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 +A Lion’s Roar Eradicating the Errors
 +[[Jamyang Shepa Ngawang Tsondrü]] (1648 –1722)
 +Tibetan title: [[grub mtha’i rnam gzhag ‘khrul spong gdong lnga’i sgra dbyangs]]
 +In tune with [diverse] dispositions of trainees, you perform most varied dances;
 +You open infinite doors of teachings so profound and vast;
 +Through tales of dependent origination you reveal the path to omniscience –
 +To you, O lion of the Shakya clan and to your lineage, I pay homage.
 +Wielding a sharp sword together with peerless wisdom in the expanse of emptiness,
 +you are the true foe of unknowing;
 +You open your compassionate eyes and smiling lips to utter words of eloquence
 +for the benefit of all beings;
 +You uphold the treasury of teachings and scribe these in yogic memory
 +so that they may remain never to be forgotten –
 +O you two, sole fathers of all the Buddhas, illuminate in me at once the most
 +excellent mind and speech.
 +You are a crystal Meru arisen from a milky ocean and crowned by lapis lazuli top-knots;
 +With a full moon face you have long eyes that shoot arrows of blue lotuses,
 +Which untie the knots of ignorance in our hearts –
 +O daughter of Brahma, while opening your most sensuous lips, open in me
 +a hundred thousand lotuses of intelligence.
 +When studying even for a single day or night all profound and vast sutras and tantras,
 +The entire teaching of the Buddha is illuminated within our practice of dharma,
 +To you conqueror Lobsang1 who shine forth such light and to your early and later children,
 +All genuine voices of the Buddha, what wise person would not bow to you?
 +Through one hundred efforts of relying on a skilled navigator on the vessel of reason,
 +I have crossed the ocean of philosophical systems and have discovered
 +This jewel of well-spoken words never before found –
 +O discerning ones, joyfully uphold this lamp illuminating the path to omniscience.
 +1 This is a reference to Je Tsongkhapa (1357-1419),​ the founder of the Geluk School, whose personal name is
 +Lobsang Drakpa.
 +General Presentation of the Philosophical Systems
 +Due to views, doctrines and teachers, there are two: the “outer” and the “inner.”
 +The view of the [four] seals, meditative practice as an antidote to existence,
 +Shunning the two extremes as conduct, and permanent cessation as the freedom fruit –
 +[These four factors establish] the two, both doctrine and its teacher, as flawless, while those that are
 +the opposite are the “other.”
 +If it’s not done so through refuge; the assertion of equality of teachers too is false.
 +There are two: non-Buddhists and Buddhists, affirming and negating the object of self-grasping view;
 +Owing to the evident and the concealed, the former consist of nihilists and eternalists;​
 +Due to acceptance or denial of substantial reality there are essentialists and non-essentialists;​
 +Clinging to the external or the internal there are realists and proponents of Mind Only.
 +There are many who cite the Buddha and others as members of their own schools;
 +Their own absences of extremes are constructs negated by higher schools;
 +Yet the views of the lower are steps towards the higher on a staircase.
 +All others fall to extremes whilst Nagarjuna’s way is free of extremes.
 +This then is chapter one, the chapter on the general presentation of the philosophical systems.
 +Thorough Refutation of the Extreme of Nihilism
 +Countless lives and years ago Kapila composed a treatise on Samkhya,
 +And on the basis of diverse constructs on the various aspects
 +Of its [view of] “self” there evolved numerous non-Buddhist schools.
 +Some suggest there were different teachers and so on right from the start,
 +While some maintain that Ajitodya was the teacher of all [non-Buddhist schools].
 +The two sacrificial offerings2 evolved in sequence and here Samkhya is the earliest;
 +The “system of the others,” the “outer,​” the “upholder of an extreme” are [all] synonyms.
 +Though twenty-five are mentioned with regard to different families, [to subsume all schools]
 +explicitly mentioned as five here is an error.
 +Unlike the Buddhist schools, these numbers have not been refuted [anywhere].
 +Eleven [non-Buddhist schools] are known – one nihilist and ten eternalists.
 +Kila, Lokacakshus,​ and Avatarabhalam are their teachers;
 +“Hedonists,​” “annihilists,​” “nihilists,​” “followers of Kila,” “Charvaka,​” they’re called;
 +[Though to label them] “proponents of nature as cause” is an error.
 +As it has been stated that since there are those who do not reject cause and effects, gods, and so on,
 +[To assert that] they accept utter absence of previous and future [lives] and only three class of beings
 +is false;
 +[Based on] false reasoning, meditative absorptions,​ affliction of lust, and claims of bringing benefits,
 +[No agent] can be perceived, and since there is no correlation there is no cause and effect.
 +Only the body and mind are the “self,” which disintegrate so there is no before or after;
 +Since [beings] are contingent on separate bodies and minds they share no identical continuums;
 +And since the mind evolves from the natural elements there is no nirvana;
 +Direct perception is veridical and inferential cognition is not, for it is deceived.
 +Because it is mind its precedence is established;​ sentient beings move towards food; and also
 +recollections [of past lives] exist.
 +Through correlation between familiarity and [increasing] clarity, omniscience and its cause and effect
 +are established.
 +The absence [of previous lives] is not affirmed by direct perception, and [you Charvaka] have already
 +rejected inference.
 +This then is chapter three, the chapter on thorough refutation of the extremes of nihilism.
 +2 The two sacrificial offerings refer to the “pure” and “impure” versions of the rite.
 +Refutation of Samkhya Kapila’s Eternalism
 +Kapila, Ajitodaya, Ishvara, and Ogha are the teachers;
 +“Samkhya,​” “proponents of nature as cause,” “Kapila” and so on they are named.
 +In terms of sub-schools there are the godless [who follow] Käpila and assert [causation in terms of]
 +And there are the godly who assert diverse forms, the system of Ogha.
 +Direct perception is veridical and senses have two modes of engagement;
 +Inferences [arise from] seven relations while syllogisms are twofold – affirmation [of one’s stated
 +thesis] or negation [of other’s false theses];
 +The Ishvarakrishna-tantra and the Treatise on the Thirty Tenets are their scriptures.
 +There is a “self” that is devoid of qualities, of activity, and is not an agent;
 +It is permanent, it is cognitive and is the “consumer;​” it abides or does not as a universal mind;
 +The twenty-four,​ such as the self, which is awareness, cognition and the being, are [all] material.
 +Primal substance is the creator: it is permanent, unitary, the [true] object, and [all] pervading;
 +Never manifest, it is said to be the equilibrium of qualities and the true mode of being.
 +From this arises the “great” [awareness] that resembles a [two-sided] mirror wherein cognitions take
 +place as the merging of the two [reflections];​
 +The qualities are rajas, tamas, sattva, or pleasure, pain, and neutrality;
 +From awareness arise the three conceits, and from the first
 +The five sense objects which give rise to the five elements.
 +From the second [conceit] arise five actions, the cognitive faculties and the mind;
 +The third [conceit] is the medium by which the other two function; there are thus four permutations.
 +To assert all twenty-four subsumed within primal substance and self is utterly false;
 +Primal substance and self are substantial realities while the rest are deceptive.
 +Their origination is manifestation of what already exists and cessation is dissolution or pacification;​
 +The diverse world is not from primal substance alone for it is devoid of mind;
 +Devoid of an agent of transfiguration there is no endeavor; nor is the world [created] by purusha for it
 +is devoid of knowledge.
 +Whilst abiding in the nature it is the three qualities that cause
 +Origination,​ abiding and cessation [of things]; though the cause exists, given that there is a temporal
 +sequence, effects [do arise, abide and cease].
 +Through such paths as concentration and [absorptive states of] the form realm, clairvoyance,​ and the
 +seeing of primal substance,
 +The two liberations,​ [freedom from self] alone and freedom from the [primal] nature, [are attained].
 +[Thus] there are fifty characteristics,​ three types of bondage and three corresponding freedoms [in
 +Samkhya system].
 +If things arise even though they already exist, there is no purpose for origination and their arising will
 +become endless;
 +Since the cause is permanent, so whilst it remains intact [the notion of] effects coming to cease is
 +Since awareness is material or mmaterial it cannot experience pain and pleasure, and since it is [all]
 +pervading [to maintain that] it is partless is contradictory;​
 +Since [self] is permanent it cannot be cognition; and [also] how can bondage and freedom exist for
 +such a self?
