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 +Sankhya - A major school of [[Indian philosophy]] founded by the [[sage]] (more like [[saint]]) [[Kapila]]; it gives [[Ayurveda]] the theory of [[cause and effect]] ([[karma]]) and a systematic account of cosmic [[evolution]] according to 25 categories ([[25 Objects in the Descent of Consciousness]]):​ [[Purusha]] (The Unmanifest, [[Dharma Kaya]], [[Dharma Dhatu]], [[Tathagata Kaya]]), [[Cosmic Spirit]]; [[Prakruti]] (The Manifest, [[Sambhoga Kaya]]), [[Creative energy]]; [[Mahad]], [[Cosmic Intelligence]];​ [[Ahamkara]],​ individuating principle or "​I-maker";​ [[Manas]], [[mind]]; [[Indriya]],​ the 10 sense ([[jnana indrya]] or [[buddhindrya]]) and motor facilities ([[motor organs]] or [[karmendriya]]);​ [[Tanmatras]],​ the [[five subtle elements]]; and [[Maha Bhutas]], the [[five gross elements]]. The word Sankhya is related to [[Sat]], meaning [[Truth]], and [[Khya]], meaning [[knowledge]].
  
 +----
 +Fair Use Source: [[Vaidya]] [[Vasant Lad]], [[BAMS]], [[MAsc]], [[Textbook of Ayurveda Volume 1]], 2001: p. 309
 +
 +----
 +
 +{{Refimprove|date=July 2007}}
 +{{Hindu philosophy}}
 +'''​Sankhya''',​ also '''​Samkhya''',​ ({{lang-sa|[[:​wikt:​सांख्य#​Sanskrit|सांख्य]]}},​ [[IAST]]: {{IAST|sāṃkhya}} - '​enumeration'​) is one of the six schools of classical [[Indian philosophy]]. Sage [[Kapila]] is traditionally considered to be the founder of the Sankhya school, although no historical verification is possible. It is regarded as one of the oldest philosophical systems in India.<​ref>​Sharma,​ C. (1997). ''​A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy'',​ Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,​ ISBN 81-208-0365-5,​ p.149</​ref>​
 +
 +Sankhya was one of the six orthodox systems (''​[[nastika|astika]]'',​ those systems that recognize [[veda|vedic]] authority) of [[Hindu]] philosophy. The major text of this Vedic school is the extant ''​Samkhya Karika'',​ written by [[Ishvara Krishna]], circa 200 AD. This text (in karika 70) identifies Sankhya as a [[Tantra]]<​ref>​P.C. Bagchi, Evolution of the Tantras, ''​Studies on the Tantras'',​ Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Kolkata, 1989, ISBN 81-85843-36-8,​ pp.6</​ref>​ and its philosophy was one of the main influences both on the rise of the [[Tantras]] as a body of literature, as well as Tantra [[sadhana]]<​ref>​P.C. Bagchi, Evolution of the Tantras, ''​Studies on the Tantras'',​ Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Kolkata, 1989, ISBN 81-85843-36-8,​ pp.10</​ref>​. There are no purely Sankhya schools existing today in Hinduism, but its influence is felt in the Yoga and Vedanta schools. ​
 +
 +Sankhya is an enumerationist philosophy that is strongly [[dualism|dualist]].<​ref>​For the basis of Sankhya as dualist Purusha and Prakriti, see: Michaels, p. 264.</​ref><​ref>​For the separation between Purusha and Prakriti as the "​cardinal doctrine"​ of Sankhya philosophy, see: Sen Gupta, p. 6.</​ref><​ref>​For Sankhya as a dualist school, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 89.</​ref>​ Sankhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities: [[Purusha]] (consciousness) and [[Prakriti]] (phenomenal realm of matter). They are the experiencer and the experienced,​ not unlike the res cogens and res extensa of Descartes. Prakriti further bifurcates into animate and inanimate realms. On the other hand, Purusha separates out into countless [[Jiva]]s or individual units of consciousness as souls which fuse into the mind and body of the animate branch of Prakriti.
