +無常磬 無常鐘 The passing bell, or gong, for the dying.
 +
 +無常鵑 The bird which cries of impermanence,​ messenger of the shades, the goat-sucker.
 +
 +[379]
 +
 +無師智 Self-attained enlightenment,​ wisdom attained without a teacher, that of Buddha.
 +
 +無影像 nirābhāsa,​ without image or shadow, without semblance or appearance.
 +
 +無後生死 No more birth-and-death,​ the bodhisattva who will not again be subject to the wheel of transmigration.
 +
 +無心 Mindless, without thought, will, or purpose; the real immaterial mind free from illusion; unconsciousness,​ or effortless action.
 +
 +無心三昧 無心定 The samādhi in which active thought has ceased.
 +
 +無心道人 The hermit or saint in ecstatic contemplation,​ as with emptied mind he becomes the receptacle of mystic influences.
 +
 +無性 Without a nature, nothing has an independent nature of its own; cf. 三無性.
 +
 +無性有情 Men and devas with passions and devoid of natures for enlightenment,​ hence destined to remain in the six paths of transmigration;​ a doctrine of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school.
 +
 +無念 Without a thought; without recollection;​ absence of false ideas or thoughts, i.e. correct ideas or thoughts; apart from thought (nothing exists).
 +
 +無想 Without thought, absence of thinking.
 +
 +無想天 無想界; 無想處 avṛha, the thirteenth brahmaloka, the fourth in the fourth dhyāna, where thinking, or the necessity for thought, ceases.
 +
 +無想定 The concentration in which all thinking ceases, in the desire to enter Avṛha, v. 無想天; such entry is into 無想果.
 +
 +無想門 parinirvāṇa.
 +
 +無愛 Without love, or craving, or attachment.
 +
 +無意 Absence of objective thought, of will or intention; absence of idea, the highest stage of dhyāna.
 +
 +無慚 ahrīka, without shame, shameless.
 +
 +無憂 aśoka, '​without sorrow, not feeling or not causing sorrow.'​ M. W.
 +
 +無憂王 v. 阿 King Aśoka.
 +
 +無憂樹 jonesia aśoka Roxb., the tree under which Śākyamuni is said to have been born.
 +
 +無憂伽藍 Aśokārāma,​ a vihāra in Pāṭaliputra in which the 'third synod was held'. Eitel.
 +
 +無我 anātman; nairātmya; no ego, no soul (of an independent and self-contained character), impersonal, no individual independent existence (of conscious or unconscious beings, anātmaka). The empirical ego is merely an aggregation of various elements, and with their disintegration it ceases to exist; therefore it has nm ultimate reality of its own, but the Nirvāṇa Sūtra asserts the reality of the ego in the transcendental realm. The non-Buddhist definition of ego is that it has permanent individuality 常一之體 and is independent or sovereign 有主宰之用. When applied to men it is 人我, when to things it is 法我. Cf. 常 11.
 +
 +無所 Nothing, nowhere.
 +
 +無所不能 Nothing (he) cannot do, omnipotent.
 +
 +無所不至 Nowhere (it) does not reach.
 +
 +無所住 apratiṣṭhita. No means of staying, non-abiding.
 +
 +無所得 Nowhere, or nothing obtainable, the immaterial universal reality behind all phenomena.
 +
 +無所有 avidyamāna,​ non-existing;​ nothing existing, the immaterial.
 +
 +無所有處 The third region in the realm of formlessness.
 +
 +無所有處定 akiñcanāyatana. The contemplation of the state of nothingness,​ or the immaterial, in which ecstasy gives place to serenity.
 +
 +無所著 Not bound by any tie, i.e. free from all influence of the passion-nature,​ an epithet of Buddha.
 +
 +無所觀 The contemplation of the immaterial reality behind all phenomena.
 +
 +無擇地獄 idem 無間地獄 q.v.
 +
 +無數 asaṃkhyeya,​ numberless.
 +
 +無方 No place, nowhere; unlimited to place or method, i.e. Buddha'​s power.
 +
 +無明 avidyā, ignorance, and in some senses Māyā, illusion; it is darkness without illumination,​ the ignorance which mistakes seeming for being, or illusory phenomena for realities; it is also intp. as 痴 ignorant, stupid, fatuous; but it means generally, unenlightened,​ unillumined. The 起信論 distinguishes two kinds as 根本: the radical, fundamental,​ original darkness or ignorance considered as a 無始無明 primal condition, and 枝末 '​branch and twig' conditions, considered as phenomenal. There is also a list of fifteen distinctions in the Vibhāṣā-śāstra 2. avidyā is also the first, or last of the twelve nidānas.
 +
 +無明使 One of the ten lictors, messengers or misleaders, i.e. of ignorance, who drives beings into the chain of transmigration.
 +
 +無明住地 The fifth of the five 住地, i.e. the fundamental,​ unenlightened condition; the source or nucleus of ignorance; also ignorance as to the nature of things, i.e. of their fundamental unreality.
 +
 +[380]
 +
 +無明惑 The illusion arising from primal ignorance which covers and hinders the truth of the via media; one of the 三惑 of Tiantai; in the 別教 it is overcome by the bodhisattva from the first 地 stage, in the 圓教 in the first 住 resting-place.
 +
 +無明業愛 ajñānakarmatṛṣṇā. Ignorance, karma, desire— the three forces that cause reincarnation.
 +
 +無明法性一體 avidyā and the bhūtatathatā are of the same nature, as are ice and water; the ice of avidyā is the water of all things, the source out of which all enlightenment has come.
 +
 +無明流 Unenlightenment,​ or ignorance, the cause of the stream of transmigration.
 +
 +無明漏 The stream of unenlightenment which carries one along into reincarnation.
 +
 +無明熏習 v. 四熏習.
 +
 +無明父 Ignorance as father and desire as mother produce the ego.
 +
 +無明結 The bond of ignorance which binds to transmigration.
 +
 +無明網 The snare of ignorance.
 +
 +無明藏 The storehouse of ignorance, from which issues all illusion and misery.
 +
 +無明見 Views produced by ignorance, ignorant perception of phenomena producing all sorts of illusion.
 +
 +無有 Non-existent and existent; also, nonexistent,​ have not, there is none, etc.
 +
 +無根 Without root; without organs; without the organs of sex.
 +
 +無根信 Faith produced not of oneself but by Buddha in the heart.
 +
 +無極 Limitless, infinite.
 +
 +無極之體 The limitless bodies of those in the Pure Land; the state of one who has attained nirvāṇa.
 +
 +無比 Without comparison, no comparing, incomparable.
 +
 +無比法 Incomparable truth or law, an incorrect tr. of abhidharma.
 +
 +無比身 The incomparable body (of the Buddha).
 +
 +無減 The undiminished powers of a bodhisattva after attaining Buddhahood; i.e. undiminished power and zeal to save all beings, power of memory, wisdom, nirvāṇa, and insight attained through nirvāṇa; cf. 智度論 26; also for a list of twenty-two cf. 唯識論 10.
 +
 +無漏 anāsrava. No drip, leak, or flow; outside the passion-stream;​ passionless;​ outside the stream (of transmigratory suffering); away from the downflow into lower forms of rebirth.
 +
 +無漏因 Passionless purity as a cause for attaining nirvāṇa.
 +
 +無漏實相 Reality as passionless or pure.
 +
 +無漏後身 (無漏最後身) The final pure or passionless body.
 +
 +無漏慧 無漏智 Passionless,​ or pure, wisdom, knowledge, or enlightenment.
 +
 +無漏根 The three roots which produce pure knowledge, 三無漏根 q.v.
 +
 +無漏果 The result of following the way of 戒, 定, and 慧, i.e. purity, meditation, and wisdom, with liberation from the passions and from lower incarnation.
 +
 +無漏法 The way of purity, or escape from the passions and lower transmigration.
 +
 +無漏法性 The pure, passionless dharma-nature.
 +
 +無漏道 The way of purity, or deliverance from the passions, i.e. 戒定慧 supra; the fourth of the four dogmas 滅 cessation, or annihilation of suffering.
 +
 +無漏門 āsravakṣaya-jñāna,​ entry into spiritual knowledge free from all faults, the last of the 六通 q.v.
 +
 +無爲 Non-active, passive; laisser-faire;​ spontaneous,​ natural; uncaused, not subject to cause, condition, or dependence; transcendental,​ not in time, unchanging, eternal, inactive, and free from the passions or senses; non-phenomenal,​ noumenal; also intp. as nirvāṇa, dharma-nature,​ reality, and dharmadhātu.
 +
 +無爲法 asaṃskṛta dharmas, anything not subject to cause, condition, or dependence; out of time, eternal, inactive, supra-mundane. Sarvāstivādins enumerate three: ākāśa, space or ether; pratisaṃhyā-nirodha,​ conscious cessation of the contamination of the passions; apratisaṃhyā-nirodha,​ unconscious or effortless cessation.
 +
 +無爲法身 asaṃskṛta dharmakāya,​ the eternal body of Buddha not conditioned by cause and effect.
 +
 +無爲湼槃 (無爲湼槃界) The realm of the eternal, unconditioned nirvāṇa, the Pure Land.
 +
 +無爲生死 The birth-and-death of saints, i.e. without my action; transformation.
 +
 +無爲空 asaṃskṛta śūnyatā, the immaterial character of the transcendent.
 +
 +無爲自然 Causeless and spontaneous,​ a tr. of nivṛtti.
 +
 +無爲舍 The nirvāṇa home.
 +
 +無熱 anavatapta, heatless.
 +
 +無熱天 The Anavatapta, or Atapta heaven, without heat or affliction 熱惱; the second of the 五淨天 in the fourth dhyāna heaven.
 +
 +無熱池 The lake without heat, or cold lake, called Mānasarovara,​ or Mānasa-saro-vara,​ '​excellent mānasa lake,' or modern Manasarovar,​ 31° N., 81° 3 E., 'which overflows at certain seasons and forms one lake with' Rakas-tal, which is the source of the Sutlej. It is under the protection of the nāga-king Anavatapta and is also known by his name. It is said to lie south of the Gandha-mādana mountains, and is erroneously reputed as the source of the four rivers Ganges, Indus, Śītā (Tārīm River), and Oxus.
 +
 +無生 Not born, without being born or produced; uncreated; no rebirth; immoral; nirvāṇa as not subject to birth and death, or reincarnation,​ and which negates them; the condition of the absolute.
 +
 +[381]
 +
 +無生之生 A life that is without birth, an immortal life, a nirmāṇakāya,​ or transformation appearance of a Buddha in the world.
 +
 +無生寳國 The precious country beyond birth-and-death,​ the immortal paradise of Amitābha.
 +
 +無生忍 The patient rest in belief in immortality,​ or no rebirth.
 +
 +無生智 The final knowledge attained by the arhat, his release from the chain of transmigration;​ cf. 十智. Also, the knowledge of the bodhisattva of the assurance of immortality,​ or no rebirth.
 +
 +無生法 The law of no-birth, or immorality, as the fundamental law of the 眞如 and the embodiment of nirvāṇa.
 +
 +無生法忍 idem 無生忍.
 +
 +無生藏 The scriptures which deal with the absolute, e.g. the 中論 Mādhyamikaśāstra.
 +
 +無生身 The immortal one, i.e. the dharmakāya.
 +
 +無生門 The doctrine of reality as beyond birth, or creation, i.e. that of the bhūtatathatā;​ the gate or school of immortality.
 +
 +無生際 The uncreate, or absolute; the region of the eternal.
 +
 +無畏 abhaya. Fearless, dauntless, secure, nothing and nobody to fear; also vīra, courageous, bold.
 +
 +無畏山 Abhayagiri, Mount Fearless in Ceylon, with an ancient monastery where Faxian found 5,000 monks.
 +
 +無畏授 勤授 Vīradatta, '​hero-giver,'​ a prominent layman, contemporary with Śākyamuni.
 +
 +無畏施 abhayapradāna. The bestowing of confidence by every true Buddhist, i.e. that none may fear him.
 +
 +無畏藏 Storehouse of fearlessness,​ said of members of the esoteric sect.
 +
 +無疑 Undoubted, without doubt.
 +
 +無盡 Inexhaustible,​ without limit. It is a term applied by the 權教 to the noumenal or absolute; by the 實教 to the phenomenal, both being considered as infinite. The Huayan sūtra 十地品 has ten limitless things, the infinitude of living beings, of worlds, of space, of the dharmadhātu,​ of nirvāṇa, etc.
 +
 +無盡意 Inexhaustible intention, or meaning, name of Akṣayamati,​ a bodhisattva to whom Śākyamuni is supposed to have addressed the Avalokiteśvara chapter in the Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +無盡海 The Buddha-truth as inexhaustible as the ocean.
 +
 +無盡燈 The one lamp which is yet limitless in the lighting of other lamps; the influence of one disciple may be limitless and inexhaustible;​ also limitless mirrored reflections;​ also an altar light always burning.
 +
 +無盡緣起 法界緣起 Unlimited causation, or the unlimited influence of everything on all things and all things on everything; one of the Huayan 四種緣起.
 +
 +無盡藏 The inexhaustible treasury.
 +
 +無相 animitta; nirābhāsa. Without form, or sign; no marks, or characteristics;​ nothingness;​ absolute truth as having no differentiated ideas; nirvāṇa.
 +
 +無相佛 nirlakṣana-buddha;​ alakṣanabuddha;​ the Buddha without the thirty-two or eighty marks, i.e. Nāgārjuna.
 +
 +無相好佛 See無相佛,​ Upagupta, the fourth patriarch.
 +
 +無相宗 無相大乘;​ 無相教; 無相空教 The San-lun or Mādhyamika school because of its '​nihilism'​.
 +
 +無相福田衣 The garment of nothingness for cultivating the field of blessing, i.e. the robe, which separates the monk from earthly contamination.
 +
 +無相菩提 The enlightenment of seclusion, obtained by oneself, or of nirvāṇa, or nothingness,​ or immateriality.
 +
 +無相解脫門 The nirvāṇa type of liberation, cf. 三三昧.
 +
 +無知 Ignorant; ignorance; absence of perception. Also, ultimate wisdom considered as static, and independent of differentiation.
 +
 +無礙 apratihata. Unhindered, without obstacle, resistless, without resistance, permeating everywhere, all pervasive, dynamic omnipresence which enters everywhere without hindrance like the light of a candle.
 +
 +無礙人 The unhindered one, the Buddha, who unbarred the way to nirvāṇa, which releases from all limitations;​ the omnipresent one; the one who realizes nirvāṇa-truth.
 +
 +無礙光 The all-pervasive light or glory, that of Amitābha.
 +
 +無礙大會 cf. 無蓋大會.
 +
 +無礙智 The omniscience of Buddha.
 +
 +無種性 The nature without the seed of goodness and so unable to escape from the stream of transmigration.
 +
 +無種闡提 An icchanti, or evil person without the Buddha-seed of goodness.
 +
 +無等 asama; unequal, unequalled; the one without equal Buddha.
 +
 +無等等 asamasama; of rank unequalled, or equal with the unequalled, Buddha and Buddhism.
 +
 +無等等乘 The unequalled vehicle, Mahāyāna.
 +
 +無等覺 The unequalled enlightenment possessed by Buddhas.
 +
 +無緣 Causeless, without immediate causal connection, uncaused, underived, independent.
 +
 +無緣三昧 anilambha or '​unpropped samādhi',​ in which all mental functions cease to connect with environment and cease to function.
 +
 +無緣乘 The vehicle, or method, of the subjective mind, by which all existence is seen as mental and not external.
 +
 +無緣乘心 the sixth of the ten 住 stages.
 +
 +無緣塔 無緣塚 A stūpa, or funeral monument not connected with any one person, a general cemetery.
 +
 +[382]
 +
 +無聞比丘 A monk who refuses instruction,​ untutored, self-confident.
 +
 +無聲漏 The silent clepsydra, incense in the shape of ancient characters used to indicate the time.
 +
 +無能 Unable, without power.
 +
 +無能勝 ajita. Invincible, unsurpassable,​ unconquerable;​ especially applied to Maitreya, cf. 阿逸多; also to various others.
 +
 +無自性 asvabhāva; without self-nature,​ without a nature of its own, no individual nature; all things are without 自然性 individual nature or independent existence, being composed of elements which disintegrate.
 +
 +無色 arūpa, formless, shapeless, immaterial.
 +
 +無色有 Existence in the formless or immaterial realm.
 +
 +無色界 Arūpaloka, or Arūpadhātu,​ the heavens without form, immaterial, consisting only of mind in contemplation,​ being four in number, which are defined as the 四空天 Catūrūpabrahmaloka,​ and given as: 空無邊處 Ākāśānantyāyatana,​ 識無邊處 Vijñānānantyāyatana,​ 無所有處 Akiñcanyāyatana,​ 非想非非想處 Naivasaṃjñānāsaṃjñāyatana.
 +
 +無色貪 The desire in the world without form of holding on to the illusion of contemplation.
 +
 +無著 Unattached, not in bondage to anything. Name of Asaṅga, brother of Vasubandhu, and others.
 +
 +無著天親宗 The school of Asaṅga and Vasubandhu, i.e. the 法相宗 q.v.
 +
 +無著行 Unfettered action, power to overcome all obstacles.
 +
 +無蓋 That which cannot be covered or contained, universal; also that which includes all, a characteristic of the pity of Buddha, hence無蓋大悲,​ uncontainable,​ or superlative,​ pity.
 +
 +無表 avijñapti. Unconscious,​ latent, not expressed, subjective, e.g. 'the taking of a religious vow impresses on a man's character a peculiar bent,' Keith. This is internal and not visible to others. It has a '​quasi-material'​ basis styled 無表色 or 無作色 which has power to resist evil. It is the Sarvāstivādin view, though certain other schools repudiated the material basis and defined it as mental. This invisible power may be both for good and evil, and may perhaps be compared to '​animal magnetism'​ or hypnotic powers. It means occult: power whether for higher spiritual ends or for base purposes.
 +
 +無表戒 The inward invisible power received with the commandments during ordination.
 +
 +無表業 The invisible power conferred at ordination, cf. 無作表 supra.
 +
 +無見頂相 The uṣṇīṣa,​ or lump, on Buddha'​s head, called 'the invisible mark on the head', because it was supposed to contain an invisible sign; perhaps because it was covered.
 +
 +無言 Without words, silent, speechless.
 +
 +無言說道 The way, or teaching, without speech; the school which teaches that speaking of things is speaking of nothing, or the non-existent;​ the acquisition of truth through contemplation without the aid of words.
 +
 +無記 ? avyākṛta,​ or avyākhyāta. UnrecordabIe (either as good or bad); neutral, neither good nor bad; things that are innocent or cannot be classified under moral categories. Cf. 三性.
 +
 +無諍 Without strife, debate, or contradiction;​ passionless;​ abiding in the '​empty'​ or spiritual life without debate, or without striving with others.
 +
 +無諍三昧 The samādhi in which there is absence of debate or disputation,​ or distinction of self and other.
 +
 +無遮 Unconcealing,​ unconfined; illimitable. Buddha-grace,​ -mercy, or -love; cf. 無蓋.
 +
 +無遮會 (無遮大會) pañca(vārṣika)pariṣad;​ the 五年大會 quinquennial assembly, for having all things in common, and for confession, penance, and remission.
 +
 +無邊 ananta; endless, boundless, limitless, infinite, e.g. like space.
 +
 +無邊世界 The infinite world, i.e. space; also infinite worlds; the numberless worlds in infinite space.
 +
 +無邊法界 The infinite world of things; the realm of things infinite in number; the infinite universe behind all phenomena.
 +
 +無邊身 The immeasurable body of the Buddha: the more the Brahman measured it the higher it grew, so he threw away his measuring rod, which struck root and became a forest.
 +
 +無量 apramāṇa;​ amita; ananta; immeasurable,​ unlimited, e.g. the 'four infinite'​ characteristics of a bodhisattva are 慈悲喜捨 kindness, pity, joy, and self-sacrifice.
 +
 +無量光 apramāṇābha. Immeasurable,​ or infinite light or splendour.
 +
 +[383]
 +
 +無量光佛 Amitābha, v. 阿.
 +
 +無量光天 The heaven of boundless light, the fifth of the brahmaloka s.
 +
 +無量光明 Amitābha.
 +
 +無量光明土 Amitābha'​s land of infinite light.
 +
 +無量壽 Boundless, infinite life, a name for Amitābha, as in無量壽佛;​ 無量壽如來;​ 無量壽王.
 +
 +無量壽經 The Sukhāvatīvyūha-sūtra is tr. as the Amitāyus sūtra, and there are other treatises with similar titles, cf. 觀無量壽經,​ etc.
 +
 +無量尊 The infinite honoured one, Amitābha.
 +
 +無量慧 Infinite wisdom, a term applied to a Buddha.
 +
 +無量意 anantamati, boundless mind, intention, will, or meaning.
 +
 +無量淨 (無量淨天) Apramāṇaśubha,​ boundless purity, the second of the heavens in the third dhyāna heavens of form.
 +
 +無量淸淨佛 The Buddha of boundless purity, Amitābha.
 +
 +無量義 Infinite meaning, or the meaning of infinity; the meaning of the all, or all things.
 +
 +無量義處三昧 The anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna samādhi, into which the Buddha is represented as entering before preaching the doctrine of infinity as given in the Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +無量覺 Infinite enlightenment,​ name of Amitābha.
 +
 +無門宗 The unsectarian,​ Chan or meditative sect, so called because it claimed to derive its authority directly from the mind of Buddha.
 +
 +無間 avīci, uninterrupted,​ unseparated,​ without intermission.
 +
 +無間地獄 The avīci hell, the last of the eight hot hells, in which punishment, pain, form birth, death continue without intermission.
 +
 +無間業 The unintermitted karma, or unintermitted punishment for any of the five unpardonable sins; the place of such punishment, the avīci hell; also styled ānantarya.
 +
 +無際 Unlimited, boundless.
 +
 +無餘 aśesa. Without remainder, no remnant, final; applied to the section of the Vinaya regarding expulsion for unpardonable sin from the monkhood; also to final nirvāṇa without remainder of reincarnation.
 +
 +無餘湼槃 (無餘依湼槃) anupadhiśeṣa,​ the nirvāṇa state in which exists no remainder of the karma of suffering; it is also the nirvāṇa of arhat extinction of body and mind, described as 無餘灰斷.
 +
 +無餘記 Complete or final prediction, e.g. to Buddhahood, as contrasted with partial prediction.
 +
 +無煩 Free from trouble, the thirteenth brahmaloka, the fifth region of the fourth dhyāna.
 +
 +無齒大蟲 A toothless great creature, i.e. a toothless tiger.
 +
 +爲 To do; to make; to effect; to be; because of; for.
 +
 +有爲無爲 Action and inaction; active and passive; dynamic and static; things and phenomena in general are 有爲; nirvāṇa quiescence, the void, etc., are 無爲.
 +
 +名爲 Its name is (so-and-so).
 +
 +爲善 To do good, be good, because of the good, etc.
 +
 +爲利 For gain, or profit.
 +
 +爲己 For self.
 +
 +以爲 To take to be, consider as, etc.
 +
 +猪 A hog, pig.
 +
 +猪頭和尚 Pig-head monk, because of his meditative or dormant appearance.
 +
 +猴 The monkey; 3-5 p. m.
 +
 +獼猴 The larger monkey, mischievous,​ restless, like the passions.
 +
 +猶 A monkey; doubtful; if, so; like, as; yet, still; to scheme.
 +
 +猶若 As if.
 +
 +猶未定 Still unsettled, uncertain.
 +
 +琵琶 The pipa, a Chinese stringed musical instrument somewhat resembling a guitar.
 +
 +琥珀 Amber; intp. of aśmagarbha,​ v. 阿, one of the saptaratna; cf. 七寳.
 +
 +琰魔 Yama, the lord of Hades; v. 夜.
 +
 +琰魔界 Yamaloka, the hells under the earth.
 +
 +琰魔王廳 Yama's judgment hall.
 +
 +琰魔使 Yama's messengers.
 +
 +琰魔卒 Yama's lictors.
 +
 +琰母那 閻牟那Yamunā,​ the River Jumna.
 +
 +番 Barbarian, foreign; a time, a turn.
 +
 +番僧 Foreign monk, especially from India or the west; also a temple warden or watchman.
 +
 +畫 Draw, paint, picture, sketch; devise, fix.
 +
 +畫水 Liked drawing a line across water, which leaves no trace, unlike畫石 sculpture in stone, which remains.
 +
 +畫餠 Pictured biscuits, a term of the Intuitive School for the scriptures, i.e. useless as food.
 +
 +畫像 Portraits, paintings of images, maṇḍalas.
 +
 +疏 疎 Open, wide apart; distant, coarse; estrange; lax, careless; to state report; commentary; also used for 蔬 vegetarian food.
 +
 +疏勒 Shule, a xian or district in Western Kashgaria and a Han name for Kashgar.
 +
 +疏所緣緣 A distant circumstance,​ or remote cause, one of the four conditional causes in the 唯識 school.
 +
 +疏頭 Written incantations,​ spells, or prayers burnt before the spirits.
 +
 +[384]
 +
 +登 Ascend, advance, start; attain, ripen; to note, fix.
 +
 +登時 At once.
 +
 +登住 The advance of the bodhisattva to the 十住 q.v.
 +
 +登地 idem 十地 q.v.
 +
 +登座 To ascend the throne, or pulpit, etc.
 +
 +發 To shoot forth, send, issue; start, initiate; expound; prosper.
 +
 +發光 To send forth light, radiate.
 +
 +發心 Mental initiation or initiative, resolve, make up the mind to; to start out for bodhi, or perfect enlightenment;​ to show kindness of heart, give alms.
 +
 +發心供養 To make an offering with pious intent.
 +
 +發思八, v. 八 Bāṣpa.
 +
 +發意 To resolve on, have a mind to; similar to 發心.
 +
 +發戒 To issue to, or bestow the commandments on a disciple.
 +
 +發生 To produce, grow, initiate, prosper.
 +
 +發眞 To exhibit the truth, tell the truth; to manifest the 眞如 or innate Buddha.
 +
 +發講 To commence expounding, to expound.
 +
 +發起 To spring up, begin, develop, stimulate.
 +
 +發露 To reveal, manifest, confess.
 +
 +發願 To vow, resolve.
 +
 +盜 To rob; a robber, bandit, pirate, e.g. 盜賊, 強盜, 海盜, etc.
 +
 +硬 Hard, obstinate.
 +
 +硬軟 Hard and soft.
 +
 +硨磲 musāragalva;​ musālagarbha. One of the saptaratna 七寳; M. W. says coral; others cornelian, or agate.
 +
 +童 A youth, boy, girl, virgin.
 +
 +童子 kumāra, a boy, youth, son; a prince; a neophyte; a bodhisattva as son of the Tathāgata.
 +
 +童眞 A term for a monk, who should have the child-nature of simplicity.
 +
 +童眞住 The stage of youth in Buddhahood, the eighth of the 十住.
 +
 +童籠磨 Druma, a tree in general; a king of the kinnaras, or gandharvas, the celestial musicians.
 +
 +筌 A bamboo fishing-trap.
 +
 +筌魚 Trap and fish, a difficult passage in a book and its interpretation.
 +
 +得魚忘筌 Having caught the fish, the trap may be forgotten, i.e. it is of secondary importance; also ingratitude.
 +
 +筆 A pen.
 +
 +筆受 To receive in writing; to record, write down from dictation.
 +
 +策 A treatise, book, memo, tablet, card; a plan, scheme; question; whip; etc.
 +
 +策修 To stimulate to cultivation of the good; to keep oneself up to the mark.
 +
 +答 A bamboo hawser, to draw out, to respond, reply, return thanks.
 +
 +答香 To stick in incense sticks, as a monk does in acknowledgement of those of worshippers.
 +
 +答摩 tamas, darkness, gloom, grief, anger, suffering.
 +
 +答哩磨 idem 達磨 dharma.
 +
 +答秣蘇伐那 Tāmasavana,​ a monastery 'Dark forest',​ possibly that of Jālandhara where the '​fourth synod' under Kaniṣka held its sessions; 'at the junction of the Vipāṣā and Śatadru,'​ i.e. Beas and Sutlej. Eitel.
 +
 +筏 A raft.
 +
 +筏喩 Raft parable. Buddha'​s teaching is like a raft, a means of crossing the river, the raft being left when the crossing has been made.
 +
 +筏蘇蜜呾羅 (or 伐蘇蜜呾羅 or 婆蘇蜜呾羅) (or 筏蘇蜜呾多羅);​ 婆須蜜; 和須蜜多;​ 世友 Vasumitra, described as a native of northern India, converted from riotous living by Micchaka, 'was a follower of the Sarvāstivādaḥ school,'​ became president of the last synod for the revision of the Canon under Kaniṣka, q.v., was seventh patriarch, and 'wrote the Abhidharma-prakaraṇa-pāda-śāstra'​ (Eitel).
 +
 +筏蘇盤豆 v. 婆 Vasubandhu.
 +
 +筏蘇枳 Vāsuki, or 和須吉; lord of snakes, or nāgas.
 +
 +筏蹉子 Vātsīputra,​ founder of the 犢子部 v. 跋.
 +
 +等 To pair; parallel, equal, of like order; a class, grade, rank; common; to wait; sign of plural. In Buddhist writings it is also used for 'equal everywhere',​ '​equally everywhere',​ '​universal'​.
 +
 +等一大車 The highest class great cart, i.e. universal salvation; cf. Lotus Sūtra 3.
 +
 +等一切諸佛 The third of the 十迴向 q.v.
 +
 +等供 Synchronous offering, also 等得, i.e. the simultaneous beginning of a meal when the master of ceremonies cries that the meal is served.
 +
 +等侶 Of the same class, or company; fellows, equals.
 +
 +等味 Of equal flavour, of the same character.
 +
 +等妙 The two supreme forms of Buddha-enlightenment 等覺 and 妙覺, being the 51st and 52nd stages of the Mahāyāna 階位. A Buddha is known as等妙覺王,​ king of these two forms of universal and supernatural illumination.
 +
 +[385]
 +
 +等引 samāhita, body and mind both fixed or concentrated in samādhi.
 +
 +等心 Equal mind; of the same mental characteristics;​ the universal mind common to all.
 +
 +等慈 Universal or equal mercy toward all beings without distinction.
 +
 +等持 Holding oneself in equanimity, a tr. of samādhi, as also is 三等持, i.e. samādhi-equilibrium;​ also of samāpatti, v. 三摩鉢底 and 等至.
 +
 +等智 Common knowledge, which only knows phenomena.
 +
 +等正覺 samyak-saṃbodhi;​ complete perfect knowledge; Buddha-knowledge;​ omniscience;​ the bodhi of all Buddhas; cf. 等覺; 三藐.
 +
 +等活 saṃjīv. Revive, re-animate; resurrection.
 +
 +等活地獄 The first of the eight hot hells, in which the denizens are chopped, stabbed, ground, and pounded, but by a cool wind are brought back to life, to undergo renewed torment. Also 更活.
 +
 +等流 niṣyanda, outflow, regular flow, equal current; like producing like; the equality of cause and effect; like causes produce like effects; of the same order.
 +
 +等流果 Like effects arise like causes, e.g. good from good, evil from evil; present condition in life from conduct in previous existence; hearing from sound, etc.
 +
 +等流相續 Of the same nature, or character; connected as cause and effect.
 +
 +等無間緣 Uninterrupted continuity, especially of thought, or time.
 +
 +等空 Equal with space, universal.
 +
 +等至 A name for fixation of the mind, or concentration in dhyāna; an equivalent of samāpatti.
 +
 +等衆生界 The universal realm of living beings.
 +
 +等覺 samyak-saṃbodhi;​ absolute universal enlightenment,​ omniscience,​ a quality of and term for a Buddha; also the 51st stage in the enlightenment of a bodhisattva,​ the attainment of the Buddha, enlightenment which precedes 妙覺.
 +
 +等觀 The beholding of all things as equal, e.g. as 空 unreal, or immaterial; or of all beings without distinction,​ as one beholds one's child i.e. without respect of persons.
 +
 +等諦 Ordinary rules of life; common morality.
 +
 +等身 A life-size image or portrait.
 +
 +等願 The universal vows common to Buddhas.
 +
 +粥 Congee, gruel.
 +
 +粥飯僧 A rice-gruel monk, or gruel and rice monk, i.e. useless.
 +
 +粟 Maize, millet.
 +
 +粟散 Like scattered millet.
 +
 +粟散王 Scattered kings, or rulers who own allegiance to a supreme sovereign, as 粟散國 means their territories.
 +
 +給 dā. To give.
 +
 +給孤 (給孤獨) To give to orphans and widows; a benefactor; almsgiver; e.g. Anāthapiṇḍika,​ v. 阿那.
 +
 +絞 Intertwine, twist, intermingle.
 +
 +絞飾 Adorned or robed in grey, a mixture of black and yellow.
 +
 +絍 To lay a warp, wind, weave [紝].
 +
 +絍婆 任婆 nimba, the Neemb tree, which has a small bitter fruit like the 苦棟; its leaves in India are '​chewed at funeral ceremonies'​. M. W.
 +
 +絡 Continuous; fibres, veins.
 +
 +聯絡 Connected, linked.
 +
 +紫 Purple, dark red.
 +
 +紫姑 The goddess of the cesspool.
 +
 +紫磨 Pure gold, hence 紫磨金; also 紫磨忍辱 the Buddha'​s image in attitude of calmness and indifference to pleasure or pain.
 +
 +紫衣 紫袈; 紫服 The purple robe, said to have been bestowed on certain monks during the Tang dynasty.
 +
 +絶 To cut off, sunder, terminate, end; decidedly, superlatively.
 +
 +絶大 Superlatively great.
 +
 +絶學 To cease study, beyond the need of study, a hint being enough.
 +
 +絶對 Beyond compare, supreme.
 +
 +絶待 Final, supreme, special.
 +
 +絶待眞如 bhūtatathatā as absolute, apart from all phenomena and limiting terms; or as being, in contrast to the bhūtatathatā as becoming.
 +
 +[386]
 +
 +絶食 To cut of food, cease to eat.
 +
 +結 Knot, tie, bond; bound; settle, wind up; to form. The bond of transmigration. There are categories of three, five, and nine bonds; e.g. false views, the passions, etc.
 +
 +結使 The bondage and instigators of the passions.
 +
 +結印 A binding agreement sealed as a contract, employed by the esoteric sects.
 +
 +結嘆 A sigh of praise at the close of a passage of a sūtra.
 +
 +結夏 The end of the summer retreat.
 +
 +結戒 Bound by the commandments.
 +
 +結業 The karma resulting from the bondage to passion, or delusion.
 +
 +結河 The river of bondage, i.e. of suffering or illusion.
 +
 +結漏 Bondage and reincarnation because of the passions.
 +
 +結生 The bond of rebirth.