 +This then is chapter three, the chapter on the refutation of Samkhya Kapila’s eternalism.
 +Refutation of the Extremes of Eternalism of Four Schools, such as Brahmanavada
 +Their teachers are Brahma and so on and they’re called Brahamanavada and Vedanta;
 +Born from the opening of a lotus egg Brahma has seven names of eras;
 +From his four faces emerged the four Vedas, and from the four parts of his body,
 +The four castes were born; he is thus the creator of universe.
 +The Vedas are self-born and horse sacrifice is rite supreme.
 +Their teacher is Sadashiva and their name Grammarians3 and Linguists;4
 +Since it serves as the basis of all diversity they propound àabdaböahman.
 +He is the OM, the reality of all things, indivisible,​ eternal, and engages [within his realm of activity]
 +with autonomy.
 +Due to the pollutant of obscuring cataract [of ignorance] diversity is perceived;
 +Through the paths of outer and inner fire rites liberation [is attained].
 +Only the Vedas are valid means of knowledge; there are some who accept two [valid means of
 +Brahma is their teacher and they’re called Advaitavedanta and so on.
 +Pervading, subtle, cognizing, eternal, it’s the being endowed with sun’s color;
 +By transcendence of darkness alone it creates the world and the beings within, including bondage and
 +When this gold color is seen one dissolves into [the self] and gains freedom.
 +Brahma is their teacher and they’re called Guyhavada.
 +Amritabindu is their scripture and they accept a cognizing eternal self –
 +It is indivisible,​ non-dual, and substantially real;
 +There will be no four castes and all siblings will engage in sex between siblings;
 +If harmful acts become moral what then are the causes for the hells?
 +This then is chapter four, the chapter on the refutation of the extremes of eternalism of the four schools -
 +Brahamanavada,​ Vaikarananika,​ Advaitavedanta and Guhyavada.
 +3 Sanskrit: Vaiyakaranika
 +4 Sanskrit: Shabdayate
 +Refutation of the Extremes of Eternalism Postulated by Vaishnava and Mimamsa
 +Vasudeva, Candra, and Kumarila are the teachers;
 +They’re called Vaishnava, Candrapa, and the proponent of gita teachings.5
 +Their scriptures are “Branches beneficial to Reasoning,​” “Five Signs,” and so on.
 +Vishnu resides in the circular [city] surrounded by many maidens, [and pronounces]
 +“I am all excellent things, such as the sun; I act through the body of a brahmin.”
 +Of the dual natures, by meditating on the pacified liberation is attained.
 +As for the unpacified, there is the fish, the tortoise, and the boar;
 +There is the man-lion, the dwarf, the two Ramas;6
 +There is Krishna, the Buddha, and Kalkin, through these ten incarnations,​
 +He extracted,7 lifted,8 suppressed,​9 slaughtered,​10 tricked,11 and killed the ten-headed;​12
 +Terminated a lineage,13 benefited others,14 purged negative karma,15 and tamed beings.16
 +[Vaishnavas] accepts agents, self, karma, time, and substantial nature,
 +Are qualities void through dissolution,​ cause and effects.
 +Through meditation on winds and letters, liberation is achieved; samsara has an end.
 +Jaimini is their teacher and they’re called Mimamsa and Jaiminiyas;
 +They accept the self to be cognition, awareness, and as an eternal reality.
 +Since pollution penetrates into the person’s nature no omniscience is possible.
 +They accept freedom in the form of higher rebirths, and forty-two rituals as the cause.
 +“The four horns, three legs, two heads, and seven arms;
 +The three bindings, and the utterance of OM,” there are thus numerous Vedas.
 +5 This is probably a reference to the well-known Hindu religious text entitled Bhagvadgita.
 +6 The two Ramas are (i) the Lord Rama of the well-known epic Ramayana, while the other is (ii) Parashurama,​
 +who is the son of Jamadagni, who, according to Hindu mythology, beheaded his unchaste mother and killed all
 +the Kshatriyas.
 +7 In his incarnation as fish, Vishnu extracted the four Vedas, which had remained submerged in the ocean.
 +8 As a tortoise, Vishnu is said to have lifted the universe so that it would not be submerged in the ocean.
 +9 As a boar, Vishnu is said to have suppressed the entire universe below the realm of the Brahma.
 +10 As a man-lion, Vishnu is said to have slaughtered one of the kings of the demi-god realm.
 +11 As a dwarf, Vishnu is said to have tricked one of the kings of the dem-god realm.
 +12 In his incarnation as Lord Rama, Vishnu is said to have killed the ten-headed demon called Ravana.
 +13 In his incarnation as Parashurama,​ Vishnu is said to have killed Arjuna and brought a royal lineage to an end.
 +14 As Krishna, Vishnu distributed the water of the four great rivers to all directions, thus bringing benefit to
 +any sentient beings.
 +15 In his incarnation as the Buddha, Vishnu is said to have helped purify the negative karma of many beings.
 +16 In his incarnation as the king of Kalkin, it is said that Vishnu will tame many sentient beings during the Kali
 +age, which will follow the present age.
 +As for rites, there are the three, and the seven sets of seven such as the offering of butter.
 +Perception, inference, analogical, and word derived,
 +Meaning conveying, and non-conditioned,​ thus [there are] six valid means of knowledge.
 +Some add rational, possibility,​ non-observance,​ convention, and ascertainment.
 +Since he is all pervading his running away is untenable; the ten incarnations are false.
 +Since one can arrive at the end of elimination and realization,​ omniscience free of defects is
 +This then is chapter five, the chapter on the refutation of the extremes of eternalism postulated by Vaishashika and
 +Refutation of the Tenets of Shaiva, Vaisheshika,​ and Nyaya
 +Shiva, sage Akshapada and so on are the teachers;
 +They’re called Shaiva or Adibhava and have three subdivisions.
 +All accept scriptural authority of the tantra on sound and the Brukakuta-tantra.
 +Ishvara possesses eight virtues and resides on mount Kailash.
 +Because he halts and so on, because there would be violation [of karmic law], [Ishvara] is established
 +as the agent of origination and cessation.
 +[They accept] six paths, such as agency, self, and so on and they accept the natural elements,
 +Sensuality, reality of self and that of Ishvara - thus they accept five principles.
 +It resides at three sites, it coheres and releases and is the locus of twelve [faculties].
 +They assert the transcendent awareness of the fourth stage to be true liberation.
 +As for the path, there are the wind yoga, Ishvara’s empowerment,​ and emission bliss.
 +Since it contradicts known convention they should not be called Vaisheshika and so on.
 +Their teachers are Uluka, Kanada, and Akshapada.
 +They’re known as Kanadiya, Akshapadiya,​ and Alukiya, and also as followers of scriptures alone;
 +In terms of division, there is Vaisheshika and Nyaya.
 +They accept six categories, which are verified by four valid means of knowledge.
 +Perception is the meeting of sense faculties and their objects, which in turn are six; for Vaisheshika
 +this [meeting of the two] is material.
 +For Nyaya [this meeting] is a unique apprehending cognition.
 +Each accepts three types of inference, such as “with residue.”
 +The five-member syllogism operates in the manner of analogical proof.
 +For word-derived [valid means] there are the scriptures of Ishvara-tantra and Vaisheshika-sutra.
 +Substance, quality, action, universality,​ particularity,​ and inherence -
 +These six references of terms are real entities and constitute the basis.
 +The nine – four elements, mind, space, ether, self, and time – are substances;
 +Five are non-pervading,​ the remaining four pervade; the four [elements] consist of four [different
 +Other categories are permanent; quality has both dimensions; and action is impermanent.
 +They accept self as consumer, agent, uncaused, and eternal;
 +It is non-cognitive,​ all pervasive and devoid of activity; respectively [the two schools accept] the self
 +to be all pervasive or extremely subtle.
 +The mind is eternal, conceptual, and the subject of awareness.
 +That which has four characteristics is a quality and there are twenty-four or twenty-five.
 +There are five actions; parts, whole, and so on, all are substantially real.
 +That which is distinct from the three [substance, qualities, and action] is a universal and it possesses
 +eight defining characteristics.