 +
 +There are differences between Sankhya and Western forms of dualism. In the West, the fundamental distinction is between mind and body. In Sankhya, however, it is between the self (as Purusha) and matter (Prakriti).
 +
 +==Literature==
 +Sage [[Kapila]] is considered as the founder of the Samkhya school, but there is no evidence to prove that the texts attributed to him, the ''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra}}''​ and the ''​{{IAST |Tattvasamāsa}}''​ were actually composed by him. The earliest extant text of this school is ''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhya Kārikā}}''​ of {{IAST|Iśvarakṛṣṇa}} (3rd century). ​ {{IAST|Iśvarakṛṣṇa}} in his ''​{{IAST |Kārikā}}''​ described himself as being in the succession of the disciples from Kapila, through ''​{{IAST|Āsuri}} and ''​{{IAST| Pañcaśikha}}. ​ {{IAST|Gauḍapāda}} wrote a commentary on this ''​{{IAST |Kārikā}}''​. ​ The next important work is {{IAST|Vācaspati}}’s ​ ''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhyatattvakaumudī}}''​ (9th century AD).  {{IAST|Nārāyaṇa}}’s treatise ''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhyacandrikā}}''​ is based on the ''​{{IAST |Kārikā}}''​. ​ The ''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra}}''​ is assigned to the 14th century, as {{IAST |Guṇaratna}} (14th century) did not refer to this text but referred to the ''​{{IAST |Kārikā}}''​. ​ This text consists of 6 chapters and 526 {{IAST |sūtra}}s. ​ The most important commentary on the ''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra}}''​ is {{IAST |Vijñānabhikṣu}}’s ''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhyapravacanabhāṣya}}''​ (16th century). ​ Anirruddha’s ''​{{IAST |Kāpilasāṁkhyapravacanasūtravṛtti}}''​ (15th century) and {{IAST|Mahādeva}}’s ''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhyapravacanasūtravṛttisāra}}''​ (c. 1600) and {{IAST|Nāgeśa}}’s ''​{{IAST |Laghusāṁkhyasūtravṛtti}}''​ are the other important commentaries on this text.<​ref>​Radhakrishnan,​ S. ''​Indian Philosophy'',​ Vol. II, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006, ISBN 0-19-563820-4,​ pp.253-56</​ref>​
 +
 +==Epistemology==
 +According to the Sankhya school, all knowledge is possible through three ''​pramanas''​ (means of valid knowledge)<​ref>''​Samkhya Karika'',​ ''​śloka''​4</​ref>​ -
 +# ''​Pratyaksha''​ or ''​Drishtam''​ - direct sense perception,
 +# ''​Anumana''​ - [[logic]]al [[inference]] and
 +# ''​Sabda''​ or ''​Aptavacana''​ - verbal testimony.
 +
 +Sankhya cites two kinds of perceptions:​ Indeterminate (''​nirvikalpa''​) perceptions and determinate (''​savikalpa''​) perceptions.
 +
 +Indeterminate perceptions are merely impressions without understanding or knowledge. They reveal no knowledge of the form or the name of the object. There is only external awareness about an object. There is cognition of the object, but no discriminative recognition. ​
 +
 +For example, a baby’s initial experience is full of impression. There is a lot of data from sensory perception, but there is little or no understanding of the inputs. Hence they can be neither differentiated nor labeled. Most of them are indeterminate perceptions.
 +
 +Determinate perceptions are the mature state of perceptions which have been processed and differentiated appropriately. Once the sensations have been processed, categorized,​ and interpreted properly, they become determinate perceptions. They can lead to identification and also generate knowledge.