 +
 +結界 A fixed place, or territory; a definite area; to fix a place for a monastery, or an altar; a determined number, e.g. for an assembly of monks; a limit. It is a term specially used by the esoteric sects for an altar and its area, altars being of five different shapes.
 +
 +結病 The disease of bondage to the passions and reincarnation.
 +
 +結經 The end of a sūtra; also its continuation.
 +
 +結縛 To tie and knot, i.e. in the bondage of the passions, or delusion.
 +
 +結緣 To form a cause or basis, to form a connection, e.g. for future salvation.
 +
 +大通結緣 The basis or condition laid 84,000 kalpas ago (by Mahābhijña-jñānābhibhū 大通智勝佛 in his teaching of the Lotus scriptures to 16 disciples who became incarnate as 16 Buddhas) for the subsequent teaching of the Lotus scriptures by Śākyamuni,​ the last of the 16 incarnations,​ to his disciples.
 +
 +結緣衆 The company or multitude of those who now become Buddhists in the hope of improved karma in the future.
 +
 +結冑 To make the sign of the vajra armour and helmet, i.e. of Vairocana, in order to control the spirits— a method of the esoteric sects.
 +
 +結解 Bondage and release; release from bondage.
 +
 +結講 Concluding an address, or the addresses, i. e. the final day of an assembly.
 +
 +結賊 Binders and robbers, the passions, or delusion.
 +
 +結跏趺坐 (結跏) The Buddha'​s sitting posture with legs crossed and soles upward, left over right being the attitude for subduing demons, right over left for blessing, the hands being placed one above the other in similar order. Also, said to be paryaṅkabandha,​ or utkuṭukāsana,​ sitting on the hams like ascetics in meditation.
 +
 +結集 The collection and fixing of the Buddhist canon; especially the first assembly which gathered to recite the scriptures, Saṅgīti. Six assemblies for creation or revision of the canon are named, the first at the Pippala cave at Rājagṛha under Ajātaśatru,​ the second at Vaiśālī, the third at Pāṭaliputra under Aśoka, the fourth in Kashmir under Kaniṣka, the fifth at the Vulture Peak for the Mahāyāna, and the sixth for the esoteric canon. The first is sometimes divided into two, that of those within 'the cave', and that of those without, i.e. the intimate disciples, and the greater assembly without; the accounts are conflicting and unreliable. The notable three disciples to whom the first reciting is attributed are Kāśyapa, as presiding elder, Ānanda for the Sūtras and the Abhidharma, and Upāli for the Vinaya; others attribute the Abhidharma to Pūrṇa, or Kāśyapa; but, granted the premises, whatever form their work may have taken, it cannot have been that of the existing Tripiṭaka. The fifth and sixth assemblies are certainly imaginary.
 +
 +結願 Concluding the vows, the last day of an assembly.
 +
 +[387]
 +
 +羨 To desire; praise; surplus.
 +
 +羨那 senā, an army.
 +
 +著 To cover, put on; cause; place; complete; ought, must.
 +
 +著衣 To don clothes.
 +
 +著鐙 Put on (the Buddha-)armour.
 +
 +舜 The legendary Emperor Shun, 2255-2205 B.C.
 +
 +舜若 śūnya, empty, unreal, incorporeal,​ immaterial, 空 q.v.
 +
 +舜若多 śūnyatā; emptiness, unreality, i.e. 空性 of the nature of the void.
 +
 +菊 Chrysanthemum;​ aster.
 +
 +菊燈 A chrysanthemum-shaped lamp used in temples.
 +
 +萍 Duckweed; floating.
 +
 +萍沙 Bimbisāra, see 頻.
 +
 +采 Vegetables.
 +
 +采蔬 Vegetarian food.
 +
 +采頭 The monk who has charge of the 采蔬 vegetarian food department.
 +
 +菴 Hut, thatched cottage, small temple, nunnery; translit. aṃ, āṃ.
 +
 +菴乜呢必滅堪 oṃ-maṇi-padme-hūṃ,​ cf. 唵.
 +
 +菴園 The Āmravana garden.
 +
 +菴婆女 (菴婆羅女) Āmradārika,​ Āmrapālī,​ Ambapālī; the guardian of the āmra tree; a female who presented to Śākyamuni the Āmravana garden; another legend says she was born of an āmra tree; mother of Jīvaka, son of Bimbisāra.
 +
 +菴婆羅多迦 āmrātaka, a celestial fruit; similar to 菴羅.
 +
 +菴婆利沙 Ambarīṣa,​ name of a king.
 +
 +菴弭羅 āmla; amlikā, the tamarisk indica.
 +
 +菴摩勒 amalā, emblica officinalis,​ like the betel nut, used as a cure for colds.
 +
 +菴摩羅 (or 菴沒羅) amala, spotless, stainless, pure, white. āmra, cf. 阿末羅 and infra; the term is variously used, sometimes for pure, at others for the amalā, at others for the āmra, or mango.
 +
 +菴摩羅識 Pure knowledge, 眞如 knowledge, v. 阿末羅識.
 +
 +菴沒羅 v. supra.
 +
 +菴羅 āmra, the mango, though its definition in Chinese is uncertain; v. supra 菴摩羅.
 +
 +菴羅園 (菴羅樹園or 菴羅衞園) Āmravana, Āmrapālī,​ Āmrāvatī,​ v. supra.
 +
 +菴羅女 Ditto.
 +
 +菴華 The āmra flower.
 +
 +華 kusuma; puṣpa; padma; a flower, blossom; flowery; especially the lotus; also 花, which also means pleasure, vice; to spend, waste, profligate. 華 also means splendour, glory, ornate; to decorate; China.
 +
 +華光 Padmaprabha,​ Lotus-radiance,​ the name by which Śāriputra is to be known as a Buddha.
 +
 +華光大帝 The Chinese god of fire, Aśvakarṇa,​ see 阿, '​mentioned in a list of 1,000 Buddhas'​ and who 'is reported to have lived here in his first incarnation'​. Eitel.
 +
 +華嚴 avataṃsa, a garland, a ring-shaped ornament, M. W.; the flower-adorned,​ or a garland; the name of the Huayan sūtra, and the Huayan (Jap. Kegon) school; cf. 健.
 +
 +華嚴一乘 The one Huayan yāna, or vehicle, for bringing all to Buddhahood.
 +
 +華嚴三昧 The Buddha-samādhi of an eternal spiritual realm from which all Buddha-activities are evolved.
 +
 +華嚴三王 The three Huayan kings, Vairocana in the centre with Samantabhadra and Mañjuśrī left and right.
 +
 +華嚴宗 The Huayan (Kegon) school, whose foundation work is the Avataṃsaka-sūtra;​ founded in China by 帝心杜順 Dixin Dushun; he died A.D. 640 and was followed by 雲華智嚴 Yunhua Zhiyan; 賢首法藏 Xianshou Fazang; 淸涼澄觀 Qingliang Chengguan; 圭峯宗密 Guifeng Zongmi, and other noted patriarchs of the sect; its chief patron is Mañjuśrī. The school was imported into Japan early in the Tang dynasty and flourished there. It held the doctrine of the 法性 Dharma-nature,​ by which name it was also called.
 +
 +華嚴時 The first of the 'five periods'​ as defined by Tiantai, according to which school this sūtra was delivered by Śākyamuni immediately after his enlightenment;​ but accounts vary as to whether it was on the second or third seventh day; all these claims are, however, devoid of evidence, the sūtra being a Mahāyāna creation.
 +
 +華嚴經 Avataṃsaka-sūtra,​ also 大方廣佛華嚴經. Three tr. have been made: (1) by Buddhabhadra,​ who arrived in China A.D. 406, in 60 juan, known also as the 晉經 Jin sūtra and 舊經 the old sūtra; (2) by Śikṣānanda,​ about A.D. 700, in 80 juan, known also as the 唐經 Tang sūtra and 新經 the new sūtra; (3) by Prajñā about A.D. 800, in 40 juan. The treatises on this sūtra are very numerous, and the whole are known as the 華嚴部; they include the 華嚴音義 dictionary of the Classic by 慧苑 Huiyuan, about A.D. 700.
 +
 +華天 The Huayan and Tiantai Schools.
 +
 +華報 Flower recompense, i.e. flowers to him who cultivates them, and fruit corresponding to the seed sown, i.e. retribution for good or evil living.
 +
 +華山 Mt. Hua in Shensi, one of the Five Sacred Mountains of China; v. also 九華山.
 +
 +華座 The lotus throne.
 +
 +[388]
 +
 +華德菩薩 Padmaśrī, Lotus-brilliance Bodhisattva,​ tr. as Lotus-virtue,​ name of Śubhavyūha,​ v. 妙, when incarnated as a member of Śākyamuni'​s retinue.
 +
 +華手 The hands folded lotus-fashion.
 +
 +華方 The flowery region, the south.
 +
 +華梵 China and India.
 +
 +華氏城 Kusumapura, Puṣpapura;​ the city of flowers, or of the palace of flowers, also known as Pāṭaliputra,​ the modern Patna. It was the residence of Aśoka, to whom the title of 華氏 is applied. He there convoked the third synod.
 +
 +華王世界 The world of the lotus-king, that of Vairocana.
 +
 +華目 Eyes like the blue lotus, i.e. pure.
 +
 +華翳 Flowery films, motes, specks, muscæ volitantes.
 +
 +華胎 The lotus womb in which doubters and those of little virtue are detained in semi-bliss for 500 years before they can be born into the Pure Land by the opening of the lotus.
 +
 +華臺 The lotus dais, seat, or throne.
 +
 +華蓋 A flowery umbrella, a canopy of flowers.
 +
 +華藏 Lotus-treasury.
 +
 +華藏界 (華藏世界) The lotus-store,​ or lotus-world,​ the Pure Land of Vairocana, also the Pure Land of all Buddhas in their saṃbhogakāya,​ or enjoyment bodies. Above the wind or air circle is a sea of fragrant water, in which is the thousand-petal lotus with its infinite variety of worlds, hence the meaning is the Lotus which contains a store of myriads of worlds; cf. the Tang Huayan sūtra 8, 9, and 10; the 梵網經 ch. 1, etc.
 +
 +華藏八葉 The maṇḍala of the Garbhadhātu.
 +
 +華藏與極樂 The Lotus-world and that of Perfect Joy (of Amitābha and others); they are the same.
 +
 +華鬘 kusuma-māla,​ a wreath, or chaplet of flowers.
 +
 +華齒 puṣpadantī. Flowery or ornate teeth, name of a rākṣasī.
 +
 +菩 A kind of fragrant grass.
 +
 +菩提 bodhi; from budh; knowledge, understanding;​ perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind; anciently intp. by 道, later by 覺 to be aware, perceive; for saṃbodhi v. 三.
 +
 +菩提分 bodhyaṅga,​ a general term for the thirty-seven 道品, more strictly applied to the 七覺支 q.v., the seven branches of bodhi-illumination. Also 菩提分法.
 +
 +菩提場 A place, plot, or site of enlightenment,​ especially Śākyamuni'​s under the bodhi-tree.
 +
 +菩提子 bodhi-seeds,​ or beads, the hard seeds of a kind of Himalayan grass, also of a tree at Tiantai, used for rosaries.
 +
 +菩提寺 bodhi-vihāra,​ temple of or for enlightenment,​ a name used for many monasteries;​ also 菩提所.
 +
 +菩提心 The mind for or of bodhi; the awakened, or enlightened mind; the mind that perceives the real behind the seeming, believes in moral consequences,​ and that all have the Buddha-nature,​ and aims at Buddhahood.
 +
 +菩提樹 bodhidruma, bodhitaru, bodhivṛkṣa;​ the wisdom-tree,​ i.e. that under which Śākyamuni attained his enlightenment,​ and became Buddha. The Ficus religiosa is the pippala, or aśvattha, wrongly identified by Faxian as the palm-tree; it is described as an evergreen, to have been 400 feet high, been cut down several times, but in the Tang dynasty still to be 40 or 50 feet high. A branch of it is said to have been sent by Aśoka to Ceylon, from which sprang the celebrated Bo-tree still flourishing there.
 +
 +菩提樹神 The goddess-guardian of the Bo-tree.
 +
 +菩提流志 Bodhiruci, intp. as 覺愛, a monk from southern India whose original name 達磨流支 Dharmaruci was changed as above by order of the Empress Wu; he tr. 53 works in A.D. 693—713.
 +
 +菩提流支 Bodhiruci, intp. as 道希, a monk from northern India who arrived at Loyang in A.D. 508 and tr. some 30 works; also 菩提留支,​ 菩提鶻露支.
 +
 +[389]
 +
 +菩提薩埵 bodhisattva,​ a being of enlightenment:​ 'one whose essence is wisdom':​ 'one who has bodhi or perfect wisdom as his essence,'​ M. W. Also 菩提索多 v. 菩薩.
 +
 +菩提達磨 Bodhidharma,​ commonly known as Damo, v. 達; reputed as the founder of the Chan (Zen) or Intuitional or Mystic School. His original name is given as 菩提多羅 Bodhitara.
 +
 +菩提道場 bodhimaṇḍa,​ the bodhi-site, or plot or seat which raised itself where Śākyamuni attained Buddhahood. It is said to be diamond-like,​ the navel or centre of the earth; every bodhisattva sits down on such a seat before becoming Buddha.
 +
 +菩提門 The gate of enlightenment;​ name for a cemetery.
 +
 +菩薩 bodhisattva,​ cf. 菩提薩埵. While the idea is not foreign to Hīnayāna, its extension of meaning is one of the chief marks of Mahāyāna. 'The Bodhisattva is indeed the characteristic feature of the Mahāyāna.'​ Keith. According to Mahāyāna the Hinayanists,​ i.e. the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha,​ seek their own salvation, while the bodhisattva'​s aim is the salvation of others and of all. The earlier intp. of bodhisattva was 大道心衆生 all beings with mind for the truth; later it became 大覺有情 conscious beings of or for the great intelligence,​ or enlightenment. It is also intp. in terms of leadership, heroism, etc. In general it is a Mahayanist seeking Buddhahood, but seeking it altruistically;​ whether monk or layman, he seeks enlightenment to enlighten others, and he will sacrifice himself to save others; he is devoid of egoism and devoted to helping others. All conscious beings having the Buddha-nature are natural bodhisattvas,​ but require to undergo development. The mahāsattva is sufficiently advanced to become a Buddha and enter nirvāṇa, but according to his vow he remains in the realm of incarnation to save all conscious beings. A monk should enter on the arduous course of discipline which leads to Bodhisattvahood and Buddhahood.
 +
 +菩薩乘 One of the 'five vehicles',​ which teaches the observance of the six pāramitās,​ the perfecting of the two 利, i.e. 自利利他 the perfecting of self for perfecting others, and the attaining of Buddhahood.
 +
 +菩薩五智 The fivefold knowledge of the bodhisattva:​ that of all things by intuition, of past events, of establishing men in sound religious life, of the elements in or details of all things, of attaining everything at will.
 +
 +菩薩僧 The bodhisattvasaṅgha,​ or monks, i.e. Mahāyāna, though there has been dispute whether Hīnayāna monks may be included.
 +
 +菩薩十住 菩薩十地 Ten stages in a bodhisattva'​s progress; v. 十.
 +
 +菩薩大士 bodhisattva-mahāsattva,​ a great bodhisattva,​ e.g. Mañjuśrī. Guanyin, etc. v. infra.
 +
 +菩薩性 bodhisattva nature, or character.
 +
 +菩薩戒 The rules are found in the sūtra of this name, taken from the 梵網經.
 +
 +菩薩摩訶薩 bodhisattva-mahāsattva. mahāsattva is the perfected bodhisattva,​ greater than any other being except a Buddha.
 +
 +菩薩聖衆 The bodhisattva saints who have overcome illusion, from the first stage upwards, as contrasted with ordinary bodhisattvas.
 +
 +菩薩藏 The Mahāyāna scriptures, i.e. those of the bodhisattva school.
 +
 +菩薩行 The way or discipline of the bodhisattva,​ 自利利他,​ i.e. to benefit self and benefit others, leading to Buddhahood.
 +
 +菩薩道 see 菩薩行.
 +
 +虛 śūnya. Empty, vacant; unreal, unsubstantial,​ untrue; space; humble; in vain.
 +
 +虛假 Baseless, false.
 +
 +虛僞 Unreal, deceptive.
 +
 +虛堂 Xutang, name of a noted monk of the Song dynasty.
 +
 +虛妄 vitatha. Unreal and false, baseless; abhūta, non-existent.
 +
 +虛妄法 Unreal things or sensations, such as those perceived by the senses.
 +
 +虛妄輪 The unreal wheel of life, or transmigration.
 +
 +虛心 With humble mind, or heart.
 +
 +虛無 Empty, non-existent,​ unreal, incorporeal,​ immaterial.
 +
 +虛無身 The immaterial Buddha-body,​ the spirit free from all limitations.
 +
 +虛空 śūnya; empty, void, space; ākāśa, in the sense of space, or the ether; gagana, the sky, atmosphere, heaven; kha, space, sky, ether, 虛 is defined as that which is without shape or substantiality,​ 空 as that which has no resistance. The immaterial universe behind all phenomena.
 +
 +虛空住 Ākāśapratiṣṭhita,​ abiding in space, the fifth son of Mahābhijña,​ a bodhisattva to the south of our universe.
 +
 +虛空天 The four heavens of desire above Meru in space, from the Yama heaven upwards.
 +
 +虛空孕 The womb of space, ākāśagarbha,​ idem虛空藏 infra.
 +
 +虛空法身 The dharmakāya as being like space which enfolds all things, omniscient and pure.
 +
 +虛空無爲 ākāśa, one of the asaṃskṛta dharmas, passive void or space; two kinds of space, or the immaterial, are named, the active and passive, or phenomenal and non-phenomenal (i.e. noumenal). The phenomenal is differentiated and limited, and apprehended by sight; the noumenal is without bounds or limitations,​ and belongs entirely to mental conception.
 +
 +虛空界 The visible vault of space.
 +
 +虛空眼 The eye of space, or of the immaterial; name of the mother of Buddhas in the garbhadhātu group.
 +
 +[390]
 +
 +虛空神 Śūnyatā, the god of space.
 +
 +虛空華 Spots before the eyes, Muscœ volitantes.
 +
 +虛空藏 Ākāśagarbha,​ or Gaganagarbha,​ the central bodhisattva in the court of space in the garbhadhātu group; guardian of the treasury of all wisdom and achievement;​ his powers extend to the five directions of space; five forms of him are portrayed under different names; he is also identified with the dawn, Aruṇa, and the 明星 or Venus.
 +
 +虛空身 The body which fills space, Vairocana.
 +
 +虛言 Empty words, baseless talk.
 +
 +虛誑語 Untrue or misleading talk, which is against the fourth commandment.
 +
 +蛭 A leech.
 +
 +蛭數 idem 底沙 Tiṣya.
 +
 +蛤 Bivalves, clams.
 +
 +蛤唎觀音 One of the thirty-three forms of Guanyin, seated on a shell.
 +
 +衆 All, the many; a company of at least three.
 +
 +衆僧 saṃgha, all the monks, an assembly of at least three monks.
 +
 +衆合 (衆合地獄);​ 衆磕 The third of the eight hot hells, Saṃghāta,​ where two ranges of mountains meet to crush the sinners.
 +
 +衆園 衆寮 saṃghārāma,​ a monastery, a nunnery; originally only the surrounding park.
 +
 +衆徒 The whole body of followers; also the monks, all the monks.
 +
 +衆會 An assembly (of all the monks).
 +
 +衆生 sattva; all the living, living beings, older tr. 有情 sentient, or conscious beings; also many lives, i.e. many transmigrations.
 +
 +衆生世間 The world of beings from Hades to Buddha-land;​ also all beings subject to transformation by Buddha.
 +
 +衆生垢 The common defilement of all beings by the false view that the ego has real existence.
 +
 +衆生忍 Patience towards all living beings under all circumstances.
 +
 +衆生想 The false notion that all beings have reality.
 +
 +衆生本性 The original nature of all the living, i.e. the bhūtatathatā in its phenomenal aspect.
 +
 +衆生根 The nature, or root, of all beings, cf. 衆生本性.
 +
 +衆生濁 The fourth of the five periods of decay, sattvākaṣāya,​ when all creatures are stupid and unclean.
 +
 +衆生無始無終 As all beings are par of the 法身 dharmakāya they have neither beginning nor end.
 +
 +衆生界 The realm of all the living in contrast with the Buddha-realm.
 +
 +衆生相 衆生見 The concept that all beings have reality.
 +
 +衆祐 Protector or Benefactor of all, an old intp. of Bhagavat.
 +
 +衆聖 All saints, all who have realized the Buddha-truth.
 +
 +衆苦 All the miseries of existence, the sufferings of all.
 +
 +衆道 The way of all; all the three yāna, or vehicles of salvation.
 +
 +衆香國土 The country of all fragrance, i. e. the Pure Land, also the sūtras.
 +
 +街 A street (especially with shops), a market.
 +
 +街方 The busy mart of life.
 +
 +裂 To rip, split, crack.
 +
 +裂裳 The torn robe (of Buddhism), i.e. split into eighteen pieces, like the Hīnayāna sects.
 +
 +視 Look, see, behold.
 +
 +視那 jina, victor, idem 耆那.
 +
 +觝突 To butt against, gore, as an angry bull.
 +
 +詐 Impose on, deceive, feign, pretend.
 +
 +奸詐 Fraudulent, crafty, to cheat.
 +
 +註 Explain, open up the meaning, define.
 +
 +註疏 Notes and comments.
 +
 +評 Criticize, discuss.
 +
 +評註 Criticize, comment on.
 +
 +評論 Discuss.
 +
 +譏評 Censure, criticize.
 +
 +詞 An expression, phrase, word.
 +
 +詞無礙智 pratimsaṃvid,​ v. 四.
 +
 +訶 To blame, reprove, scold; ridicule; translit. ha, ka, kha, ga, and similar sounds.
 +
 +訶佛罵祖 To scold a Buddha and abuse an elder.
 +
 +訶利 訶梨; M004373里 hari, tawny, a lion.
 +
 +訶利底 Hāritī; also 訶利帝 (or 訶哩帝); 呵利底; 呵利帝 (or 呵利陀); 阿利底 Ariti; intp. as captivating,​ charming; cruel; dark green, yellow, etc.; mother of demons, a rākṣasī who was under a vow to devour the children of Rājagṛha,​ but was converted by the Buddha, and became the guardian of nunneries, where her image, carrying a child and with children by her, is worshipped for children or in children'​s ailments.
 +
 +訶利底母 or 南 idem.
 +
 +訶利枳舍 004373里鷄舍 Harikeśa, yellow-haired,​ lion's mane, name of a yakṣa.
 +
 +訶悉多 hasta, an arm, a hand.
 +
 +訶梨勒 harītakī, the yellow Myrobalan free and fruit, used for medicine; also 訶梨怛鷄 (or 訶梨得枳),​ 訶子, etc.
 +
 +訶梨跋摩 Harivarman, tawny armour, and 師子鎧 lion armour; a Brahman who '900 years' after the Nirvāṇa, appeared in Central India and joined the Sarvāstivādin and Satyasiddhi school by the publication of the Satyasiddhi śāstra (tr. as the 成實論 by Kumārajīva,​ 407-418).
 +
 +訶羅訶羅 halahala, etc., a deadly poison.
 +
 +象 gaja; hastin; also nāga; an elephant; v. 像 14.
 +
 +象主 The southern division of India, v. 四主.
 +
 +象堅山 Pīlusāragiri,​ a mountain southwest of Kapiśā, on the top of which Aśoka erected a stūpa, the Pīlusāra-stūpa.
 +
 +象墮阬 hastigarta, '​elephant'​s hole,' i.e. the hollow formed by the elephant'​s fall, when Śākyamuni flung aside a dead elephant put in his path by Devadatta.
 +
 +[391]
 +
 +象尊國 The elephant-honouring country, India.
 +
 +象教 The teaching by images or symbols i.e. Buddhism, v. 像教.
 +
 +象牙 Elephant'​s tusk, ivory.
 +
 +象王 Gajapati, Lord of Elephants, a term for Śākyamuni;​ also the fabulous ruler of the southern division of the Jambudvīpa continent.
 +
 +象軍 Hastikāya, the elephant corps of an Indian army.
 +
 +象頭山 Gayāśiras,​ tr. as elephant-head mountain, name of two mountains, one near Gayā, the other said to be near the river Nairañjanā,​ 150 li away.
 +
 +象駕 The elephant chariot, or riding forward, i.e. the eastward progress of Buddhism.
 +
 +象鼻 Elephant'​s trunk; a wrong way of wearing a monk's robe.
 +
 +貳 Two; translit. ni.
 +
 +貳吒 Akaniṣṭha,​ not the smallest, i.e. the highest of the brahmalokas,​ v. 阿迦.
 +
 +賀 To make offerings in congratulation;​ congratulate;​ translit. h, cf. 訶.
 +
 +賀捺娑 haṃsa, a goose.
 +
 +賀羅馱 (or 賀邏馱) hrada, a lake, pool, ray of light.
 +
 +賀野紇哩嚩 (or 賀演屹哩嚩) Hayagrīva, the horse-necked one, a form of Viṣṇu and of Guanyin.
 +
 +費 To spend, lavish, waste, squander; expense: translit. vi, ve, in vidyā, v. 明; viṇā, a lute, v. 批; Veda, the Vedas, v. 韋.
 +
 +貴 Honourable, dear, precious.
 +
 +貴賤 Dear and cheap; noble and base; your and my.
 +
 +買 To buy, purchase.
 +
 +買林 Vikrītavana,​ a '​monastery 200 li north-west of the capital of Cashmere'​. Eitel.
 +
 +貼 To stick, attach to; make up, add.
 +
 +貼嚫 dakṣiṇa,​ right-hand, south, dexterity; donations, offerings, etc.
 +
 +超 vikrama. Leap over, surpass; exempt from; to save.
 +
 +超世 Surpassing the world, superior to anything in the world.
 +
 +超八 Surpassing the eight other schools, as does the teaching of the Lotus and Nirvāṇa Sūtras, according to Tiantai.
 +
 +超日王 Vikramāditya,​ 'a celebrated Hindu king,' 57 B.C., who drove out the Śakas or Scythians, ruled all northern India, was one of the wisest of Hindu kings and a great patron of literature. M. W.
 +
 +超越 Surpassing, supreme; to pass over, be exempt from.
 +
 +超過 samatikram, to go beyond, cross over, transgress.
 +
 +越 To step over, pass over, surpass, exceed; similar to 超, with which it is often connected.
 +
 +越喜三昧 The samādhi of Yaśodharā,​ wife of Śākyamuni and mother of Rāhula, which causes all kinds of joy to self and others.
 +
 +越罪 Exceeding sin, or transgression of the law, particularly of esoteric law or monastic vows.
 +
 +越闍 vajra, cf. 金剛.
 +
 +跏 To sit cross-legged 跏趺坐, v. 結.
 +
 +跋 Trudge, tread on, travel; heel, base; a summary; translit. pa, ba, bha, va; cf. 波, 婆, 簸.
 +
 +跋伽仙 (or 跋伽婆) Bhārgava, Bhagava, Bhaga, the ascetic under whom Śākyamuni practiced the austere life.
 +
 +跋利沙 varṣās, cf. 雨 the rains.
 +
 +跋折羅 vajra, v. 金剛 diamond; thunderbolt.
 +
 +跋折羅吒訶沙 Vajrāṭṭahāsa,​ i.e. Śiva, one of the guardians, the laughing Mahārāja.
 +
 +跋捺羅婆娜 Bhādrapada,​ the sixth Indian month.
 +
 +跋提 Bhadra, or Bhadrika, v. 跋提梨迦;​ used also for Vatī, the river Hiraṇyavatī,​ or Gunduck.
 +
 +跋提梨迦 (or 跋提唎迦) Bhadrika, also 婆提 or婆帝, one of the first five disciples, said to be a son of king Amṛtodana.
 +
 +跋摩 Harivarman, and his school, v. 訶.
 +
 +跋日羅 vajra, v. 金剛.
 +
 +跋渠 varga, a class, group, cf. 伐.
 +
 +跋濫摩 婆羅門 Brāhmaṇa,​ Brahman, the caste, or character, i.e. pure.
 +
 +跋盧沙 Varuṣa, now Attock, east of Peshawar.
 +
 +跋祿羯呫婆 Bharukaccha,​ an ancient state in Gujarat, near Baruch, on the Narbudda.
 +
 +跋祿迦 An ancient state in east Turkestan, the present Aksu. Eitel.
 +
 +跋私弗多羅 Vātsīputra,​ 犢子 founder of the sect of this name, one of the Vaibhāṣika schools.
 +
 +跋窣堵 vastu, real, substance; intp. as the Vinaya, or part of it; may be tr. by 事, 物, 本, 有.
 +
 +跋羅娑馱 prāsāda, a temple, palace, assembly hall.
 +
 +跋羅攙 Tallakṣana (Julien), 10 octilllions;​ a 大跋羅攙 is 100 octillions, v. 洛叉.
 +
 +跋羅縷支 Bhadraruci, a monk of west India, of great subtlety and reasoning power; he opposed an arrogant Brahman, who, defeated, sank alive into hell.
 +
 +跋藍 Bala, or Mudrābala, 10 septillions;​ 大跋藍 100 septillons, v. 洛.
 +
 +跋路婆陀 (or 跋路娑陀) prāsāda, v. 跋羅婆馱.
 +
 +跋達羅 bhadra, good, auspicious, gracious, excellent, virtuous; an epithet for every Buddha; the present 賢劫 Bhadrakalpa.
 +
 +跋邏末羅耆釐 Bhramaragiri (Beal), a monastery built by Sadvaha for Nāgārjuna on this mountain, 300 li south-west of Kośala.
 +
 +跋那 Varaṇa, v. 伐, a province of Kapiśā, v. 障.
 +
 +跋陂 Bhadrapāla,​ name of 賢護 a bodhisattva.
 +
 +跋陀 Bhadra, v. 跋提, 跋達羅.
 +
 +跋陀婆 Bhadrapāla,​ v. 跋陂.
 +
 +跋陀羅 Bhādrapadā,​ the 壁 constellation in Pegasus and Andromeda. Bhadrā, a female disciple of Śākyamuni. Guṇabhadra,​ v. 求, a nāga-king; a tree.
 +
 +跋陀羅樓支 Bhadraruci, v. 跋羅縷支.
 +
 +跋陀羅耶尼 Bhadrayāniyāh,​ v. 小乘, one of the eighteen Hīnayāna sects.
 +
 +[392]
 +
 +跋陀羅迦卑梨耶 Bhadrakapilā,​ also 跋陀迦毘羅 a female disciple of Śākyamuni.
 +
 +跋闍 Vṛji, the modern Vraja or Braj, west of Delhi and Agra; also given as Vaiśālī, cf. 毘, where the second assembly met and where the ten unlawful acts permitted by the Vṛjiputra monks were condemned.
 +
 +跋闍羅 vajra, v. 金剛.
 +
 +跋闍羅波膩 Vajrapāṇi,​ '​thunderbolt handed'​ (M. W.), v. 金剛手.
 +
 +跋難陀 Upananda, a disciple who rejoiced over the Buddha'​s death because it freed the disciples from restraint. A nāga king.
 +
 +躭摩栗底 Tāmralipti,​ Tamlook, v. 多摩.
 +
 +軻地羅 khadira, the acacia catechu; the mimosa; also 軻梨羅; 珂梨羅; 朅梨羅; 佉陀羅 (or 佉達羅); 佉提迦; 朅達羅.
 +
 +軻地羅山 The Khadira circle of mountains, the fifth of the seven concentric mountain chains of a world.
 +
 +軻梨 朅地洛迦 (or 朅達洛迦) Khadiraka, idem 軻地羅山.
 +
 +進 Advance, progress, enter.
 +
 +進具 To reach the age (20) and advance to full ordination.
 +
 +精進 vīrya, zeal, unchecked progress.
 +
 +逸 To get away from; retire, be at ease, indulgence, excess.
 +
 +逸多 Ajita, Maitreya, v. 阿逸多.
 +
 +逮 To reach, catch up, until, when, wait for.
 +
 +逮夜 The night previous to a fast day, or to any special occasion.
 +
 +都 Metropolis, imperial city or domain; a district, ward, territory. All.
 +
 +都史多 (or 都史天) the Tuṣita heaven, v. 兜.
 +
 +都吒迦 Joyful sound, united voices; (derivation uncertain).
 +
 +都監寺 都總 The director or second in command of a monastery.
 +
 +都市王 The ruler of the eighth hot hell.
 +
 +都率天 Tuṣita, see 都史多.
 +
 +都貨羅 Tukhāra, the 月支 Yuezhi country; '(1) A topographical term designating a country of ice and frost (tukhāra), and corresponding to the present Badakchan which Arab geographers still call Tokharestan. (2) An ethnographical term used by the Greeks to designate the Tocharoi or Indo-Scythians,​ and likewise by Chinese writers applied to the Tochari Tartars who driven on by the Huns (180 B.C.) conquered Trans-oxania,​ destroyed the Bactrian kingdom (大夏) 126 B.C., and finally conquered the Pundjab, Cashmere, and the greater part of India. Their greatest king was Kanichka.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +酤 To deal in spirits, or alcoholic liquor.
 +
 +酤酒戒 The commandment against dealing in alcoholic liquor.
 +
 +酥 Curd, butter; crisp. It is described as produced by churning milk or treating it with herbs. Milk produces 酪, then 生酥, then 熟酥, then 醍醐.
 +
 +酥燈 A lamp burning butter-oil.
 +
 +量 pramāṇa. Measure, capacity, length, ability; to measure, deliberate; a syllogism in logic, v. 比量. A syllogism, consisting of 宗 pratijñā, proposition;​ 因 hetu, reason; 喩 udāharaṇa,​ example; but the syllogism varies in the number of its avayava, or members. There are other divisions from 2 to 6, e.g. 現量 and 比量 direct or sense inferences, and comparative or logical inferences; to these are added 聖教量 arguments based on authority; 譬喩量 analogy; 義准 postulation,​ or general assent; and 無體 negation, or non-existence.
 +
 +量果 Conditioned by various external objects, different types of consciousness arise (ālambana-pratyaya). The 法相宗 held that the percipient mind is conditioned by existing things, and when the two are in conjunction the ultimate consequence of any action may be known.
 +
 +量等身 The immanence of the Tathāgata in all things, phenomenal and noumenal, he being the all in all.
 +
 +鈔 A voucher, banknote, paper-money,​ taxes; to pinch up, take up; to seize all, sequestrate;​ to copy, transcribe, extract.
 +
 +鈎 Hook, barb; also 鉤.
 +
 +鉤召法 vaśīkaraṇa,​ the method in esoteric practice of summoning and influencing the beneficent powers.