 +That which has distinctness is a particular, and as for inherence there are two kinds of relations.
 +Universe and beings are created by subtle particles and Ishvara.
 +Ablution and others are the spiritual practice, while samsara is the inherence of qualities;
 +Liberation is ineffable [and is attained] when self is free from the inherence of qualities.
 +Since cognition of reality is a cause of liberation, to hold it as liberation is wrong.
 +Ishvara will be the cause of both joy and pain, and he will commit negative acts [also];
 +Since he is dependent on will he is bereft of power; to be all pervading and being devoid of parts is
 +Since he is eternal, he is either born eternally or is never born at all.
 +This then is chapter six, the chapter on the refutation of the tenets of Shaivamata, Vaisheshika,​ and Nyaya.
 +Refutation of the Tenets of Parivrajaka School
 +Their teachers are Mahavira, Jinarshabha,​ and Vardamana.
 +They are called Kshapnaka, Ajitodaya, Digambara, or Parivrajaka.
 +Life force equals one’s body size and is eternal; self, person, and being [are synonyms].
 +Perceptions can, in relation to cognition of universals and particulars,​ either be conceptual or nonconceptual.
 +Tri-modal inference is rejected while uni-modal inference is affirmed;
 +Bharatakarma’s treatises and so on are their scriptures;
 +[They accept] nine categories: life and non-life, pollutants, relinquishment and precepts,
 +Bondage and freedom, going and coming; alternatively,​ there are life forces, pollutants and precepts,
 +Definite aging, bondage, action, negativity, merits, and freedom - so nine [categories].
 +In substance they are all permanent while their manifestations remain transient;
 +The three times have substantial existence; there are six substances and six or nine [class of] sentient
 +There are five precepts, five conducts and five wisdoms.
 +Thirteen conducts are accepted as the path while liberation is material;
 +There are five [class of] beings, five bodies, and [some] with [only] one faculty.
 +Bondage is [due to] three hundred and sixty [views], karma is [reaped in] life and so on.
 +[Their scripture is] un-authored,​ there are unanswered questions, and [by employing arguments like]
 +because they sleep [at night] and so on,
 +They reject omniscience and establish trees and so forth as being sentient.
 +Although there are numerous false views I shall not elaborate just any view here.
 +[Distinction of] substance and manifestations breaks down when probed whether they are identical
 +or not;
 +Since liberation is material cessation of karma has no [real] meaning;
 +[If the self] changes in size, it becomes transient, and uni-modal inference is untenable.
 +This then is chapter seven, the chapter on the refutation of the extremes of eternalism postulated by Parivrajaka.
 +The Vaibhashika School
 +The Buddhist Schools are Vaibhashika,​ Sautrantika,​ Cittamatra and Madhyamaka;
 +Their division into four is final for it has been stated “There is no fifth school.”
 +These four fall into two groups – the Lesser Vehicle and the Great Vehicle;
 +To subsume [the four] into three vehicles or to assert five schools is erroneous.
 +The two Shravaka schools reject substratum consciousness and afflicted consciousness,​
 +They reject no-self of phenomena, the ten stages, the three Buddha-bodies,​ and so on.
 +They rejected Mahayana scriptures first but are later said to have accepted them.
 +Because they primarily propound the treatise Mahavibhasha and because they propound
 +[All things] as instantiations of substances they’re called Vaibhashika.17
 +There are two viewpoints on the divisions: From Sarvastivada,​ Mahasamghika,​ Sthaviravada,​18 and
 +Sammatiya, derive respectively seven, five, three and three schools;
 +Alternatively,​ from Mahasamghika evolved eight while from Sthaviravada ten.
 +To assert all of these as Vaibhashika and to say that there are both [Shravaka] schools amongst them
 +is a contradiction.
 +If it’s simply to subsume [all], the number is too small; Mahayanists were mentioned too.
 +Although the five Sammatiya schools propound an ineffable self, they are all equal
 +Insofar as the absence of self endowed with three characteristics is concerned; so they are not
 +systems of the “other.”
 +They accept two truths, aggregates, elements, sources, five beings, and nourishments,​
 +The tainted and the untainted, the conditioned and three non-conditioned realities;
 +Space is light and darkness, while subtle particles do not touch each other.
 +They accept valid perception and inference, the five paths, the factors of enlightenment,​
 +As well as six perfections,​ twenty holy beings, and eight enterers and abiders.
 +The twelve deeds [of the Buddha] fall into two sets and when they are completed Buddhahood is
 +In all three [instances of] “nirvana without residue” matter and consciousness cease; this is the [final]
 +17 The Sanskrit name Vaibhashika literally means “those who propound instantiations” or “particulars.”
 +18 This is the Sanskrit equivalent of Theravada, which is the name of the Buddhist school flourishing in
 +countries like Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Cambodia and other areas of former Indo-China region.
 +Through destruction or dissection of whether or not one’s thought becomes lost,
 +These are respectively [defined as] conventional truth and ultimate truth.
 +They uphold Tripitaka,​19 the seven Abhidharma texts20 are sacred words and the scriptures are
 +conditioned abstract entities.
 +As for perceptions,​ there are sensory, mental, yogic, but no self-cognition.
 +Cause and effects are simultaneous,​ and [they accept] subtle imperceptible form.
 +Sensory perceptions possess no likeness aspects; the five basic categories are real entities and enjoy
 +substantial existence.
 +[Buddha’s] corporeal body is not the Buddha, [for] the Buddha is the attainment of the stage of no
 +more learning.
 +They have numerous unique views for which read the works of Bhavya and others.
 +This then is chapter eight, the chapter on Vaibhashika who propound the three times to be instantiations of substantial
 +reality, following the refutation of the extremes of eternalism..
 +19 Tripitaka, which literally means the “three baskets,” refer to the three scriptural collections of vinaya (ethics),
 +sutra, (discourses),​ and abhidharma (higher knowledge).
 +20 This refers to a class of very early seven Buddhist scholastic works. While the Vaibhashika School accepts
 +these works as scriptures representing actual words of the Buddha, Sautrantika rejects this. Instead they
 +attribute the authorship of these seven works to various disciples of the Buddha.
 +The Sautrantika School
 +Because they propound the authority of sutras they’re called Sautrantika.
 +In terms of division, on the basis of following scripture and reason, there are three.
 +The two truths are [defined] in terms of whether or not an entity is capable of effecting real function.
 +Aggregates, elements, sources, the conditioned and the non-conditioned are the basic categories [of
 +The factors of enlightenment,​ doors of liberation, abiding at the end, compassion, and so on, are the
 +There are enterers and abiders, two Prateyakabuddhas,​ and perfect Buddhahood.
 +All things are momentary, and the seven Abhidharma works are not Buddha’s word.
 +Abhidharma is embedded in the sutra and vinaya [scriptures] where unique and general characteristics
 +are explained.
 +Scriptures are words, and as for subtle particles, there are those who accept parts and those who
 +reject parts.
 +They reject imperceptible forms and [assert] that whatever is material is not a valid cognition.
 +The unconditioned have no reality and conditioned abstract entities are constructs for they’ve no
 +substantial reality.
 +Sense perceptions have aspects and there are three views: (i) equal to the number of objects
 +There are equal [simultaneous] perceptions,​ (ii) equal [but] sequential, and (iii) a single perception for
 +diverse objects;
 +These are the standpoints of the schools of reason and scripture; cause and effects are not
 +Relinquishment and realizations do not regress; bodily consciousness can be an element of
 +[meditative mind of] concentration.
 +Within perceptions there are sensory, mental, yogic and self-cognitions.
 +The apparent objects of perceptions are transient so no-self [is perceived] implicitly.
 +Arya bodhisattvas are beings in meditative equipoise, [both] truth and form bodies [of the Buddha]
 +are [fully awakened] Buddha.
 +This then is chapter nine, the chapter on the proponents of the authority of the sutras, following the refutation of eternal
 +self and substantial realities.
 +The Mind-Only School
 +Since in accordance with the themes of the first turning the realists are posited,
 +And in accordance with the second and third Middle Way and Mind-Only are posited,
 +Within the four schools, the Buddha accepted distinctions of higher and lower;
 +In particular, the Mahayana consists of sutra and tantra [systems].