 +
 +==Metaphysics==
 +===Ontology===
 +Broadly, the Samkhya system classifies all objects as falling into one of the two categories: Purusha and Prakriti. Metaphysically,​ Samkhya maintains an intermingled duality between spirit/​consciousness (''​Purusha''​) and matter (''​Prakrti''​). ​
 +====Purusha====
 +Purusha is the Transcendental Self or Pure Consciousness. It is absolute, independent,​ free, imperceptible,​ unknowable, above any experience and beyond any words or explanation. It remains pure, “nonattributive consciousness ”. Purusha is neither produced nor does it produce. Unlike [[Advaita Vedanta]] and like [[Purva-Mimamsa]],​ Samkhya believes in plurality of the ''​Purusha''​s.<​ref>​Sharma,​ C. (1997). ''​A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy'',​ Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,​ ISBN 81-208-0365-5,​ pp.155-7</​ref> ​
 +====Prakriti====
 +Prakriti is the first cause of the universe--of everything except the ''​Purusha,''​ which is uncaused, and accounts for whatever is physical, both matter and force. ​ Since it is the first principle (''​tattva''​) of the universe, it is called the ''​Pradhana,''​ but, as it is the unconscious and unintelligent principle, it is also called the ''​Jada.'' ​ It is composed of three essential characteristics (''​triguna''​s). These are:
 +*sattva - fineness, lightness, illumination,​ and joy;
 +*rajas - activity, excitation, and pain;
 +*tamas - coarseness, heavyness, obstruction,​ and sloth.<​ref>​Hiriyanna,​ M. (1993, reprint 2000). ​ ''​Outlines of Indian Philosophy'',​ Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,​ ISBN 81-208-1099-6,​ pp.270-2</​ref><​ref>​Chattopadhyaya,​ D. (1986). ​ ''​Indian Philosophy: ​ A popular Introduction'',​ New Delhi: People'​s Publishing House, ISBN 81-7007-023-6,​ pp.109-110</​ref><​ref name=s>​Sharma,​ C. (1997). ​ ''​A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy'',​ Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,​ ISBN 81-208-0365-5,​ pp.149-68</​ref> ​
 + 
 +All physical events are considered to be manifestations of the evolution of ''​Prakriti,''​ or primal nature (from which all physical bodies are derived). ​ Each sentient being is a ''​Purusha'',​ and is limitless and unrestricted by its physical body.  ''​[[Samsara|Samsaara]]''​ or bondage arises when the ''​Purusha''​ does not have the discriminate knowledge and so is misled as to its own identity, confusing itself with the physical body, which is actually an evolute of ''​Prakriti.'' ​ The spirit is liberated when the discriminate knowledge of the difference between conscious Purusha and unconscious Prakriti is realized.
 +
 +====Ishvara (''​Creationist God''​)====
 +The ''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra}}''​ states that there is no philosophical place for a creationist God in this system. It is also argued in this text that the existence of Ishvara cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist<​ref>''​{{IAST |Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra}}'',​ I.92</​ref>​ and an unchanging Ishvara as the cause cannot be the source of a changing world as the effect. Almost all modern scholars are of view that the concept of Ishvara was incorporated into the ''​nirishvara''​ (atheistic) Samkhya viewpoint only after it became associated with the [[Yoga]], the [[Pasupata]] and the [[Bhagavata]] schools of philosophy. This theistic Samkhya philosophy is described in the [[Mahabharata]],​ the [[Puranas]] and the [[Bhagavad Gita]]<​ref>​Karmarkar,​ A.P. (1962). ''​Religion and Philosophy of Epics''​ in S. Radhakrishnan ed. ''​The Cultural Heritage of India'',​ Vol.II, Calcutta: The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture'',​ ISBN 81-85843-03-1,​ pp.90-1</​ref>​
 +===Nature of Duality===
 +The Samkhya recognizes only two ultimate entities, ''​Prakriti''​ and ''​Purusha''​. While the ''​Prakriti''​ is a single entity, the Samkhya admits a plurality of the ''​Purusha''​s. Unintelligent,​ unmanifest, uncaused, ever-active,​ imperceptible and eternal Prakriti is alone the final source of the world of objects which is implicitly and potentially contained in its bosom. The ''​Purusha''​ is considered as the intelligent principle, a passive enjoyer (''​bhokta''​) and the ''​Prakriti''​ is the enjoyed (''​bhogya''​). Samkhya believes that the ''​Purusha''​ cannot be regarded as the source of inanimate world, because an intelligent principle cannot transform itself into the unintelligent world. It is a pluralistic spiritualism,​ atheistic realism and uncompromising dualism.<​ref name=s/>
 +===Theory of Existence===
 +The Sankhya system is based on Satkaryavada. According to Satkaryavada,​ the effect pre-exists in the cause. [[Causality|Cause and effect]] are seen as different temporal aspects of the same thing - the effect lies latent in the cause which in turn seeds the next effect. ​
 +
 +More specifically,​ Sankhya system follows the ''​Prakriti-Parinama Vada''​. ''​Parinama''​ denotes that the effect is a real transformation of the cause. The cause under consideration here is Prakriti or more precisely Mula-Prakriti (Primordial Matter). The Sankhya system is therefore an exponent of an evolutionary theory of matter beginning with primordial matter. In evolution, Prakriti is transformed and differentiated into multiplicity of objects. Evolution is followed by dissolution. In dissolution the physical existence, all the worldly objects mingle back into Prakriti, which now remains as the undifferentiated,​ primordial substance. This is how the cycles of evolution and dissolution follow each other.