 +
 +鉤鈕 To knot, tie, e.g. a girdle; to button.
 +
 +鉤菩薩 The bodhisattva guardian with the trident, one of the four with barb, noose, chain or bell.
 +
 +鈍 Dull, blunt, stupid.
 +
 +鈍使 The five envoys of stupidity, i.e. of the lower passions, in contrast with the higher 五利使; the 使 is intp. as 煩惱 kleśa, the afflicters, or passions; the five are 貪, 瞋, 痴, 慢, 疑 greed, hate, stupidity, arrogance, doubt.
 +
 +鈍根 鈍機 Of dull capacity, unable to receive Buddha-truth.
 +
 +間 A crevice, interval, space, room; separate, intermission;​ between, during, in; to divide, interfere, intervene.
 +
 +間斷 To interrupt interfere and stop.
 +
 +間色 Intermediate colours, i.e. not primary colours.
 +
 +間隔 Interval, intermission,​ but it is chiefly used for during, while, the period of an event. Cf. 無間 avīci.
 +
 +[393]
 +
 +閑 To bar, a barrier; to shut out; trained.
 +
 +閑居十德 Ten advantages of a hermitage given in verse, i.e. absence of sex and passion; of temptation to say wrong things; of enemies, and so of strife; of friends to praise or blame; of others'​ faults, and so of talk about them; of followers or servants, and so no longing for companions; of society, and so no burden of politeness; of guests, and so no preparations;​ of social intercourse,​ and so no trouble about garments; of hindrance from others in mystic practice.
 +
 +閑文字 閑塵境 Words, or expressions to be shut out; unnecessary words.
 +
 +閑處 A shut-in place, a place of peace, a hermitage, a Buddhist monastery.
 +
 +閑道人 One well-trained in the religion; a practitioner.
 +
 +開 To open, begin, institute, unfold, disclose; dismiss; write out; unloose; to heat, boil.
 +
 +開三顯一 To explain the three vehicles, and reveal the reality of the one method of salvation, as found in the Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +開元 The Kaiyuan period of the Tang emperor Xuanzong, A.D. 713-741; during which the monk 智昇 Zhisheng in 730 issued his '​complete list of all the translations of Buddhist books into the Chinese language from the year A.D. 67 up to the date of publication,​ embracing the labours of 176 individuals,​ the whole amounting to 2,278 separate works, many of which, however, were at that time already lost.' Wylie. Its title was開元釋教錄. He also issued the 開元釋教錄略出,​ an abbreviated version.
 +
 +開光 Introducing the light, the ceremony of '​opening the eyes' of an image, i.e. painting or touching in the pupil; also 開眼.
 +
 +開具 To make an inventory.
 +
 +開化 To transform the character by instruction;​ to teach.
 +
 +開士 The hero who is enlightened,​ or who opens the way of enlightenment,​ an epithet of the bodhisattva;​ also applied to monks.
 +
 +開山 To establish a monastery; to found a sect.
 +
 +開廢 idem 開遮.
 +
 +開心 To open the heat; to develop the mind; to initiate into truth.
 +
 +開悟 To awaken, arouse, open up the intelligence and bring enlightenment.
 +
 +開本 To commence; the very beginning; at the beginning; to explain the beginning.
 +
 +開枕 To display the pillows, i.e. retire to bed.
 +
 +開法 To found a sect or teaching, e.g. as Buddha founded Buddhism; the method of opening, or beginning.
 +
 +開演 To lecture, explain at length, expound.
 +
 +開甘露門 To open the ambrosial door, i.e. provide for hungry ghosts.
 +
 +開發 To star, begin, send forth.
 +
 +開白 To start from the bare ground; to begin a ceremony.
 +
 +開示悟入 The four reasons for a Buddha'​s appearing in the world: to open up the treasury of truth; to indicate its meaning; to cause men to apprehend it; and to lead them into it.
 +
 +開祖 The founder of a sect, or clan.
 +
 +開葷 開素 To abandon vegetarianism,​ as is permitted in case of sickness.
 +
 +開覺 To arouse, awaken; to allow the original Buddha-nature to open and enlighten the mind.
 +
 +開解 To expound, explain.
 +
 +開道者 The Way-opener, Buddha; anyone who opens the way, or truth.
 +
 +開遮 The adversatives,​ permit 開 or prohibit 遮; also 開廢.
 +
 +開靜 To break the silence, i.e. rouse from sleep.
 +
 +[394]
 +
 +開顯 To open up and reveal; to expose the one and make manifest the other. It is a term used by Tiantai, i.e. 開權顯實,​ to expose and dispose of the temporary or partial teaching, and reveal the final and real truth as in the Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +開齋 To break the fast, breakfast.
 +
 +陽 The side on which the sun shines, the sun, heat, this life, positive, masculine, dynamic, etc.
 +
 +陽光 The sun's light, also idem陽燄 sun flames, or heat, i.e. the mirage causing the illusion of lakes.
 +
 +雁 A hawk, also used for hamsa, a wild goose.
 +
 +雁塔 The Wild Goose pagoda, name of a famous monastery.
 +
 +雁宇 A term for a monastery.
 +
 +雁行 To pass in V-shaped formation like wild geese.
 +
 +集 samudāya. To assemble, collect together, aggregate, accumulate.
 +
 +集會 To assemble, an assembly.
 +
 +集會所 A place of assembly.
 +
 +集衆 To assemble all, or everybody.
 +
 +集諦 samudaya, the second of the four dogmas, that the cause of suffering lies in the passions and their resultant karma. The Chinese 集 '​accumulation'​ does not correctly translate samudaya, which means '​origination'​.
 +
 +集起 A term for citta, the mind, and for ālayavijñāna,​ as giving rise to the mass of things.
 +
 +雲 megha. Cloud, cloudy, abundant.
 +
 +雲兄水弟 雲衆水衆 Brothers or men of the clouds and waters, fellow-monks.
 +
 +雲宗 idem 白雲宗.
 +
 +雲堂 The assembly hall of a monastery, because of the massed congregation.
 +
 +雲心 Clouded heart, depressed.
 +
 +雲水 雲兄水弟;​ 雲衲; 雲納 Homeless or roaming monks.
 +
 +雲海 Many as the clouds and the waters of the ocean.
 +
 +雲版 A sort of cloud-shaped gong, struck to indicate the hour.
 +
 +雲雷音王 Megha-dundubhi-svara-rāja,​ or 雲雷音宿王華智 Jaladhara-garjita-ghoṣa-susvara-nakṣatra-rāja-saṅkusumitā-bhijña. A Buddha '​having a voice musical as the sound of the thunder of the clouds and conversant with the appearance of the regents of the nakshatras'​. M.W. A Buddha possessing the wisdom of the Thunder-god and of the flowery stars.
 +
 +雲自在王 Meghasvara-rāja,​ ruler of the cloud drums, a son of Mahābhijñābhibhu.
 +
 +雲門 The Cloud-gate monastery in Guangdong, from which 文偃 Wenyan derived his title; his name was 張雪峯 Zhang Xuefeng; he lived early in the tenth century and founded the 雲門宗 (雲門禪宗),​ v. 三句.
 +
 +雲集 Flocking like clouds, a great assembly.
 +
 +雲鼓 A drum ornamented with clouds for calling to midday meals.
 +
 +順 Accord with, comply, yield, obey, agreeable; v. 逆 to resist.
 +
 +順世 To accord with the world, its ways and customs; to die.
 +
 +順上分結 The five ties in the higher realm which hold the individual in the realms of form and formlessness:​ desire for form, desire for formlessness,​ restlessness,​ pride, and ignorance.
 +
 +順下分結 The five ties in the lower realm which hold the individual in the realms of desire, i.e. desire, resentment, egoism, false tenets, and doubt.
 +
 +順分 To follow out one's duty; to accord with one's calling; to carry out the line of bodhisattva progress according to plan.
 +
 +順化 To accord with one's lessons; to follow the custom; to die.
 +
 +順忍 The third of the five bodhisattva stages of endurance, i.e. from the fourth to sixth stage.
 +
 +順次 According to order or rank, one after another, the next life in Paradise to follow immediately after this without intervening stages.
 +
 +順流 Going with the stream, i.e. of transmigration,​ custom, etc.
 +
 +順牙 śūnya, v. 空.
 +
 +順逆 To go with, or resist, e.g. the stream to reincarnation,​ or to nirvāṇa.
 +
 +須 To expect, wait for, wait on; necessary, must; moment, small, translit. for su; cf. 蘇.
 +
 +須夜摩 Suyāma, also須炎摩 (or須燄摩),​ intp. as Yama, the ruler of the Yama heaven; and in other similar ways.
 +
 +須大拏 Sudāna, see 須達拏.
 +
 +須彌 Sumeru, also 須彌樓; 彌樓; 蘇彌樓; 修迷樓; later 蘇迷盧; the central mountain of every world, tr. as 妙高; 妙光, etc., wonderful height, wonderful brilliancy, etc.; at the top is Indra'​s heaven, or heavens, below them are the four devalokas; around are eight circles of mountains and between them the eight seas, the whole forming nine mountains and eight seas.
 +
 +須彌座 須彌壇 A kind of throne for a Buddha.
 +
 +須彌相 Merudhvaja, or Merukalpa, name of the universe of 須彌燈王佛,​ in the northwest, twelfth son of Mahābhijñā.
 +
 +須彌頂 Merukūṭa,​ second son of Mahābhijñā,​ whose name is 須蜜羅天 Abhirati.
 +
 +須扇多 Suśānta, a Buddha of this name, 'very placid,'​ M.W.; entirely pure; also 須延頭 ? Suyata.
 +
 +須摩提 (or 須摩題) Sumati, of wonderful meaning, or wisdom, the abode of Amitābha, his Pure Land.
 +
 +須摩那 Sumanā, also 修摩那 (or 蘇摩那); 須曼那; a plant 4 or 5 feet high with light yellow flowers, the 'great flowered jasmine'​. M.W.
 +
 +須梨耶 Sūrya, the sun.
 +
 +須湼蜜陀 sunirmita, but suggestive in meaning of nirmāṇarati,​ heavens or devas of joyful transformation.
 +
 +須眞 ? Sucinti; or Sucintā, or Sucitti, name of a deva.
 +
 +須臾 A kṣaṇa, a moment.
 +
 +須菩提 Subhuti, also 須扶提; 須浮帝; 蘇補底 (or 蘇部底); one of the ten chief disciples, said to have been the best exponent of śūnya, or the void 解空第一;​ he is the principal interlocutor in the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. There are two later personages of this name.
 +
 +[395]
 +
 +須跋陀羅 (須跋陀) Subhadra; the last convert of the Buddha, 'a Brahman 120 years old.'
 +
 +須達多 (須達); 蘇達多 Sudatta, well-given, intp. as a good giver, beneficent; known as 給獨 benefactor of orphans, etc. His name was Anāthapiṇḍaka,​ who bestowed the Jetavana vihāra on the Buddha.
 +
 +須達天 Sudṛśās,​ the 善現天; seventh brahmaloka, eighth of the dhyāna heavens.
 +
 +須達拏 Sudāna, also須大拏;​ 須提梨拏;​ 蘇達拏, a previous incarnation of the Buddha, when he forfeited the throne by almsgiving; it is confused in meaning with 善牙 Sudanta, good teeth.
 +
 +須達梨舍那 Sudarśan 須帶a, the heaven of beautiful appearance, the sixteenth brahmaloka, and seventh of the fourth dhyāna.
 +
 +須陀 śūdra, the fourth caste, cultivators,​ etc., cf. 首; also sudhā, nectar.
 +
 +須陀洹 srota-āpanna;​ also 須陀般那;​ 窣路多阿半那(or 窣路陀阿半那) (or 窣路多阿鉢囊);​ intp. by 入流, one who has entered the stream of holy living, also 逆流, one who goes against the stream of transmigration;​ the first stage of the arhat, that of a śrāvaka, v. 聲聞.
 +
 +須陀摩 (須陀須摩) Sudhāman, a king mentioned in the 智度論4.
 +
 +黃 Yellow.
 +
 +黃壚 A grave, idem黃沓.
 +
 +黃幡 Yellow paper streamers hung on a grave.
 +
 +黃教 黃帽教 The yellow sect of Lamaism, founded in 1417 by 宗喀巴 Tsoṅ-kha-pa,​ Sumatikīrti,​ who overthrew the decadent sect, which wears red robes, and established the sect that wears yellow, and which at first was: noted for the austere life of the monks; it is found chiefly in Tibet, Mongolia, and Ili.
 +
 +黃昏 Evening.
 +
 +黃楊木禪 The yellow poplar meditation. The yellow poplar grows slowly, and in years with intercalary months is supposed to recede in growth; hence the term refers to the backwardness,​ or decline of stupid disciples.
 +
 +黃檗 Huangbo, Phallodendron amurense, a tree which gave its name to a monastery in Fujian, and to a sect founded by 希運 Xiyun, its noted abbot of the Tang dynasty.
 +
 +黃泉 The yellow springs, the shades.
 +
 +黃葉 Yellow willow leaves, resembling gold, given to children to stop their crying; the evanescent joys of the heavens offered by Buddha to curb evil.
 +
 +黃衣 Yellow robes (of the monks), but as yellow is a prime colour and therefore unlawful, the garments are dyed a mixture, yellowish-grey.
 +
 +黃金 The yellow metal, i.e. gold.
 +
 +黃金宅 Golden abode, i.e. a monastery, so called after the Jetavana vihāra, for whose purchase the site was '​covered with gold'.
 +
 +黃門 Eunuchs, paṇḍakas,​ v. 般 10.
 +
 +黃面 The yellow-faced Laozi, i.e. Buddha, because his images are gold-colour.
 +
 +黃龍寺 Huanglong, the Yellow Dragon monastery in Kiangsi after which 慧南 Huinan was called.
 +
 +黑 kāla; kṛṣṇa;​ black; dark.
 +
 +黑分 黑月 kṛṣṇapakṣa,​ the darkening, or latter half of the month, the period of the waning moon.
 +
 +黑夜神 Kālarātri,​ also 黑夜天; 黑闇天; 闇夜天; one of the three queens of Yama, who controls midnight.
 +
 +黑天 Mahākāla, the black deva, a title of Śiva, the fierce Rudra, a black or dark-blue deity with eight arms and three eyes.
 +
 +黑業 Black karma, or evil deeds, which produce like karmaic results.
 +
 +黑漆桶 Black varnish tub, blank ignorance.
 +
 +黑白 Black and white, evil and good; also the two halves of the month, the waning and waxing moon.
 +
 +黑繩 kālasūtra,​ the black-rope or black-bonds hell.
 +
 +黑蚖 The black adder, or venomous snake, i.e. kleśa, passion, or illusion.
 +
 +黑衣 黑袈 Black, or dark monastic garments.
 +
 +黑闇 Black, dark, secluded, shut off; in darkness, ignorant.
 +
 +黑風 Black wind, i.e. a dark storm.
 +
 +黑齒 Maṭutacaṇḍī,​ black teeth, name of one of the rākṣasī.
 +13. THIRTEEN STROKES
 +
 +亂 Disturb, perturb, confusion, disorder, rebellion.
 +
 +亂僧 A disorderly monk.
 +
 +亂善 To disturb the good, confound goodness; the confused goodness of those who worship, etc., with divided mind.
 +
 +亂心 A perturbed or confused mind, to disturb or unsettle the mind.
 +
 +亂想 To think confusedly, or improperly.
 +
 +亂行 Disorderly conduct.
 +
 +傳 To transmit, pass on, hand down, promulgate, propagate; tradition; summon; interpret; record; the Abhidharma.
 +
 +傳心 To pass from mind to mind, to pass by narration or tradition, to transmit the mind of Buddha as in the Intuitional school, mental transmission.
 +
 +傳戒 To transmit the commandments,​ to grant them as at ordination.
 +
 +傳持 To maintain what has been transmitted;​ to transmit and maintain.
 +
 +傳教 To spread the teaching, or doctrine; to transmit and instruct.
 +
 +傳法 To transmit, or spread abroad the Buddha truth.
 +
 +傳燈 To transmit the light, pass on the lamp of truth.
 +
 +傳衣 To hand down the mantle, or garments.
 +
 +傳通 Universal propagation;​ unhindered transmission.
 +
 +傷 To injure, wound, hurt, harm, distress, A tr. of yakṣa.
 +
 +傷和氣 To disturb the harmony.
 +
 +傷命 Injury to life.
 +
 +募 To solicit, call upon, invite: enroll, enlist, subscribe.
 +
 +募緣 募化 To raise subscriptions.
 +
 +[396]
 +
 +勢 bala, sthāman. Power, influence, authority; aspect, circumstances.
 +
 +勢力鬼 A powerful demon.
 +
 +勢羅 śaila, craggy, mountainous,​ mountain.
 +
 +勢至 He whose wisdom and power reach everywhere, Mahāsthāmaprāpta,​ i.e. 大勢至 q.v. Great power arrived (at maturity), the bodhisattva on the right of Amitābha, who is the guardian of Buddha-wisdom.
 +
 +勤 vīrya, energy, zeal, fortitude, virility; intp. also as 精進 one of the pāramitās.
 +
 +勤息 A tr. of śramaṇa, one who diligently pursues the good, and ceases from evil.
 +
 +勤求 To seek diligently (after the good).
 +
 +勤苦 Devoted and suffering, zealously suffering.
 +
 +勤行 Diligently going forward, zealous conduct, devoted to service, worship, etc.
 +
 +嗟 To sigh.
 +
 +嗟嘆 Alas ! translit. cha.
 +
 +鳴 Oh ! alas ! to wail.
 +
 +鳴嚕捺囉叉 rudrakṣa, the Eiceocarpus ganitrus, whose berries are used for rosaries; hence, a rosary.
 +
 +嗜 Fond of, given up to, doting; translit. sh, j sounds.
 +
 +嗜那耶舍 Jinayaśas, a noted monk.
 +
 +嗣 To succeed to, continue, adopt, posterity, follow after.
 +
 +嗣法 To succeed to the dharma, or methods, of the master, a term used by the meditative school; 傳法 is used by the esoteric sect.
 +
 +嗢 To clear the throat; translit. u, cf. 鬱, 烏, 溫, 優.
 +
 +嗢呾羅 (or嗢怛羅) uttarā, tr. by 上 superior, predominant,​ above all.
 +
 +嗢呾羅矩嚕 Uttarakuru, one of the four continents, that north of Meru.
 +
 +嗢呾羅犀那 Uttarasena, a king of Udyāna who obtained part of Śākyamuni'​s relics.
 +
 +嗢呾羅頞沙荼 Uttarāṣāḍhā,​ the nakṣatra presiding over the second half of the 4th month, 'the month in which Śākyamuni was conceived.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +嗢尸羅 uśīra, fragrant root of Andropogon muricatus.
 +
 +嗢屈竹迦 嗢倶吒 utkuṭukāsana,​ v. 結跏 to squat on the heels.
 +
 +嗢瑟尼沙 uṣṇīṣa,​ the protuberance on the Buddha'​s head, v. 烏.
 +
 +嗢蹭伽 utsaṅga, 100,000 trillions, a 大嗢蹭伽 being a quadrillion,​ v. 洛叉.
 +
 +嗢鉢 (嗢鉢羅) utpala, the blue lotus; the 6th cold hell.
 +
 +園 vihāra; place for walking about, pleasure-ground,​ garden, park.
 +
 +園觀 A garden look-out, or terrace.
 +
 +園頭 A gardener, or head of a monastery-garden,​ either for pleasure, or for vegetables.
 +
 +圓 Round, all-round, full-orbed, inclusive, all-embracing,​ whole, perfect, complete.
 +
 +圓乘 The all-complete vehicle, the final teaching of Buddha.
 +
 +圓信 Complete faith; the faith of the '​perfect'​ school. A Tiantai doctrine that a moment'​s faith embraces the universe.
 +
 +圓修 (1) TO observe the complete Tiantai meditation, at one and the same time to comprehend the three ideas of 空假中 q.v. (2) To keep all the commandments perfectly.
 +
 +圓位 The perfect status, the position of the '​perfect'​ school, perfect unity which embraces all diversity.
 +
 +圓光 The halo surrounding the head of a Buddha, etc.
 +
 +圓佛 The Buddha of the '​perfect'​ school, the perfect pan-Buddha embracing all things in every direction; the dharmakāya;​ Vairocana, identified with Śākyamuni.
 +
 +圓凝 Complete crystallization,​ or formation, i.e. perfect nirvāṇa.
 +
 +圓合 All-embracing,​ all inclusive.
 +
 +圓壇 Round altar; a complete group of objects of worship, a maṇḍala.
 +
 +圓妙 The mystery of the '​perfect'​ school, i.e. the complete harmony of 空假中 noumenon, phenomenon, and the middle way.
 +
 +圓宗 The sect of the complete or final Buddha-truth,​ i.e. Tiantai; cf. 圓教.
 +
 +圓密 The complete teaching of Tiantai and the esoteric teaching. Also, the harmony of both as one.
 +
 +圓寂 Perfect rest, i.e. parinirvāṇa;​ the perfection of all virtue and the elimination of all evil, release from the miseries of transmigration and entrance into the fullest joy.
 +
 +[397]
 +
 +圓實 Perfect reality; the Tiantai perfect doctrine which enables one to attain reality or Buddhahood at once.
 +
 +圓心 The perfect mind, the mind that seeks perfection, i.e. nirvāṇa.
 +
 +圓悟 Completely to apprehend the truth. In Tiantai, the complete apprehension at the same time of noumenon, phenomenon, and the middle way.
 +
 +圓成 Complete perfection.
 +
 +圓成實性 The perfect true nature, absolute reality, the bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +圓戒 v. 圓頓戒.
 +
 +圓教 The complete, perfect, or comprehensive doctrine; the school or sect of Mahāyāna which represents it. The term has had three references. The first was by 光統 Guangtong of the Later Wei, sixth century, who defined three schools, 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 inclusive or complete. The Tiantai called its fourth section the inclusive, complete, or perfect teaching 圓, the other three being 三藏 Hīnayāna, 通 Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna,​ 別 Mahāyāna. The Huayan so called its fifth section, i.e. 小乘; 大乘始; 大乘終; 頓 and 圓. It is the Tiantai version that is in general acceptance, defined as a perfect whole and as complete in its parts; for the whole is the absolute and its parts are therefore the absolute; the two may be called noumenon and phenomenon, or 空 and 假 (or 俗), but in reality they are one, i.e. the 中 medial condition. To conceive these three as a whole is the Tiantai inclusive or '​perfect'​ doctrine. The Huayan '​perfect'​ doctrine also taught that unity and differentiation,​ or absolute and relative, were one, a similar doctrine to that of the identity of contraries. In Tiantai teaching the harmony is due to its underlying unity; its completeness to the permeation of this unity in all phenomena; these two are united in the medial 中 principle; to comprehend these three principles at one and the same time is the complete, all-containing,​ or '​perfect'​ doctrine of Tiantai. There are other definitions of the all-inclusive doctrine, e.g. the eight complete things, complete in teaching, principles, knowledge, etc. 圓教四門 v. 四門.
 +
 +圓斷 The Tiantai doctrine of the complete cutting off, at one remove, of the three illusions, i.e. 見思 associated with 空; 塵沙 with 假; and 無明 with 中; q. v.
 +
 +圓果 Perfect fruit, nirvāṇa.
 +
 +圓極 Inclusive to the uttermost; absolute perfection.
 +
 +圓機 The potentiality of becoming fully enlightened at once.
 +
 +圓海 The all-embracing ocean, i.e. the perfection or power of the Tathāgata.
 +
 +圓滿 Completely full; wholly complete; the fulfilling of the whole, i.e. that the part contains the whole, the absolute in the relative.
 +
 +圓滿經 The complete, or all-inclusive sūtra, a term applied to the Huayan jing.
 +
 +圓空 Complete vacuity, i.e. 空空, from which even the idea of vacuity is absent.
 +
 +圓融 Complete combination;​ the absolute in the relative and vice versa; the identity of apparent contraries; perfect harmony among all differences,​ as in water and waves, passion and enlightenment,​ transmigration and nirvāṇa, or life and death, etc.; all are of the same fundamental nature, all are bhūtatathatā,​ and bhūtatathatā is all; waves are one with waves, and water is one with water, and water and wave are one.
 +
 +圓融三諦 The three dogmas of 空假中 as combined, as one and the same, as a unity, according to the Tiantai inclusive or perfect school. The universal 空 apart from the particular 假 is an abstraction. The particular apart from the universal is unreal. The universal realizes its true nature in the particular, and the particular derives its meaning from the universal. The middle path 中 unites these two aspects of one reality.
 +
 +圓行 The conduct or discipline of the Tiantai '​perfect'​ school.
 +
 +圓覺 Complete enlightenment potentially present in each being, for all have 本覺 primal awareness, or 眞心 the true heart (e. g. conscience),​ which has always remained pure and shining; considered as essence it is the 一心 one mind, considered causally it is the Tathāgata-garbha,​ considered it is|| perfect enlightenment,​ cf. 圓覺經.
 +
 +圓詮 Exposition of the perfect or all-embracing doctrine, as found in the Huayan and Lotus Sūtras.
 +
 +[398]
 +
 +圓具 whole and complete, i.e. the whole of the commandments,​ by the observance of which one is near to nirvāṇa.
 +
 +圓通 Universally penetrating;​ supernatural powers of omnipresence;​ universality;​ by wisdom to penetrate the nature or truth of all things.
 +
 +圓通三昧 The various samādhi of supernatural powers of the twenty-five 'great ones' of the 楞嚴經 Surangama sūtra, especially of 圓通大士 the omnipresent hearer of those who call, i.e. Guanyin.
 +
 +圓道 The perfect way (of the three principles of Tiantai, v. above).
 +
 +圓頓 Complete and immediate, i.e. to comprehend the three principles 空假中 at one and the same time, cf. 圓教.
 +
 +圓頓一乘 The complete immediate vehicle, that of Tiantai.
 +
 +圓頓宗 圓頓教 See 圓頓一乘.
 +
 +圓頓戒 The rules of the Tiantai school, especially for attaining immediate enlightenment as above; also called 圓頓無作大戒 (or 圓頓菩薩大戒).
 +
 +圓頓觀 (圓頓止觀) as given in the 摩訶止觀 is the concentration,​ or mental state, in which is perceived, at one and the same time, the unity in the diversity and the diversity in the unity, a method ascribed by Tiantai to the Lotus Sūtra; v. above.
 +
 +塚 A tomb, mound, cemetery; śmaśāna, v. 舍.
 +
 +塑 To model in clay.
 +
 +泥塑木雕 Modeled clay and carved wood, images.
 +
 +塑像 To model images.
 +
 +塡 To fill up.
 +
 +塡王 Udayana, v. 優塡 king of Kauśāmbi.
 +
 +塡陵 A raised mound, a stūpa.
 +
 +塢 A bank, wall, entrenchment,​ dock; translit. u, for which many other characters are used, e.g. 烏; 憂; 于, etc.
 +
 +塗 To smear, rub on.
 +
 +塗割 To anoint the hand, or cut it off, instances of love and hatred.
 +
 +塗毒鼓 A drum smeared with poison to destroy those who hear it.
 +
 +塗灰外道 Pāṃśupatas,​ perhaps Pāsupatas, followers of Śiva, Śaiva ascetics; a class of heretics who smeared themselves with ashes.
 +
 +塗足油 Oil rubbed on the feet to avoid disease.
 +
 +塗香 To rub the body with incense or scent to worship Buddha.
 +
 +塔 stūpa; tope; a tumulus, or mound, for the bones, or remains of the dead, or for other sacred relics, especially of the Buddha, whether relics of the body or the mind, e.g. bones or scriptures. As the body is supposed to consist of 84,000 atoms, Aśoka is said to have built 84,000 stūpas to preserve relics of Śākyamuni. Pagodas, dagobas, or towers with an odd number of stories are used in China for the purpose of controlling the geomantic influences of a neighbourbood. Also 塔婆; 兜婆; 偸婆; 藪斗波; 窣堵波; 率都婆; 素覩波; 私鍮簸, etc. The stūpas erected over relics of the Buddha vary from the four at his birthplace, the scene of his enlightenment,​ of his first sermon, and of his death, to the 84,000 accredited to Aśoka.
 +
 +塔像 stūpas and images.
 +
 +塔廟 Pagodas and temples.
 +
 +塞 To stop up, block, gag; dull; honest; a barrier, frontier; translit. s.
 +
 +塞建陀 (塞建陀羅);​ 塞健陀 skandha, 'the shoulder';​ 'the body'; 'the trunk of a tree'; 'a section,'​ etc. M.W. 'Five psychological constituents.'​ 'Five attributes of every human being.'​ Eitel. Commonly known as the five aggregates, constituents,​ or groups; the pañcaskandha;​ under the Han dynasty 陰 was used, under the Jin 衆, under the Tang 蘊. The five are: 色 rūpa, form, or sensuous quality; 受 vedana, reception, feeling, sensation; 想 sañjñā , thought, consciousness,​ perception; 行 karman, or saṃskāra,​ action, mental activity; 識 vijñāna, cognition. The last four are mental constituents of the ego. Skandha is also the name of an arhat, and Skanda, also 塞建那, of a deva.
 +
 +塞畢力迦 spṛkka, clover, lucern.
 +
 +塞縛悉底迦 svastika, v. 萬.
 +
 +塞頗胝加 sphāṭika,​ crystal, quartz, one of the saptaratna, seven treasures.
 +
 +奧 [奥] South-west corner where were the lares; retired, quiet; abstruse, mysterious; blended; warm; translit. au.
 +
 +奧箄迦 aupayika, proper, fit, suitable.
 +
 +奧疏 Esoteric commentary 奥疏.
 +
 +嫉 īrṣyā; envy of other'​s possessions,​ jealousy.
 +
 +媽 Nurse, mother.
 +
 +媽哈薩督呀 mahāsattva,​ a great or noble being; the perfect bodhisattva,​ greater (mahā) than any other being (sattva) except a Buddha; v. 摩訶薩埵.
 +
 +? To pair. Small.
 +
 +?摩 Bhīmā, terrible, fearful; name of Śiva' s wife. 'A city west of Khoten noted for a Buddha-statue,​ which had transported itself thither from Udjyana.'​ Eitel. Xuanzang'​s Pimo. v. 毗.
 +
 +[399]
 +
 +媻 To and fro, to roll: translit. bha, va.
 +
 +媻毗吠伽 Bhāvaviveka,​ a disciple of Nāgārjuna,​ who retired to a rock cavern to await the coming of Maitreya.
 +
 +媻羅犀那 Varasena (the Aparasvin of the Zend-Avesta);​ a pass on the Paropamisus,​ now called Khawak, south of Indarab.
 +
 +媻藪天 Vasudeva, in Brahmanic mythology the father of Kṛṣṇa.
 +
 +媻達羅鉢陀 Bhādrapada,​ the last month of summer.
 +
 +嵯 Irregular, uneven; translit. jha.
 +
 +廅 A cave.
 +
 +廅天 Parīttābha,​ the fourth brahmaloka, the first region of the second dhyāna.
 +
 +廅樓亘 An early attempt to translate the name of Guanyin. 廅樓亙.
 +
 +廅波摩那 (廅波) Apramāṇābha,​ the heaven of infinite light, the second region of the second dhyāna.
 +
 +微 sūkṣma. Minute, small, slight; abstruse, subtle; disguised; not; used in the sense of a molecule seven times larger than 極微 an atom; translit. vi, bi.
 +
 +微塵 A molecule, v. above.
 +
 +微塵數 Numerous as molecules, or atoms; numberless.
 +
 +微妙 Abstruse, recondite, mysterious.
 +
 +微密 Mysterious, secret, occult.
 +
 +微戍陀 viśuddha, purified, pure.
 +
 +微沙落起多 Vibhārakṣita ? , a form of Tiṣyarakṣita,​ Aśoka'​s queen.
 +
 +微瑟紐 Viṣṇu, also 毘瑟紐 (or 毘瑟笯 or 毘瑟怒); 毘紐; 毘搜紐 (or 毘痩紐); 韋紐; the second in the Trimūrti, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva; the '​preserver',​ and all-pervading,​ or encompassing;​ identified with Nārāyaṇa-deva.
 +
 +微若布雷迦 bījapūraka;​ a citron, citron medicus. M. W.
 +
 +微細 Minute, fine, refined, subtle.
 +
 +微細身 A refined, subtle body.
 +
 +微聚 A molecule, the smallest aggregation of atoms.
 +
 +微行 Minute, refined, or subtle action.
 +
 +微誓耶 Vijayā, also 微惹耶; 毘社耶 the overcomer, Durgā, intp. as the wife, or female manifestation,​ of Vairocana.
 +
 +愼 Careful, cautious, attentive, heedful.
 +
 +愼謹 translit. ji.
 +
 +愼那弗怛羅 Jinaputra, author of the Yogācāryabhūmi-śāstra-kārikā,​ tr. by Xuanzang A.D. 654.
 +
 +M011078惕鬼 A demon of the nerves who troubles those who sit in meditation. Also 堆惕鬼; 埠惕鬼.
 +
 +愧 Ashamed, intp. as ashamed for the misdeeds of others. v. 慚.
 +
 +惹 Incite, provoke, irritate; translit. j, ja, jña; cf. 社; 闍.
 +
 +惹那 jñāna, v. 智 knowledge, wisdom.
 +
 +愍 idem 憫. Grieve for, mourn, sympathize.
 +
 +愍忌 A day of remembrance for a virtuous elder on the anniversary of his birthday.
 +
 +感 To influence, move.
 +
 +感應 Response to appeal or need; Buddha moved to respond.
 +
 +感果 The result that is sought.
 +
 +感進 To move to zeal, or inspire to progress.
 +
 +想 To think, meditate, reflect, expect; a function of mind.
 +
 +想地獄 Sañjīva, idem 等地獄 the resurrecting hell.
 +
 +想念 To think and reflect.
 +
 +想愛 Thought of and desire for, thought leading to desire.
 +
 +想蘊 sañjñā, one of the five skandhas, perception.
 +
 +想顚倒 Inverted thoughts or perceptions,​ i.e. the illusion of regarding the seeming as real.
 +
 +愚 Monkey-witted,​ silly, stupid, ignorant.
 +
 +愚僧 Ignorant monk.
 +
 +愚夫 bāla; ignorant, immature, a simpleton, the unenlightened.
 +
 +愚惑 Deluded by ignorance, the delusion of ignorance.
 +
 +愚法 Ignorant, or immature law, or method, i.e. that of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas,​ Hīnayāna.
 +
 +愚痴 muḍha; ignorant and unenlightened,​ v. 痴.
 +
 +愚鈍 Ignorant and dull-witted.
 +
 +慈 Affection (as that of a mother), mercy, compassion, tenderness; mother.
 +
 +慈光 Merciful light, that of the Buddhas.