 +Each of these had been interpreted by the wise in terms of the Middle Way and Mind-Only [schools].
 +The two great charioteers that have been prophesized by the Conqueror,
 +Who, through Maitreya and Manjushri’s kindness and in accordance with the sutras
 +Samdhinirmocana and Akshyamatinirdesha,​ opened anew the Middle Way and Mind-Only traditions.
 +The popular view of four [charioteers] is untenable, though three is.
 +In most cases there is a convergence on the vast path but not on the profound [view].
 +As they assert the three realms to be mere consciousness or mind only,
 +They are called the “Consciousness-Only” and the “Mind-Only.”
 +As for subdivisions,​ there are the followers of scripture and of reason, and [the proponents of]
 +aspects as real and unreal.
 +“Excellent Differentiation” turning21 is definitive while the other two are provisional;​
 +The definitive and provisional are differentiated through four reliances,​22 four principles,​23 four
 +intentionalities and four ellipses.24
 +There are scriptures and because no external reality exists the first [turning] is [established as]
 +On the understanding that there exists perception of external objects and to help lead [beings to the
 +truth of no-self, external reality is mentioned].
 +The “middle” [turning] consists of the profound Mahayana sutras which are not literal.
 +On the basis of the absence of self-identity [as understood] in terms of the three natures,
 +These [sutras of second turning] were taught; they cannot be literal for this would lead to denigration.
 +21 This is the name of the third turning of the wheel according to the Mahayana classification of the Buddha’s
 +22 The four reliances pertain to a methodological principle according Buddhism, whereby the following
 +principle is adopted when reading a scripture. (i) Rely not on the person but on his statements; (ii) rely not on
 +the words but on the meaning; (iii) rely not on the provisional meaning but on the definitive; and (iv) rely not
 +only the intellectual understanding but on the experiential understanding.
 +23 The four principles are (i) that of nature, (ii) of dependence, (iii) of function, and (iv) that of valid proof.
 +Understanding of these four principles, which share status similar to that of natural laws in science, is deemed
 +to be crucial when engaged in the exploration of the nature of reality.
 +24 This refers to a unique hermeneutical tradition of Mahayana Buddhism, which enables the reader to interpret
 +Buddhist scriptures that on the surface propound notions that are untenable from the point of view of a
 +particular school of thought.
 +As for statements “Thus they are unborn” and so on,25 being unborn and so on,
 +[These are understood] in terms of the eight categories like forbearance of reality free of origination,​
 +self and others, and so on;
 +Dharmakirti too explains subject-object and cause and effect,
 +And definition and the defined as well, all in terms of action and its agent.
 +The former [scripture follower] asserts that since the spheres are determined potencies possessing
 +substantial reality,
 +The inclinations towards the three vehicles are determined. So for someone who has been cut off
 +from such a [natural] sphere,
 +Even if they were to enter [the path], disillusionment and renunciation will never arise.
 +The latter asserts [that obscurations are] impermanent,​ there are means [to remove them], and there
 +are those who know such means;
 +There are teachers [who can show the means] and it’s possible to generate interest in them; so the
 +[thesis of] one vehicle is established.
 +To hold the imputed as substantially real is reification,​ while holding the other two
 +As devoid of substantial reality is denigration;​ their opposite is the middle way.
 +If all things are substantially real, what of [the Buddha’s] statement “The agent exists
 +There are two modes of [understanding] reality in terms of two truths.
 +First is the ground on which the Madhyamika and the Mind-Only dispute on ontology;
 +Second is the ground on which afflictions arise: the basis of conventions;​
 +It is on such basis that something is merely described as conventionally or ultimately real.
 +As for the substantially real and the constructed,​ there are two modes, thus to affirm all things as
 +unreal is an error.
 +As for the constructed,​ the imputed, there are two: utterly non-existent and its similitude;
 +These are posited as “non-existent conventional” and the “unborn conventional reality.”
 +The ground of illusion and the illusion itself are dependent phenomena, which consist of the pure
 +and the impure.
 +They are, respectively,​ the non-conceptual wisdom and the afflictions.
 +Emptiness of the two imputed selfhoods is the consummate [nature].
 +There are two no-selves each with twenty [subdivisions] and so on.
 +Etymologically,​ there are three ultimate meanings: the [ultimate] referent, the [ultimate] attainment,
 +and the [ultimate] practice.
 +Although the origination,​ abiding, and dissolution of the world and sentient beings share similarities
 +[with Abhidharma system],
 +On the thirty-six desire realms and eighteen classes of form realm,
 +25 This is a reference to statements in the Perfection of Wisdom scriptures where all conditioned things are
 +described as being unborn, unceasing and so on.
 +And on the shape of mount Meru and so on, there are differences;​ definite karma can be cleansed,
 +and so on,
 +And in ways of dividing aggregates, virtues, and so on, differences do exist.
 +Objects of knowledge exhausts within two truths; though of one nature, they are differentiated in
 +terms of their identities;
 +Those that are objects capable of giving rise to afflictions are concealed truths,
 +Its synonyms are conventional truth and so on; in terms of subdivisions there are three.
 +The ultimate object of a thoroughly pure path is the ultimate truth.
 +Its synonyms are “ultimate reality,” “suchness” and so on; its subdivisions have already been
 +Due to the evident and the concealed, there are two valid means of knowledge: direct perception and
 +There are four types of perception and as for sensory perception, [those of] the lower realms are
 +Because there is no thought of it before [the name] a thing being its own selfhood is a contradiction.
 +Because of having many names one thing would have multiple selves, which is a contradiction.
 +Because [two different] names would refer to one thing their selves would conflate, which is a
 +Since it does not exist when searched for through the four modes of seeking, it does not exists as [an
 +intrinsic referent of] the word.
 +Because they are constantly co-cognized they are devoid of separate realities.
 +When a subtle particle is encircled [by other particles] if the eastern part does not face the north, it
 +would then be composed of parts;
 +If it did, then it could never aggregate into gross [matter].
 +What contradiction is there in saying that although subtle, it is not like that of Vaibhashka’s [part-less
 +Since it has been refuted by many, to assert that the Middle Way and Mind-Only accept [indivisible
 +particle] is an error.
 +Since it does not exist within the perspective of meditative equipoise, since many thoughts can occur
 +in relation to one thing,
 +Since one [object] appears as both attractive and unattractive,​ and since [earth and so on] appear in
 +yogic states, and so on,
 +And since [external objects] resemble dreams and so on, no external reality exists; the mind alone is
 +Since there is no ground for conceptualizing external objects, their appearances as such to the nonconceptual
 +Is an illusion; therefore their separateness from such a mind is to be negated.
 +Since it is the basis, by dispelling [this grasping at selfhood] hundreds of conceptualizations will
 +The gross appearance to an object-laden cognition is the basis of dispute;
 +[And] the dispute concerns whether or not this is real and whether or not it exists.
 +Its truth and falsity is disputed on the grounds of whether or not it is tainted by ignorance.
 +When the Middle Way and Mind-Only argue, they don’t do in terms of if something is true or false,
 +existent or not, or if it’s is a thing or not.
 +True aspect proponents are of three kinds: (i) [like] an egg sliced into two halves;
 +(ii) A symmetry between objects and subjects, and (ii) the non-duality of diverse forms;
 +Respectively,​ Shankarananda accepts distinctness of object and subject aspects of cognitions;
 +Shakyabhuddhi asserts aspects equal to the number of objects [of cognition];
 +Venerable Dharmakirti accepts a single aspect to [cognitions perceiving] diverse [aspects of] objects.
 +False aspect proponents are of two kinds: on the basis of whether or not the conquerors
 +Possess the taint of dualistic perceptions they’re known as the “tainted” and the “untainted.”
 +Some assert that false aspect proponents posit an epistemology based on the cognition of external
 +This is untenable for if external reality is established how can they be a Mind-Only?
 +If it’s maintained that this is so from the perspective of a conceptual mind, this is true too of the true
 +aspect proponents; so it’s an error.
 +The statement that all phenomena are mind is false too for it’s a little too coarse;
 +There would be many undesirable consequences:​ faults and virtue, samsara and nirvana would all
 +become one, and so on.