 +====The twenty-four principles====
 +Sankhya theorizes that Prakriti is the source of the world of becoming. It is pure potentiality that evolves itself successively into twenty four [[tattva]]s or principles. The evolution itself is possible because ''​Prakriti''​ is always in a state of tension among its constituent strands -
 +
 +* ''​Sattva''​ - a template of balance or equilibrium;​
 +
 +* ''​Rajas''​ - a template of expansion or activity;
 +
 +* ''​Tamas''​ - a template of inertia or resistance to action.
 +
 +All macrocosmic and microcosmic creation uses these templates. The twenty four principles that evolve are -
 +
 +* ''​Prakriti''​ - The most subtle potentiality that is behind whatever is created in the physical universe, also called "​primordial Matter"​. It is also a state of equilibrium amongst the Three Gunas.
 +
 +* ''​Mahat''​ - first product of evolution from Prakriti, pure potentiality. ''​Mahat''​ is also considered to be the principle responsible for the rise of ''​[[buddhi]]''​ or intelligence in living beings.  ​
 +
 +* ''​Ahamkara''​ or ego-sense - second product of evolution. It is responsible for the self-sense in living beings. It is also one's identification with the outer world and its content.
 +
 +* "Panch Tanmatras"​ are a simultaneous product from Mahat Tattva, along with the Ahamkara. They are the subtle form of Panch Mahabhutas which result from grossification or Panchikaran of the Tanmatras. Each of these Tanmatras are made of all three Gunas.
 +
 +* ''​Manas''​ or "​Antahkaran"​ evolves from the total sum of the ''​sattva''​ aspect of ''​Panch Tanmatras''​ or the "​Ahamkara"​
 +
 +* ''​Panch jnana indriyas''​ or five sense organs - also evolves from the ''​sattva''​ aspect of ''​Ahamkara''​.
 +
 +* ''​Pancha karma indriya''​ or five organs of action - The organs of action are hands, legs, vocal apparatus, urino-genital organ and anus. They evolve from the ''​rajas''​ aspect of ''​Ahamkara''​.
 +
 +* ''​Pancha mahabhuta''​ or five great substances - ether, air, fire, water and earth. They evolve from the "​tamas"​ aspect of the "​Ahamkara"​. This is the revealed aspect of the physical universe. ​  
 +
 +The evolution of primal nature is also considered to be purposeful - Prakrti evolves ''​for''​ the spirit in bondage. The spirit who is always free is only a witness to the evolution, even though due to the absence of discriminate knowledge, he misidentifies himself with it.{{Fact|date=August 2007}}
 +
 +The evolution obeys [[causality]] relationships,​ with primal Nature itself being the material cause of all physical creation. The cause and effect theory of Sankhya is called ''​Satkaarya-vaada''​ (theory of existent causes), and holds that nothing can really be created from or destroyed into nothingness - all evolution is simply the transformation of primal Nature from one form to another.