 +
 +慈力王 Maitrībala-rāja,​ king of merciful virtue, or power, a former incarnation of the Buddha when, as all his people had embraced the vegetarian life, and yakṣas had no animal food and were suffering, the king fed five of them with his own blood.
 +
 +慈嚴 Compassion and strictness, the maternal-cum-paternal spirit.
 +
 +慈子 Sons of compassion, i.e. the disciples of Maitreya.
 +
 +慈尊 The compassionate honoured one, Maitreya.
 +
 +慈心 A compassionate heart.
 +
 +慈忍 Compassion and patience, compassionate tolerance.
 +
 +慈恩 Compassion and grace, merciful favour; name of a temple in Luoyang, under the Tang dynasty, which gave its name to Kuiji 窺基 q.v., founder of the 法相 school, known also as the 慈恩 or 唯識 school; he was a disciple of and collaborator with Xuanzang, and died A.D. 682.
 +
 +慈悲 Compassion and pity, merciful, compassionate.
 +
 +慈悲室 The abode of compassion, the dwelling of Buddha, v. Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +慈悲萬行 Tender compassion in all things, or with compassion all things succeed.
 +
 +慈悲衣 Compassionate garment, the monk's robe.
 +
 +慈悲觀 The compassion-contemplation,​ in which pity destroys resentment.
 +
 +慈意 The mind or spirit of compassion and kindness.
 +
 +慈敬 Loving reverence.
 +
 +慈明 Ciming, a noted monk of the Song dynasty.
 +
 +慈氏 The compassionate one, Maitreya.
 +
 +[400]
 +
 +慈水 Mercy as water fertilizing the life.
 +
 +慈眼 The compassionate eye (of Buddha).
 +
 +慈航 The bark of mercy.
 +
 +慈辯 To discuss compassionately.
 +
 +慈門 The gate of mercy, Buddhism.
 +
 +慈雲 The over-spreading,​ fructifying cloud of compassion, the Buddha-heart;​ also Ciyun, the name of a noted Sung monk.
 +
 +慈霪 To rain down compassion on men.
 +
 +意 Manas, the sixth of the ṣaḍāyatanas or six means of perception, i.e. sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and mind. Manas means "mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence,​ understanding,​ perception, sense, conscience, will". M.W. It is "the intellectual function of consciousness",​ Keith. In Chinese it connotes thought, idea, intention, meaning, will; but in Buddhist terminology its distinctive meaning is mind, or the faculty of thought.
 +
 +意三 The three evils which belong to intellect — lobha, dveṣa, moha, i.e. desire, dislike, delusion.
 +
 +意力 Mental power or intention; the purpose to attain bodhi or enlightenment.
 +
 +意地 The stage of intellectual consciousness,​ being the sixth vijñāna, the source of all concepts.
 +
 +意學 Mental learning, learning by meditation rather than from books, the special cult of the Chan or Intuitional school, which is also called the School of the Buddha-mind.
 +
 +意安樂行 The calmly joyful life of the mind — one of the four in the Lotus Sutra 14; v. 四安樂行.
 +
 +意念往生 By thought and remembrance or invocation of Amitābha to enter into his Pure Land.
 +
 +意憤天 A deva who sinned and was sent down to be born among men.
 +
 +意成 Mentally evolved, or evolved at will.
 +
 +意成天 Devas independent of the nourishment of the realms of form and formlessness,​ who live only in the realm of mind.
 +
 +意成身 idem 意生身 q.v.
 +
 +意根 The mind-sense, or indriya, the sixth of the senses; v. 六處.
 +
 +意業 The function of mind or thought, one of the 三業 thought, word, deed.
 +
 +意樂 Joy of the mind, the mind satisfied and joyful. Manobhirāma,​ the realm foretold for Maudgalyāyana as a Buddha.
 +
 +意水 The mind or will to become calm as still water, on entering samādhi.
 +
 +意猿 The mind as intractable as a monkey.
 +
 +意生身 A body mentally produced, or produced at will, a tr. of manomaya. Bodhisattvas from the first stage 地 upwards are able to take any form at will to save the living ; also 意生化身 ; 意成身.
 +
 +意界 Manodhātu, the realm of mind.
 +
 +意處 The, mind-sense, the mind, the sixth of the six senses, v. 六處.
 +
 +意見 Thoughts, ideas, concepts, views.
 +
 +意解 Intellectual explanation;​ liberation of the mind, or thought.
 +
 +意言 Mental words, words within the intellectual consciousness;​ thought and words.
 +
 +意識 manovijñāna;​ the faculty of mind, one of the six vijñānas.
 +
 +意趣 The direction of the mind, or will.
 +
 +意車 The mind vehicle, the vehicle of intellectual consciousness,​ the imagination.
 +
 +意馬 The mind as a horse, ever running from one thing to another.
 +
 +意馬心猿 The mind like a horse and the heart like a monkey — restless and intractable.
 +
 +愛 kāma; rāga. Love, affection, desire; also used for tṛṣṇā,​ thirst, avidity, desire, one of the twelve nidānas. It is intp. as 貪 coveting, and 染著 defiling attachment; also defined as defiling love like that toward wife and children, and undefiling love like that toward one's teachers and elders.
 +
 +[401]
 +
 +愛恨 The falseness or unreality of desire.
 +
 +愛別離苦 The suffering of being separated from those whom one loves. v. 八苦.
 +
 +愛刺 The thorn of love; the suffering of attachment which pierces like a thorn.
 +
 +愛執 The grip of love and desire.
 +
 +愛心 A loving heart; a mind full of desire; a mind dominated by desire.
 +
 +愛恚 Love and hate, desire and hate.
 +
 +愛惜 Love and care for; to be unwilling to giving up; sparing.
 +
 +愛惑 The illusion of love, or desire.
 +
 +愛憎 Love and hate, desire and dislike.
 +
 +愛果 The fruit of desire and attachment, i.e. suffering.
 +
 +愛根 The root of desire, which produces the passions.
 +
 +愛業 The karma which follows desire.
 +
 +愛樂 The joy of right love, i.e. the love of the good.
 +
 +愛欲 Love and desire; love of family.
 +
 +愛欲海 The ocean of desire.
 +
 +愛毒 The poison of desire, or love, which harms devotion to Buddha.
 +
 +愛水 Semen; also the passion of desire which fertilizes evil fruit.
 +
 +愛法 Love for Buddha-truth;​ the method of love.
 +
 +愛河 The river of desire in which men are drowned.
 +
 +愛染 The taint of desire.
 +
 +愛染王 Rāga, one of the 明王 with angry appearance, three faces and six arms.
 +
 +愛涎 The mouth watering with desire.
 +
 +愛海 The ocean of desire.
 +
 +愛流 The food of desire which overwhelms.
 +
 +愛渴 The thirst of desire, also 渴愛 thirstily to desire.
 +
 +愛潤 The fertilizing of desire; i.e. when dying the illusion of attachment fertilizes the seed of future karma, producing the fruit of further suffering.
 +
 +愛火 Love as fire that burns.
 +
 +愛獄 The prison of desire.
 +
 +愛界 The realm of desire, or love ; those who dwell in it.
 +
 +愛眼 The eye of love, that of Buddha.
 +
 +愛種 The seed of desire, with its harvest of pain.
 +
 +愛結 The tie of love or desire.
 +
 +愛緣 Love or desire as a contributory cause, or attachment.
 +
 +愛繫 The bond of love, or desire.
 +
 +愛羂 The noose, or net, of desire.
 +
 +愛羅刹女 The rākṣasī,​ or female demon, of desire.
 +
 +愛著 The strong attachment of love; the bondage of desire. From this bond of love also arises pity 慈悲 which is fundamental to Buddhism.
 +
 +愛著生死 bondage to rebirth and mortality by love of life, and to be rid of this love is essential to deliverance.
 +
 +愛著迷 The delusion of love for and attachment to the transient and perishing.
 +
 +[402]
 +
 +愛繭 The cocoon of desire spun about beings as a silkworm spins a cocoon about itself.
 +
 +愛行 Emotional behavior, or the emotions of desire, as contrasted with 見行 rational behavior.
 +
 +愛見 Attachment or love growing from thinking of others. Also, attachment to things 愛 and attachment to false views 見; also emotional and rational.
 +
 +愛語 Loving speech; the words of a bodhisattva.
 +
 +愛論 Talk of love or desire, which gives rise to improper conversation.
 +
 +愛身天 The heaven of lovely form in the desire-realm,​ but said to be above the devalokas; cf. sudṛśa 善現.
 +
 +愛輪 The wheel of desire which turns men into the six paths of transmigration.
 +
 +愛鬼 The demon of desire.
 +
 +損 To spoil, hurt, damage.
 +
 +損伏斷 To spoil, subject and destroy (the passions).
 +
 +敬 Reverence, respect.
 +
 +敬愛 Reverence and love; reverent love.
 +
 +敬田 The field of reverence, i.e. worship and support of the Buddha, dharma, and saṃgha as a means to obtain blessing.
 +
 +敬禮 vandanī, paying reverence, worship.
 +
 +新 New, newly, just, opposite of 奮 old.
 +
 +新戒 One who has newly been admitted; a novice.
 +
 +新歳 The new year of the monks, beginning on the day after the summer retreat.
 +
 +新發意 One who has newly resolved on becoming a Buddhist, or on any new line of conduct.
 +
 +新舊兩譯 Old and new methods of or terms in translation,​ the old before the new with Xuanzang.
 +
 +新舊醫 Old and new methods of healing, e.g. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna, v. Nirvāṇa Sūtra 2.
 +
 +暖 Warm; to warm.
 +
 +暖寮 暖寺; 暖洞; 暖席 Presents of tea, fruit, etc., brought to a monastery, or offered to a new arrival.
 +
 +暗 Dark, dim, gloom, dull; secret, hidden.
 +
 +暗蔽 Dark, ignorant.
 +
 +暗證禪師 暗證; 暗禪, etc. A charlatan who teaches intuitional meditation differently from the methods of that school; an ignorant preceptor.
 +
 +會 Meet, assemble, collect, associate, unite; assembly, company; communicate;​ comprehend, skilled in, can, will; a time, moment.
 +
 +會三歸一 To unite the three vehicles in one, as in the Lotus Sutra.
 +
 +會下 The lower, or junior members of an assembly, or company.
 +
 +會得 To comprehend, understand; to meet with.
 +
 +會式 The manners customs, or rules of an assembly, or community.
 +
 +會繹 To assemble and explain the meaning; to comprehend and explain.
 +
 +會衆 To assemble the community, or company; to meet all.
 +
 +會通 To compare and adjust; compound; bring into agreement; solve and unify conflicting ideas.
 +
 +楚 Brambles, spinous; painful, grievous; to flog; clear up; the Chu state.
 +
 +楚江王 King of the grievous river, the second of the ten rulers of Hades.
 +
 +椽 Rafters.
 +
 +楊 Willow; aspen, poplar, arbutus; syphilis.
 +
 +楊枝 Willow branches, or twigs, used as dantakāṣṭha,​ i.e. for cleansing the teeth by chewing or rubbing.
 +
 +楊柳觀音 Guanyin with the willow-branch.
 +
 +楊葉 Wi11ow leaves, e.g. yellow willow leaves given to a child as golden leaves to stop its crying, a parallel to the Buddha'​s opportune methods of teaching.
 +
 +楞伽 Laṅkā, a mountain in the south-east part of Ceylon, now called Adam's Peak; the island of Ceylon 錫蘭.
 +
 +楞伽經 The Laṅkāvatāra sūtra, a philosophical discourse attributed to Śākyamuni as delivered on the Laṅka mountain in Ceylon. It may have been composed in the fourth or fifth century A.D.; it "​represents a mature phase of speculation and not only criticizes the Sāṅkhya, Pāśupata and other Hindu schools, but is conscious of the growing resemblance of Mahāyānism to Brahmanic philosophy and tries to explain it". Eliot. There have been four translations into Chinese, the first by Dharmarakṣa between 412-433, which no longer exists; the second was by Guṇabhadra in 443, ca11ed 楞伽 阿跋多羅寶經 4 juan; the third by Bodhiruci in 513, called 入楞伽經 10 juan; the fourth by Śikṣānanda in 700-704, called 大乘入楞伽經 7 juan. There are many treatises and commentaries on it, by Faxian and others. See Studies in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra by Suzuki and his translation of it. This was the sūtra allowed by Bodhidharma,​ and is the recognized text of the Chan (Zen) School. There are numerous treatises on it.
 +
 +[403]
 +
 +楞嚴經 Śūraṅgama-sūtra,​ a Tantric work tr. by Pāramiti in 705; v. 首楞嚴經;​ there are many treatises under both titles.
 +
 +極 Highest point, apex; utmost, ultimate, extreme, the limit, finality; reaching to.
 +
 +極位 The highest stage of enlightenment,​ that of Buddha.
 +
 +極光淨天 Pure heaven of utmost light, the highest of the second dhyāna heavens of the form world; the first to be re-formed after a universal destruction and in it Brahma and devas come into existence; also極光音天 Ābhāsvara.
 +
 +極喜地 The stage of utmost joy, the first of the ten stages 十地 of the bodhisattva.
 +
 +極地 Reaching the ground; utmost; fundamental principle; the highest of all, i.e. Buddha.
 +
 +極妙 Of utmost beauty, wonder, or mystery.
 +
 +極尊 The highest revered one, Buddha.
 +
 +極微 An atom, especially as a mental concept, in contrast with 色聚之微,​ i.e. a material atom which has a center and the six directions, an actual but imperceptible atom; seven atoms make a 微塵 molecule, the smallest perceptible aggregation,​ called an aṇu 阿莬 or 阿拏; the perceptibility is ascribed to the deva-eye rather than to the human eye. There is much disputation as to whether the ultimate atom has real existence or not, whether it is eternal and immutable and so on.
 +
 +極果 The highest fruit, perfect Buddha-enlightenment.
 +
 +極樂 Sukhāvatī,​ highest joy, name of the Pure Land of Amitābha in the West, also called 極樂世界 the world of utmost joy.
 +
 +極熱地獄 Pratāpana; Mahātāpana;​ the hottest hell, the seventh of the eight hells.
 +
 +極略色 The smallest perceptible particle into which matter can be divided, an atom.
 +
 +極聖 The highest saint, Buddha.
 +
 +極臈 The oldest monk in orders.
 +
 +極致 Utmost, ultimate, final point; reaching to.
 +
 +極覺 Profound enlightenment,​ utmost awareness.
 +
 +極靜 Utmost quiescence, or mental repose; meditation, trance.
 +
 +極難勝地 The stage in which the bodhisattva has overcome his worst difficulties,​ the fifth stage.
 +
 +業 karman, karma, "​action,​ work, deed"; "moral duty"; "​product,​ result, effect."​ M.W. The doctrine of the act; deeds and their effects on the character, especially in their relation to succeeding forms of transmigration. The 三業 are thought, word, and deed, each as good, bad, or indifferent. Karma from former lives is 宿業, from present conduct 現業. Karma is moral action that causes future retribution,​ and either good or evil transmigration. It is also that moral kernel in which each being survives death for further rebirth or metempsychosis. There are categories of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10; the 六業 are rebirth in the hells, or as animals, hungry ghosts, men, devas, or asuras: v. 六趣.
 +
 +業力 The power of karma to produce good and evil fruit.
 +
 +業厄 The constraints of karma; i.e. restricted conditions now as resulting from previous lives.
 +
 +業受 That which is received as the result of former karmic conduct, e.g. long or short life, etc.
 +
 +業因 The deed as cause; the cause of good or bad karma.
 +
 +業垢 Karma defilement.
 +
 +業報 Karma-reward;​ the retribution of karma, good or evil.
 +
 +業報身 The body of karmic retribution,​ especially that assumed by a bodhisattva to accord with the conditions of those he seeks to save.
 +
 +業塵 Karma-dirt, the defilement or remains of evil karma.
 +
 +業天 The karma of heaven, i.e. the natural inevitable law of cause and effect.
 +
 +業壽 Life, long or short, as determined by previous karma.
 +
 +業影 Karma-shadow,​ karma dogging one's steps like a shadow.
 +
 +業性 The nature of karma, its essential being; idem 業體.
 +
 +業惱 Karmic distress; karma and distress.
 +
 +業感 The influence of karma; caused by karma.
 +
 +業有 Reality of karma, idem 行有.
 +
 +業果 The fruit of karma, conditions of rebirth depending on previous karmic conduct.
 +
 +[404]
 +
 +業海 The vast, deep ocean of (evil) karma.
 +
 +業火 The fires of evil karma; the fires of the hells.
 +
 +業田 The field of karma; the life in which the seeds of future harvest are sown.
 +
 +業病 Illness as the result of previous karma.
 +
 +業相 Action, activity, the karmic, the condition of karmic action. The first of the three 相 of the Awakening of Faith, when mental activity is stirred to action by unenlightenment.
 +
 +業秤 The scales of karma, in which good and evil are weighed by the rulers of Hades.
 +
 +業種 karmabīja; karma-seed which springs up in happy or in suffering rebirth.
 +
 +業簿 The record, or account book, kept by the rulers of Hades, recording the deeds of all sentient beings.
 +
 +業結 The bond of karma; karma and the bond (of the passions).
 +
 +業綱 The net of karma which entangles beings in the sufferings of rebirth.
 +
 +業緣 Karma-cause,​ karma-circumstance,​ condition resulting from karma.
 +
 +業縛 Karma-bonds;​ the binding power of karma.
 +
 +業繩 Karma-cords,​ the bonds of karma.
 +
 +業繫 Karma-bonds;​ karma-fetters.
 +
 +業繫苦相 The suffering state of karma-bondage.
 +
 +業羂 The noose of karma which entangles in transmigration.
 +
 +業苦 Karmaic suffering.
 +
 +業處 karmasthāna;​ a place for working, of business, etc.; the place, or condition, in which the mind is maintained in meditation; by inference, the Pure Land, etc.
 +
 +業行 Deeds, actions; karma deeds, moral action which influences future rebirth.
 +
 +業識 "​Activity-consciousness in the sense that through the agency of ignorance an unenlightened mind begins to be disturbed (or awakened)."​ Suzuki'​s Awakening of Faith, 76.
 +
 +業賊 Robber-karma;​ evil karma harms as does a robber.
 +
 +業輪 The wheel of karma which turns men into the six paths of transmigration.
 +
 +業通 Supernatural powers obtained from former karma; idem 報通.
 +
 +業道 The way of karma.
 +
 +業道神 The gods who watch over men's deeds.
 +
 +業鏡 Karma-mirror,​ that kept in Hades reveals all karma.
 +
 +業障 karmāvaraṇa;​ the screen, or hindrance, of past karma, hindering the attainment of bodhi.
 +
 +業障除 A symbol indicating the cutting away of all karmic hindrances by the sword of wisdom.
 +
 +業風 Karma-wind: (1) the fierce wind of evil karma and the wind from the hells, at the end of the age; (2) karma as wind blowing a person into good or evil rebirth.
 +
 +業食 Karma as nutritive basis for succeeding existence.
 +
 +業餘 A remnant of karma after the six paths of existence. v. 三餘.
 +
 +業體 idem 業性.
 +
 +業魔 Karma-māras,​ the demons who or the karma which hinders and harms goodness.
 +
 +歲 Vatsara, a year; cf. 臘 19 strokes.
 +
 +[405]
 +
 +毀 To break down, destroy, abolish, defame.
 +
 +毀訾 To defame, vilify.
 +
 +毀釋 To slander the Buddha or Buddhism.
 +
 +殿 A temple, hall, palace; rearguard.
 +
 +殿主 殿司 The warden of a temple.
 +
 +準 correct, exact, a rule.
 +
 +準提 Candī, or Cundi; also 准胝; 尊提. (1) In Brahmanic mythology a vindictive form of Durgā, or Pārvatī, wife of Śiva. (2) In China identified with Marīci 摩里支 or 天后 Queen of Heaven. She is represented with three eyes and eighteen arms; also as a form of Guanyin, or in Guanyin'​s retinue.
 +
 +準陀 純陀 Cunda, a native of Kuśinagara from whom Śākyamuni accepted his last meal.
 +
 +溥 Universal.
 +
 +溥首 A name of Mañjuśrī,​ v. 文.
 +
 +溼 The class of beings produced by moisture, such as fish, etc. v. 四生.
 +
 +源 Spring, source, origin, fons et origo.
 +
 +源底 The very beginning, source, or basis.
 +
 +滅 Extinguish, exterminate,​ destroy; a tr. of nirodha, suppression,​ annihilation;​ of nirvāṇa, blown out, extinguished,​ dead, perfect rest, highest felicity, etc.; and of nivṛtti, cessation, disappearance. nirodha is the third of the four axioms: 苦, 集, 滅, 道 pain, its focussing, its cessation (or cure), the way of such cure. Various ideas are expressed as to the meaning of 滅, i.e. annihilation or extinction of existence; or of rebirth and mortal existence; or of the passions as the cause of pain; and it is the two latter views which generally prevail; cf. M017574 10 strokes.
 +
 +滅劫 The saṃvarta-kalpa of world-destruction,​ cf; 壞劫.
 +
 +滅受想定 A samādhi in which there is complete extinction of sensation and thought; one of the highest forms of kenosis, resulting from concentration.
 +
 +滅場 The plot or arena where the extinction (of the passions) is attained; the place of perfect repose, or nirvāṇa.
 +
 +滅定 idem 滅盡定.
 +
 +滅定智通 The freedom or supernatural power of the wisdom attained in nirvāṇa, or perfect passivity.
 +
 +滅度 nirvāṇa: extinction of reincarnation and escape from suffering.
 +
 +滅後 After the nirvāṇa, after the Buddha'​s death.
 +
 +滅擯 Blotting out the name and the expulsion of a monk who has committed a grievous sin without repentance.
 +
 +滅智 The knowledge, or wisdom, of the third axiom, nirodha or the extinction of suffering.
 +
 +滅果 nirvāṇa as the fruit of extinction (of desire).
 +
 +滅業 The work or karma of nirodha, the karma resulting from the extinction of suffering, i.e. nirvāṇa.
 +
 +滅法 The unconditioned dharma, the ultimate inertia from which all forms come, the noumenal source of all phenomena.
 +
 +滅法智 The knowledge or wisdom of the dogma of extinction (of passion and reincarnation);​ one of the 八智 q. v.
 +
 +滅法智忍 One of the 八忍, the endurance and patience associated with the last.
 +
 +滅法界 The realm of the absolute, of perfect quiescence.
 +
 +滅理 The principle or law of extinction, i.e. nirvāṇa.
 +
 +滅病 One of the 四病 four sick or faulty ways of seeking perfection, the Hīnayāna method of endeavouring to extinguish all perturbing passions so that nothing of them remains.
 +
 +滅盡定 idem 滅受想定,​ also called 滅定 and 滅盡三昧.
 +
 +滅相 Extinction, as when the present passes into the past. Also, the absolute, unconditioned aspect of bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +滅種 To destroy one's seed of Buddhahood.
 +
 +滅羯磨 The extinguishing karma, or the blotting out of the name of a monk and his expulsion.
 +
 +滅觀 The contemplation of extinction: the destruction of ignorance is followed by the annihilation of karma, of birth, old age, and death.
 +
 +[406]
 +
 +滅諦 nirodha-āryasatya,​ the third of the four dogmas, the extinction of suffering, which is rooted in reincarnation,​ v. 四諦.
 +
 +滅道 Extinction of suffering and the way of extinction, nirodha and mārga; v. supra.
 +
 +照 To shine, illumine; to superintend;​ a dispatch, pass; as, according to.
 +
 +照寂 The shining mystic purity of Buddha, or the bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +照拂 The manager of affairs in a monastery.
 +
 +照牌 A notice board, especially allotting seats.
 +
 +照覽 To shine upon and behold; to survey; to enlighten.
 +
 +照鏡 To look at oneself in a mirror, forbidden to monks except for specified reasons.
 +
 +煎 To simmer, fry.
 +
 +煎點 To fry cakes.
 +
 +煮 To boil, cook.
 +
 +煮沙 Like boiling sand for food.
 +
 +煕 Light, bright, splendid, prosperous.
 +
 +煕連 The river Hiraṇyavatī,​ see 尸.
 +
 +煙 Smoke, tobacco, opium.
 +
 +煙蓋 A smoke cover, i.e. a cloud of incense.
 +
 +煗 Warm, idem 暖.
 +
 +煗法 The first of the 四加行位;​ the stage in which dialectic processes are left behind and the mind dwells only on the four dogmas and the sixteen disciplines.
 +
 +uc3ddb To heat; a pot.
 +
 +uc3ddb牒薩督呀 bodhisattva,​ v. 菩.
 +
 +煏 To dry by the fire.
 +
 +煏芻 bhikṣu, v. 比.
 +
 +煅 To forge metal, work upon, calcine.
 +
 +煅髮 To burn up the hair of a novice, male or female.
 +
 +煩 Trouble, annoyance, perplexity.
 +
 +煩惱 kleśa, 'pain, affliction, distress,'​ 'care, trouble'​ (M.W.). The Chinese tr. is similar, distress, worry, trouble, and whatever causes them. Keith interprets kleśa by '​infection',​ '​contamination',​ '​defilement'​. The Chinese intp. is the delusions, trials, or temptations of the passions and of ignorance which disturb and distress the mind; also in brief as the three poisons 貪瞋痴 desire, detestation,​ and delusion. There is a division into the six fundamental 煩惱, or afflictions,​ v. below, and the twenty which result or follow them and there are other dual divisions. The six are: 貪瞋痴慢疑 and 惡見 desire, detestation,​ delusion, pride, doubt, and evil views, which last are the false views of a permanent ego, etc. The ten 煩惱 are the first five, and the sixth subdivided into five. 煩惱, like kleśa, implies moral affliction or distress, trial, temptation, tempting, sin. Cf. 使.
 +
 +煩惱卽菩提 The passions, or moral afflictions,​ are bodhi, i.e. the one is included in the other; it is a Tiantai term, and said to be the highest expression of Mahāyāna thought; cf. 卽.
 +
 +煩惱林 The forest of moral affliction.
 +
 +煩惱業苦 The suffering arising out of the working of the passions, which produce good or evil karma, which in turn results in a happy or suffering lot in one of the three realms, and again from the lot of suffering (or mortality) arises the karma of the passions; also known as 惑業苦, 三輪, and 三道.
 +
 +煩惱冰 The ice of moral affliction, i.e. its congealing, chilling influence on bodhi.
 +
 +煩惱泥 The soil or mud of moral affliction, out of which grows the lotus of enlightenment.
 +
 +煩惱河 The river of moral affliction which overwhelms all beings.
 +
 +煩惱海 The ocean of moral affliction which engulfs all beings.
 +
 +煩惱濁 The impurity, or defiling nature of the passions, one of the five 濁.
 +
 +煩惱病 The disease of moral affliction.
 +
 +煩惱礙 The obstruction of temptation, or defilement, to entrance into nirvāṇa peace by perturbing the mind.
 +
 +煩惱習 The habit or influence of the passions after they have been cut off.
 +
 +煩惱薪 The faggots of passion, which are burnt up by the fire of wisdom.
 +
 +[407]
 +
 +煩惱藏 The store of moral affliction, or defilement, contained in the five 住地 q.v.
 +
 +煩惱賊 Temptation, or passion, as a thief injuring the spiritual nature.
 +
 +煩惱道 The way of temptation, or passion, in producing bad karma.
 +
 +煩惱陣 The army of temptations,​ tempters, or allurements.
 +
 +煩惱障 The barrier of temptation, passion, or defilement, which obstructs the attainment of the nirvāṇa-mind.
 +
 +煩惱餘 The remnants of illusion after it has been cut off in the realms of desire, form, and formlessness—a Hīnayāna term.
 +
 +煩惱魔 The Māra of the passions who troubles mind and body; the tempter; cf. 使.
 +
 +煩籠 The basket of the troublers, i.e. the passions.
 +
 +煩談 vandana, obeisance, worship, v. 和.
 +
 +牒 Tablets, records.
 +
 +戒牒 A monk' s certificate,​ useful to a wandering or travelling monk.
 +
 +犍 A gelded bull, an ox; a creature half man, half leopard.
 +
 +犍不男 A eunuch by castration, cf. paṇḍaka.
 +
 +犍地 v. 犍稚 infra.
 +
 +犍度 khaṇda, a piece, fragment, portion, section, chapter; a collection; the rules, monastic rules; also used for skandha, v. 塞. There are categories of eight, and twenty subjective divisions for the eight, v. the Abhidharma 八犍度論 B. N. 1273.
 +
 +犍德 犍陟 (犍陟馬) Kaṇṭhaka,​ name of the steed on which Śākyamuni rode away from home.
 +
 +犍沓 gandharva, v. 乾.
 +
 +犍稚 ghaṇṭā,​ also 犍地; 犍椎; 犍槌; 犍遲; a bell, gong, or any similar resonant article.
 +
 +犍陀 skandha, v. 塞.
 +
 +犍陀羅 犍陀衙; 犍陀訶; 犍馱邏 Gandhāra; v. 乾.
 +
 +犍黃門 Palace eunuchs.
 +
 +獅 A lion; cf. 師子.
 +
 +瑚 Coral.
 +
 +瑚璉 A sacrificial grain-vessel;​ described as a precious stone.
 +
 +瑞 Auspicious: a jade token.
 +
 +瑞像 Auspicious image, especially the first image of Śākyamuni made of sandalwood and attributed to Udayana, king of Kauśāmbī,​ a contemporary of Śākyamuni. Cf. 西域記 5.
 +
 +瑞應 Auspicious response, the name of the udumbara flower, v. 優.
 +
 +瑞相 Auspicious, auspicious sign, or aspect.
 +
 +瑟 A lute; massive.
 +
 +瑟瑟 瑟石 The stone of which the throne of 不動明王 q.v. consists.
 +
 +瑜 Lustre of gems; a beautiful stone; excellences,​ virtues; translit. yu, yoyo.
 +
 +瑜乾馱羅 Yugaṃdhara,​ v. 踰, the first of the seven concentric circles around Meru.
 +
 +瑜伽 yoga; also 瑜誐; 遊迦; a yoke, yoking, union, especially an ecstatic union of the individual soul with a divine being, or spirit, also of the individual soul with the universal soul. The method requires the mutual response or relation of 境, 行, 理, 果 and 機; i.e. (1) state, or environment,​ referred to mind; (2) action, or mode of practice; (3) right principle; (4) results in enlightenment;​ (5) motivity, i.e. practical application in saving others. Also the mutual relation of hand, mouth, and mind referring to manifestation,​ incantation,​ and mental operation; these are known as 瑜伽三密,​ the three esoteric (means) of Yoga. The older practice of meditation as a means of obtaining spiritual or magical power was distorted in Tantrism to exorcism, sorcery, and juggling in general.
 +
 +瑜伽宗 The Yogacara, Vijñānavāda,​ Tantric, or esoteric sect. The principles of Yoga are accredited to Patañjali in the second century B.C., later founded as a school in Buddhism by Asaṅga, fourth century A.D. Cf. 大教. Xuanzang became a disciple and advocate of this school.
 +
 +瑜伽師 瑜伽阿闍梨 yogācāra, a teacher, or master of magic, or of this school.
 +
 +瑜伽師地論 Yogācāryabhūmi-śāstra,​ the work of Asaṅga, said to have been dictated to him in or from the Tuṣita heaven by Maitreya, tr. by Xuanzang, is the foundation text of this school, on which there are numerous treatises, the 瑜伽師地論釋 being a commentary on it by Jinaputra, tr. by Xuanzang.
 +
 +瑜伽祇 瑜岐; 瑜祁 yogin, one who practises yoga.
 +
 +當 Suitable, adequate, equal to; to bear, undertake; ought; proper; to regard as, as; to pawn, put in place of; at, in the future.
 +
 +當位卽妙 According to its place, or application,​ wonderful or effective; e.g. poison as poison, medicine as medicine.
 +
 +當來 That which is to come, the future, the future life, etc.
 +
 +當分 According to condition, position, duty, etc.
 +
 +當機 To suit the capacity or ability, i.e. of hearers, as did the Buddha; to avail oneself of an opportunity.
 +
 +[408]
 +
 +當機衆 Those hearers of the Lotus who were adaptable to its teaching, and received it; one of the 四衆 q.v.
 +
 +當陽 In the sun, in the light.
 +
 +當體 The present body, or person; the body before you, or in question; in body, or person.
 +
 +當體卽空 idem 體空 Corporeal entities are unreal, for they disintegrate.
 +
 +痾 Sickness, pain; diarrhoea.
 +
 +痾M061768祗 ārogya, freedom from sickness, healthy; a greeting from a superior monk, Are you well ? or Be you well!
 +
 +痺 Numb.
 +
 +痺鉢羅 pippala, the peepul tree, Ficus religiosa, v. 畢.
 +
 +痴 moha, '​unconsciousness,'​ '​delusion,'​ '​perplexity,'​ '​ignorance,​ folly,'​ '​infatuation,'​ etc. M.W. Also, mūḍha. In Chinese it is silly, foolish, daft, stupid. It is intp. by 無明 unenlightened,​ i.e. misled by appearances,​ taking the seeming for real; from this unenlightened condition arises every kind of kleśa, i.e. affliction or defilement by the passions, etc. It is one of the three poisons, desire, dislike, delusion.
 +
 +痴使 The messenger, lictor, or affliction of unenlightenment.
 +
 +痴凡 痴子 The common, unenlightened people.
 +
 +痴取 The kleśa of moha, held in unenlightenment.
 +
 +痴定 The samādhi of ignorance, i.e. without mystic insight.
 +
 +痴心 An unenlightened mind, ignorance deluded, ignorant of the right way of seeing life and phenomena.
 +
 +痴愛 Ignorance and desire, or unenlightened desire, ignorance being father, desire mother, which produce all affliction and evil karma.
 +
 +痴慢 Ignorance and pride, or ignorant pride.
 +
 +痴毒 The poison of ignorance, or delusion, one of the three poisons.
 +
 +痴水 The turbid waters of ignorance; also to drink the water of delusion.
 +
 +痴燈 The lamp of delusion, attracting the unenlightened as a lamp does the moth.
 +
 +痴狗 Deluded dogs, i.e. the Hīnayāna śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas.
 +
 +痴猴 The deluded monkey seizing the reflection of the moon in the water, e.g. unenlightened men who take the seeming for the real.
 +
 +痴迷 Unenlightened and led astray.
 +
 +痴綱 The net of delusion, or ignorance.
 +
 +痴縛 The bond of unenlightenment.
 +
 +痴闇 The darkness of the unenlightened condition.
 +
 +睦 Amicable, friendly.
 +
 +和睦 Concord, harmony.
 +
 +睡 śaya, asleep; sleep; śay, to sleep.
 +
 +睡眠 idem; also middha, drowsiness, torpor, sloth.
 +
 +睡眠欲 The lust for sleep, physical and spiritual, hence 睡眠蓋 sleep, drowsiness, or sloth as a hindrance to progress.