 +The perceived [world] is not the mind, nor is it of a different substance from mind;
 +Substratum consciousness is a non-obscuring neutral state of mind;
 +It is subtle, a concealed phenomenon, and the repository of all seeds.
 +Afflicted consciousness is a special thought “I am” that is focused on this [substratum].
 +Thus the two brothers and their followers accept eight classes of consciousness.
 +That [spectrum consciousness] has not been mentioned, and that [no multiple thoughts] arise
 +simultaneously,​ and so on,
 +And that consciousness is not of eight kinds but of six; this is the standpoint of the seven treatises26
 +and their followers.
 +As for methods of meditative practice, since one must become versed in the objects of mental
 +They accept seven actual states of meditative absorption and forty other types.
 +As for objects these are the signs and there are four classes [of signs] or thirty-two kinds.
 +When subsumed there are two [absorptions],​ the nine mental abiding, and the overcoming of five
 +factors, and so on;
 +26 The seven treatises refer to seven well-known works on logic and epistemology by the great Buddhist thinker
 +Dharamakirti (circa 6-7th century).
 +On the basis of the twelve [sets of qualities], the four [characteristics],​ the grounds and perfections
 +are differentiated;​
 +The twelve hundred [qualities] and the transmutation of eyes and so on,
 +The four and five Buddha-bodies,​ the twelve [deeds], and the enlightened activities –
 +These are explained in the two Differentiations27 the Ornament28 and in Samdhinirmocana and others.
 +This then is chapter ten, the chapter on Consciousness [School] following the refutation of gross levels of self-existence of
 +phenomena, such as objective external reality, and establishment of the selflessness of phenomena.
 +27 The two “differentiations” refer to two works of Maitreya (circa 4th century) entitled Differentiation of the Middle
 +and Extremes (Madhyantavibhanga) and the Differentiation of Reality and the Ultimate Expanse
 +28 This is a reference to the influential work on the exposition of the perfection of wisdom scriptures, the full
 +title of which is Ornament of Clear Realizations (Abhisamayalamkara) attributed to Maitreya.
 +The Svatrantika-Madhyamaka School
 +There exists no self-identity and since they propound the middle free of extremes,
 +[They’re called] the Middle Way [School] and proponents of absence of self-identity.
 +There are two subdivisions:​ Svatrantika and Prasangika; others are in name alone.
 +Non-existence even on the conventional level is the extreme of nihilism;
 +While substantial existence of things is the extreme of absolutism; the upholding the truth of
 +dependent origination
 +In the aftermath of negating [these two extremes] is accepted to be the middle way;
 +As [the two schools] accord on these [points], both are [upholders of] the Middle Way.
 +That which is free of all subtle extremes is the tradition of Prasangika.
 +In terms of evolution four hundred years after the Buddha,
 +Nagarjuna brought Mahayana and initiated the Middle Way interpretation tradition;
 +Nine hundred years [after the Buddha] Asanga initiated the Mind Only tradition.
 +Buddhapalita read the root text in terms of prasanga consequence arguments.
 +Bhavya critiqued this and initiated the Svatrantika tradition;
 +This was well refuted by Candra, who affirmed the unique interpretation.
 +Next Shantarakshita created a second [school of] Svatrantika.
 +[Those who propound] non-existence of anything, extrinsic emptiness, and eternal self,
 +And those who reject the two truths, standpoints,​ and validly established [conventions],​
 +They’ve all fallen into an extreme; though they may claim to be Middle Way thinkers they are not so.
 +In particular he who claims to uphold Candra’s tradition yet harbors enmity towards the All-
 +Knowing [Tsongkhapa],​
 +For him there are numerous contradictions and inconsistencies in all [possible] areas.
 +Though omniscient it does not perceive the world of diversity – this is a contradiction.
 +[Asserting] absence of mind [in Buddhahood] you confuse false systems of Kshapnaka and
 +Mimamsaka as the Middle Way.
 +That ultimate truth is dependent origination yet has sovereign existence, is indeed a major
 +To accept karma and its effects and [to assert] utter non-existence of fruition is a contradiction.
 +[To assert] that un-ceased karma produces effects is erroneous, for [this entails] simultaneity [of cause
 +and effects].
 +[To accept that] karma does not cease for eons and [to claim to be a] Madhyamika, is a contradiction.
 +To reject the profound and the vast in one’s own system yet [assert it] to be the Middle Way, is a
 +That unanalyzed is the basis of division, yet an analyzed result is its subdivision,​ is a contradiction.
 +To assert a path to freedom other than emptiness, yet [to accept the statement] “no second door to
 +peace,”is a contradiction.
 +Nothing is meditated upon yet [to claim] to meditate on emptiness is a contradiction.
 +To assert that acceptance of mere separateness of [causes from effects] entails acceptance of
 +origination from the other,
 +Yet to deny that mere acceptance of selfhood does not entail acceptance of origination of itself – this
 +is a contradiction.
 +Though through numerous eons one cultivates the various knowledge fields, yet on the resultant
 +stage [of Buddhahood]
 +One has no cognition of any knowledge field of the world of diversity, is an ignorance pertaining to
 +the stages of the path.
 +[To assert] utter non-existence of form and awareness in no-residue[nirvana] and existence of four
 +Buddha-bodies is a contradiction.
 +To accept the two, perception and inference, yet to reject valid cognition, is a contradiction.
 +That there exist proofs but no actual validly established [facts] – this is a contradiction.
 +To accept fully awakened ones who’ve attained disentangled [qualities] and the [ten] powers but are
 +still in cyclic existence is a contradiction.
 +To both affirm and negate the object of grasping of egoistic view is a contradiction.
 +[To assert] that the two insights –into the coarse and subtle selflessness – share the same content is a
 +[To hold] substratum consciousness to exist, yet to accept external realities, is a contradiction.
 +To establish the ultimate through reasoning, yet to deny content to meditative equipoise, is a
 +To assert that something is not a yogic direct-perception,​ yet that selflessness is manifest to it, is a
 +[To assert] three roots of cyclic existence but a single door to peace, this is a contradiction.
 +That the very treatise that refutes a system would belong to the same system is a contradiction.
 +To be devoid of validity and remain tenable and rational is a contradiction.
 +That there are subjects [of predication] and basis of designation though no grounds exist at all, is a
 +Though fully awakened they enter the path of accumulation,​ is a contradiction.
 +Though free of all obscurations to knowledge, one possesses latencies for emitting vital elements, is a
 +Habituation with such words as “ineffability” and with false meditation texts, are the conditions of
 +your error.
 +Since autonomous reason and independent reason share the same meaning,
 +Those who present reasoning as proofs to establish theses on the basis of
 +Independently existing and mutually affirmed three logical marks and subjects, are the Svatrantikas.
 +There are two: Sautrantika-Svatrantika and Yogacarya-Svatrantika-Madhyamika.
 +The first affirm external reality while the second refute this.
 +Though they accept existence by means of self-defining characteristics and [the doctrine of] the three
 +On the understanding that [all things] are devoid of true existence [the perfection of wisdom
 +scriptures] state this and that to be non-existent.
 +The basis of emptiness, the aspect of imputed true existence, and its emptiness –
 +Are respectively the dependent, the imputed, and the consummate natures.
 +For they are [accordingly] not independent,​ imputed, and the ultimate mode of being.
 +Their compilers are different, they [Shravakas] do not comprehend, and that Mahayana has
 +a [special] significance;​
 +So in the scriptures of the Lesser [Vehicle] selflessness of phenomena is not found.
 +Just as the grasping of a coiled rope as snake [is dispelled by] the awareness of it being a piece of
 +climbing vine,
 +[Since] knowledge of no-self destroys ignorance, [understanding] the ultimate mode of being is not
 +[required for liberation].
 +External reality is asserted to be non-existent on the ultimate level; mind alone
 +Is said to appear as environment,​ body, and so on; therefore the expression “mind only”
 +Negates a creator and the absence of [external] objects is not the meaning of scriptures.
 +Sense perceptions possess aspects and object and subject arise in a causal sequence.
 +Aggregation of dissimilar kinds, like a battle, are imputed realities, while aggregations of similar
 +Are substantial realities, each of which can be an objective condition [of perceptions].
