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…in the second watch he, whose energy had no peer, gained the supreme divine eyesight (see Five Eyes), being himself the highest of all who possess sight.
Then with that completely purified divine eyesight he beheld the entire world, as it were in a spotless mirror.
His compassionateness waxed greater, as he saw the passing away and rebirth of all creatures according as their acts were lower or higher.
Those living beings whose acts are sinful pass to the sphere of misery, those others whose deeds are good win a place in the triple heaven.
The former are born in the very dreadful fearsome hell (see hell) and, alas, are woefully tormented with sufferings of many kinds…
In the hells is excessive torture, among animals eating each other, the suffering of hunger and thirst among the pretas (i.e., ghosts), among men the suffering of longings.
In the heavens that are free from love the suffering of rebirth is excessive. For the ever-
wandering world of the living there is most certainly no peace anywhere.
This stream of the cycle of existence has no support and is ever subject to death. Creatures, thus beset on all sides, find no resting-place.
Thus with the divine eyesight he examined the five spheres of life and found nothing substantial in existence, just as no heartwood is found in a plantain-tree when it is cut open.
(Acts of the Buddha, Ch. 14, “Enlightenment”)
Ananda, all beings in the world are caught up in the continuity of birth and death. Birth happens because of their habitual tendencies; death comes through flow and change. When they are on the verge of dying, but when the final warmth has not left their bodies, all the good and evil they have done in that life suddenly and simultaneously manifests. They experience the intermingling of two habits: an abhorrence of death and an attraction to life. (SS VII 95)
“Now let's consider the contents of our past lives. You are thinking, 'I don't believe there are past lives. If I had past lives, why don't I remember them?' Take the dream as a comparison. The day passes and the dream of the night before is forgotten. How much the less can we remember the events of our past lives!…
“You should know that now we too are dreaming. I am telling you right now that you are dreaming, but you can't believe it. Wait until you cultivate, cultivate to understanding, and, 'Ah, everything I did before was all a dream.'” (HS 38)
Out of the horse's belly Into the womb of a cow. How many times have you passed back and forth through Yama's halls? First you go for a swing by Shakra's palace, And then plummet back down into Sir Yama's pot. (HD 83)
(Note: Shakra is 'lord of heaven' (God); Yama is 'king of the nether worlds'.)
1) Chinese Mandarin: sheng , dzai-sheng , 2) Sanskrit: jati, 3) Pali: jati, patisandhi, bhavanga-sota, bhavanga-citta, 4) Alternate Translations: reincarnation, transmigration.
See also: karma, causation, Six Paths of Rebirth
See also: Ten Dharma Realms, Six Paths of Rebirth, the listings under the individual destinies: 1) Gods (Devas in Sanskrit); 2) Humans (Manushya in Sanskrit); 3) Asuras (Titans); 4) Animals or beasts (includes non-human mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, viruses and bacteria, single-celled organisms); 5) Ghosts (also called “hungry-ghosts” or Pretas or bhutas in Sanskrit); 6) Hell-beings or Hell-dwellers (demons live in the narakas [in Sanskrit]); Living beings, Life according to Buddhist Ayurveda, Life according to modern science, karma and rebirth.
Buddhist Text Translation Society (http://www.BTTSonline.org) References: CL II 81; HS 38; FAS Ch16 44; SS IV 34-36; SS VII 96-97.
(NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under Shastra tradition and “Fair Use” by an Anonymous Buddhist Monk Redactor (Compiler) of this Online Buddhist Encyclopedia Compilation) Adapted from Fair Use Source: Upasaka Ron Epstein, Buddhism A to Z, 1999: p. 166.
Primary Original Source: The Tripitaka of Sutra, Shastra and Vinaya Dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the Indian Sanskrit- Siddham, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese traditions of the Nalanda Tradition of ancient Nalanda University) of Shakyamuni Buddha, and his Arya Sagely Bodhisattva Bhikshu Monk and Upasaka disciples.
These Good and Wise Advisors (Kaliyanamitra) Dharma Master teachers include Arya Venerables Nagarjuna, Ashvaghosha, Aryasura, Aryadeva, Kumarajiva, Shantideva, Chandrakirti, Chandragomin, Vasubandhu, Asanga, Hui Neng, Atisha, Kamalashila, Dharmarakshita, Tsong Khapa, Thogme Zangpo, Patanjali, Sushruta, Charaka, Vagbhata, Nichiren, Hsu Yun, Hsuan Hua, Shen Kai, Tenzin Gyatso, Kyabje Zopa, Ajahn Chah, Vasant Lad, and other modern day masters. We consider them to be in accord with Tripitaka Master ]]Hsuan Hua]]’s ”Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers“
Nalanda Online University's teachings are based especially on the Dharma Flower Lotus Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Ksitigarbha Sutra, the Bhaisajya Guru Sutra, the Dharani Sutra, the Vajra Sutra, the Prajna Paramita Hridayam Heart Sutra, the Guhyasamaja, the Kalachakra, the Vajrayogini and Heruka Tantras and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya Tripitakacharya Dharma Masters.
Primary Fair Use Compilation Source: Epstein, Ronald B., Ph.D, compiler, Buddhist Text Translation Society's Buddhism A to Z, Burlingame, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2003. ISBN 0881393533 Paperback: 284 pages. http://www.BTTSOnline.org www.Amazon.com http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=118
Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: The Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism, 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://www.budaedu.org.tw
Secondary Fair Use Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 1991. 296 pages. ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 http://www.Shambhala.com,
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