 +
 +睒 Glance; lustrous; translit. śa.
 +
 +睒彌 śamī, a kind of acacia.
 +
 +睒摩 Śāmaka, a bodhisattva born to a blind couple, clad in deerskin, slain by the king in hunting, restored to life and to his blind parents by the gods.
 +
 +碑 A stone tablet, or monument.
 +
 +碎 Broken, fragments.
 +
 +碎身舍利 Relics of a cremated body.
 +
 +禁 Prohibitions,​ to forbid, prohibit.
 +
 +禁戒 Prohibitions,​ commandments,​ especially the Vinaya as containing the laws and regulations of Buddhism.
 +
 +禁呪藏 The Vidyādharapiṭaka,​ or Dhāraṇīpiṭaka,​ the canon of dhāraṇīs,​ a later addition to-the Tripiṭaka.
 +
 +禀 To petition, report, request, beg; to receive (from above); endowment.
 +
 +禀具 To be fully ordained, i.e. receive all the commandments.
 +
 +禀教 To receive the Buddha'​s teaching.
 +
 +稠 Thick-set as growing grain, dense.
 +
 +稠林 A dense forest, e.g. the passions, etc.
 +
 +稗 Tares, weeds.
 +
 +稗沙門 Lazy monks, cumberers of the ground.
 +
 +稗稊 Tares, weeds, only fit to be ploughed up.
 +
 +窟 gūha. A cave.
 +
 +窟內 '​Within the cave,' the assembly of the elder disciples, after Śākyamuni'​s death, in the cave near Magadha, when, according to tradition, Kāśyapa presided over the compiling of the Tripiṭaka;​ while at the same time the 窟外 disciples '​without the cave' compiled another canon known as the 五藏 Pañcapiṭaka. To this separation is ascribed, without evidence, the formation of the two schools of the 上座部 Mahāsthavirāḥ and 大衆部 Mahāsāṅghikaḥ.
 +
 +窣 Rustle, move, rush; translit. s.
 +
 +窣?​黎濕伐羅 ? Sūnurīśvara,​ ancient capital of Laṅgala, in the Punjab.
 +
 +窣利 ? Suri, 'an ancient kingdom to the west of Kachgar, peopled by Turks (A.D. 600).' Eitel.
 +
 +窣唎 窣羅 surī, or surā distilled liquor.
 +
 +窣堵波 stūpa, a tumulus, or building over relics, v. 率.
 +
 +窣莎揭哆 susvāgata, most welcome (a greeting).
 +
 +窣路多阿半那 srota-āpanna,​ one who has entered the stream of the holy life, cf. 半 and 入流.
 +
 +窣都利慧那 Sutriṣṇa,​ Satruṣṇa,​ Osrushna, Ura-tepe, 'an ancient city in Turkestan between Kojend and Samarcand.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +[409]
 +
 +竪 To stand, erect, upright.
 +
 +竪底沙論 The Jyotiṣa śāstra.
 +
 +竪敵 Protagonist and antagonist in debate.
 +
 +竪義 立義 To propound a thesis and defend it.
 +
 +竪者 One who supplies answers to difficulties.
 +
 +綖 The threads of beads or gems which hang, front and back, from the ceremonial square cap.
 +
 +綖經 or 線經 A sūtra, or sūtras.
 +
 +經 A warp, that which runs lengthwise; to pass through or by, past; to manage, regulate; laws, canons, classics. Skt. sūtras; threads, threaded together, classical works. Also called 契經 and 經本. The sūtras in the Tripiṭaka are the sermons attributed to the Buddha; the other two divisions are 律 the Vinaya, and 論 the śāstras, or Abhidharma; cf. 三藏. Every sūtra begins with the words 如是我聞 'Thus did I hear', indicating that it contains the words of Śākyamuni.
 +
 +經典 The discourses of Buddha, the sūtrapiṭaka.
 +
 +經唄 Intoning the sūtras.
 +
 +經塔 A pagoda containing the scriptures as relics of the Buddha, or having verses on or in the building material.
 +
 +經宗 The sūtra school, any school which bases its doctrines on the sūtras, e. g. the Tiantai, or Huayan, in contrast to schools based on the śāstras, or philosophical discourses.
 +
 +經家 One who collected or collects the sūtras, especially Ānanda, who according to tradition recorded the first Buddhist sūtras.
 +
 +經師 A teacher of the sūtras, or canon in general.
 +
 +經律論 Sūtras, Vinaya, Abhidharma śāstras, the three divisions of the Buddhist canon.
 +
 +經戒 sūtras and commandments;​ the sūtras and morality, or discipline. The commandments found in the sūtras. The commandments regarded as permanent and fundamental.
 +
 +經手 A copier of classical works; also called 經生.
 +
 +經教 The teaching of the sūtras, cf. 經量部.
 +
 +經法 The doctrines of the sūtras as spoken by the Buddha.
 +
 +經生 To pass through life; also a copier of classical works.
 +
 +經笥 A case for the scriptures, bookcase or box, also 經箱 et al.
 +
 +有脚經笥 A walking bookcase, a learned monk.
 +
 +經者 One who expounds the sūtras and śāstras; one who keeps the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +經藏 The sūtra-piṭaka.
 +
 +經行 To walk about when meditating to prevent sleepiness; also as exercise to keep in health; the caṅkramana was a place for such exercise, e.g. a cloister, a corridor.
 +
 +經衣 The garment with sūtra in which the dead were dressed, so called because it had quotations from the sūtras written on it: also 經帷子.
 +
 +經論 The sūtras and śāstras.
 +
 +經軌 sūtras and regulations (of the esoteric sects).
 +
 +經道 The doctrines of the sūtras.
 +
 +經部 (經量部) Sautrantika,​ an important Hīnayāna school, which based its doctrine on the sūtras alone, cf. Keith, 151 et al.
 +
 +置 To set up, place, arrange; set aside, buy.
 +
 +置答 To reply by ignoring a question.
 +
 +罪 That which is blameworthy and brings about bad karma; entangled in the net of wrong-doing;​ sin, crime.
 +
 +罪垢 The filth of sin, moral defilement.
 +
 +罪報 The retribution of sin, its punishment in suffering.
 +
 +罪性 A sinful nature; the nature of sin.
 +
 +罪惡 Sin and evil.
 +
 +罪根 The root of sin, i.e. unenlightenment or ignorance.
 +
 +罪業 That which sin does, its karma, producing subsequent suffering.
 +
 +罪福 Sinfulness and blessedness.
 +
 +罪福無主 Sinfulness and blessedness have no lord, or governor, i.e. we induce them ourselves.
 +
 +[410]
 +
 +罪行 Sinful acts, or conduct.
 +
 +罪障 The veil, or barrier of sin, which hinders the obtaining of good karma, and the obedient hearing of the truth.
 +
 +羣 A flock of sheep, herd, multitude, the flock, crowd, all.
 +
 +羣有 All that exists.
 +
 +羣生 All the living, especially all living, conscious beings.
 +
 +羣萌 All the shoots, sprouts, or immature things, i.e. all the living as ignorant and undeveloped.
 +
 +羣迷 All the deluded; all delusions.
 +
 +羣類 All classes of living beings, especially the sentient.
 +
 +義 The right, proper, righteous; loyal; public-spirited,​ public; meaning, significance. It is used for the Skt. artha, object, purpose, meaning, etc.; also for abhidheya.
 +
 +義例 Meaning and rules, or method, abbrev. for 止觀義例 q.v.
 +
 +義意 Meaning and aim.
 +
 +義淨 Yijing, A.D. 635-713, the famous monk who in 671 set out by the sea-route for India, where he remained for over twenty years, spending half this period in the Nālandā monastery. He returned to China in 695, was received with much honour, brought back some four hundred works, tr. with Śikṣānanda the Avataṃsaka-sūtra,​ later tr. many other works and left a valuable account of his travels and life in India, died aged 79.
 +
 +義無礙 Unobstructed knowledge of the meaning, or the truth; complete knowledge.
 +
 +義疏 Meaning and comments on or explanations.
 +
 +義相 Truth, meaning; meaning and form, truth and its aspect.
 +
 +義辯 One of the seven powers of reasoning, or discourse of a bodhisattva,​ that on the things that are profitable to the attainment of nirvāṇa.
 +
 +義趣 The path of truth, the right direction, or objective.
 +
 +義門 The gate of righteousness;​ the schools, or sects of the meaning or truth of Buddhism.
 +
 +義陀羅尼 Truth dhāraṇī,​ the power of the bodhisattva to retain all truth he hears.
 +
 +聖 ārya; sādhu; a sage; wise and good; upright, or correct in all his character; sacred, holy, saintly.
 +
 +聖人 is the opposite of the 凡人 common, or unenlightened man.
 +
 +聖主天中天 The holy lord, deva of devas, i.e. Buddha; also 聖主師子 the holy lion-lord.
 +
 +聖仙 The holy ṛṣi, Buddha.
 +
 +聖位 The holy position, the holy life of Buddhism.
 +
 +聖供 Holy offerings, or those made to the saints, especially to the triratna.
 +
 +聖僧 The holy monk, the image in the monks' assembly room; in Mahāyāna that of Mañjuśrī,​ in Hīnayāna that of Kāśyapa, or Subhūti, etc.
 +
 +聖儀 The saintly appearance, i.e. an image of Buddha.
 +
 +聖典 The sacred canon, or holy classics, the Tripiṭaka.
 +
 +聖寳藏神 The deva, or devas, of the sacred treasury of precious things (who bestows them on the living).
 +
 +聖尊 The holy honoured one, Buddha.
 +
 +聖師子 The holy lion, Buddha.
 +
 +聖心 The holy mind, that of Buddha.
 +
 +聖性 The holy nature, according to the Abhidharma-kośa 倶舍論, of the passionless life; according to the Vijñānamātrasiddhi 唯識論, of enlightenment and wisdom.
 +
 +聖性離生 The life of holiness apart or distinguished from the life of common unenlightened people.
 +
 +聖應 The influence of Buddha; the response of the Buddhas, or saints.
 +
 +聖提婆 Āryadeva, or Devabodhisattva,​ a native of Ceylon and disciple of Nāgārjuna,​ famous for his writings and discussions.
 +
 +聖教 The teaching of the sage, or holy one; holy teaching.
 +
 +聖教量 The argument or evidence of authority in logic, i.e. that of the sacred books.
 +
 +聖方 Āryadeśa, the holy land, India; the land of the sage, Buddha.
 +
 +聖明 Holy enlightenment;​ or the enlightenment of saints.
 +
 +聖智 ārya-jñāna;​ the wisdom of Buddha, or the saints, or sages; the wisdom which is above all particularization,​ i.e. that of transcendental truth.
 +
 +聖果 The holy fruit, or fruit of the saintly life, i.e. bodhi, nirvāṇa.
 +
 +[411]
 +
 +聖法 The holy law of Buddha; the law or teaching of the saints, or sages.
 +
 +聖淨 The schools of Buddhism and the Pure-land School, cf. 聖道.
 +
 +聖福 Holy happiness, that of Buddhism, in contrast with 梵福 that of Brahma and Brahmanism.
 +
 +聖種 (1) The holy seed, i.e. the community of monks; (2) that which produces the discipline of the saints, or monastic community.
 +
 +聖網 The holy jāla, or net, of Buddha'​s teaching which gathers all into the truth.
 +
 +聖緣 Holy conditions of, or aids to the holy life.
 +
 +聖者 ārya, holy or saintly one; one who has started on the path to nirvāṇa; holiness.
 +
 +聖胎 The womb of holiness which enfolds and develops the bodhisattva,​ i.e. the 三賢位 three excellent positions attained in the 十住, 十行 and 十廻向.
 +
 +聖衆 The holy multitude, all the saints.
 +
 +聖衆來迎 Amitābha'​s saintly host come to welcome at death those who call upon him.
 +
 +聖行 The holy bodhisattva life of 戒定慧 the (monastic) commandments,​ meditation and wisdom.
 +
 +聖言 Holy words; the words of a saint, or sage; the correct words of Buddhism.
 +
 +聖語 āryabhāṣā. Sacred speech, language, words, or sayings; Sanskrit.
 +
 +聖諦 The sacred principles or dogmas, or those of the saints, or sages; especially the four noble truths, cf. 四聖諦.
 +
 +聖道 The holy way, Buddhism; the way of the saints, or sages; also the noble eightfold path.
 +
 +聖道門 The ordinary schools of the way of holiness by the processes of devotion, in contrast with immediate salvation by faith in Amitābha.
 +
 +聖靈 The saintly spirits (of the dead).
 +
 +腹 The belly.
 +
 +腹中 Within the belly, the heart, womb, unborn child, etc.
 +
 +腰 The waist, middle.
 +
 +腰衣 A skirt, '​shorts,'​ etc.
 +
 +腰白 A white, or undyed, sash worn in mourning.
 +
 +葷 Strongly smelling vegetables, e.g. onions, garlic, leeks, etc., forbidden to Buddhist vegetarians;​ any non-vegetarian food.
 +
 +葷辛 Strong or peppery vegetables, or foods.
 +
 +葷酒 Non-vegetarian foods and wine.
 +
 +葛 The rambling, or creeping bean.
 +
 +葛藤 Creepers, trailers, clinging vines, etc., i.e. the afflicting passions; troublesome people: talk, words (so used by the Intuitional School).
 +
 +葛哩麻 karma, v. 業.
 +
 +葛耶 kāya, body, v. 身.
 +
 +落 Falling leaves: to fall, drop, descend, settle; translit. la, na.
 +
 +落叉 A lakh, 100,000, v. 洛.
 +
 +落吃澁弭 Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune, of good auspices, etc.
 +
 +落賺 A humbug, trickster, impostor, deceiver.
 +
 +落迦 Naraka, hell, v. 那.
 +
 +落髮 To cut off the hair of the head, shave, become a monk.
 +
 +落髮染衣 落染 To shave the head and dye the clothing, i.e. to dye grey the normal white Indian garment; to become a monk.
 +
 +葬 Inter, bury.
 +
 +葬送 送葬 To escort the deceased to the grave.
 +
 +葉 pattra; parṇa; leaf, leaves.
 +
 +葉蓋 A leaf-hat, or cover made of leaves.
 +
 +葉衣觀音 A form of Guanyin clad in leaves to represent the 84,000 merits.
 +
 +著 To manifest, display, publish, fix; interchanged with 着. In a Buddhist sense it is used for attachment to anything, e.g. the attachment of love, desire, greed, etc.
 +
 +著心 The mind of attachment, or attached.
 +
 +著想 The attachment of thought, or desire.
 +
 +著我 Attachment, to the ego, or idea of a permanent self.
 +
 +著樂 Attachment to bliss, or pleasure regarded as real and permanent.
 +
 +著法 Attachment to things; attachment and its object.
 +
 +著衣喫飯 To wear clothes and eat food, i.e. the common things of life.
 +
 +萬 Myriad, 10,000; all.
 +
 +萬八千世界 The 18,000 easterly worlds lighted by the ray from the Buddha'​s brows, v. Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +萬善 All goodness, all good works.
 +
 +[412]
 +
 +萬境 All realms, all regions.
 +
 +萬字 The sauvastika 卍, also styled śrīvatsa-lakṣana,​ the mark on the breast of Viṣṇu, 'a particular curl of hair on the breast';​ the lightning; a sun symbol; a sign of all power over evil and all favour to the good; a sign shown on the Buddha'​ s breast. One of the marks on a Buddha'​ s feet.
 +
 +萬法 All things, everything that has noumenal or phenomenal existence.
 +
 +萬法一如 The absolute in everything; the ultimate reality behind everything.
 +
 +萬法一心 Myriad things but one mind; all things as noumenal.
 +
 +萬物 All things.
 +
 +萬行 All procedures, all actions, all disciplines,​ or modes of salvation.
 +
 +號 To roar, call, cry, scream; sign, mark, designation.
 +
 +號呌地獄 Raurava; the hell of wailing.
 +
 +蜃 Mirage; sea-serpent;​ frog.
 +
 +蜃樓臺 A mirage palace, cf. 乾.
 +
 +蛾 A moth.
 +
 +如蛾趣燈火 Like a moth flying into the lamp — is man after his pleasures.
 +
 +裙 A skirt. nivāsana, cf. 泥, a kind of garment, especially an under garment.
 +
 +裝 To dress, make up, pretend, pack, load, store; a fashion.
 +
 +裝像 To dress an image.
 +
 +裝香 To put incense into a censer.
 +
 +補 To patch, repair, restore; tonic; translit. pu, po, cf. 富, 弗, 佛, 布.
 +
 +補伽羅 pudgala, infra.
 +
 +補剌拏 v. 富; intp. by 滿 pūrṇa.
 +
 +補囉嚩 Pūrva, in Pūrva-videha,​ the eastern continent.
 +
 +補怛洛迦 Potaraka, Potala, infra.
 +
 +補沙 Puṣya, the 鬼 asterism, v. 富.
 +
 +補澁波 puṣpa, a flower, a bloom, v. 布.
 +
 +補特伽羅 pudgala, 'the body, matter; the soul, personal identity'​ (M.W.); intp. by man, men, human being, and 衆生 all the living; also by 趣向 direction, or transmigration;​ and 有情 the sentient, v. 弗.
 +
 +補瑟置 (or 補瑟迦) pauṣṭika,​ promoting advancement,​ invigorating,​ protective.
 +
 +補盧沙 puruṣa 'man collectively or individually';​ 'Man personified';​ 'the Soul of the universe'​ (M.W.); intp. by 丈夫 and 人; v. 布; also the first form of the masculine gender; (2) puruṣam 補盧衫; (3) puruṣeṇa 補盧沙拏;​ (4) puruṣāya 補盧沙耶;​ (5) puruṣaṭ 補盧沙?; (6) puruṣasya 補盧殺沙;​ (7) puruṣe 補盧 M040949.
 +
 +補羯婆 [Note: 婆 should probably be 娑] paulkasa, an aboriginal, or the son 'of a śūdra father and of a kshatryā mother'​ (M.W.); intp. as low caste, scavenger, also an unbeliever (in the Buddhist doctrine of 因果 or retribution).
 +
 +補羯娑 paulkasa, an aboriginal, or the son 'of a śūdra father and of a kshatryā mother'​ (M.W.); intp. as low caste, scavenger, also an unbeliever (in the Buddhist doctrine of 因果 or retribution).
 +
 +補處 One who repairs, or occupies a vacated place, a Buddha who succeeds a Buddha, as Maitreya is to succeed Śākyamuni.
 +
 +補陀 補陁; 補陀落 (補陀落迦) Potala; Potalaka. (1) A sea-port on the Indus, the παταλα of the ancients, identified by some with Thaṭtha, said to be the ancient home of Śākyamuni'​s ancestors. (2) A mountain south-east of Malakūṭa,​ reputed as the home of Avalokiteśvara. (3) The island of Pootoo, east of Ningpo, the Guanyin centre. (4) The Lhasa Potala in Tibet; the seat of the Dalai Lama, an incarnation of Avalokiteśvara;​ cf. 普; also written補怛落迦 (or 補但落迦);​ 逋多 (逋多羅);​ 布呾洛加.
 +
 +解 To unloose, let go, release, untie, disentangle,​ explain, expound; intp. by mokṣa, mukti, vimokṣa, vimukti, cf. 解脫.
 +
 +解一切衆生言語 sarva-ruta-kauśalya,​ supernatural power of interpreting all the language of all beings.
 +
 +解境十佛 All existence discriminated as ten forms of Buddha. The Huayan school sees all things as pan-Buddha, but discriminates them into ten forms: all the living, countries (or places), karma, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas,​ bodhisattvas,​ tathāgatas,​ 智 jñānakāya,​ dharmakāya,​ and space; i.e. each is a 身 corpus of the Buddha.
 +
 +解夏 The dismissing of the summer retreat; also 解制.
 +
 +解悟 Release and awareness: the attaining of liberation through enlightenment.
 +
 +解深蜜經 Sandhi-nirmocana-sūtra,​ tr. by Xuanzang, the chief text of the Dharmalakṣana school, 法相宗. Four tr. have been made, three preceding that of Xuanzang, the first in the fifth century A. D.
 +
 +解界 To release or liberate the power by magic words, in esoteric practice.
 +
 +解知見 A Buddha'​s understanding,​ or intp. of release, or nirvāṇa, the fifth of the 五分法身.
 +
 +解空To apprehend or interpret the immateriality of all things.
 +
 +解脫 mukti, '​loosing,​ release, deliverance,​ liberation, setting free,... emancipation.'​ M.W. mokṣa, '​emancipation,​ deliverance,​ freedom, liberation, escape, release.'​ M.W. Escape from bonds and the obtaining of freedom, freedom from transmigration,​ from karma, from illusion, from suffering; it denotes nirvāṇa and also the freedom obtained in dhyāna-meditation;​ it is one of the five characteristics of Buddha; v. 五分法身. It is also vimukti and vimokṣa, especially in the sense of final emancipation. There are several categories of two kinds of emancipation,​ also categories of three and eight. Cf. 毘; and 八解脫.
 +
 +[413]
 +
 +解脫冠 The crown of release.
 +
 +解脫味 The flavour of release, i.e. nirvāṇa.
 +
 +解脫天 Mokṣadeva,​ a name given to Xuanzang in India.
 +
 +解脫戒 The commandments accepted on leaving the world and becoming a disciple or a monk.
 +
 +解脫海 The ocean of liberation.
 +
 +解脫淸淨法殿 The pure dharma-court of nirvāṇa, the sphere of nirvāṇa, the abode of the dharmakāya.
 +
 +解脫相 Liberation; the mark, or condition, of liberation, release from the idea of transmigration.
 +
 +解脫知見 The knowledge and experience of nirvāṇa, v. 解知見.
 +
 +解脫耳 The ear of deliverance,​ the ear freed, hearing the truth is the entrance to nirvāṇa.
 +
 +解脫處 v. 八解脫.
 +
 +解脫衣 The garment of liberation, the robe; also 解脫幢相衣;​ 解脫服.
 +
 +解脫身 The body of liberation, the body of Buddha released from kleśa, i.e. passion-affliction.
 +
 +解脫道 The way or doctrine of liberation, Buddhism.
 +
 +解脫門 The door of release, the stage of meditation characterized by vacuity and absence of perception or wishes.
 +
 +解脫風 The wind of liberation from the fires of worldly suffering.
 +
 +解行 Interpretation and conduct; to understand and do.
 +
 +解行地 The stage of apprehending and following the teaching.
 +
 +誠 See under Fourteen Strokes.
 +
 +詮 Explain, expound, discourse upon.
 +
 +詮旨 To explain the meaning, or import.
 +
 +詮辯 To explain, comment on.
 +
 +詵 Talking, inquiring, buzzing, swarming.
 +
 +詵遮 abhiṣecana,​ to baptize, or sprinkle upon; also 毘詵遮.
 +
 +話 Words, language, talk.
 +
 +話則 Word-norm, the spoken words of the Buddha the norm of conduct.
 +
 +該 To connect, belong to; proper; ought, owe; the said; the whole.
 +
 +該羅 該攝 Containing, inclusive, undivided, whole; the one vehicle containing the three.
 +
 +試 To try, test, attempt; tempt.
 +
 +試經 To test or prove the scriptures; to examine them.
 +
 +試羅 śilā, a stone, flat stone, intp. as '​probably a coral' (Eitel), also as '​mother'​-of-pearl.
 +
 +賊 A thief, robber, spoiler; to rob, steal, etc.
 +
 +賊住 An unordained person who passes himself off as a monk.
 +
 +資 Funds, basis, property, supplies; fees; to depend on: disposition:​ expenditure.
 +
 +資生 Necessaries of life.
 +
 +資糧 saṃbhāra;​ supplies for body or soul, e.g. food, almsgiving, wisdom, etc.
 +
 +資緣 The material necessaries of a monk, clothing, food, and shelter.
 +
 +資財帳 Schedule of property (of a monastery).
 +
 +跨 To straddle, bestride, pass over.
 +
 +跨節 To interpret one sūtra by another, a Tiantai term, e.g. interpreting all other sūtras in the light of the Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +跪 To kneel.
 +
 +跪拜 To kneel and worship, or pay respect.
 +
 +跪爐 To kneel and offer incense.
 +
 +[414]
 +
 +路 A road, way.
 +
 +路伽 idem路迦.
 +
 +路伽多 lohita, red, copper-coloured.
 +
 +路伽祇夜 lokageya, intp. as repetition in verse, but also as singing after common fashion.
 +
 +路賀 loha, copper, also gold, iron, etc.
 +
 +路迦 loka, intp. by 世間, the world, a region or realm, a division of the universe.
 +
 +路迦憊 (or 路伽憊) lokavit, lokavid, he who knows, or interprets the world, a title of a Buddha.
 +
 +路迦耶底迦 路伽耶 (路伽耶陀);​ 路柯耶胝柯 lokāyatika. 'A materialist,​ follower of the Cārvāka system, atheist, unbeliever'​ (M.W.); intp. as 順世 worldly, epicurean, the soul perishes with the body, and the pleasures of the senses are the highest good.
 +
 +路迦那他 intp. 世尊 lokajyeṣṭha;​ lokanātha, most excellent of the world, lord of the world, epithet of Brahma and of a Buddha.
 +
 +辟 A prince, sovereign, lord; split; punish, repress; perverse; toady; quiet.
 +
 +辟支 (辟支迦) pratyeka, each one, individual, oneself only.
 +
 +辟支佛 (辟支迦) (辟支佛陀) (辟支迦佛陀) pratyekabuddha,​ one who seeks enlightenment for himself, defined in the Lotus Sūtra as a believer who is diligent and zealous in seeking wisdom, loves loneliness and seclusion, and understands deeply the nidānas. Also called 緣覺; 獨覺; 倶存. It is a stage above the śrāvaka 聲聞 and is known as the 中乘 middle vehicle. Tiantai distinguishes 獨覺 as an ascetic in a period without a Buddha, 緣覺 as a pratyekabuddha. He attains his enlightenment alone, independently of a teacher, and with the object of attaining nirvāṇa and his own salvation rather than that of others, as is the object of a bodhisattva. Cf. 畢.
 +
 +辟支佛乘 The middle vehicle, that of the pratyekabuddha,​ one of the three vehicles.
 +
 +辟除 To suppress, get rid of.
 +
 +辟雷 To rend as thunder, to thunder.
 +
 +辟鬼 To suppress demons.
 +
 +農 Farm, farming, agriculture;​ an intp. of the śūdra caste.
 +
 +遁 To retire, vanish.
 +
 +遁世 To retire from the world and become a monk: also to withdraw from the community and become a hermit.
 +
 +遏 Check, stop.
 +
 +遏部多 adbhuta, the marvellous; name of a stūpa in Udyāna, north-west India.
 +
 +逼 To press, constrain, urge, harass.
 +
 +逼廹 To constrain, compel, bring strong pressure to bear.
 +
 +違 To oppose, disregard, disobey; leave, avoid.
 +
 +違他順自 To disregard or oppose others and follow one's own way; the opposite of 違自順他.
 +
 +違境 To oppose or disregard conditions; opposing or unfavourable circumstances.
 +
 +違緣 Opposing or hostile conditions.
 +
 +違陀 Veda, knowledge, the Vedas, cf. 章, 毘.
 +
 +違順 To oppose, or accord with; hostile or favourable.
 +
 +運 Revolve; turn of the wheel, luck; carry, transport.
 +
 +運心 Revolve in the mind; indecision; to have in mind; to carry the mind, or thought, towards.
 +
 +逾 To pass over, exceed.
 +
 +逾越 To pass over.
 +
 +逾時 To exceed the time.
 +
 +逾健達羅 Yugaṃdhara,​ v. 踰.
 +
 +遊 bhrāmyati. Ramble, wander, travel, go from place to place.
 +
 +遊化 To go about preaching and converting men.
 +
 +遊山 To go from monastery to monastery; ramble about the hills.
 +
 +遊增地獄 The sixteen subsidiary hells of each of the eight hot hells.
 +
 +遊心法界 A mind free to wander in the realm of all things; that realm as the realm of the liberated mind.
 +
 +遊戲 vikrīḍita. To roam for pleasure; play, sport.
 +
 +遊戲神通 The supernatural powers in which Buddhas and bodhisattvas indulge, or take their pleasure.
 +
 +遊方 To wander from place to place.
 +
 +遊虛空天 To roam in space, as do the devas of the sun, moon, stars, etc.; also the four upper devalokas.
 +
 +遊行 To roam, wander, travel, etc.
 +
 +過 To pass; past; gone; transgression error.
 +
 +過去 Passed, past.
 +
 +過去世 The past, past time, past world or age.
 +
 +過去七佛 The seven past Buddhas: Vipaśyin, Śikhin, Visvabhū (of the previous 莊嚴 kalpa), and Krakucchanda,​ Kanakamuni, Kāśyapa, and Śākyamuni (of the 賢 or present kalpa).
 +
 +過去聖靈 The spirit of the departed.
 +
 +過夏 To pass the summer, or the summer retreat.
 +
 +過度 To pass from mortal life.
 +
 +過慢 The pride which among equals regards self as superior and among superiors as equal; one of the seven arrogances.
 +
 +過木橋 To cross over the single log bridge, i.e. only one string to the bow.
 +
 +過現未 Past, present, future.
 +
 +過惡 dauṣṭhulya. Surpassing evil; extremely evil.
 +
 +遍 sarvatraga. Everywhere, universe, whole; a time.
 +
 +遍依圓 The three points of view: 遍計 which regards the seeming as real; 依他 which sees things as derived; 圓成 which sees them in their true nature; cf. 三性.
 +
 +遍出外道 Ascetics who entirely separate themselves from their fellowmen.
 +
 +遍周 Universal, everywhere.
 +
 +遍智 Universal knowledge, omniscience.
 +
 +遍淨天 The heaven of universal purity, the third of the third dhyāna heavens.
 +
 +[415]
 +
 +遍法界身 The universal dharmakāya,​ i.e. the universal body of Buddha, pan-Buddha.
 +
 +遍照如來 The universally shining Tathāgata, i.e. Vairocana.
 +
 +遍至 Universally reaching, universal.
 +
 +遍行 Universally operative; omnipresent.
 +
 +遍計所執性 The nature that maintains the seeming to be real.
 +
 +達 Permeate, penetrate, reach to, transfer, inform, promote, successful, reaching everywhere; translit. ta, da, dha, etc.
 +
 +達利瑟致 dṛṣṭi,​ 見 seeing, viewing, views, ideas, opinions; especially seeing the seeming as if real, therefore incorrect views, false opinions, e.g. 我見 the false idea of a permanent self; cf. darśana, infra.
 +
 +達嚫 (達嚫拏) dakṣiṇā,​ a gift or fee; acknowledgment of a gift; the right hand (which receives the gift); the south. Eitel says it is an ancient name for Deccan, '​situated south of Behar,'​ and that it is 'often confounded with 大秦國 the eastern Roman empire'​. Also 達 M036979 (or 達親 or 達櫬); 噠嚫; 大嚫; 檀嚫.
 +
 +達多 Devadatta, v. 提.
 +
 +達婆 gandharva, v. 乾.
 +
 +達梨舍那 darśana, seeing, a view, views, viewing, showing; 見 v. above, dṛṣṭi.
 +
 +達水 Also 達池, Anavatapta, v. 阿.
 +
 +達磨 dharma; also 達摩; 達麼; 達而麻耶;​ 曇摩; 馱摩 tr. by 法. dharma is from dhara, holding, bearing, possessing, etc.; and means 'that which is to be held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice';​ '​anything right.'​ M.W. It may be variously intp. as (1) characteristic,​ attribute, predicate; (2) the bearer, the transcendent substratum of single elements of conscious life; (3) element, i.e. a part of conscious life; (4) nirvāṇa, i.e. the Dharma par excellence, the object of Buddhist teaching; (5) the absolute, the real; (6) the teaching or religion of Buddha; (7) thing, object, appearance. Also, Damo, or Bodhidharma,​ the twenty-eighth Indian and first Chinese patriarch, who arrived in China A.D. 520, the reputed founder of the Chan or Intuitional School in China. He is described as son of a king in southern India; originally called Bodhitara. He arrived at Guangdong, bringing it is said the sacred begging-bowl,​ and settled in Luoyang, where he engaged in silent meditation for nine years, whence he received the title of wall-gazing Brahman 壁觀婆羅門,​ though he was a kṣatriya. His doctrine and practice were those of the 'inner light',​ independent of the written word, but to 慧可 Huike, his successor, he commended the Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra as nearest to his views. There are many names with Dharma as initial: Dharmapāla,​ Dharmagupta,​ Dharmayaśas,​ Dharmaruci, Dharmarakṣa,​ Dharmatrāta,​ Dharmavardhana,​ etc.
 +
 +達磨宗 The Damo, or Dharma sect, i.e. the 禪宗 Meditation, or Intuitional School.
 +
 +達磨忌 The anniversary of Bodhidharma'​s death, fifth of the tenth month.
 +
 +達磨馱都 dharmadhātu,​ tr. 法界 'the element of law or of existence'​ (M.W.); all psychic and non-psychic processes (64 dharmas), with the exception of rūpa-skandha and mano-ayatana (11), grouped as one dharma element; the storehouse or matrix of phenomena, all-embracing totality of things; in the Tantric school, Vairocana divided into Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible);​ a relic of the Buddha.
 +
 +達羅毘荼 Draviḍa, a district on the east coast of the Deccan.
 +
 +達賴喇嘛 Dalai Lama, the head of the Yellow-robe sect of Tibetan Buddhism, and chief of the nation.
 +
 +達須 dasyu, barbarians; demons; also 達首; 達架. Used for Sudarśana, v. 須.
 +
 +道 mārga. A way, road; the right path; principle, Truth, Reason, Logos, Cosmic energy; to lead; to say. The way of transmigration by which one arrives at a good or bad existence; any of the six gati, or paths of destiny. The way of bodhi, or enlightenment leading to nirvāṇa through spiritual stages. Essential nirvāṇa, in which absolute freedom reigns. For the eightfold noble path v. 八聖道.
 +
 +道交 Mutual interaction between the individual seeking the truth and the Buddha who responds to his aspirations;​ mutual intercourse through religion.
 +
 +道人 One who has entered the way, one who seeks enlightenment,​ a general name for early Buddhists and also for Taoists.
 +
 +道位 The stages in the attainment of Buddha-truth.
 +
 +[416]
 +
 +道俗 Monks and laymen.
 +
 +道元 The beginning of right doctrine, i.e. faith.
 +
 +道光 The light of Buddha-truth.
 +
 +道具 The implements of the faith, such as garments, begging-bowl,​ and other accessories which aid one in the Way.
 +
 +道力 The power which comes from enlightenment,​ or the right doctrine.
 +
 +道化 To transform others through the truth of Buddhism; converted by the Truth.
 +
 +道品 Religious or monastic grade, or grades.