 +Since perceptions,​ like double moon on the basis of a single moon, cannot arise
 +If external realities do not exist, [so to deny them] constitutes a form of denigration.
 +As there is no perception of an object, subjects are not self-cognizing.
 +If things are truly real they should remain so within the perspective of ultimate analysis for they
 +would then be truly established.
 +However something that remains so need not be truly established,​ such as the ultimate expanse for
 +Although that which is found by ultimate analysis does exist, [if there is something] that can bear its
 +This would then be something that does so truly, for [such an awareness] probes into the true
 +existence [of things].
 +Thus “true existence” that can bear ultimate analysis is the object of negation here.
 +Since examples that illustrate the convergence of reasoning signs and theses is easily [findable],
 +Negative reasoning, such as the observance of the contrary, is mostly employed.
 +To give an example, they employ the following: “The eyes do not look at forms
 +In the ultimate sense, for they are eyes; for example, just like the ears.”
 +Objects of knowledge comprise the two truths; that which is found by the excellent
 +Untainted mind is the [ultimate] truth, for it is non-deceiving.
 +Because it is a veil, that which is affirmed by samvritti (obscuring mind) is the opposite.
 +Based on whether or not conventional truths can fulfill the function in accordance with their
 +Conventional reality is [in turn further] divided into veridical and falsities.
 +The first refers to factual things, the second to reflections in a mirror and so on.
 +They accept perception and inference, as for perception, three and four respectively;​
 +For those whose natural inclination [towards Mahayana] is determined, cessation of the two
 +obscurations and full awakening are simultaneous.
 +The three Buddha-bodies,​ three inconceivable secrecies, three hundred disentangled qualities, and so
 +The three poisons as afflictive obscurations,​ knowledge obscurations are the nine sets of grasping at
 +true existence.
 +Shravaka and Prateyakabuddha paths are of the same family, they are distinguished by time and
 +The second Svatrantika [school] consists of two: true and false aspect proponents;
 +The first are Shantarakshita and his sons who accept the aspect to be effective reality,
 +The second, such as Haribhadra, are those who assert this [aspect] to be unreal.
 +Jitari is in accord with false aspect proponents who assert it to be tainted,
 +While Kampala accords with false aspect proponents who assert it to be untainted.
 +Hundred Thousand Lines29 and so on, are definitive, while the sutras where “ultimately” is not qualified,
 +Though equally [part of] the second turning, they are interpretable;​ this is the tradition of
 +The mode of [understanding] three natures is the same, though external reality does not exist.
 +The meaning of sutras like Ghanavhuya, Samdhinirmocana,​ and Lankavatara
 +Is twofold, the primary and secondary, corresponding respectively to the traditions of the Middle
 +Way and Mind-Only.
 +They concord on “that which is not posited on the basis of appearing to a non-deluded cognition”
 +being [the criterion] of the object of negation.
 +As it has been presented in Lankavatara and Pitaputrasamagama sutras,
 +Mostly the reasoning of the non-observance of related phenomena is employed.
 +To give an example: “Because they’re devoid of truly real oneness and multiplicity,​
 +Forms and so on are devoid of true existence; for example, the reflection in a mirror.”
 +29 This is one of the longest texts in the collection of the Perfection of Wisdom scriptures.
 +For if they are truly real they are exhausted among the two; this establishes the entailment, and as for
 +establishing the sign itself,
 +[This is effected through the reasoning] that they’re not truly one for they are composed of parts, nor
 +are they truly multiple for no truly one exists.
 +“Diamond splinters,​” “refutation of production from existence or non-existence,​”
 +“Refutation of origination from four possibilities” and “dependent origination,​” are the principal
 +forms of reasoning.
 +On the no-self of persons and the presentation of two truths they are in accord.
 +The coarse and subtle obscurations to knowledge are [respectively] the grasping at true existence and
 +at subject-object duality.
 +The sixteen characteristics of the four truths, the emptiness of duality, and absence of true existence
 +These are the defining features of the paths of Shravaka, Prateyakabuddha,​ and Mahayana
 +On distinctions between meditative equipoise and subsequent stags of [the path] of seeing and that
 +of meditation, both [sub-schools] are in accord.
 +This then is chapter eleven, the chapter on Svatrantika School establishing the middle way following the eradication of
 +the extremes of truly established entities.
 +The Prasangika-Madhyamaka School
 +As they reject autonomous reasoning and emphasize consequential reasoning,
 +Demonstrating internal contradictions to the opponent, they’re called the Prasangika.
 +As Prasangikas [posit things on the basis of] mere appearance they’re known [also] as “non-abiding
 +In terms of division there are three: the model, the partisans and the non-partisans.
 +Their scriptures are the profound sutras, the analytic corpus and the Four Hundred,30
 +The two - Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life31 and Compendium of Deeds32 -, and the Lamp [for the
 +Sutras that present the two truths are, respectively,​ interpretable and definitive scriptures.
 +Some need to lead the reader elsewhere, while for some [scriptures] the ultimate mode of being
 +remains as described therein.
 +There are two interpretable categories: one where the surface meaning cannot be accepted literally;
 +others where, even if
 +Their surface meaning is established,​ it is not the ultimate mode of being.
 +The first and the last [turnings] are provisional,​ while the sutras of the second [turning] are definitive.
 +By means of five sets of sutras from Lankavatara,​ Samdhinirmocana,​ and Ghanavuhya,
 +Five [classes of sutras] that propound (i) the mind-only based on the intended meaning of emptiness
 +and there being no transcendent creator,
 +[That propound] non existence of external realities, (ii) eternal essence,
 +(iii) The existence of substratum consciousness,​ (iv) substantial reality of dependent and consummate
 +And (v) propound three final vehicles – are all established as provisional.
 +Samsara and its transcendence,​ all that is perceived and known, the world of things as they really are
 +and their diversities,​
 +Since they are all posited as worldly convention [on the basis] of the unanalyzed innate mind,
 +“That which is not posited by conceptualization but exists objectively in its own right,”
 +“The substantially real,” that which “exists by means of self-defining characteristics,​” or “by means
 +of its own self-nature,​”
 +30 This is a well-known philosophical work entitled Catuhshataka (Four Hundred Stanzas) by the second century
 +Indian Buddhist thinker Aryadeva, who was also the principal student of Nagarjuna.
 +31 This work, the original Sanskrit title of which is Bodhicharyavatara and composed by the seventh century
 +Buddhist master Shantideva, is one of the most important classics of Mahayana Buddhism.
 +32 Sanskrit: Shikshasamucchaya. This work too is by Shantideva.
 +33 This work, entitled Bodhipadaparadipa in Sanskrit, is by the famous Bengali Buddhist master Atisha
 +Dipamkarashrijnana,​ who came to Tibet in the mid eleventh century and was instrumental in reviving of
 +Buddhism in Tibet.
 +“The truly established,​” being established “by means of its own self-identity” – these are all equally
 +the object of negation.
 +With no intrinsic nature, within this [framework of] imputed names and concepts,
 +Positing all functionality,​ is the middle way free of extremes.
 +Whatever is construed that is more coarse or subtle than this constitutes the extreme of absolutism
 +or nihilism.
 +The absence of two selfhoods in relation to persons and phenomena is accepted
 +As the two selflessnesses;​ the selfhood of phenomena is negated by means of
 +Four reasonings, such as the diamond splinters, while the selfhood of persons is negated
 +By the five-fold or seven-fold analysis. Both are negated too by dependent origination.
 +From themselves, from other, from both or from no cause at all,
 +[Things] do not come into being, so they are devoid of intrinsic origination.
 +If they originate from themselves [their origination] would be pointless and beginningless.
 +Where there is something that is not [necessarily borne of] it, [for if it does]
 +causes and effects will be observed eternally.
 +This contradicts observed facts of the world, and all agents and acts would become one.
 +If [on the other hand] things originate from other, darkness would originate from fire;
 +Everything would arise from everything, regardless of whether one is the cause of the other or not.
 +Since they are [intrinsically] separate they cannot share the same continuum, just like wheat grain and
 +barley [sprout].
 +They do not exist simultaneously,​ so how can there be an origination of something different from
 +[intrinsically separate] other?
 +[Some assert] that separateness of sequential things is being negated, [some] that identity [of the two]
 +is being negated; both of these are in error.