 +
 +The evolution of matter occurs when the relative strengths of the attributes change. The evolution ceases when the spirit realizes that it is distinct from primal Nature and thus cannot evolve. This destroys the purpose of evolution, thus stopping [[Prakrti]] from evolving for [[Purusha]]. ​
 +
 +Sankhyan [[esoteric cosmology|cosmology]] describes how life emerges in the universe; the relationship between Purusha and Prakriti is crucial to [[Patanjali]]'​s yoga system. The evolution of forms at the basis of Sankhya is quite remarkable. The strands of Sankhyan thought can be traced back to the [[Veda|Vedic]] speculation of creation. It is also frequently mentioned in the [[Mahabharata]] and [[Yogavasishta]].
 +===Moksha===
 +Like other major systems of Indian philosophy, Sankhya regards ignorance as the root cause of bondage and suffering (''​[[Samsara]]''​). According to Sankhya, the Purusha is eternal, pure consciousness. Due to ignorance, it identifies itself with the physical body and its constituents - Manas, Ahamkara and Mahat, which are products of Prakriti. Once it becomes free of this false identification and the material bonds, [[Moksha]] ensues. Other forms of Sankhya teach that Moksha is attained by one's own development of the higher faculties of discrimination achieved by meditation and other yogic practices as prescribed through the Hindu [[Vedas]]. ​
 +
 +Views of what happens to the soul after liberation vary tremendously,​ as the Sankhya view is used by many different Hindu sects and is rarely practiced alone.
 +
 +==See also==
 +* [[Hinduism]] ​
 +* [[Yoga]] ​
 +* [[Darshanas]]
 +* [[Hindu philosophy]]
 +* [[Indian philosophy]]
 +* [[Linga sarira]]
 +* [[Advaita Vedanta]] of [[Adi Shankara]]
 +
 +==Notes==
 +{{reflist}}
 +
 +==References==
 +*{{cite book |last=Eliade |first=Mircea|authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Yoga:​ Immortality and Freedom|series=Bollingen Series LVI|year=1969 |publisher=Bollingen Foundation, Inc.|location=New York, New York|isbn=0-691-01764-6 }} Second Edition. Translated from the French by Willard R. Trask.
 +*{{cite book |last=Michaels |first=Axel|authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Hinduism:​ Past and Present |year=2004 |publisher=Princeton University Press |location=Princeton,​ New Jersey|isbn=0-691-08953-1 }}
 +*{{cite book | last = Radhakrishnan | first = S. | authorlink= Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan| coauthors=Moore,​ C. A. |year = 1957 | title = A Source Book in Indian Philosophy | publisher = Princeton University Press| location = Princeton, New Jersey | isbn=0-691-01958-4}} Princeton paperback 12th printing, 1989.
 +* Sen Gupta, Anima. ''​The Evolution of the {{IAST|Sāṃkhya}} School of Thought''​. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.: New Delhi, 1986.
 +*[[A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada]],​ ''​[[Bhagavata Purana|Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam]] (1972-77)''​ (multiple volumes)
 +
 +==Further reading==
 +*{{cite book |series= |last=Chatterjee |first=Satischandra |authorlink= |coauthors=Datta,​ Dhirendramohan |title=An Introduction to Indian Philosophy |year=1984 |publisher=University of Calcutta |location=Calcutta |edition=Eighth Reprint Edition }} 
 +
 +*{{cite book | last = Müeller | first = Max | authorlink= Max Müller |year = 1899 | title = Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika| publisher = Susil Gupta (India) Ltd.| location = Calcutta | isbn=0-7661-4296-5}} Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of ''​The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy''​.
 +
 +*{{cite book |series= |last=Radhakrishnan |first=S. |authorlink=Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan |coauthors=Moore,​ CA |title=A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy |year=1967 |publisher=Princeton |location= |isbn=0-691-01958-4 }}
 +
 +*R.A. Ramaswami Shastri, ''​A Short History Of The Purva Mimamsa Shastra'',​ Annamalai University Sanskrit Series No. 3 (1936).
 +
 +*{{cite book |series= |last=Zimmer |first=Heinrich |authorlink=Heinrich Zimmer |coauthors=|title=Philosophies of India |year=1951 |publisher=Princeton University Press |location=New York, New York |isbn=0-691-01758-1 }} Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell.