 +
 +道器 A vessel of religion, the capacity for Buddhism.
 +
 +道士 A Taoist (hermit), also applied to Buddhists, and to Śākyamuni.
 +
 +道場 Truth-plot. bodhimaṇḍala,​ circle, or place of enlightenment. The place where Buddha attained enlightenment. A place, or method, for attaining to Buddha-truth. An object of or place for religious offerings. A place for teaching, learning, or practising religion.
 +
 +道場樹 The bodhidruma, or tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment.
 +
 +道場神 Tutelary deities of Buddhist religious places, etc.
 +
 +道宣 A celebrated Tang monk, Daoxuan, who assisted Xuanzang in his translations.
 +
 +道心 The mind which is bent on the right way, which seeks enlightenment. A mind not free from the five gati, i.e. transmigration. Also 道意.
 +
 +道教 Taoism. The teaching of the right way, i.e. of Buddhism.
 +
 +道智 Religious wisdom; the wisdom which understands the principles of mārga, the eightfold path.
 +
 +道果 The result of the Buddha-way, i.e. nirvāṇa.
 +
 +道業 The karma of religion which leads to Buddhahood.
 +
 +道樂 The joy of religion.
 +
 +道樹 The bodhi-tree, under which Buddha attained enlightenment;​ also as a synonym of Buddhism with its powers of growth and fruitfulness.
 +
 +道檢 The restraints, or control of religion.
 +
 +道次 The stages of enlightenment,​ or attainment.
 +
 +道氣 The breath, or vital energy, of the Way, i.e. of Buddhist religion.
 +
 +道水 The water of Truth which washes away defilement.
 +
 +道法 The way or methods to obtain nirvāṇa.
 +
 +道法智 The wisdom attained by them; the wisdom which rids one of false views in regard to mārga, or the eightfold noble path.
 +
 +道流 The stream of Truth; the flow, or progress, of Buddha, truth; the spread of a particular movement, e.g. the Chan school.
 +
 +道理 Truth, doctrine, principle; the principles of Buddhism, Taoism, etc.
 +
 +道眼 The eye attained through the cultivation of Buddha-truth;​ the eye which sees that truth.
 +
 +道禁 Whatever is prohibited by the religion, or the religious life; śīla, the second pāramitā, moral purity.
 +
 +道種性 The nature possessing the seed of Buddhahood. The stage in which the '​middle'​ way is realized.
 +
 +道種智 The wisdom which adopts all means to save all the living: one of the 三智.
 +
 +道者 One who practises Buddhism; the Truth, the religion.
 +
 +道舊 An old monastic, or religious, friend.
 +
 +[417]
 +
 +道芽 The sprouts, or seedlings, of Buddha-truth.
 +
 +道衆 Those who practise religion, the body of monks.
 +
 +道號 The hao, or literary name of a monk.
 +
 +道行 Conduct according to Buddha-truth;​ the discipline of religion.
 +
 +道術 The methods, or arts, of the Buddhist religion.
 +
 +道要 The fundamentals of Buddhism.
 +
 +道觀 Religious practice (or external influence) and internal vision.
 +
 +道諦 mārga, the dogma of the path leading to the extinction of passion, the fourth of the four axioms, i.e. the eightfold noble path, v. 八聖道.
 +
 +道識 The knowledge of religion; the wisdom, or insight, attained through Buddhism.
 +
 +道門 The gate of the Way, or of truth, religion, etc.; the various schools of Buddhism.
 +
 +道類智 The wisdom obtained through insight into the way of release in the upper realms of form and formlessness;​ one of the 八智.
 +
 +道風 The wind of Buddha-truth,​ as a transforming power; also as a prognosis of future events.
 +
 +道體 The embodiment of truth, the fundament of religion, i.e. the natural heart or mind, the pure nature, the universal mind, the bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +鄉 The country, rural, village.
 +
 +鄉人 Country people, people of one's village.
 +
 +鄔 Translit. u, ū, cf. 烏, 塢, 優.
 +
 +鄔波尼殺曇 Upaniṣad, cf. 優; variously intp. but in general refers to drawing near (to a teacher to hear instruction);​ the Upanishads.
 +
 +鄔闍衍那 Ujjayinī, Oujein; cf. 烏.
 +
 +鄔陀延 鄔陀衍那 Udayana, king of Kauśāmbi, cf. 烏.
 +
 +酬 Pledge, toast, requite.
 +
 +酬還 To pay a vow, repay.
 +
 +酪 dadhi, a thick, sour milk which is highly esteemed as a food and as a remedy or preventive.
 +
 +酪味 Sour, one of the five tastes. Tiantai compared the second period of the Hīnayāna with this.
 +
 +酪經 Tiantai term for the Hīnayāna sūtras.
 +
 +鉦 A small gong struck during the worship, or service.
 +
 +鉦鼓 Cymbals, or small gongs and drums.
 +
 +鈴 A hand-bell with a tongue.
 +
 +鈸 Cymbals.
 +
 +鉢 patra, a bowl, vessel, receptacle, an almsbowl; translit. p, pa, ba.
 +
 +鉢伐多 parvata, crags, mountain range. An ancient city and province of Takka, 700 li north-east of Mūlasthānapura,​ perhaps the modern Futtihpoor between Multan and Lahore. Also 鉢羅伐多.
 +
 +鉢位 Bowl seat, the place each monk occupies at table.
 +
 +鉢健提 pākhanda, i.e. pāṣaṇḍa,​ pāṣaṇḍin,​ heresy, a heretic, intp. 堅固 firm, stubborn; name of a deva.
 +
 +鉢剌底羯爛多 pratikrānta,​ following in order, or by degrees.
 +
 +鉢剌翳迦佛陀 v. 辟, pratyekabuddha.
 +
 +鉢剌迦羅 prakaraṇa,​ intp. as a section, chapter, etc.
 +
 +鉢吒 paṭa, woven cloth or silk.
 +
 +鉢吒補怛囉 Pātaliputra,​ the present Patna.
 +
 +鉢吉帝 prakṛti, natural; woman; etc. Name of the woman at the well who supplied water to Ānanda, seduced him, but became a nun.
 +
 +鉢和羅 pravāraṇa. A freewill offering made, or the rejoicings on the last day of the summer retreat. Also described as the day of mutual confession; also 鉢和蘭; 鉢剌婆剌拏;​ 盋和羅.
 +
 +鉢哩體吠 pṛthivī, the earth, world, ground, soil, etc.
 +
 +[418]
 +
 +鉢唎部 prabhu, mighty, intp. by 自在 sovereign, a title of Viṣṇu, Brahmā, and others.
 +
 +鉢喇底木叉 prātimokṣa,​ idem mokṣa, v. 木, 波, 解. prātimokṣa,​ a portion of the Vinaya, called the sūtra of emancipation.
 +
 +鉢喇底提舍尼 (or 鉢喇底提舍那) pratideśanā,​ public confession; pratideśanīya,​ offences to be confessed; a section of the Vinaya, v. 波.
 +
 +鉢喇特崎拏 pradakṣiṇa,​ circumambulation with the right shoulder towards the object of homage.
 +
 +鉢囉惹 (鉢囉惹鉢多曳) Prājapati, 'lord of creatures,'​ '​bestower of progeny,'​ '​creator';​ tr. as 生主 lord of life, or production, and intp. as Brahmā. Also, v. Mahāprajāpatī,​ name of the Buddha'​s aunt and nurse.
 +
 +鉢塞莫 pāśakamāla,​ dice-chain i.e. a rosary.
 +
 +鉢多 (鉢多羅) pātra, a bowl, vessel, receptacle, an almsbowl; also 鉢呾羅; 鉢和羅 (or 鉢和蘭); 波怛囉 (or 播怛囉); in brief 鉢. The almsbowl of the Buddha is said to have been brought by Bodhidharma to China in A. D. 520.
 +
 +鉢摩羅伽 padmarāga, lotus-hued, a ruby; also 鉢曇摩羅伽.
 +
 +鉢曇 pada, v. 鉢陀.
 +
 +鉢特摩 (鉢特) padma, or raktapadma, the red lotus; one of the signs on the foot of a Buddha; the seventh hell; also 鉢特忙; 鉢頭摩 (or 鉢弩摩 or 鉢曇摩); 鉢納摩; 鉢頭摩 (or 鉢曇摩).
 +
 +鉢羅 pala, a particular measure or weight, intp. as 4 ounces; also 波羅; 波賴他; but pala also means flesh, meat, and palāda a flesh-eater,​ a rākṣasa; translit. pra, para.
 +
 +鉢羅吠奢 praveśa, entrance, 入 q.v.
 +
 +鉢羅奢佉 (or 鉢羅賖佉) praśākha; praśaka; the fifth stage of the fœtus, the limbs being formed.
 +
 +鉢羅底也 pratyaya, a concurrent or environmental cause.
 +
 +鉢羅弭 parama; highest, supreme, first.
 +
 +鉢羅摩菩提 parama-bodhi,​ supreme enlightenment.
 +
 +鉢羅斯那特多 (or 鉢羅犀那特多);​ 波斯匿 Prasenajit, a king of Kośala, patron of Śākyamuni,​ who is reputed as the first to make an image of the Buddha.
 +
 +鉢羅枳孃 鉢羅賢禳 v. 般 prajñā.
 +
 +鉢羅歩多囉怛曩野 (or 鉢羅部多囉怛曩野),​ i.e. 多寳 q.v. Prabhūtaratna.
 +
 +鉢羅由他 (or 鉢羅廋他);​ also 波羅由他;​ ? Prayuta; ten billions; 大鉢羅由他 100 billions, v. 洛.
 +
 +鉢羅笈菩提 Prāgbodhi. A mountain in Magadha, which Śākyamuni ascended '​before entering upon bodhi';​ wrongly explained by 前正覺 anterior to supreme enligtenment.
 +
 +鉢羅耶伽 Prayāga, now Allahabad.
 +
 +鉢羅若 v. 般 prajñā.
 +
 +鉢羅薩他 prastha, a weight tr. as a 斤 Chinese pound; a measure.
 +
 +鉢里薩囉伐拏 parisrāvaṇa,​ a filtering bag, or cloth, for straining water (to save the lives of insects), part of the equipment of a monk.
 +
 +鉢鐸創那 Badakshan, 'A mountainous district of Tukhara'​ (M.W.); also 巴達克山.
 +
 +鉢陀 pada, footstep, pace, stride, position; also 鉢曇; 波陀; 播陀; also tr. as foot; and stop.
 +
 +鉢露兒 Bolor, a kingdom north of the Indus, south-east of the Pamir, rich in minerals, i.e. Hunza-Nagar;​ it is to be distinguished from Bolor in Tukhāra.
 +
 +鉢露羅 Polulo, perhaps Baltistan.
 +
 +鉢頭摩 padma, v. 鉢特.
 +
 +隙 A crack, crevice, rift; translit. kha.
 +
 +隙遊塵 Motes in a sunbeam; a minute particle.
 +
 +隙棄羅 khakkhara, a mendicant'​s staff; a monk's staff.
 +
 +隔 To divide of, separate, part.
 +
 +隔宿 Separated by a night, i.e. the previous day.
 +
 +隔生 Divided by birth; on rebirth to be parted from all knowledge of a previous life.
 +
 +隔歷 Separate, distinct.
 +
 +隔歷三諦 To differentiate and apprehend the three distinctive principles 空假中 noumenon, phenomenon, and the mean.
 +
 +雉 A pheasant; a parapet.
 +
 +雉救林火 The pheasant which busied itself in putting out the forest on fire and was pitied and saved by the fire-god.
 +
 +雷 garjita, thunder, thundering.
 +
 +電 Lightning, symbolizes the impermanent and transient.
 +
 +電光石火 Lightning and flint-fire, transient.
 +
 +電影 Impermanence of all things like lightning and shadow.
 +
 +頌 Extol, praise. gāthā, hymns, songs, verses, stanzas, the metrical part of a sūtra; cf. 伽陀.
 +
 +[419]
 +
 +頑Stupid, obstinate.
 +
 +頑石點頭(Moved by the reciting of the Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra,) even the stupid stones nodded their heads.
 +
 +預 At ease, contented, pleased; arranged, provided for; beforehand; an autumn trip.
 +
 +預流 According with the stream of holy living, the srota-āpanna disciple of the śrāvaka stage, who has overcome the illusion of the seeming, the first stage in Hīnayāna.
 +
 +預彌國 Yāmī, the land or state of Yama, where is no Buddha.
 +
 +頓 To fall headlong, prostrate; at one time, at once; suddenly; immediate; a pause; to stamp; make ready; used chiefly in contrast with 漸 gradually.
 +
 +頓圓 The immediate and complete way of enlightenment of the Tiantai Lotus school.
 +
 +頓頓圓 Instantaneous perfect enlightenment of the Huayan, a term used by 澄觀 Chengguan, who left the Lotus for the Huayan.
 +
 +頓大 The immediate school and sūtra of the Mahāyāna, i.e. the Huayan.
 +
 +頓寫 頓經; 一日經 To copy the Lotus Sūtra at one sitting.
 +
 +頓悟 Instantly to apprehend, or attain to Buddha-enlightenment,​ in contrast with Hīnayāna and other methods of gradual attainment.
 +
 +頓悟菩薩A bodhisattva who attains immediately without passing through the various stages.
 +
 +頓成諸行 The immediate fulfilment of all acts, processes, or disciplines (by the fulfilment of one).
 +
 +頓教 The doctrine that enlightenment or Buddhahood may be attained at once; also immediate teaching of the higher truth without preliminary stages.
 +
 +頓斷 To cut of at one stroke all the passions, etc.
 +
 +頓機 The capacity, or opportunity,​ for immediate enlightenment.
 +
 +頓漸 Immediate, or sudden, attainment in contrast with gradualness.
 +
 +頓旨 The will, or aim, of immediate attainment.
 +
 +頓法 The method of immediacy.
 +
 +頓覺 Immediate apprehension or enlightenment as opposed to gradual development.
 +
 +飯 Rice (cooked); food; to eat.
 +
 +飯磬 The dinner-gong.
 +
 +飯袋子 A rice-bag fellow, a monk only devoted to his food, useless.
 +
 +飯那 vana, a grove, a wood.
 +
 +飯頭 A cook.
 +
 +飮 To drink, swallow; to water cattle.
 +
 +飮光 Drinking light, a tr. of the name of Kāśyapa, v. 迦, or his patronymic, possibly because it is a title of Aruṇa, the charioteer of the sun, but said to be because of Kāśyapa'​s radiant body.
 +
 +飮光部 Mahākāśyapīyāḥ,​ or school of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ.
 +
 +飮血地獄 The hell where they have to drink blood.
 +
 +飮酒 To drink wine, or alcoholic liquor, forbidden by the fifth of the five commandments;​ 10, 35, and 36 reasons for abstinence from it are given.
 +
 +飮食 Drink and food, two things on which sentient beings depend; desire for them is one of the three passions; offerings of them are one of the five forms of offerings.
 +
 +鳩 A dove; to collect; translit. ku, gu, ko, ki; cf. 瞿, 拘, 倶, 矩.
 +
 +鳩垣 Kupana, 鳩洹; 仇桓; an asura who swells with anger.
 +
 +鳩夷羅 kokila, the cuckoo; or 鳩那羅 Kuṇāla, cf. 拘. There are other forms beginning with 拘, 倶, 瞿.
 +
 +鳩摩 (鳩摩羅) Kumāra, a child, youth, prince.
 +
 +鳩摩羅 鳩摩羅什 (鳩摩羅什婆);​ 鳩摩羅時婆 (or 鳩摩羅耆婆);​ 羅什 Kumārajīva,​ one of the 'four suns' of Mahāyāna Buddhism, of which he was the early and most effective propagator in China. He died in Chang-an about A.D. 412. His father was an Indian, his mother a princess of Karashahr. He is noted for the number of his translations and commentaries,​ which he is said to have dictated to some 800 monastic scribes. After cremation his tongue remained '​unconsumed'​.
 +
 +鳩摩羅伽 Kumāraka, idem Kumāra.
 +
 +鳩摩羅伽地 Kumāraka-stage,​ or鳩摩羅浮多 Kumāra-bhūta,​ youthful state, i.e. a bodhisattva state or condition, e.g. the position of a prince to the throne.
 +
 +鳩摩羅炎 Kumārāyaṇa,​ father of Kumārajīva.
 +
 +鳩摩邏多 (or 鳩摩邏陀) Kumāralabdha,​ also 矩 and 拘; two noted monks, one during the period of Aśoka, of the Sautrantika sect; the other Kumāralabdha,​ or '​Kumārata'​ (Eitel), the nineteenth patriarch.
 +
 +鳩槃荼 Kumbhāṇḍa,​ a demon shaped like a gourd, or pot; or with a scrotum like one; it devours the vitality of men; also written with initials 弓, 恭, 究, 拘, 倶, and 吉; also 鳩摩邏滿拏.
 +
 +鳩鳩吒 kukkuta, a fowl.
 +
 +鼓 A drum.
 +
 +鼓樂絃歌 Drum-music and singing with stringed instruments.
 +
 +鼓音 The rolling of drums.
 +
 +鼓天 The drum-deva, thunder.
 +
 +鼠 muṣa; ākhu; a mouse, rat.
 +
 +自黑二鼠 The two mice in the parable, one white the other black, gnawing at the rope of life, i.e. day and night, or sun and moon.
 +
 +鼠喞鳥空 Vain discussions,​ like rat-squeakings and cuckoo-callings.
 +
 +[420]
 +14. FOURTEEN STROKES
 +
 +僕 A servant.
 +
 +僕呼繕那 bahujanya, intp. 衆生 all the living, all who are born.
 +
 +僕拏 Intp. as a digital sign; the fourth of the twelve ways of placing the hands together.
 +
 +僞 False, counterfeit,​ forged. False or forged sūtras which were produced after the Wei dynasty; catalogues of these forged sūtras are given in various books.
 +
 +像 pratirūpa; pratirūpaka. Like, similar, resemblance;​ semblance; image; portrait; form, formal.
 +
 +像化 The religion of the image or symbol Buddhism. Also the second or formal period of the teaching of Buddhism by symbol, v. 像法.
 +
 +像始 The beginning of the formal period.
 +
 +像季 The end of the formal period.
 +
 +像教 idem 像化.
 +
 +像末 The two final stages of Buddhism.
 +
 +像法 saddharma-pratirūpaka;​ the formal or image period of Buddhism; the three periods are 正像末, those of the real, the formal, and the final; or correct, semblance, and termination. The first period is of 500 years; the second of 1,000 years; the third 3,000 years, when Maitreya is to appear and restore all things. There are varied statements about periods and dates, e.g. there is a division of four periods, that while the Buddha was alive, the early stage after his death, then the formal and the final periods.
 +
 +像經 Images and sūtras.
 +
 +像運 The period of formality, or symbolism.
 +
 +僧 僧伽 saṅgha, an assembly, collection, company, society. The corporate assembly of at least three (formerly four) monks under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant absolution, and ordain. The church or monastic order, the third member of the triratna. The term 僧 used alone has come to mean a monk, or monks in general. Also僧佉, 僧加, 僧企耶.
 +
 +僧伽吒 僧伽多; 僧伽陀 saṅghata, an assemblage; also the final hurricane in the kalpa of destruction.
 +
 +僧伽婆尸沙 v. 僧殘.
 +
 +僧伽婆羅 Saṅghapāla;​ a monk of 扶南國 ? Siam, who tr. ten or eleven works A.D. 506-520.
 +
 +僧伽梨 or 僧伽黎 v. 僧伽胝 saṅghātī.
 +
 +僧伽羅 Siṃhala, Ceylon; also name of the Buddha in a previous incarnation when, as a travelling merchant, he, along with 500 others, was driven on to the island; there the rākṣasīs bewitched them; later the Buddha and his companions (like the Argonauts) escaped, and ultimately he destroyed the witches and founded his kingdom there.
 +
 +僧伽胝 saṅghātī. The patch-robe, one of the three garments of a monk reaching from shoulders to the knees and fastened around the waist, made up of nine to twenty-five pieces and so called 重雜衣; also 大衣 great robe; also 重 in layers and 合 composite; v. 九品.
 +
 +僧伽藍 (僧伽藍摩) saṅghārāma,​ a monastery with its garden or grove; also 伽藍.
 +
 +僧伽補羅 Siṃhapura. Eitel says 'an ancient province and city of Cashmere, probably the modern Simla'​.
 +
 +僧伽跋摩 Saṅghavarman,​ an Indian monk who arrived in Nanjing A.D. 433, tr. five works in 434, went westward in 442.
 +
 +僧伽跋陀羅 Saṅghabhadra. 'A learned priest of Cashmere, a follower of the Sarvāstivādaḥ school, the author of many philosophical works.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +僧伽難提 Saṅghanandi,​ a prince of Śrāvastī,​ lived in a cave, was discovered by Rāhulata, became the sixteenth patriarch.
 +
 +僧佉 saṅkhyā, 僧企耶; intp. 數 number, reckon, calculate; Saṅkhyā, 'one of the great divisions of Hindu philosophy ascribed to the sage Kapila, and so called as '​reckoning up' or '​enumerating'​ twenty-five Tattvas or true principles, its object being to effect the final liberation of the twenty-fifth (Purusha, the Soul) from the fetters of the phenomenal creation by conveying the correct knowledge of the twenty-four other Tattvas, and rightly discriminating the soul from them.' M.W. Cf. 迦 and 數.
 +
 +僧儀 The monastic custom, i.e. shaving head and beard, wearing the robe, etc.
 +
 +僧侶 Monastic companions, or company.
 +
 +僧俗 Monks and the laity.
 +
 +僧伍 The monastic ranks.
 +
 +僧可 Name of 慧可 Huike, second patriarch of the Intuitive School.
 +
 +僧吉M075962 鑠 saṅkleśa,​ whatever defiles, e.g. the passions.
 +
 +僧坊 僧房 A vihāra, or saṅghārāma,​ a monastery; also a nunnery.
 +
 +僧塞迦羅 saṃskāra,​ impressions resulting from action, the fourth skandha.
 +
 +[421]
 +
 +僧官 Director of monks, an official first appointed by the government in the fourth century A.D.; then and later the office was called 僧正; 僧統; 僧錄 (僧錄司).
 +
 +僧寶 saṅgha, the idealized church, the third member of the triratna.
 +
 +僧寶果 The perfect arhat who has not to be reborn.
 +
 +僧尼 Monks and nuns.
 +
 +僧戒 The ten prohibitions;​ the complete commands for monks.
 +
 +僧柯者 idem僧迦舍. sāṅkāśya.
 +
 +僧柯慄多弭 saṃskṛtam,​ which means composite, compounded, perfected, but intp. as active, phenomenal, causally produced, characterized by birth, existence, change, and death.
 +
 +僧次 In order of monastic age, according to years of ordination.
 +
 +僧自恣日 The 15th of the 7th month; the last day of the summer retreat, on which the monks confessed their sins.
 +
 +僧殘 saṅghāvaśeṣa;​ Pali, saṅghādiśeṣa. A sin of an ordained person, requiring open confession before the assembly for absolution, or riddance 殘; failing confession, dismissal from the order. Thirteen of these sins are of sexual thoughts, or their verbal expression, also greed, even for the sake of the order, etc.
 +
 +僧祇 sāṅghika,​ relating to a saṅgha; a complete set of land and buildings for a monastery.
 +
 +僧祇支 saṅkakṣikā or uttarasaṅghāṭī,​ described as a kind of toga passed over the left shoulder and under the right armpit; also 僧迦; 僧竭支; 僧却崎; 僧脚欹迦;​ 祇支; 竭支.
 +
 +僧祇物 Monastic possessions,​ or things.
 +
 +僧祇律 Sāṅghikā-vinaya,​ the rules for monks and nuns.
 +
 +僧祇部 Sāṅghikāḥ,​ the Mahāsāṅghikāḥ school, v. 大衆部.
 +
 +僧若 sañjñā; saṃjñā, the third of the five skandhas, i.e. 想 thought, ideation, consciousness.
 +
 +僧衆 The body or assembly of monks.
 +
 +僧訶 siṃha, a lion, also 僧伽.
 +
 +僧迦舍 Sāṅkāśya,​ an ancient kingdom and city in Northern India (v. Kapitha 劫). The modern Samkassam, now a village 45 miles north-west of Kanauj. Also 僧伽施.
 +
 +僧那 (僧那僧涅) sannāha (-sannaddha),​ girding on armour, intp. as a Buddha'​s or bodhisattva'​s great Vow.
 +
 +厮 Attendant, an attendant, servant; to serve.
 +
 +厭 Satiated; weary of; disgusted with.
 +
 +厭世 Weary of the world; to renounce the world.
 +
 +厭欣 Disgusted with, or rejoicing in.
 +
 +厭求 Weary of the miseries of earth and seeking deliverance.
 +
 +厭離 To weary of the world and abandon it.
 +
 +厭魅 厭禱鬼 Vetāla, a demon appealed to in order to raise a corpse and with it to cause the death of an enemy.
 +
 +嘔 To vomit, spit, disgorge.
 +
 +嘔侯侯 Ahaha, or Hahava, the fifth of the cold hells, where the condemned neither stir nor speak, but the cold air passing through their throats produces this sound—a hell unknown to Southern Buddhism.
 +
 +嘉 Good, excellent, praiseworthy,​ to commend.
 +
 +嘉會 嘉集 Delightful assembly, an excellent meeting.
 +
 +嘆 To praise, extol; to sigh.
 +
 +嘆佛 To praise Buddha.
 +
 +嘆德 To praise the virtue of others.
 +
 +嘆靈 To praise the spirit of the departed.
 +
 +嗽 Cough.
 +
 +嗽卑 upāsikā, an old form, see 烏 a female disciple.
 +
 +圖 A plan, map; seal; to plan, scheme, calculate.
 +
 +團 Round; a ball, mass, lump; a group, company, train-band.
 +
 +團拜 To kneel, or worship altogether as a company.
 +
 +團食 To roll rice, etc., into a ball in eating, Hindu fashion.
 +
 +境 viṣaya; artha; gocara. A region, territory, environment,​ surroundings,​ area, field, sphere, e.g. the sphere of mind, the sphere of form for the eye, of sound for the ear, etc.; any objective mental projection regarded as reality.
 +
 +境智 The objective world and the subjective mind, or knowledge of the objective sphere.
 +
 +境界 Sphere, region, realm, as 境.
 +
 +境界相 The external, or phenomenal world, the third aspect referred to in the Awakening of Faith; the three are blind or unintelligent action, the subjective mind, and the objective illusory world.
 +
 +[422]
 +
 +境界般若 External world prajñā, or wisdom of all things; prajñā is subjective, all things are its objective.
 +
 +塵 guṇa, in Sanskrit inter alia means 'a secondary element',​ 'a quality',​ 'an attribute of the five elements',​ e.g. 'ether has śabda or sound for its guṇa and the ear for its organ'​. In Chinese it means 'dust, small particles; molecules, atoms, exhalations'​. It may be intp. as an atom, or matter, which is considered as defilement; or as an active, conditioned principle in nature, minute, subtle, and generally speaking defiling to pure mind; worldly, earthly, the world. The six guṇas or sensation-data are those of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thought.
 +
 +塵刹 guṇakṣetra,​ 'field of qualities,'​ certain sins.
 +
 +塵勞 The trouble of the world, the passions.
 +
 +塵境 The environment of the six guṇas or qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thought.
 +
 +塵塵三昧 The samādhi in which, in a moment of time, entry is made into all samādhis.
 +
 +塵塵刹土 Numberless lands; also in every grain, or atom, there is a whole realm.
 +
 +塵妄 Impure and false, as are all temporal things.
 +
 +塵垢 Material, or phenomenal defilement; the defilement of the passions.
 +
 +塵欲 The desires connected with the six guṇas.
 +
 +塵沙 Dust and sand, i.e. numberless as the atoms. Tiantai uses the term as one of the three illusions, i.e. the trial of the bodhisattva in facing the vast amount of detail in knowledge and operation required for his task of saving the world.
 +
 +塵洲 Worlds as numerous as atoms.
 +
 +塵劫 (塵點劫) A period of time as impossible of calculation as the atoms of a ground-up world, an attempt to define the infinite, v. Lotus Sūtra 7 and 16.
 +
 +塵累 The passion-karma which entangles the mind.
 +
 +塵綱 The net of the six guṇas, i.e. those connected with the six senses.
 +
 +塵緣 The circumstances or conditions environing the mind created by the six guṇas.
 +
 +塵表 Outside of the secular, i.e. the doctrine of Buddha.
 +
 +塵道 The dusty path, the phenomenal world, or worlds.
 +
 +塵那羅 dīnāra, a coin, a gold coin, from δηναριον.
 +
 +塵鄕 The native place or home of the six guṇas, i.e that of transmigration.
 +
 +壽 Long life, longevity, age, v. 耆婆 jīva.
 +
 +壽像 A portrait, or statue of a man of years while still alive.
 +
 +壽命 jīvita, life, length of days, age.
 +
 +壽命無有量 壽命無數劫 The infinite life of Buddha.
 +
 +壽論 阿由 The Ayurveda, the medical Vedas, v. 韋.
 +
 +壽量品 The chapter in the Lotus Sūtra where Buddha declares his eternity; v. also the 無量壽經.
 +
 +夢 A dream, a simile of the things of the world.
 +
 +夢幻 Dream and illusion, the characteristics of all phenomena.
 +
 +夢揭釐 Moṅgali, or Maṅgala, ancient capital of Udyāna, the present Manglavor on the left bank of the Swat, a trans-Indus State west of Kashmir.
 +
 +夢想 To '​dream'​ a thing, to think of in a dream, to imagine.
 +
 +夢見 To see in a dream, to imagine one sees, or has seen.
 +
 +奪 Snatch, carry off, take by force; decide.
 +
 +奪魂鬼 A demon that carries off the soul.
 +
 +奪精鬼 One that carries off the vital breath of the dying.
 +
 +寢 To sleep, rest; stop; a retiring room, resting place.
 +
 +寢堂 A dormitory.
 +
 +寧 Repose; settle; better than; rather; how?
 +
 +寧安 Reposeful at ease.
 +
 +實 Real, true, honest, sincere; solid; fixed; full; to fill; fruit, kernel, effects; verily, in fact; it is used for 眞, as in 一實 the supreme fact, or ultimate reality; also for bhūta.
 +
 +實化 The real or noumenal Buddha as contrasted with 權化 the temporal or phenomenal Buddha; the 實化二身 are his 報身 saṃbhogakāya and his 化身 nirmāṇakāya.
 +
 +實利 śarīra, relics, see 舍.
 +
 +實叉難陀 Śikṣānanda. A śramaṇa of Kustana (Khotan) who in A.D. 695 introduced a new alphabet into China and translated nineteen works; the Empress Wu invited him to bring a complete copy of the Huayan sūtra to Luoyang; sixteen works in the present collection are assigned to him. Also 施乞叉難陀.
 +
 +實唱 Reality-proclamation,​ i.e. to preach the Tathāgata'​s law of Reality.
 +
 +實報土 The land of Buddha-reward in Reality free from all barriers, that of the bodhisattva,​ the third of the four '​lands'​ of Tiantai. A Buddha-kṣetra.
 +
 +實大乘教 The real Mahāyāna, freed from temporal, relative, or expedient ideas; the Tiantai, Huayan, Intuitional,​ and Shingon schools claim to be such.
 +
 +[423]
 +
 +實性 Real nature, or essence, i.e. the 眞如 bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +實我 The true ego, in contrast with the 假我 phenomenal ego.
 +
 +實教 The teaching of Reality; also, the real or reliable teaching.
 +
 +實智 The knowledge or wisdom of Reality, in contrast with knowledge of the 權 relative.
 +
 +實本 Fundamental reality, applied to the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra, as opposed to the previous Buddhist teaching.
 +
 +實眼 An eye able to discern reality, i.e. the Buddha-eye.
 +
 +實相 Reality, in contrast with 虛妄; absolute fundamental reality, the ultimate, the absolute; the 法身, i.e. dharmakāya,​ or 眞如 bhūtatathatā. Other terms are 一實; 一如; 一相; 無相; 法證; 法位; 涅槃; 無爲; 眞諦; 眞性; 眞空; 實性; 實諦; 實際, q.v.
 +
 +實相三昧 The samādhi of reality, in which the unreality of the phenomenal is realized.
 +
 +實相印 The seal or witness of reality, which is passed on from Buddha to Buddha.
 +
 +實相慧 Wisdom in regard to reality.
 +
 +實相智身 The body of absolute knowledge, or of complete knowledge of Reality, i.e. that of Vairocana.
 +
 +實相法界 The first half is a Lotus Sūtra term for Reality, the latter half a Huayan term for the same.
 +
 +實相爲物二身 The dharmakāya or spiritual Buddha, and the nirmāṇakāya,​ i.e. manifested or phenomenal Buddha.
 +
 +實相無相 Reality is Nullity, i.e. is devoid of phenomenal characteristics,​ unconditioned.
 +
 +實相花 實相風 The flower, or breeze, of Reality, i.e. the truth, or glory, of Buddhist teaching.
 +
 +實相觀 Insight into, or meditation on Reality.
 +
 +實空 Absolute śūnya, or vacuity; all things being produced by cause and environment are unreal.
 +
 +實經 The true sūtras as contrasted to the relative or temporary sūtras, a term of the Lotus school.
 +
 +實色身 The real Buddha-body,​ or his saṃbhogakāya in contrast with his nirmāṇakāya.
 +
 +實語 True, or reliable words; words corresponding to reality; discussions of Reality.
 +
 +實諦 A truth; the true statement of a fundamental principle.
 +
 +實道 The true way, the true religion, absolute Buddha-truth.
 +
 +實際 The region of Reality.
 +
 +實際理地 The noumenal universe, the bhūtatathatā.
 +
 +對 To respond, reply, face, opposite, pair, compare; the opposite of; agreeing with.
 +
 +對吿衆 The intermediary for the Buddha'​ s address to the assembly, especially Ānanda.
 +
 +對揚 One who drew out remarks or sermons from the Buddha.
 +
 +對機 To respond to the opportunity,​ or the capacity of hearers.
 +
 +對法 The corresponding law, the philosophy in the Buddha'​s teaching, the Abhidharma; comparison of cause and effect.
 +
 +對法宗 The Abhidharma sect.
 +
 +對法藏 The third section of the tripiṭaka,​ the śāstras, or Abhidharma.
 +
 +對治 To respond or face up to and control.
 +
 +對觸禮 To worship, or pay respects, face to face.
 +
 +對首 Face to face (confession).
 +
 +幖 A streamer, pennant 幖幟.
 +
 +廓 Wide, spacious, open, vacant.
 +
 +廓然大悟 Widely to have a great apprehension of the truth.
 +
 +彰 Variegated, adorned; to display, show, make manifest.
 +
 +慚 Shame, ashamed; i.e. for one's own faults, cf. 愧.