 +The four possibilities are rejected and since origination from other is denied
 +Even on the level of worldly convention, to assert it here [in Prasangika-Madhyamaka] is the dance
 +of a madman.
 +Since [origination from] self and other are negated individually,​ [origination from] both is negated as
 +For if [things] come into being from no cause, [all] striving will be meaningless.
 +This violates the observed and everything could originate from everything.
 +For if [things] originated from other, one could probe whether it might be so from an existent or
 +non-existent [cause], or from neither, and so on.
 +For if it were [from an] existent [cause], what need is there [for a cause]; if it were [from a] not nonexistent
 +[cause], this is devoid of functionality.
 +This negates [origination from] both [as well]; for if it is devoid of [origination from] both what need
 +is there [of a cause]?
 +Things are not produced by their causes in a substantial manner.
 +For one [cause] does not produce one [effect] nor multiple [causes] a single [effect];
 +Nor does one cause many, nor do many [produce] many [effects].
 +Since production of one by one is affirmed and since others are tenable,
 +Not to apply the qualifying object of negation [“ultimately”] constitutes an error.
 +No phenomena exist here that are not dependent originations.
 +Since dependent originations exist merely in terms of coming together, through interrelations and
 +Self-subsistence and existing by means of intrinsic nature remain untenable.
 +This profound and vast [rationale] dispelling the two extremes is the king of reasoning.
 +So [to assert] the ultimate to be self-subsistent is to devour the sky!
 +No one has accorded the meaning of self-subsistence to the validly established.
 +There exists no independent self, for the aggregates are not that, nor is it separate from the
 +It is not the basis of the aggregates nor is it based on the aggregates;
 +It does not possess the aggregates nor is it the shape or the collection.
 +As with [the example of] a chariot; extend this [analysis] to all phenomena.
 +In some contexts, although validly established three logical marks are reasoning signs
 +Posited on the basis of shared consensus are accepted, since these are not [established by]
 +autonomous valid means of cognition,
 +Autonomous syllogism is rejected; so [to accept] autonomous reasoning here is wrong.
 +Object of knowledge is the basis of division; it has two subdivisions:​ the two truths.
 +This number is exhaustive for to have more is unnecessary,​ yet to have less will fail to encompass
 +Lest no ultimate mode of being would be untenable and it would be manifest to all,
 +Though they share indivisible nature the two truths are distinguished by means of their identities.
 +Their definitions are this: “That in relation to which either of the [two] cognitions, critical or
 +Constitutes its ultimate or conventional analysis, and is respectively thus found.”
 +As it is true [both] in terms of meaning and excellence, it is the “ultimate truth.”
 +As it veils and is true [only] from the obscuring mind’s perspective,​ it is the “conventional truth.”
 +The divisions of the ultimate are into two, into four, or into sixteen, and so on.
 +The cognitions of the ordinary and arya beings and their contents are [respectively] similitude [of
 +ultimate truth] and its opposite.
 +Within Madhyamaka’s own system conventional truth is not [divided in terms of] veridical and false
 +From the perspective of the worldly, however, humans, reflections in a mirror, and so on,
 +Due to their truth or lack of it, [distinction is] merely drawn between one being veridical and the
 +other as falsity.
 +Because conventional perspectives precede critical analysis, because they are complimentary,​ [the two
 +truths] are the means and the end.
 +Since the purpose is to dismantle all views and to eradicate [self-grasping] and adopt [the wisdom of
 +It's wrong [to assert] an absence of elaborations on the third phase that is not emptiness.
 +First, by means of karma and its effects and so on, the non-meritorious is eliminated;
 +In the middle, by means of impermanence and so on, the two selfhoods are eliminated;
 +Finally, through progressive stages of manifest experience of suchness,
 +All views that are contaminated are destroyed. This is held both in sutra and tantra.
 +There are five stages of meditation [on emptiness]; see the writings of the learned ones.
 +Just as it is so with emptiness, positing the criterion of conventionality is [also] difficult.
 +Violation of either of the two truths is detrimental,​ for one falls to an extreme.
 +One must not distance the two but strive instead to join the two in a union.
 +The three natures are the same [as in Svatrantika];​ the nature is on the dependent [an imputation
 +while on the ultimate expanse the consummate];​
 +It is to the childish an imputed [nature] while for the conqueror it is accepted as the consummate.
 +Since self-defining characteristics are rejected even on the conventional level,
 +There are numerous unique tenets, such as the eight, that are distinctive [to Prasangika].
 +Since they are not negated by conventional analysis, and not established by it,
 +They accept existence of external realities while rejecting substratum consciousness.
 +For no liberation exists for those grasping at essence, this is an affliction; the [two] selflessness are
 +equal [in terms of subtlety].
 +Since there is none that is not tainted, and since the novelty [criterion of] valid cognition is
 +All cognition of the childish is deluded and subsequent cognition is affirmed as a true cognition.
 +Feelings are mental perceptions,​ and though the sixteen [characteristics of the four noble truths] have
 +become manifest,
 +They are still not Noble Ones; they accept direct mental perceptions that are thoughts,
 +And ordinary beings for whom the sixteen aspects of the [four] truths are manifest.
 +Special insight into emptiness and the path of preparation are simultaneous.
 +Since disintegration is conditioned,​ direct realization of the sixteen does not lead
 +Even to the path of preparation. Thus all three times are accepted as conditioned.
 +Being produced, disintegration is conditioned,​ thus even after a long passage of time following the
 +cessation of an act,
 +And though “obtainment,​” “continuum,​” or “conservation” do not exist, [karma] does bring into
 +being its fruits.
 +Conditioned cessations are merely posited, though not through analysis, just like a conditioned thing:
 +a vase.
 +If a harsh word uttered long ago remains un-ceased, and if it is perceived by our innate mind,
 +Why then does one not remember everything done in the past?
 +Since they cannot be [posited] without analysis, autonomous syllogism and self-cognition are
 +When there is [mutual] dependence, object - not the subject - is the direct perception.
 +True cessation is an ultimate expanse, and Noble Ones perceive absence of true existence;
 +Cessation of aggregates is unacceptable for [to assert this is to] assert the cessation of feelings and
 +So [nirvana] with or without residue is [defined] in terms of whether or not deluded perceptions have
 +The propensities are the obscuration to knowledge, though non-afflictive ignorance is accepted as
 +Without exhaustion of afflictions eradication of obscuration to knowledge does not commence.
 +“Appearance” dispels the extreme of existence, “emptiness,​” that of non-existence.
 +There are numerous unique tenets such as these, so read the Middle Way [treatises].
 +Although four valid cognitions – perception, inference, analogical, and that of scripture –
 +Are mentioned, because of their objects they exhaust in two: direct perception and inference.
 +“With no [reliance on] reasoning and towards its object of apprehension,​ which is evident,
 +A cognition that is non-deceptive” – this is accepted as a direct valid perception.
 +In terms of division, there are the sensory, mental, and yogic direct perceptions.
 +“That which is based on reasoning and is non-deceptive with respect to a hidden object” – this is an
 +“That which cognizes hidden analogies” and “the extremely hidden” – these inferences
 +Are accepted respectively as analogical and scripture-based valid cognitions.
 +“That which leads to ascertainment of the object of apprehension” is a valid cognition;
 +Since it is immune to contravention by others and since it is non-deceptive in relation to the [object],
 +Though distorted, this is no contradiction for a valid cognition; although the meaning of “nondeceptiveness”
 +Is multifarious depending on the contexts, it is explained also in terms of conventionality.
 +Like the term “substance” it does not connote only one [sense].
 +In terms of methods for achieving higher birth and definite goodness, there are two – faith and
 +Faith precedes wisdom and prepares the vessel to be suitable.
 +Wisdom is the cause of freedom, for it cultivates the non-conceptual truth.
 +Hence in the stages of the path of lower, middling, and supreme trainees
 +All methods of spiritual practice are encompassed;​ this is so because [all the Buddha’s activities]
 +spring from the two purposes.
 +From the middling emerge Shravakas and Prateyakabuddhas and their paths;
 +In the great [is encompassed] Mahayana, hence there is no fourth vehicle.