 +
 +*[[A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada]],​ ''​[[Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is]] (1968)''​
 +
 +*{{cite book | last = Kambhampati | first = Parvathi Kumar | authorlink= |year = 1993 | title = Sankya - The Sacred Doctrine| publisher = Dhanishta| location = Visakhapatnam | isbn=8-190-03323-9 | edition=First Edition}}.
 +
 +== External links ==
 +* {{iep|s/​sankhya.htm}}
 +* [http://​web.archive.org/​web/​20041023062627/​http://​www.philo.demon.co.uk/​enumerat.htm Sankhya philosophy (archive)]
 +* [http://​arxiv.org/​abs/​physics/​0303001 Comparison between Indian and Greek cosmology]
 +* [http://​www.indology.net/​article71.html Maharshi Vyasa and Sankhya Shastra]
 +* [http://​sanskritdocuments.org/​all_pdf/​IshvarakRiShNasAnkyakArikA.pdf PDF file of Ishwarkrishna'​s sankhyakarikaa - 200BC (in Sanskrit) available for research purposes only]
 +* [http://​www.worldteachertrust.org/​bk/​sankhya/​index.html Sankya - The Sacred Doctrine]
 +
 +{{Indian Philosophy}}
 +
 +[[Category:​Hindu philosophical concepts]]
 +[[Category:​Hindu philosophy]]
 +[[Category:​Samkhya]]
 +[[Category:​Indian philosophy]]
 +[[Category:​Sanskrit words and phrases]]
 +
 +[[cs:​Sánkhja]]
 +[[da:​Samkhya]]
 +[[de:​Samkhya]]
 +[[es:​Sāṃkhya]]
 +[[fr:​Sâmkhya]]
 +[[hi:​सांख्य]]
 +[[id:​Samkhya]]
 +[[it:​Sāṃkhya]]
 +[[kn:​ಸಾಂಖ್ಯ]]
 +[[lt:​Samkhja]]
 +[[ml:​സാംഖ്യം]]
 +[[nl:​Samkhya]]
 +[[ja:​サーンキヤ学派]]
 +[[pl:​Sankhja]]
 +[[pt:​Sankhya]]
 +[[ru:​Санкхья]]
 +[[sa:​सांख्य]]
 +[[sk:​Sánkhja]]
 +[[fi:​Samkhya]]
 +[[sv:​Samkhya]]
 +[[te:​సాంఖ్య దర్శనము]]
 +
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 +
 +The rights to textual segments ("​quoted,​ paraphrased,​ or excerpted"​) of the are owned by the [[author-publisher]] indicated in the brackets next to each segment and are make available and commented on (under the "​[[shastra]] tradition"​) under [[Fair Use]]. For rights regarding the Buddhist Encyclopaedia - Glossary - Dictionary compilation as a whole, please know that it is offered under this [[Creative Commons License]]: ​
 +Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States: http://​creativecommons.org/​licenses/​by-sa/​3.0/​us/ ​
 +----
 +
 +[[Ayurveda Dharma]] is distributed via this [[GNU Free Documentation License]] (FDL) and/or under [[Creative Commons License]] Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States: http://​creativecommons.org/​licenses/​by-sa/​3.0/​us/​legalcode. ​ Since words create our reality (see [[prajna]]),​ there are certain words to avoid: Please see also: [[Words to Avoid]]
 +
 +----
 +----
 +
 +[[Medicine Buddha Mantra]]: [[Om]] [[Namo]] [[Bhagavate]] [[Bhaisajya]] [[Guru]] [[Vaidurya]] [[Prabaha]] [[Rajaya]] [[Tathagataya]] [[Arhate]] [[Samyamsambodhi]] [[Tadyata]] [[Om]] [[Bhaisajye]] Bhaisajye [[Bhaisajya]] [[Samudgate]] [[Svaha]]!
 +
 +[[Medicine King Bodhisattva]] [[Jeweled Ax Mantra]] 16 (Line 64 of the [[Great Compassion Mantra]] of [[Avalokiteshvara]]): ​
 +
 +[[Syi lu seng e mu chywe ye Nan Wei la ye Wei la ye Sa wa he]].
sankhya.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:13 (external edit)