 +
 +慳 matsara; lobha; grudging, sparing, stingy, avaricious.
 +
 +慳心 慳惜 A grudging, mean heart.
 +
 +慳法 Mean and grudging of the Truth to others, unwillingness to part with it.
 +
 +慳貪 Grudging and greed.
 +
 +慢 māna. Pride, arrogance, self-conceit,​ looking down on others, supercilious,​ etc.; there are categories of seven and nine kinds of pride.
 +
 +慢使 The messenger, or lictor, of pride, cf. 五使.
 +
 +慢坑 The pit, or pitfall of pride.
 +
 +慢山 Pride as high as a mountain.
 +
 +慢幢 Pride as a banner rearing itself aloft.
 +
 +慢惑 One of the ten great delusions, that of pride.
 +
 +[424]
 +
 +慢想 Proud, arrogant thoughts.
 +
 +慢結 The bondage of pride.
 +
 +慢擧 To hold oneself arrogantly.
 +
 +慢見 Pride, regarding oneself as superior, one of the ten wrong views.
 +
 +慢過慢 Regarding oneself as superior, to superiors.
 +
 +慇 Anxious.
 +
 +慇懃 Zealous, careful.
 +
 +截 To cut off, intercept.
 +
 +截雨呪 Incantations for the cessation of rain.
 +
 +摸 To feel, grope, e.g. as a blind man.
 +
 +摸象 The blind man who tried to describe an elephant by feeling it, v. Nirvāṇa Sūtra 32.
 +
 +敲 To knock, beat, pound, e.g. a drum, gong, or gate.
 +
 +斡 A handle for turning a wheel, a wheel, to revolve, circulate.
 +
 +斡資羅 vajra, v. 跋 and 金剛.
 +
 +朅 To and fro; translit. kha; cf. 竭; 軻.
 +
 +朅伽 朅誐 khaḍga, a sword, rhinoceros'​ horn, rhinoceros.
 +
 +朅伽毘沙拏 朅伽毘沙 khaḍga-viṣāṇa,​ a rhinoceros'​ horn.
 +
 +朅地洛迦 Khadiraka, the Acacia, or Acacia mountain; i.e. 朅達羅 one of the seven concentric mountains around Sumeru.
 +
 +槌 Hammer, mallet.
 +
 +槌砧 槌墩 Hammer and block, or anvil.
 +
 +榤 vitasti, a span; the 32,000th part of a yojana.
 +
 +榮 Glory, splendour.
 +
 +榮華 Glory, the glory of life, viewed as transient.
 +
 +槃 A tray; a hut; to turn; translit. pan, van, va.
 +
 +槃淡 cf. 和 vandana, obeisance, worship.
 +
 +槃特 槃陀 cf. 半 paṇḍaka,​ eunuch.
 +
 +槃遮 vāc, speech, talk.
 +
 +槃頭 Pāṇḍu, father of Vipaśyin, the 998th Buddha of the last kalpa .
 +
 +榜 A placard, list; model, example.
 +
 +歌 To sing; a song; translit. ka; cf. 迦, 羯.
 +
 +歌偈 Verses for singing; to sing verses.
 +
 +歌利 Kali, the present evil age.
 +
 +歌利王 v. 羯 Kalirāja.
 +
 +歌唄 歌嘆; 歌咏; 歌頌 To sing, chant.
 +
 +歌憂底迦 Kārttika, the month October-November.
 +
 +歌舞 To sing and dance.
 +
 +歌羅 (歌羅分) v. 迦 kalā, a fraction.
 +
 +歌羅邏 kalala, an embryo, the womb.
 +
 +歌羅頻迦 v. 迦, kalaviṅka.
 +
 +歌聲 The sound of singing, the singing of kinnaras, cf. 緊.
 +
 +殞 To perish, die; fall; become extinct.
 +
 +漆 Varnish, lacquer.
 +
 +漆桶 Varnish tub, a stupid, unseeing fellow.
 +
 +漢 The River Han: the Han dynasty; a fine fellow; China.
 +
 +漉 To strain, filter.
 +
 +漉水袋 or 漉水囊 A monk's filtering-bag to strain off living creatures.
 +
 +漫 Overflowing,​ boundless; translit. man, van; cf. 曼, 滿.
 +
 +漫提 vande, 'I worship.'​
 +
 +漫荼羅 (or 漫怛羅 or漫陀羅) v. 曼 maṇḍala.
 +
 +漫荼迦 maṇḍaka,​ a cake, pastry.
 +
 +漚 To steep, macerate, rot; bubble; translit. u, o, etc.
 +
 +漚和倶舍羅 (or 傴和倶舍羅) (or 漚和拘舍羅) (or 傴和拘舍羅) upāyakauśalya,​ intp. by 方便善巧 expediency and skill, adaptable, suited to conditions, opportunist,​ the adaptation of teaching to the capacity of the hearer.
 +
 +漚多羅僧 v. 鬱 uttarāsaṅga,​ a toga worn over the left shoulder.
 +
 +漚波耶波羅蜜 upāya-pāramitā,​ saving by the method of expedient teaching, v. 漚和倶舍羅.
 +
 +漚鉢羅 utpala, also 嗢鉢羅; 優鉢羅; 烏鉢羅 the blue lotus; also a lord of nāgas and his blue lotus lake.
 +
 +漕 A channel, canal; transport, especially by the 漕河 Grand Canal.
 +
 +漕矩吒 Tsaukūta, an '​ancient (Arachotos) kingdom in N. W. India (near Ghuznee)'​. Eitel.
 +
 +演 To extend, expound, practise, perform.
 +
 +演暢 To expound and make clear.
 +
 +演若達多 Yajñadatta (演若) , '​obtained from sacrifice,'​ a crazy man who saw his eyebrows and eyes in a mirror but not seeing them in his own head thought himself bedevilled; the eyes and head are a symbol of 正性 reality, those in the mirror of 妄相 unreality.
 +
 +演說 To expound, dilate upon, discourse.
 +
 +漸 Gradual, by degrees, to flow little by little.
 +
 +漸次 step by step, by degrees, gradually.
 +
 +漸教 The gradual method of teaching by beginning with the Hīnayāna and proceeding to the Mahāyāna, in contrast with 頓教 q.v. the immediate teaching of the Mahāyāna doctrine, or of any truth directly; e.g. the Huayan school considers the Huayan sūtra as the immediate or direct teaching, and the Lotus Sūtra as both gradual and direct; Tiantai considers the Lotus direct and complete; but there are other definitions.
 +
 +[425]
 +
 +漸斷 Gradually to cut off, as contrasted with 頓斷 sudden or instantaneous excision.
 +
 +漸熱 Increasing heat; grīṣma, the two months from middle of May to middle of July.
 +
 +滿 pūrṇa. Full, whole, complete.
 +
 +滿分戒 The whole of the commandments,​ i.e. of the monk.
 +
 +滿字 The complete word, i.e. Mahāyāna, as compared with the 半字 half word, or incomplete word of Hīnayāna.
 +
 +滿座 A complete, or full assembly; also the last day of a general assembly.
 +
 +滿怛羅 滿荼邏 v. 曼 maṇḍala.
 +
 +滿慈子 滿祝子; 滿見子; 滿願子 see 富 pūrṇa.
 +
 +滿成 Fully complete, perfect.
 +
 +滿月尊 The full-moon honoured one, Buddha.
 +
 +滿果 滿業 The fruit, or karma, which fills out the details of any incarnation,​ as distinguished from 引業 which determines the type, e.g. man, animal, etc., of that incarnation.
 +
 +滿殊尸利 v. 文 Mañjuśrī.
 +
 +滿泥 漫提 vande, 'I worship.'​
 +
 +滿濡 曼殊 or 曼乳 mañju, beautiful, lovely.
 +
 +滿荼 maṇḍa, solid, the diamond throne.
 +
 +滿足 Full, complete.
 +
 +漏 āsrava, '​flowing,​ running, discharge; distress, pain, affliction.'​ M.W. It is defined as another term for 煩惱 q.v.; also as the discharge, or outflow, from the organs of sense, wherever those exist, hence it is applied to the passions and their filth; impure efflux from the mind, v. 欲有; also to the leakage or loss thereby of the 正道 truth; also to the stream of transmigration.
 +
 +漏永盡無所畏 Absolute confidence (of Buddha) that transmigration would cease for ever.
 +
 +漏戒 To make a leak in the commandments,​ i.e. break them.
 +
 +漏業 The deeds of the sinner in the stream of transmigration,​ which produce his karma.
 +
 +漏無漏 Transmigration and nirvāṇa.
 +
 +漏盡 āsravakṣaya. The end of the passions, or the exhaustion of the stream of transmigration.
 +
 +漏盡明 The realization that the stream of transmigration is ended.
 +
 +漏盡意解 The passions ended and the mind freed, the state of the arhat.
 +
 +漏盡智 The wisdom of the arhat.
 +
 +漏盡比丘 The monk who has ended the stream of transmigration,​ the arhat.
 +
 +漏盡證明 The assurance or realization that the stream of transmigration is ended and nirvāṇa attained.
 +
 +漏盡通 The supernatural insight into the ending of the stream of transmigration;​ one of the six abhijñās.
 +
 +熏 To smoke, fumigate, cense, perfume, exhale; fog, becloud.
 +
 +熏習 To fumigate, perfume, i.e. the influence of unenlightenment,​ ignorance, or blind fate, on the unconditioned producing the conditioned,​ v. 薰 18.
 +
 +熊 A bear.
 +
 +熊耳山 Bear's ear mount, the place, where Bodhidharma was buried.
 +
 +熒 Glitter, twinkle.
 +
 +熒惑心 (or熒惑天) Aṅgāraka,​ the planet Mars; also 火曜日; it is also described as a nakṣatra, or asterism, and as such is represented in feminine form in the Vajradhātu group.
 +
 +爾 You, thou; so, thus; used adverbially.
 +
 +爾前 Before this, formerly used by Tiantai to denote the time preceding the Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +爾燄 爾炎 jñeya, cognizable, the region or basis of knowledge.
 +
 +獄 Litigation, law-case; a prison; 地獄 q.v. Earth-prison,​ the hells.
 +
 +璢璃 vaiḍūrya,​ described as a green indestructible gem, one of the seven precious things. A mountain near Vārāṇaśī. Also 吠璢璃 (吠璢璃耶);​ 毘頭梨.
 +
 +璢璃王 Virūḍhaka,​ cf. 毘.
 +
 +瑪 Agate瑪瑙.
 +
 +瑤 Jasper (green), green crystal.
 +
 +瑤花宮 cf. 玉.
 +
 +甄 Mould, influence, discern; translit. kiṃ, kin.
 +
 +甄叔迦 kiṃśuka, the tree Butea frondosa, with beautiful red blossoms; a red stone perhaps a ruby.
 +
 +甄迦羅 kiṃkara, 10,​000,​000,​000.
 +
 +甄陀 kinnara, v. 緊.
 +
 +疑 vicikitsā; doubt, suspect; hesitate, be uncertain, fear, surmise.
 +
 +疑使The messenger, tempter, or lictor, of doubt.
 +
 +疑剌 The thorn of doubt.
 +
 +疑域胎宮 The palace for doubters outside Amitābha'​s heaven, where all doubters of him are confined for 500 years until fit to enjoy his paradise.
 +
 +疑執 The holding to doubt.
 +
 +疑心 A doubting heart, dubious, suspicious.
 +
 +疑惑 Doubt and delusion, doubt, uncertainty.
 +
 +疑悔 To repent of doubt.
 +
 +疑結 The bondage of doubt.
 +
 +疑蓋 The overhanging cover of doubt.
 +
 +疑見 Doubtfully to view, doubtful views, doubt.
 +
 +監 To survey, examine; a palace-eunuch;​ the Academy; to superintend,​ oversee; warden of a jail, warder, jail.
 +
 +監寺 監院; 監收 The warden, or superintendent of a monastery, especially the one who controls its internal affairs.
 +
 +[426]
 +
 +盡 An emptied vessel, all used up; end, finish, complete, nothing left; all, utmost, entirely. At the end of seven days, seven days being completed.
 +
 +盡十方 The entire ten directions, the universe, everywhere.
 +
 +盡未來際 To the end of all time, eternal.
 +
 +盡淨虛融 The identity of the absolute and the empirical, a doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā.
 +
 +碧 Jade-green, or blue.
 +
 +碧眼胡 The blue-eyed barbarian, Bodhidharma.
 +
 +禍 Woe, calamity, misfortune.
 +
 +福 Blessing, happiness, felicity, good fortune.
 +
 +福地 A place of blessedness,​ a monastery.
 +
 +福報 A blessed reward, e.g. to be reborn as a man or a deva.
 +
 +福因 That which causes or gives rise to blessing, i.e. all good deeds.
 +
 +福庭 A court, or hall, of blessedness,​ a monastery.
 +
 +福德 puṇya. Blessed virtues, all good deeds; the blessing arising from good deeds.
 +
 +福德莊嚴 The adornment of blessedness and virtue. i.e. of good deeds.
 +
 +福德資糧 The nutriment of blessedness i.e. deeds of charity.
 +
 +福德身 The buddhakāya,​ or body of Buddha, in the enjoyment of the highest samādhi bliss.
 +
 +福德門 The gates of blessedness and virtue, the first five of the six pāramitās.
 +
 +福慧 Blessedness and wisdom; or virtue and wisdom.
 +
 +福慶 Blessedness and felicity, blessed felicity; to congratulate on good fortune.
 +
 +福智 Blessedness and wisdom, the two virtues which adorn.
 +
 +福果 The reward of blessedness.
 +
 +福業 The karma of blessedness,​ a happy karma.
 +
 +福生 Born of or to happiness.
 +
 +福生天 Puṇyaprasavās,​ the tenth brahmaloka, the first region of the fourth dhyāna.
 +
 +福田 The field of blessedness,​ i.e. any sphere of kindness, charity, or virtue; there are categories of 2, 3, 4, and 8, e.g. that of study and that of charity; parents, teachers, etc.; the field of poverty as a monk, etc.
 +
 +福田衣 The garment of the field of blessing, the monk's robe.
 +
 +福相法身 The Buddha-dharmakāya as blessedness,​ in contrast with it as wisdom.
 +
 +福祿 Happiness and emolument, good fortune here or hereafter.
 +
 +福蓋 The cover, or canopy, of blessing.
 +
 +福行 The life or conduct which results in blessing e.g. being reborn as a man or a deva.
 +
 +福觀 Blessedness and insight, similar to福慧; 福智.
 +
 +福足 The feet of blessedness,​ one consisting of the first five pāramitās,​ the other being the sixth pāramitā, i.e. wisdom; happiness replete.
 +
 +稱 To call, style, invoke; to weigh; a steelyard, scale; to suit, tally with.
 +
 +稱佛 To invoke a Buddha.
 +
 +稱名 To invoke the (Buddha'​s) name, especially that of Amitābha.
 +
 +稱名雜行 To worship a variety of Buddhas, etc., instead of cleaving to Amitābha alone.
 +
 +稱意華 The soma plant, suggested by Sir Aurel Stein as possibly wild rhubarb.
 +
 +稱讚 To praise.
 +
 +種 vīja; bīja. Seed, germ; sort, species; also to sow, plant.
 +
 +種子 Seed, germ; the content of the ālayavijñāna as the seed of all phenomena; the esoterics also have certain Sanskrit letters, especially the first letter ā, as a seed or germ containing supernatural powers.
 +
 +種子識 ālayavijñāna,​ the abode or seed-store of consciousness from which all phenomena spring, producing and reproducing momentarily.
 +
 +種性 Seed nature, germ nature; derivative or inherited nature.
 +
 +種智 Omniscience,​ knowledge of the seed or cause of all phenomena.
 +
 +種根器 The three categories of the ālayavijñāna:​ (1) the seed, or cause, of all phenomena; (2) the five organs of sensation; (3) the material environment on which they depend.
 +
 +種熟脫 The seed of Buddha-truth implanted, its ripening, and its liberation or harvest.
 +
 +種種色世界 A world of every kind of thing.
 +
 +種覺 The insight into all seeds or causes, Buddha-knowledge,​ omniscience.
 +
 +種識 The ālayavijñāna.
 +
 +端 Beginning, coming forth, elementary principles; a point either beginning or end; straight, proper.
 +
 +端嚴 In strict propriety.
 +
 +端坐 To sit straight and proper.
 +
 +端心正意 With a proper mind and regulated will, doing no evil.
 +
 +端正 Proper, properly ordered, rectitude, integrity.
 +
 +竭 Exhaust, used up, finish; utmost.
 +
 +竭叉 A place said to be in the Karakoram mountains, where according to Faxian formerly great assemblies were held under royal patronage and with royal treatment. Eitel gives it as Khaśa, and says 'an ancient tribe on the Paropamisus,​ the Kasioi of Ptolemy';​ others give different places, e.g. Kashmir, Iskardu, Krtchou.
 +
 +竭支 v. 僧祇支.
 +
 +竭誐 khaḍga (sometimes in error khaṅga), a sword, a rhinoceros'​ horn, a rhinoceros.
 +
 +竭陀羅 khadira, the Acacia catechu; khadīra, the Mimosa pudica. M.W. A hard wood, also karavīra.
 +
 +箋 A tablet, slip.
 +
 +箋書 sūtras.
 +
 +箇 Each, every.
 +
 +箇箇圓常道 Every single thing is the complete eternal Dao.
 +
 +[427]
 +
 +管 A pipe, tube; to rule, control.
 +
 +管絃講 Pipes, stings, and preaching, an '​accompanied'​ service — in India.
 +
 +算 Reckon, count, calculate.
 +
 +算數 To count numbers, to count, number.
 +
 +精 Cleaned rice, freed from the husk, pure; essential, essence, germinating principle, spirit; fine, best, finest.
 +
 +精室 精廬; 精舍 A place for pure, or spiritual, cultivation,​ a pure abode, the abode of the celibate, a monastery or nunnery.
 +
 +精氣 Vitality, virility.
 +
 +精眞 Pure truth, apprehension of ultimate reality.
 +
 +精神 Vitality; also the pure and spiritual, the subtle, or recondite.
 +
 +精進 vīrya, one of the seven bodhyaṅga;​ '​vigour,'​ '​valour,​ fortitude,'​ '​virility'​ (M.W.); '​welldoing'​ (Keith). The Chinese interpretation may be defined, as pure or unadulterated progress, i.e. 勤 zeal, zealous, courageously progressing in the good and eliminating the evil.
 +
 +精進力 vīryabala. The power of unfailing progress, one of the five moral powers.
 +
 +精進弓智慧箭 Zeal as the bow, wisdom the arrow.
 +
 +精進波羅蜜 Zeal, energy, or progress as the fourth of the six pāramitās.
 +
 +精靈棚 The booth, or canopy, where the feast of all souls is provided.
 +
 +綺 A kind of open-work variegated silk.
 +
 +綺語 Sexual talk; improper remarks.
 +
 +緊 Tight; to bind tight; press tight; pressing, urgent; translit. kin.
 +
 +緊祝迦 kiṃśuka, v. 甄 ruby-colour.
 +
 +緊要 Important.
 +
 +緊那羅 緊捺羅 (or緊陀羅);​ 甄陀羅 (or 眞陀羅 ) kinnara; the musicians of Kuvera, with men's bodies and horses'​ heads; they are described as 人非人 men yet not men, and 疑神 mythical beings; one of the eight classes of heavenly musicians; they are also described as horned, as having crystal lutes, the females singing and dancing, and as ranking below gandharvas.
 +
 +綫 Thread: a clue, continuation. An intp. of sūtra.
 +
 +綱 A net rope, bond, social nexus, constant obligation, the restraints of society.
 +
 +綱維 The controller of a monastery.
 +
 +網 jāla. A net, a web.
 +
 +網目 The '​eyes',​ or meshes of a net. For the Brahmajāla sūtra v. 梵網經.
 +
 +緇 Black garments; at one time black was used for monastic robes.
 +
 +緇徒 緇流 Monks.
 +
 +緇林 A monastery.
 +
 +緇衣 Black robes, monks.
 +
 +緇門 The black-robe order, monks.
 +
 +維 A carriage-curtain;​ a net; a corner, cardinal point; to tie or hold together, connect; a copula, also, but, whereas, now.
 +
 +維口食 Improper means of existence by spells, fortune-telling,​ etc., one of the four cardinal improper ways of earning a livelihood.
 +
 +維摩 Vimalakīrti,​ 維摩詰 (維摩羅詰);​ 毘摩羅詰 undefiled or spotless reputation, 'a native of Vaiśālī, said to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni,​ and to have visited China.'​ Eitel. The Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa sūtra 維摩詰所說經 is an apocryphal account of '​conversations between Śākyamuni and some residents of Vaiśālī',​ tr. by Kumārajīva;​ an earlier tr. was the維摩詰經,​ a later was by Xuanzang, and there are numerous treatises.
 +
 +維耶離 cf. 毘 Vaiśālī.
 +
 +維衛 (維衛佛) cf. 毘 Vipaśyin, one of the seven ancient Buddhas.
 +
 +維越 avaivartika,​ cf. 阿, one who never reverts to a lower condition.
 +
 +維那 羯磨陀那 karmadāna, the duty-distributor,​ deacon, arranger of duties, second in command of a monastery.
 +
 +聚 samāsa ; assemble, collect; an assemblage.
 +
 +聚沫 The phenomenal world likened to assembled scum, or bubbles.
 +
 +聚諦 samudaya, the second of the four dogmas, that of '​accumulation',​ i.e. that suffering is caused by the passions.
 +
 +聚集 To assemble, flock together.
 +
 +聞 To hear; to make known to; to smell.
 +
 +聞光力 To hear of the power of the light of Amitābha.
 +
 +聞名 To hear the name of; fame, famous; to hear the name of Buddha, or a Buddha.
 +
 +聞慧 Hearing the word and becoming wise in it; wisdom obtained from hearing.
 +
 +聞持 To hear and keep; hearing and keeping in mind; hearing and obeying.
 +
 +聞法 To hear the doctrine.
 +
 +聞陀羅尼 (聞持陀羅尼) To hear and keep, hear and remember the teaching, dhāraṇī 陀羅尼 meaning to hold to, maintain.
 +
 +肇 To begin, initiate.
 +
 +肇法師 or 僧肇 Sengzhao, name of a monk in the fourth century whose treatise is called by this name.
 +
 +腐 Rotten, corrupt, putrid, sloughing.
 +
 +腐爤藥 Purgatives, diuretics.
 +
 +膏 Fat, oil, unguent.
 +
 +膏明 Oil and light, oil being right conduct, with the resultant shining before men.
 +
 +[428]
 +
 +臺 A terrace, platform, stage, look-out; also written 台.
 +
 +臺座 A platform, or stage, for an image.
 +
 +與 Give, grant; with, associate; present at, share in; mark of interrogation or exclamation.
 +
 +與力 To give strength.
 +
 +與願 To be willing (or vow) to grant.
 +
 +舞 To posture, brandish, play; urge.
 +
 +與戲 To play, perform plays.
 +
 +蒸 Twigs; to steam, vapour.
 +
 +蒸沙 Steaming or cooking sand for food: an impossibility,​ like Ānanda trying to meditate without cutting off evil conduct.
 +
 +蒺 Thorny bushes, furze.
 +
 +蒺藜 The calthrop, Tribulus terrestris.
 +
 +蒭 Hay, straw, fodder.
 +
 +蒭摩 kṣumā, kṣauma, linen, flax, linen garments; also 芻蒭迦; 菆蒭; 須蒭; 蘇蒭; 讖蒭.
 +
 +蓱沙王 Bimbisāra, v. 頻.
 +
 +蒲 Rushes, flags, grass.
 +
 +蒲團 A rush cushion, or hassock.
 +
 +蒲塞 upāsaka, 伊蒲塞 cf. 優.
 +
 +蒲闍尼 蒲膳尼 bhojanīya, to be eaten, edible; what is suitable as the fare of monks and nuns, proper food; one list gives wheat, rice (boiled), parched rice, fish, and flesh; another gives cakes (or loaves), porridge, parched grain, flesh, and boiled rice.
 +
 +蓋 A cover, anything that screens, hides, or hinders; to build; then, for. The passions which delude the real mind so that it does not develop. A hat, or umbrella, or any cover. The canopy over a Buddha.
 +
 +蓋纏 Cover and bonds i.e. the passions which stunt growth and hold in bondage.
 +
 +蒙 To cover; stupid, ignorant; receive (from above); Mongol.
 +
 +蒙古 Mongolia, Mongol.
 +
 +蒙惑 Stupid and deluded.
 +
 +蒼 Azure; the heavens; grey, old.
 +
 +蒼龍窟 The cave of the azure or green dragon, where it lies curled over the talismanic pearl, which only a hero can obtain.
 +
 +蜫 Insects, creeping things.
 +
 +蜫蟲作佛 Even insects may attain Buddhahood; v. 智度論 93.
 +
 +蜜 Honey; translit. m.
 +
 +蜜利伽羅 mṛga; a deer; mṛga-rāja,​ royal stag, Buddha.
 +
 +蜜利車 mleccha, cf. 彌 heathen, non-Buddhist nations, the barbarians.
 +
 +蜜栗伽悉他鉢娜 Mṛga-sthāpana,​ Mṛgadāva,​ famous park north-east of Vārāṇaśī,​ a favourite resort of Śākyamuni. The modern Sārnath, near Benares. Eitel.
 +
 +裴 Beautifully robed.
 +
 +裴弗略 vaipulya, enlarged, v. 方.
 +
 +裸 Naked.
 +
 +裸形外道 nirgranthas,​ naked ascetics.
 +
 +誠 Truthful, true, truth; real; sincere, sincerity.
 +
 +誠信 True and trustworthy,​ true, reliable.
 +
 +誠諦 Truth, a truth, the true teaching of Buddhism.
 +
 +誡 Commandment,​ precept, prohibition,​ warning, rule.
 +
 +誡罰 To warn and punish; to punish for breach of the commandments or rules.
 +
 +誡勸 Prohibitions from evil and exhortations to good. See 戒.
 +
 +誌 To remember, record.
 +
 +誐 To intone, hum; translit. ga.
 +
 +誐囉娜 gardabha, defined as an ass.
 +
 +誐嚕 garuḍa, v. 迦.
 +
 +誐那鉢氏 gaṇapati, a leader, Gaṇeśa, the '​elephant god'; it is, however, defined as 歡喜 pleased, joyful.
 +
 +認 To recognize.
 +
 +認識 to acknowledge,​ e.g. sin 認罪.
 +
 +誑 Imposition, deception, lying.
 +
 +誦 To murmur, recite, intone, memorize by repeating in a murmur, cf. 念.
 +
 +誦經 To intone sūtras.
 +
 +誕 A birthday; to bear, produce; wide, boastful.
 +
 +誕生會 An assembly to celebrate a birthday, e.g. the Buddha'​s on the 8th of the 4th month.
 +
 +誓 To swear, vow, engage to, enter into a contract.
 +
 +誓約 To swear and engage to.
 +
 +誓願 To swear and vow, e.g. the forty-eight vows of Amitābha to save all beings.
 +
 +語 Words, discourse, conversation,​ speech, language; to say, speak with; cf. 嚕 ruta.
 +
 +語業 The karma produced by speech.
 +
 +語義 rutārtha word-meaning;​ word and meaning.
 +
 +語言 abhidhāna. Words, talk, speech; naming.
 +
 +[429]
 +
 +說 To speak, say, talk, discourse, expound; speech, etc. Used for 悅 pleased.
 +
 +說一切有部 v. 一 and 有; the Sarvāstivādaḥ realistic school.
 +
 +說假部 The Prajñāptivādinaḥ school, a branch of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ,​ which took the view of phenomenality and reality, ? founded on the Prajñāpti-śāstra.
 +
 +說出世部 The Lokottaravādinaḥ school, a branch of the Mahāsāṅghikaḥ,​ which held the view that all in the world is merely phenomenal and that reality exists outside it.
 +
 +說因部 Hetuvādinaḥ,​ idem Sarvāstivādaḥ.
 +
 +說戒 The bi-monthly reading of the prohibitions for the order and of mutual confession.
 +
 +說法 To tell or expound the law, or doctrine; to preach.
 +
 +說示 To tell and indicate.
 +
 +說經 To expound the sūtras.
 +
 +說罪 To confess sin, or wrong-doing.
 +
 +說轉部 idem 經部 (經量部) Sautrāntika school.
 +
 +說通 To expound thoroughly, penetrating exposition.
 +
 +說默 Speech and silence.
 +
 +賒 To buy or sell on credit; to borrow; slow, remiss, shirk.
 +
 +賒乃以室折羅 Śanaiścara 土星, Saturn, or its regent.
 +
 +賒多 śānta, pacified, at ease, ceased, dead, liberated; also 奢多.
 +
 +賓 A guest; to entertain; to submit.
 +
 +賓伽羅 Piṅgala, an Indian sage to whom is attributed 'the Chandas'​ (M.W.), i.e. a treatise on metre.
 +
 +賓吒羅 ? Piṇḍāra,​ ? Piṇḍala,​ one of the painless purgatories.
 +
 +賓坻 Piṇḍada,​ abbrev. for Anāthapiṇḍada. v. 阿.
 +
 +賓撥利力叉 pippala, pippala-vṛkṣa,​ the bodhidruma, or tree under which Śākyamuni obtained insight.
 +
 +賓波羅窟 Vaibhāra, the Vaibhāra cavern; 'a rock-cut temple on a mountain near Rādjagṛha 王舍城, now called Baibhargiri. Śākyamuni used to resort thither for meditation.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +賓鉢羅 pippala, v. 賓撥利力叉.
 +
 +賓頭 One of the purgatories,​ v. 賓吒羅.
 +
 +賓頭盧頗羅墮 Piṇḍola-bhāradvāja,​ name of the first of the sixteen arhats, who became the old man of the mountains, white hair and bead, bushy eyebrows, one of the genī.
 +
 +趙 To hasten to, return; a long time.
 +
 +趙州 A prefecture in south-west Chihli, with a monastery, from which the Tang monk Zhaozhou got his pseudonym.
 +
 +輕 Light; frivolous; to slight.
 +
 +輕安 Not oppressed, at ease.
 +
 +輕慢 To despise; the pride of thinking lightly of others.
 +
 +輕毛 As light as a hair, as unstable as a feather.
 +
 +輕重 Light and heavy.
 +
 +遣 To send; to drive away.
 +
 +遣喚 To send, and to call.
 +
 +遜 To yield, accord; modest.
 +
 +遠 Far, distant, far removed.
 +
 +遠塵離垢 To be far removed from the dust and defilement of the world.
 +
 +遠師 idem 慧遠 q.v.
 +
 +遠行地 The seventh stage of the bodhisattva,​ in which he leaves the world of phenomena and enjoys mystic contemplation.
 +
 +遠離 vivṛj; vivarjana; leave afar off, be far removed; absolute separation of unconditioned reality from the realm of phenomena.
 +
 +遠離樂 The joy of the first dhyāna heaven, in which the defilement of desire is left far behind in mystic contemplation.
 +
 +銘 To engrave, on metal, stone, or the tablets of the heart.
 +
 +銖 A weight equal to the twenty-fourth part of a tael; a small ancient coin; a scruple; trifles.
 +
 +銖衣 The gossamer clothing of the devas, or angels.
 +
 +銅 tāmra. copper, brass.
 +
 +銅錢 Copper money, cash.
 +
 +銅鑼 A gong.
 +
 +銀 rūpya. Silver; money.
 +
 +銀色 Silver-colour.
 +
 +閣 A pavilion, temple building; chamber, council, cabinet.
 +
 +際 A border, region, juncture, limit; between; to join on; then, since, now.
 +
 +生死之際 Between life and death.
 +
 +無際 Unlimited.
 +
 +際史吒 Jyaiṣṭha,​ the month in May-June.
 +
 +障 varaṇa; āvaraṇa; a screen, barricade, partition, a term for the passions or any delusion which hinders enlightenment.
 +
 +障礙 Screen and obstruction,​ i.e. anything that hinders.
 +
 +障盡解脫 Salvation through the complete removal of the obstruction of illusion.
 +
 +靺 Red socks.
 +
 +靺? 沙迦; 靺師迦 vārṣika; a flower that blooms during the rainy season, described as of a white colour and very fragrant; the aloe.
 +
 +領 Neck, collar; lead, direct; receive.
 +
 +領納 To receive, accept.
 +
 +領解 To receive and interpret.
 +
 +頗 Somewhat, quite, very; partial; translit. pha, bha. Cf. 叵.
 +
 +頗勒具那 (or 頗勒窶拏) Phālguna, the twelfth month in India (February-March).
 +
 +頗尼多 phāṇita, the inspissated juice of the sugar cane, raw sugar.
 +
 +[430]
 +
 +頗羅 phala, fruit, produce, progeny, profit, etc.
 +
 +頗羅墮 (or 頗羅吒) Bhāradvāja,​ descendant of the ancient sage Bharadvāja,​ intp. as one of the six (or eighteen) Brahmin surnames, and as meaning 利根 of keen mind, clever.
 +
 +頗胝迦 頗置迦; 頗黎; 頗棃 sphāṭika,​ rock crystal.
 +
 +颯 In gusts, suddenly.
 +
 +颯秣建 Samakan, the modern Samarkand. Eitel.
 +
 +颯破? 迦 sphaṭika, see 頗.
 +
 +飽 Replete, full.
 +
 +飽學 Replete with learning; fed full with study.
 +
 +飾 To adorn; gloss over; pretend. 裝飾.
 +
 +馝柯 Vikramāditya,​ a king of Śrāvastī and famous benefactor of Buddhism, v. 毘.
 +
 +馺 v. 蘇 svāhā.
 +
 +馱 駄 Translit. dha, dhya.
 +
 +駄南 dhyāna, also 駄演那; 駄衍那 tr. by 定 and 禪 q.v.
 +
 +駄器尼 v. 達 The Deccan.
 +
 +駄摩 v. 達 dharma.
 +
 +駄索迦 dāsaka, a slave, or dāsikā, a female slave.
 +
 +駄縛若 dhvaja, a flag.
 +
 +駄那羯磔迦 Dhanakaṭaka,​ or Amarāvatī,​ an ancient kingdom in the north-east of the modern Madras presidency.
 +
 +駄都 dhātu, intp. by 界 field, area, sphere; 體 embodiment, body, corpus; 性nature, characteristic. It means that which is placed or laid; a deposit, foundation, constituent,​ ingredient, element; also a śarīra, or relic of Buddha The two dhātus are the conditioned and unconditioned,​ phenomenal and noumenal; the three are the realms of desire, of form, and of the formless; the four are earth, water, fire, and air; the six add space and intelligence;​ the eighteen are the twelve āyatanas, with six sensations added.
 +
 +魂 The mind, the soul, conscious mind, vijñāna; also 魂神.