 +Here Shravakas and Prateyakabuddhas share similar paths but are distinguished on the basis of the
 +eight grounds, time, and results.
 +On the basis of firm mind generation bloom the branches, the perfections;​
 +The paths of accumulation and preparation are distinguished by qualities, signs, mode of practice,
 +and their natures.
 +The ten grounds are equal in their meditative equipoise, yet by means of the training, qualities of
 +their subsequent stages,
 +Enlightened activities, and through twelve sets of factors, one proceeds from lower to higher
 +Each [ground] is described by means of eight features – etymology, divisions, qualities,
 +The basis, fruitional effects, signs, abandonments and counterforce.
 +On the resultant stage, equipoise and subsequent stages are not sequential but are a single event;
 +Since all conceptualization,​ the activity of mind, has been calmed,
 +The Elder engages in the deeds of subsequent stage without rising [from the absorption].
 +Though conceptual elaborations have ceased within the perception of the ultimate expanse,
 +[Buddhas] perceive the impure world of multiplicity as [if viewing] an ämalaka fruit on his palm.
 +While accepting [the number of] Buddha-bodies as one, two, three, four and five,
 +[Asserting] that Buddhas do not possess the vast [activities and reducing Buddha-bodies as merely]
 +other’s perception are wrong.
 +The natural Buddha-body of the purity from adventitious stains and of natural purity,
 +The twenty categories of the wisdom truth-body and so on,
 +The perfect enjoyment that never withdraws the appearance of being endowed with the five [definite]
 +The three emanation bodies, the craftsman, incarnation,​ and that of enlightenment -
 +These pervade the entire space with the perfect melody of sixty [divine] tunes.
 +Their dances of the three secrets pervade everywhere and are seen by the fortunate.
 +[Even when] they transform an instant into an eon, or when they place
 +The entire world into each pore of their body, like space, the size of nothing changes.
 +The ten powers, the eighteen disentangled qualities, and so on,
 +All these excellent qualities, even if the conquerors themselves were to endeavor
 +To describe them, it would be endless for they are like the limits of space.
 +They constantly display spontaneous enlightened activities most suited to trainees.
 +This then is chapter twelve, the chapter on Prasangika, which, following the eradication of all extremes establishes the
 +great middle way.
 +The Tantra
 +Through both sutra and tantra afflictive obscurations can cease.
 +Though the highest object is presented [in sutras] the highest subject remains hidden;
 +Though the chief pollutant is presented the highest antidote remains hidden;
 +Subtlest knowledge-obscuration is cleansed through tantra, not sutra.
 +So [to assert] symmetry in both objects of elimination and their antidotes being hidden is an error.
 +Because of numerous profound methods and because of the swiftness of this path,
 +And in order to purify the gross, subtle, and extremely subtle body, speech and mind,
 +A hierarchy of vehicles, sutra and tantra and its numerous classes [have been taught].
 +Though the two [gross and subtle levels] were taught in the lower [vehicles],
 +The third, though possibly their intended meaning, was not taught.
 +This is found in the unexcelled [tantra] in general and in the king of tantras in particular.
 +So this path, trodden by a hundred million fortunate realized yogis,
 +The secret path of the conquerors of the three times, is affirmed as most excellent.
 +This then is chapter thirteen, the chapter on establishing the supremacy of [the path of] great secret following the
 +differentiation between sutra and tantra.
 +Here I exclaim:
 +As this [work] emerged from the radiance of lord Manjushri’s wisdom, it is free from the darkness of
 +As if uttered by Sarasvati, it is well-composed with [perfect] melody and eloquence;
 +Like the words of the Buddha, it is excellent at the beginning, middle and end;
 +As it encompasses all the traditions of the excellent ornaments of the world, it is most profound.
 +Some, like a blind man, desire to journey to freedom with no learning;
 +Some, like a rodent carrying the load of an elephant, possess little intelligence;​
 +Most, the moment they study, become inflated as though lifting a small mountain –
 +Who then is the turtle that supports the [great] earth of the Buddha’s teachings?
 +For even many Indians and Tibetans more learned than the learned ones,
 +The profound and the vast [paths] have become like a weaver’s [two] feet,
 +Which remain sequential thus unsettled; they’ve thus failed to find the path that is the union of
 +emptiness and appearance.
 +By all possible means, they have searched with the staff of scripture and reason.
 +Where numerous Buddhist and non-Buddhist thinkers, a thousand powerful nagas, are immersed in
 +joyful celebration;​
 +Where precious gems of benefit and happiness fill everywhere in abundance;
 +To cross this ocean of philosophical systems where tides of refutation and affirmation cascade in
 +colliding dance;
 +The wise navigators will certainly enter a [sea worthy] vessel.
 +Those who, lured by weak ships of reasoning, have played the first lute [of utter nothingness]
 +And have destroyed the mode of being [of conventional existence], to see how they still harbor the
 +Of crossing the ocean of philosophical systems, and in order [for myself] to see how the two
 +traditions are upheld,
 +I have crossed to the other shore of the ocean of philosophical systems.
 +This tradition, a gift from father Lobsang,34 which flows through the three paths,
 +Intelligence gushing forth from the hair of Maheshvara cleanses the stains
 +Of [false] philosophical systems, the dirt on Vasudeva’s feet,
 +May with this water the hosts of poisonous substances, the ignorance and delusions, be purified.
 +As long as Mt Meru, lifting up the lights of sun and moon, burdened by weight
 +Of precious jewels and wrapped around with a sash of great oceans, remains,
 +May this [treatise] too remain weighed with novel expositions and stir with repute.
 +34 This is a reference to Je Tsongkhapa, whose personal name is Lobsang Drakpa.
 +May the three realms be illuminated through the lights of well-spoken words.
 +Through the laws of ultimate expanse and the power of the Three Jewels
 +May all beings traverse the stages [swiftly] as though supernaturally;​
 +Like the fullness of sun and moon, may they accomplish all higher qualities;
 +And, like the brilliance of shining sun, may they all swiftly attain omniscience.
 +This work entitled “Presentation of the philosophical systems – a lion’s roar destroying all errors – a jewel lamp
 +illuminating the excellent path to omniscience” was requested, from long past and with renewed words of
 +eloquence, by the well read Serkhang Chöje Gunamati. Later the supreme scholar and ritual master of Changra
 +[monastery],​ Phakpa Rinchen, a teacher of all, sent a letter in verse from Chamdo, Kham with gifts of tea,
 +turquoise and scarf, requesting an extensive rebuttal to Taklo’s critiques.
 +In order to comply with these requests and, in particular, to help familiarize my own mind, I, Jamyang Shepai
 +Dorje, a speaker of many scriptures and philosophical systems – who have had the fortune to receive the
 +kindness of the three vows from the great abbot who is the precious embodiment of all conquerors; who have
 +taken on my crown the dusts under the feet of many sublime beings such as the quartet father Jamyang Lama
 +Tri Rinpoche and his sons, the great Pandita Kagyurwa, Dorjechang Mindrol Chökyi Gyalpo, Se Dorjechang,
 +and the great bodhisattva Ngawang Lodrö; who have found ascertainment from the sutra and tantric treatises
 +of the supreme master [Tsongkhapa];​ who, on the basis of Indian and Tibetan works on the philosophical
 +systems and, in particular, on the basis of the great treatises, such as Prajnaparadipa,​ Tattvasamgraha and its
 +panjika (commentary),​ and Kalachakra, and so on, have composed this work as a distilling of extensive themes
 +with clarity of meaning and economy of words. This was written on the third day of the first month – [the
 +month of ] ascendance of the forces of goodness – in the year of earth dragon, known as the “white” year, at
 +my residence, an ocean of Mahayana and a great bliss palace of secret mantra, on Tibet’s second vulture’s peak,
 +the mountain of Gephel, a place where heroes and dakinis congregate. Once again I have made some minor
 +additions to this work. Through this may the conqueror’s teachings spread and flourish in all directions and
 +throughout all times.
 +© English translation. Geshe Thupten Jinpa, 2003. This translation was funded by The Tibetan Cultural
 +Center, New York and the Gere Foundation as part of the preparation for His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s
 +teaching on Jamyang Shepa’s Root Verses in New York, 2003.
root_verses_on_classical_indian_philosophies.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:13 (external edit)