 +
 +魂魄 Animus and anima; the spiritual nature or mind, and the animal soul; the two are defined as mind and body or mental and physical, the invisible soul inhabiting the visible body, the former being celestial, the latter terrestrial.
 +
 +鳳 The '​phœnix'​ the auspicious bird.
 +
 +鳳刹 '​Phœnix'​-kṣetra,​ a term for a Buddhist temple.
 +
 +鳴 Cry, sound, note of a bird, etc.
 +
 +鳴魚 To sound the wooden fish to announce a meal time.
 +
 +鳴錫 A rattling staff shaken to warn the spirits.
 +
 +麽 Interrogative particle; translit. ma, ba; cf. 摩.
 +
 +麽也 māyā, illusion, hallucination;​ also intp. as 體 body.
 +
 +麽度羅 Mathurā, the modern Muttra.
 +
 +麽攞 麽羅 mālā, a head-dress, wreath.
 +
 +麽洗 Māsa, a month.
 +
 +麽羅庾 malaya, a kind of incense from the Malaya mountains in Malabar.
 +
 +麽麽 mama, my, mine, genitive case of the first personal pronoun.
 +
 +麽麽鷄 Māmakī; 忙忙鷄; 忙莽鷄 (or 忙莽計); 摩莫枳; the Vajra mother, mother of the 金剛部 or of wisdom in all the vajra group.
 +
 +鼻 ghrāṇa. The nose; one of the five 根 indryas; the organ of smell; one of the six vijñānas (六識) or perceptions,​ the sense of smell; translit. vai, vi.
 +
 +鼻入 Organ and sense of smell.
 +
 +鼻奢佉 Vaiśākha, the second month of spring.
 +
 +鼻婆沙 see 毘, Vibhāṣā.
 +
 +鼻根 The organ of smell.
 +
 +鼻息 The breath of the nostrils; also the perception of smell.
 +
 +鼻溜荼迦 v. 毘 Virūḍhaka.
 +
 +鼻識 The sensation, or perception of smell.
 +
 +鼻路波阿叉 Virūpākṣa. One of the lokapāla, or guardians of the four cardinal points of Mount Sumeru. In China known as 廣目 wide-eyed, red in colour with a small pagoda in his right hand, and a serpent in his left; in China worshipped as one of the twenty-four Deva Ārya 天尊. Also, a name for Maheśvara or Rudra (Śiva). Cf. 毘 and 髀.
 +
 +鼻那夜 cf. 毘 Vinaya.
 +
 +鼻隔禪師 dhyāna master with nose (and other organs) shutoff from sensation, i.e. a stupid mystic.
 +
 +鼻鼓迦 (or鼻致迦) bījaka, a seed, v. 種.
 +
 +齊 Even, level, equal, uniform; complete, perfect; equalize; tranquillize;​ alike; all; at the same time, altogether.
 +
 +齊業身 The final body which brings to an end all former karma.
 +
 +齊說齊聞 Speaking and hearing together, or at the same time.
 +16. FIFTEEN STROKES
 +
 +僵 Stiff, rigid; prostrate.
 +
 +僵娑洛 saṃsāra, course, transmigration,​ v. 散 and 生死.
 +
 +億 A number varying from the Chinese 100,000 to a Buddhist 1,000,000, 10,000,000, and 100,​000,​000.
 +
 +儀 Manner, mode, style; ceremony, etiquette.
 +
 +儀式 儀軌 Mode, style, manner.
 +
 +僻 Perverse, base, depraved; partial, prejudiced; rustic, secluded.
 +
 +僻見 Perverse, incorrect, or depraved views.
 +
 +[431]
 +
 +劍 A sword, two-edged sword.
 +
 +劍山 劍樹地獄 Asipattra. The hill of swords, or sword-leaf trees hell, one of the sixteen hells; also called 刀刃路.
 +
 +劈 To split, rend, tear.
 +
 +劈箭急 Rapid as an arrow cleaving (the air).
 +
 +廚 A kitchen; also a cabinet for an image.
 +
 +M004304M084293 bhūrom, an exclamation frequently occurring at the beginning of mantras, probably in imitation of Brahmanic mantras, which begin by invoking bhūr earth, bhuvaḥ air, and svar heaven; or it may be a combination of bhūr earth, and oṃ, the mystic interjection.
 +
 +嘶 To neigh; a crashing noise.
 +
 +嘶夜那 śyena, a hawk, falcon.
 +
 +噉 Bite, eat, feed on; a bite, morsel; to lure.
 +
 +噉月 To gnaw the moon.
 +
 +墳 A grave 墳墓.
 +
 +墨 Ink; black; dyed black, e.g. 墨衣 black clothes, at one time said to have been the garb of the monk to distinguish him from the ordinary people who wore white.
 +
 +墨竭提 Magadha, v. 摩.
 +
 +墜 To fall, sink, settle, slide.
 +
 +墜芥 To drop a mustard seed from the Tuṣita heaven on to the point of a needle on the earth, most difficult, rare.
 +
 +墮 To fall; dilapidated;​ to fall from a higher to a lower place or condition; a tr. of prāyaścitta,​ expiation, a section in the Vinaya of ninety offences for which atonement is required.
 +
 +墮羅鉢底 Dvārapati or Dvāravatī,​ 'an ancient kingdom on the upper Irawaddy.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +增 To increase, add, augment, more.
 +
 +增一阿含經 Ekottara-āgama The āgama in which the sections each increase by one, e.g. the Anguttara Nikāya of the Hīnayāna; a branch of literature classifying subjects numerically,​ cf. 阿 āgama.
 +
 +增上 Additional, increase, superior, strengthened.
 +
 +增上心 Advancing or improving mind, superior mind.
 +
 +增上心學 The study of increased powers of mind (through meditation).
 +
 +增上慢 Arrogance, pride (of superior knowledge); e.g. the 5,000 disciples who, in their Hīnayāna superiority,​ thought they had gained all wisdom and refused to hear the Lotus gospel.
 +
 +增上果 adhipatiphala,​ v. 異熟果, dominant effect; increased or superior effect, e. g. eye-sight as an advance on the eye-organ.
 +
 +增上緣 The cause, condition, or organ of advance to a higher stage, e.g. the eye as able to produce sight.
 +
 +增劫 The kalpa of increment, during which human life increases by one year every century, from an initial life of ten years, till it reaches 84,000 (and the body from 1 foot to 8,400 feet in height), in the 滅劫 similarly diminishing.
 +
 +增息 Increasing (power of prayer for) cessation of calamity.
 +
 +增悲 Augmented pity of a bodhisattva,​ who remains to save, though his 增智 advanced knowledge would justify his withdrawal to nirvāṇa.
 +
 +增戒學 Advanced or increasing study of the moral law; the study of the higher moral law.
 +
 +增益 Increasing, improving.
 +
 +增進 Advance, progress.
 +
 +增道損生 A bodhisattva'​s progress in the doctrine with concurrent reduction in reincarnation.
 +
 +增長 Increasing both broad and long, 增 referring to breadth and 長 to height, or length.
 +
 +增長天 Virūḍhaka,​ the Mahārāja of the southern quarter.
 +
 +增長廣目 Virūḍhaka and Śiva.
 +
 +嬉 Play, pleasure.
 +
 +嬉戲 To play, perform.
 +
 +寫 To write.
 +
 +寫經 To copy the scriptures.
 +
 +寮 A hut, study, monastery; fellow-student.
 +
 +寮主 寮元; 寮長 The head, or manager of a monastery.
 +
 +審 To try, judge, examine.
 +
 +審慮思 Discriminating thought.
 +
 +幢 dhvaja; ketu. A pennant, streamer, flag, sign.
 +
 +幢幡 A flag, banner.
 +
 +幢相 A sign, symbol, i.e. the monk's robe.
 +
 +幡 patākā, a flag, banner.
 +
 +廢 To fall in ruins; come to nought; cast aside, do away with, discard; spoil, waste.
 +
 +廢前教 The discarding of previous rules in the Nirvāṇa Sūtra, e.g. previously monks were allowed the three kinds of clean meat; in this sūtra all are forbidden.
 +
 +廢惡修善 To cast aside evil and perform the good.
 +
 +廢權立實 To set aside the temporary and establish the real and permanent.
 +
 +廢迹顯本 To set aside the temporal life (of the Buddha) and reveal the fundamental eternal life.
 +
 +[432]
 +
 +廟 A fane, temple, palace; an intp. of caitya, cf. 支.
 +
 +廣 vipula. Broad, wide, extensive, spacious; extended, enlarged, expanded; for vaipulya v. 方廣, for which 廣 is also used alone to indicate vaipulya sūtras, etc.
 +
 +廣博 Wide and spacious, extensively read, very learned.
 +
 +廣博身 The one whose body fills space, Vairocana.
 +
 +廣嚴城 Vaiśālī, broad ornate city, cf. 毘.
 +
 +廣大 Broad and great.
 +
 +廣大智 The vast wisdom of Buddha beyond measure.
 +
 +廣大會 The centre where vast virtues meet, a term for Amitābha.
 +
 +廣慧 vipulaprajñā,​ or vipulamati, vast wisdom, an epithet of a Buddha, one able to transform all beings.
 +
 +廣教 Full or detailed teaching by the Buddha about the duties of the order, in contrast with 略教 general or summarized teaching; the detailed teaching resulting from errors which had crept in among his disciples.
 +
 +廣果天 Bṛhatphala,​ the twelfth brahmaloka, the third of the eight heavens of the fourth dhyāna realm of form.
 +
 +廣狹 Broad and narrow.
 +
 +廣目天 The wide-eyed deva, Virūpākṣa,​ diversely-eyed,​ having deformed eyes, an epithet of Śiva, as represented with three eyes; name of one of the four Mahārājas,​ he who guards the west.
 +
 +廣長舌 A broad and long tongue, one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha, big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the '​marvels'​ in the Lotus Sūtra.
 +
 +弊 Worn out, reduced to extremities,​ corrupt, deceptive; my, mine.
 +
 +弊欲 Corrupt, or base desires.
 +
 +彈 A bullet, shot; to strum, snap; repress, impeach; translit. dan.
 +
 +彈多 danta, a tooth.
 +
 +彈多抳瑟搋 dantakāṣṭa,​ a tooth stick, v. 憚.
 +
 +彈多落迦 Dantalokagiri,​ a mountain (the montes Daedali of Justinian) near Varuṣa with its cavern (now called Kashmiri-Ghār),​ where Sudāna lived.
 +
 +彈宅迦 Daṇḍaka,​ name of a king.
 +
 +彈宅迦林 The forest of Daṇḍaka,​ destroyed by a ṛṣi because the king had carried off the ṛṣi'​s wife, saying a ṛṣi had no need for one.
 +
 +彈指 To snap the fingers—in assent, in joy, in warning; a measure of time equal to twenty winks.
 +
 +影 Shadow, picture, image, reflection, hint; one of the twelve '​colours'​.
 +
 +影事 Shadow things, i.e. all things are mere shadows.
 +
 +影供 Image worship.
 +
 +影像 pratibimba. Shadows, reflections,​ with no real existence or nature of their own.
 +
 +影向 The coming of a deity, responding, responsive.
 +
 +影堂 A hall where are the images, or pictures, of objects of worship.
 +
 +影現 The epiphany of the shadow, i.e. the temporal Buddha.
 +
 +影護 Like a shadow-guardian,​ always following like a shadow the substance.
 +
 +影響衆 影向衆 The responsive group in the Lotus Sūtra, who came in response to a call, e.g. Mañjuśrī,​ Guanyin, etc.
 +
 +徹 Penetrate, pervious, perspicacious;​ throughout; communal.
 +
 +徹心 To penetrate or reach the heart or mind.
 +
 +德 Virtue, moral excellence, moral power, power; also translates guṇa; translit. ta.
 +
 +德尸羅 (德叉尸羅) Taksaśīla,​ an ancient kingdom and city, the Taxila of the Greeks. Lat. 35°8' N., Long. 72° 44' E.
 +
 +德叉迦 Takṣaka, one of the four dragon-kings.
 +
 +德士 Virtuous scholar, a term for a monk in the Tang dynasty.
 +
 +德字 The svastika.
 +
 +德本 The root of the moral life, or of religious power; also a name for Amitābha as the root of all virtue.
 +
 +德母 The mother of virtue. i.e. faith which is the root of the religious life.
 +
 +德海 The ocean-like character and influence of virtue.
 +
 +德甁 The vase or talisman of power, cf. 賢德.
 +
 +德田 Field of virtue, or of religious power, i.e. the cult of arhats and Buddhas.
 +
 +德行 Moral conduct and religious exercises, or discipline; moral conduct.
 +
 +德風 The wind of virtue, or of religious power.
 +
 +德香 The fragrance of virtue.
 +
 +慶 Felicity, felicitous, felicitate.
 +
 +慶懺 慶讚 A service of felicitation,​ e.g. on the dedication of an image, temple, etc.
 +
 +憐 Commiserate,​ pity, sympathize, charitable.
 +
 +憐念 Sympathetic thoughts.
 +
 +憐愛 To pity, love, care for.
 +
 +憐愍 To pity, commiserate.
 +
 +慕 To long for, hanker after, love; translit. mo, mu.
 +
 +慕何 moha, v. 謨 Unenlightened,​ stupid.
 +
 +慕捺囉 mudrā, a seal, sign, token, hand or finger signs.
 +
 +慕攞 慕羅 mūla, root, fundamental,​ hence mūlagrantha,​ fundamental works, original texts; Mūla-sarvāstivādaḥ,​ the Hīnayāna school of that name.
 +
 +憚 Dread; dislike; translit. dan.
 +
 +憚哆 danta tooth, teeth; cf. 彈 and 娜.
 +
 +憚啄家瑟多 dantakāṣṭha,​ tooth stick, said to be chewed as a dentifrice; also, to be the name of a tree grown from a toothpick of the Buddha.
 +
 +憎 Hate, dislike.
 +
 +憎愛 Hate and love.
 +
 +慾 Passion, inordinate desire, lust, v. 欲.
 +
 +慾愛 To hanker after, desire.
 +
 +[433]
 +
 +憍 Boastful, bragging; self-indulgent;​ indulgent; translit. ko, kau, go, gau; cf. 瞿, 倶, 拘, 巨.
 +
 +憍坑 The pit of pride and arrogance.
 +
 +憍奢耶 kauśeya, also 憍舍耶; 高世耶 cloth made of wild silk.
 +
 +憍尸迦 Idem. 憍尸 (or 憍支迦) Kauśika, of the family of Kuśika, family name of Indra; one account says Amitābha was of the same family name.
 +
 +憍慢 Arrogance and pride.
 +
 +憍曇彌 憍答彌; 倶答彌 Gautamī, feminine of the patronymic Gautama, the family name of Śākyamuni. Gautamī is a name for Mahāprājapatī,​ his aunt and nurse, who in the Lotus Sūtra is predicted to become Buddha.
 +
 +憍梵 (憍梵波提) Gavāṃpati,​ also 憍梵鉢提;​ 迦梵波提;​ 笈房鉢底 intp. as chewing the cud; lord of cattle, etc. A man who became a monk, born with a mouth always ruminating like a cow because of former oral sin.
 +
 +憍薩羅 Kosala, Kośala; also 居薩羅 (or 拘薩羅); 拘婆羅, i.e. Northern Kosala, or Uttarakosala,​ an ancient kingdom, the modern Oude; also Southern Kosala, or Dakṣiṇa-kosala,​ an ancient kingdom, part of the present Central Provinces.
 +
 +憍賞彌 Kauśāmbī,​ also 憍閃彌 (or 憍睒彌); 倶睒彌; 'an ancient city on the Ganges in the lower part of the Doab.' M.W. It has been identified by some with Kusia near Kurrah; but is the village of Koṣam on the Jumna, 30 miles above Allahabad. Cf. 巨.
 +
 +憍陳如 (or 憍陳那) Kauṇḍinya;​ also 阿若拘鄰;​ 阿若憍陳那 Ājñātakauṇḍinya. (1) A prince of Magadha, uncle and first disciple of Śākyamuni. (2) A grammarian mentioned in the Prātiśākhya sūtras. (3) Vyākaraṇa-Kauṇḍinya,​ who was told by the Buddha that a Buddha is too spiritual to leave any relics behind. Eitel.
 +
 +憂 Sorrow, grief, melancholy, anxiety; to mourn, grieve; translit. u, yu; cf. 優, 烏.
 +
 +憂世 The world of trouble and sorrow.
 +
 +憂受 Sorrow, one of the five emotions.
 +
 +憂婆提舍 Upatiṣya, perhaps a name of Śāriputra.
 +
 +憂火 The fires of sorrow or distress.
 +
 +憂畢叉 upekṣā, cf. 優 indifference attained in abstraction,​ i.e. '​indifference to pain or pleasure, equanimity, resignation,​ stoicism'​. Childers. '​Looking on, hedonic neutrality or indifference,​ zero point between joy and sorrow, disinterestedness,​ neutral feeling, equanimity.'​ Pali Text Society'​s Dictionary.
 +
 +憂陀伽 udaka, water.
 +
 +憂陀那 udāna, cf. 優, 烏, etc. Breathing upwards from the throat into the head; guttural sounds; the navel, umbilical; the middle; volunteered remarks or addresses by the Buddha, sermons that came from within him without external request; voluntarily to testify.
 +
 +慧 prajñā ; sometimes jñāna. Wisdom, discernment,​ understanding;​ the power to discern things and their underlying principles and to decide the doubtful. It is often interchanged with 智, though not correctly, for zhi means knowledge, the science of the phenomenal, while hui refers more generally to principles or morals. It is part of the name of many monks, e.g. 慧可 Huike; 慧思Huisi.
 +
 +慧劍 The sword of wisdom which cuts away illusion.
 +
 +慧力 prajñābala,​ one of the five powers, that of wisdom.
 +
 +慧印 Wisdom-sign,​ or seal; also 智印.
 +
 +慧可 Huike, the successor of Bodhidharma,​ v. 達; he previously cut off his arm in appeal to be received as disciple, and finally inherited his mantle and alms-bowl.
 +
 +慧命 Wisdom-life,​ or wisdom as life, wisdom being the basis of spiritual character. A term of address to a monk, also 慧壽, and to a monk by a superior.
 +
 +慧學 The study of wisdom, e.g. the Abhidharma.
 +
 +慧幻 Wisdom-illusion,​ wisdom-conjuring;​ the kaleidoscope of wisdom.
 +
 +慧忍 Wisdom-patience,​ one of the 十忍.
 +
 +慧思 Huisi, the second patriarch of the Tiantai school 南嶽大師.
 +
 +慧愷 Huikai, a monk and author, also known as 智愷 Zhikai of the sixth century A.D.
 +
 +慧數 Mental conditions in contrast to mind itself.
 +
 +慧日 Wisdom-sun, Buddha-wisdom. Huiri, a celebrated Tang monk and author (disciple of Yijing) who also went on pilgrimage to India and spent thirteen years there, died A.D. 748; entitled 慈愍三藏.
 +
 +慧月 Jñānacandra,​ author of the non-Buddhist 勝宗十句義論,​ Vaiśeṣika-nikāya-daśapadārtha-śāstra,​ tr. by Xuanzang; perhaps the same as 智月.
 +
 +慧根 The root, i.e. the organ, of wisdom.
 +
 +[434]
 +
 +慧業 Undertaking and doing; practical goodness resulting from wisdom.
 +
 +慧流 The living stream of wisdom able to cleanse all impurity.
 +
 +慧淨 Huijing, a noted Tang monk, translator and author, who was commanded to assist Xuanzang in his translations but was unable through failing health.
 +
 +慧炬 The torch of wisdom.
 +
 +慧燈 The lamp of wisdom.
 +
 +慧燈王 A king who gave his flesh and blood to save the lives of others.
 +
 +慧琳 Huilin, a disciple of the Indian monk Amogha 不空; he made the 慧琳音義 dictionary of sounds and meanings of Buddhist words and phrases, based upon the works of 玄應 Xuanying, 慧苑 Huiyuan, 窺基 Kueji, and 雲公 Yungong, in 100 juan, beginning the work in A. D. 788 and ending it in 810. He is also called 大藏音義;​ died 820.
 +
 +慧目 The eye of wisdom.
 +
 +慧眼 The wisdom-eye that sees all things as unreal.
 +
 +慧縛 The bond of ignorance and stupidity which fetters wisdom.
 +
 +慧義 The apprehension of the meaning of reality through wisdom.
 +
 +慧能 The power of wisdom. Huineng, name of a noted monk, sixth patriarch of the Intuitional or Meditation sect; died 713.
 +
 +慧苑 Huiyuan, a noted Tang monk and lexicographer,​ author of the 慧苑音義 dictionary of sounds and meanings, cf. 慧苑琳.
 +
 +慧藏 Wisdom-store,​ the Abhidharma Piṭaka, which embodies the science of ascertaining the meaning of the sūtras. Also, the whole of the Tripiṭaka.
 +
 +慧見 Wise views, or insight into wisdom, the views of wisdom.
 +
 +慧觀 Huiguan, one of Kumārajīva'​s chief assistants in translation,​ died 424.
 +
 +慧解 The function of wisdom—to explain all things.
 +
 +慧解脫 The escape by, or into wisdom, i.e. of the arhat who overcomes the hindrances to wisdom, or insight, but not the practical side of abstraction,​ etc.; better able to understand than to do.
 +
 +慧超 Huichao, a monk who travelled in India.
 +
 +慧足 The leg of wisdom, the other being 福足 q.v.
 +
 +慧身 Wisdom body, one of the five division of the dharmakāya,​ which is the embodiment inter alia of inherent wisdom.
 +
 +慧鏡 The mirror of wisdom.
 +
 +慧雲 The clouds of wisdom with which the Tathāgata covers all beings.
 +
 +撰 To compose, compile.
 +
 +撰號 Compiler'​s name, author'​s title.
 +
 +播 To sow, publish: reject; to winnow; to stir up, cheat; translit. pa, pā.
 +
 +播尼 pāṇi, the palm of the hand.
 +
 +播捨 pāśa, a noose, snare.
 +
 +播磨 upama, a resemblance,​ simile.
 +
 +播輸鉢多 pāśupata, followers of the lord of cattle, Śiva, who smeared themselves with ashes, also 波輸鉢多.
 +
 +撥 To spread, open out, scatter, disseminate,​ detach, uproot.
 +
 +撥無因果 To dispense with, or deny the law of karma, one of the five heresies.
 +
 +撥草瞻風 (or 撥草參玄) To uproot the weeds (of ignorance) and look for the mystic Buddha-breeze.
 +
 +撒 To scatter, set loose, sow.
 +
 +撒馬兒罕 Samakan, Samarkand, v. 颯.
 +
 +摩 To feel, handle, rub; translit. m, ma, mu, ba; cf. 末, 磨.
 +
 +摩休勒 mahoraga, cf. 摩睺羅.
 +
 +摩伽 Maghā, an asterism '​containing five stars figured like a house, apparently α, γ, ζ, η, ν Leonis'​ (M.W.); intp. as governing the eleventh month; for which 摩佉; 摩袪 are also used.
 +
 +[435]
 +
 +摩伽羅 makara, cf. 摩竭 a sea monster.
 +
 +摩伽陀 Magadha, cf. 摩竭陀 also used for Māgha, the month January-February.
 +
 +摩偷 [偸] madhu, sweet, an intoxicating liquor.
 +
 +摩偷羅 Mathurā; Madhurā. Ancient kingdom and city, the modern Muttra on the bank of the Jumna; the reputed birthplace of Kṛṣṇa,​ one of the seven sacred cities, called Peacock City 孔雀城 Kṛṣṇapura,​ famous for its stūpas. The ancient name Madhu is given in 摩度. Other forms are摩突羅 (or摩度羅,​ or 摩頭羅); 秼菟羅.
 +
 +摩利 mallikā, a fragrant flower variously described as jasmine, aloes, musk, etc. Name of the wife of king Prasenajit, also called 摩利室羅 Mālyaśrī .
 +
 +摩利伽羅耶 Malaya in Malabar, cf. 摩羅.
 +
 +摩利支 (or 摩梨支, or 摩里支); 末利支 Marīci. Rays of light, the sun's rays, said to go before the sun; mirage; also intp. as a wreath. A goddess, independent and sovereign, protectress against all violence and peril. 'In Brahmanic mythology, the personification of light, offspring of Brahmā, parent of Sūrya.'​ 'Among Chinese Buddhists Maritchi is represented as a female with eight arms, two of which are holding aloft emblems of sun and moon, and worshipped as goddess of light and as the guardian of all nations, whom she protects from the fury of war. She is addressed as 天后 queen of heaven, or as 斗姥 lit. mother of the Southern measure (μλρστζ Sagittarī),​ and identified with Tchundi'​ and 'with Mahēśvarī,​ the wife of Maheśvara, and has therefore the attribute Mātrikā',​ mother of Buddhas. Eitel. Taoists address her as Queen of Heaven.
 +
 +摩哂陀 Mahendra, younger brother of Aśoka, reputed as founder of Buddhism in Ceylon.
 +
 +摩呼洛迦 mahoraga, described as large-bellied;​ a class of demons shaped like the boa; a spirit in the retinue of Śākyamuni;​ a form taken by Vairocana; also 莫呼洛迦 (摩); 摩睺羅伽;​ 摩護囉誐.
 +
 +摩多 mātṛ, a measurer, maker, former, mother.
 +
 +摩多羅迦 mātṛkā, cf. 摩怛.
 +
 +摩夷 mātṛkā, cf. 摩怛.
 +
 +摩娑 māṃsa, flesh.
 +
 +摩娑羅 musāra-galva,​ agate, cf. 牟.
 +
 +摩奴沙 (or 摩奴闍), v. 末奴沙 manuṣya, mānuṣa, man, any rational being.
 +
 +摩奴是若 manojña, agreeable to the mind, attractive, at will.
 +
 +摩奴末耶 (or 摩?末耶) manomaya, '​consisting of spirit or mind, spiritual, mental.'​ M.W. Intp. as mind-produced body, or form, any appearance produced at will.
 +
 +摩 ? 沙 manuṣya,​摩 ?奢; 摩 ?賖 man, any rational being, v. 末? 沙, 摩奴沙.
 +
 +摩尼 maṇi; 'a jewel, gem, precious stone (especially a pearl, bead, or other globular ornament).'​ M.W. A bright luminous pearl, symbol of Buddha and his doctrines. Tr. 'as wished',​ or at wish, whoever possesses the pearl receives whatever he desires. One of the seven treasures. With Shivaites a symbol of the Liṅga. Also 末尼.
 +
 +摩尼跋陀 (摩尼跋陀羅) Maṇibhadra,​ one of the eight generals; 'a king of the yakṣas (the tutelary deity of travellers and merchants, probably another name for Kuvera).'​ M. W.
 +
 +摩尼犍大龍王 Maṇiskandhanāga. The nāga king in whose hand is the talismanic pearl.
 +
 +摩度羅 Mathurā, modern Mutra, v. 摩偸.
 +
 +摩怛里 mātṛ, a mother.
 +
 +摩怛里迦 mātṛkā, also 摩呾里迦;​ 摩怛履迦;​ 摩得勒伽 (or 摩德勒伽);​ 摩多羅迦;​ 摩侄梨迦;​ 摩室里迦;​ 摩夷; the Abhidharma-piṭaka,​ as the mother of Buddhist philosophy.
 +
 +摩愉羅伽藍 Masūra Saṅghārāma. An ancient vihāra about 200 li south-east of Mongali. Eitel. Cf. 豆.
 +
 +摩揭 v. 摩竭.
 +
 +摩提 mati, understanding;​ v. 末底.
 +
 +摩拏 v. 摩奴沙.
 +
 +摩拏羅 Manorhita, or Manorhata, an Indian prince who became disciple and successor to Vasubandhu as 22nd Patriarch. Author of the Vibhāṣā śāstra. 'He laboured in Western India and in Ferghana where he died in A.D. 165.' Eitel. Also摩奴羅;​ 未笯曷利他.
 +
 +摩賴耶 v. 摩羅耶.
 +
 +摩沙羅 musāra-galva,​ v. 牟.
 +
 +[436]
 +
 +摩沓媻 Mathāva; Mādhava; Madhu. 'The Mathai of Megasthenes,​ a tribe of Indian aborigines who lived north of Kośala in Rohilcund and along the southern frontier of Nepaul. They gave the name to Mathurā and Matipura.'​ Eitel. The last statement at least is doubtful.
 +
 +摩由羅 mayūra, 孔雀 a peacock; also 摩裕羅; 摩廋囉.
 +
 +摩登伽阿蘭若 mātaṅga-āraṇyakāḥ. The second class of hermits (probably called after the lowest caste), living in cemeteries, at a distance of 500 bow-lengths (circa 3,000 feet) from a village.
 +
 +摩登伽經 A sūtra on Mātaṅgī,​ and on the stars. cf. 摩鄧.
 +
 +摩睺羅 muhūrta, a moment. mahoraga, also 摩睺勒 v. 摩呼.
 +
 +摩祇 A medicine that can eradicate poison, and so overpowering that serpents avoid it; also 摩蛇; 摩蚳; 摩醯; 莫耆.
 +
 +摩竭 (摩竭羅) makara. A sea monster, either in the form of a great fish, e.g. a whale, or a great turtle. Also 摩伽羅 (or 摩迦羅).
 +
 +摩竭陀 Magadha, also 摩竭提; 摩揭陀; 摩伽陀; 摩訶陀 'A kingdom in Central India, the headquarters of ancient Buddhism up to A.D. 400; the holy land of all Buddhists, covered with vihāras and therefore called Bahar, the southern portion of which corresponds to ancient Magadha.'​ Eitel. A ṛṣi after whom the country of Southern Behar is said to be called. Name of a previous incarnation of Indra; and of the asterism Maghā 摩伽.
 +
 +摩納 (摩納婆迦) Māṇavaka,​ a Brahman youth, a youth, a man; also 摩納縛 (摩納縛迦);​ 摩那槃; 那羅摩那 (naramana).
 +
 +摩納仙 Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation.
 +
 +摩羅 māla, a wreath, garland, chaplet, headdress; also tr. as Māra, a huge fish, cf. 摩竭羅 makara.
 +
 +摩羅伽陀 (or摩羅迦陀) marakata, the emerald.
 +
 +摩羅提 摩羅耶提數 (or 摩羅耶底數);​ 摩離 Malayadeśa,​ Malaya country.
 +
 +摩羅耶 Malaya, the Malabar hills, noted for their sandalwood, cf. 末; also 摩羅延; 摩梨; 摩利伽羅耶;​ 摩賴耶.
 +
 +摩耶 Māyā, v. Mahāmāya, infra.
 +
 +摩臘婆 Mālava, or Lāra (Lāṭa). An ancient state in Central India, in the present Gujarat.
 +
 +摩裕羅 v. 摩由羅.
 +
 +摩訶 mahā, great, large, very; also摩醯; 莫訶.
 +
 +摩訶僧祇部 Mahāsāṅghikāḥ,​ or Mahāsaṅghanikāya;​ 大衆部 one of the four branches of the Vaibhāṣika,​ said to have been formed after the second synod in opposition to the Sthavirās, marking the first division in the Buddhist church. Followers of Mahākāśyapa. After the third synod this school split into five sects: Pūrvaśāila,​ Avaraśāila,​ Haimavatā, Lokottaravādinas,​ Prajñāptivādinas.
 +
 +摩訶僧祇律 The great canon of monastic rules, tr. by Buddhabhadra and Faxian in 40 juan.
 +
 +摩訶剌佗 Mahārāṣṭra. 'The Mahratta country, an ancient kingdom in the north-west corner of the Deccan, near the upper course of the Godavery.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +摩訶因陀羅 Mahendra, v. 摩哂.
 +
 +摩訶婆羅 (or 摩訶娑羅) Mahāsāra. 'An ancient city in Central India, the present Masar, about 30 miles west of Patna.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +摩訶尼羅 (or 摩訶泥羅) mahānīla, dark-blue, a sapphire; described as the large blue pearl of Indra, perhaps the Indranīla.
 +
 +摩訶憍曇彌 Mahāgautamī,​ aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni. Cf. 憍.
 +
 +摩訶曼殊沙華 mahāmañjūṣaka,​ a red flower yielding the madder (munjeeth of Bengal).
 +
 +摩訶曼陀羅華 mahāmandārava,​ a large white lotus; cf. 曼.
 +
 +摩訶拘絺羅 Mahākauṣṭhila,​ a disciple of the Buddha; also 摩訶倶瑟耻羅;​ v. 拘.
 +
 +摩訶摩耶 mahāmāyā,​ intp. by M.W. as 'great deceit or illusion worldly illusion, the divine power of illusion (which makes the material universe appear as if really existing and renders it cognizable by the senses), the Great Illusion (the illusory nature of worldly objects personified and identified with Durgā)'​. Mahāmāyā was the wife of Śuddhodana,​ and mother of Śākyamuni. He, Siddhārtha,​ was born 'from her right side', and she died seven days later, her sister Mahāprajāpati becoming his foster mother. Also called 摩訶第脾 Mahādevī; 摩訶夫人 Lady Māyā, etc.
 +
 +[437]
 +
 +摩訶毘盧遮那 v. 毘. Mahāvairocana.
 +
 +摩訶毘訶羅 Mahāvihāra. A monastery near Anurādhāpura,​ Ceylon, where Faxian (A.D. 400) found 3,000 inmates.
 +
 +摩訶毘訶羅住部 Mahā-vihāravāsināḥ. 'A subdivision of the Mahāsthavirāḥ school, which combated the Mahāyāna system.'​ Eitel.
 +
 +摩訶提婆 Mahādeva, the great deva, Maheśvara, i.e. Śiva; also a former incarnation of Śākyamuni;​ and name of an arhat.
 +
 +摩訶波闍波提 Mahāprajāpatī,​ title of aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni;​ reputed as the first abbess; according to the Lotus she is to become a Buddha, under the title of Sarvasattva-priya-darśana. Also摩訶鉢剌闍鉢底;​ cf. 憍 Gautamī.
 +
 +摩訶慮瑟拏 Mahāroṣaṇa,​ the angry deva.
 +
 +摩訶目犍連 Mahāmaudgalyāyana,​ v. 目, one of the chief disciples of Śākyamuni,​ at whose left his image is placed, Śāriputra being on the right. Mahāsthāmaprāpta is said to be a form of Maudgalyāyana.
 +
 +摩訶目脂鄰陀 (or 摩訶目眞鄰陀) Mahāmucilinda,​ name of a nāga-king, etc., v. 目.
 +
 +摩訶袒特 Mahātantra (dhāraṇī),​ great spell power for overcoming the evil and cleaving to the good.
 +
 +摩訶羅 mahallakas, old, stupid, ignorant; also 摩迦羅; 莫訶洛迦 (or 莫喝洛迦).
 +
 +摩訶羅闍 mahārāja, a great or superior king; a king.
 +