sanskrit
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sanskrit [2016/04/25 15:24]
Dorjay Zopa
sanskrit [2018/02/26 18:13] (current)
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-======= Devanagari Script for Sanskrit ​=======+==Devanagari Script for Sanskrit==
  
  
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-======= Wikipedia on Sanskrit ​=======+ 
 +==Wikipedia on Sanskrit==
 Sanskrit (संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [sə̃skɹ̩t̪əm],​ originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, "​refined speech"​),​ is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and Buddhism.[note 1] Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[2] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[3] Sanskrit (संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [sə̃skɹ̩t̪əm],​ originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, "​refined speech"​),​ is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and Buddhism.[note 1] Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[2] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[3]
 Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the 4th century BCE. Its position in the cultures of Greater India is akin to that of Latin and Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of the Indian subcontinent,​ particularly in India, Pakistan and Nepal.[4] Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the 4th century BCE. Its position in the cultures of Greater India is akin to that of Latin and Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of the Indian subcontinent,​ particularly in India, Pakistan and Nepal.[4]
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 The term in the generic meaning of "made ready, prepared, completed, finished"​ is found in the Rigveda. Also in Vedic Sanskrit, as nominalized neuter saṃskṛtám,​ it means "​preparation,​ prepared place" and thus "​ritual enclosure, place for a sacrifice"​. The term in the generic meaning of "made ready, prepared, completed, finished"​ is found in the Rigveda. Also in Vedic Sanskrit, as nominalized neuter saṃskṛtám,​ it means "​preparation,​ prepared place" and thus "​ritual enclosure, place for a sacrifice"​.
 As a term for "​refined or elaborated speech"​ the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit, in the Manusmriti and in the Mahabharata. The language referred to as saṃskṛta "the cultured language"​ has by definition always been a "​sacred"​ and "​sophisticated"​ language, used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people, prākṛta- "​natural,​ artless, normal, ordinary"​. As a term for "​refined or elaborated speech"​ the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit, in the Manusmriti and in the Mahabharata. The language referred to as saṃskṛta "the cultured language"​ has by definition always been a "​sacred"​ and "​sophisticated"​ language, used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people, prākṛta- "​natural,​ artless, normal, ordinary"​.
-======= History ======= 
  
- +==History==
    
 Devimahatmya manuscript on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century. Devimahatmya manuscript on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century.
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 The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is Pāṇini'​s Aṣṭādhyāyī ("​Eight-Chapter Grammar"​). It is essentially a prescriptive grammar, i.e., an authority that defines correct Sanskrit, although it contains descriptive parts, mostly to account for some Vedic forms that had become rare in Pāṇini'​s time. The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is Pāṇini'​s Aṣṭādhyāyī ("​Eight-Chapter Grammar"​). It is essentially a prescriptive grammar, i.e., an authority that defines correct Sanskrit, although it contains descriptive parts, mostly to account for some Vedic forms that had become rare in Pāṇini'​s time.
 The term "​Sanskrit"​ was not thought of as a specific language set apart from other languages, but rather as a particularly refined or perfected manner of speaking. Knowledge of Sanskrit was a marker of social class and educational attainment in ancient India and the language was taught mainly to members of the higher castes, through close analysis of Sanskrit grammarians such as Pāṇini. Sanskrit, as the learned language of Ancient India, thus existed alongside the Prakrits (vernaculars),​ also called Middle Indic dialects, and eventually into the contemporary modern Indo-Aryan languages. The term "​Sanskrit"​ was not thought of as a specific language set apart from other languages, but rather as a particularly refined or perfected manner of speaking. Knowledge of Sanskrit was a marker of social class and educational attainment in ancient India and the language was taught mainly to members of the higher castes, through close analysis of Sanskrit grammarians such as Pāṇini. Sanskrit, as the learned language of Ancient India, thus existed alongside the Prakrits (vernaculars),​ also called Middle Indic dialects, and eventually into the contemporary modern Indo-Aryan languages.
-======= Vedic Sanskrit ​=======+ 
 +==Vedic Sanskrit==
 Main article: [[wp>​Vedic Sanskrit]] Main article: [[wp>​Vedic Sanskrit]]
 Sanskrit, as defined by [[wp>​Pāṇini]],​ had evolved out of the earlier "​Vedic"​ form. The beginning of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced as early as around 1500-1200 BCE (the accepted mainstream date of the Rig-Veda). Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "​Pāṇinian"​ Sanskrit as separate '​dialects'​. Though they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a large collection of hymns, incantations (Samhitas), theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas and Upanishads. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over several centuries of oral tradition. The end of the Vedic period is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the concluding part of the Vedic corpus in the traditional view; however the early Sutras are Vedic, too, both in language and content.[15] Around the mid 1st millennium BCE, Vedic Sanskrit began the transition from a first language to a second language of religion and learning. Sanskrit, as defined by [[wp>​Pāṇini]],​ had evolved out of the earlier "​Vedic"​ form. The beginning of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced as early as around 1500-1200 BCE (the accepted mainstream date of the Rig-Veda). Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "​Pāṇinian"​ Sanskrit as separate '​dialects'​. Though they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a large collection of hymns, incantations (Samhitas), theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas and Upanishads. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over several centuries of oral tradition. The end of the Vedic period is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the concluding part of the Vedic corpus in the traditional view; however the early Sutras are Vedic, too, both in language and content.[15] Around the mid 1st millennium BCE, Vedic Sanskrit began the transition from a first language to a second language of religion and learning.
-======= Classical Sanskrit ​=======+ 
 +==Classical Sanskrit==
 For nearly 2,000 years, a cultural order existed that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent, East Asia.[16] A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of the Hindu Epics—the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or "​innovations"​ and not because they are pre-Paninean.[17] Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations aarsha (आर्ष),​ or "of the rishis",​ the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts, there are also more "​prakritisms"​ (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit proper. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is a literary language heavily influenced by Middle Indic, based on early Buddhist prakrit texts which subsequently assimilated to the Classical Sanskrit standard in varying degrees.[18] For nearly 2,000 years, a cultural order existed that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent, East Asia.[16] A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of the Hindu Epics—the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or "​innovations"​ and not because they are pre-Paninean.[17] Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations aarsha (आर्ष),​ or "of the rishis",​ the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts, there are also more "​prakritisms"​ (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit proper. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is a literary language heavily influenced by Middle Indic, based on early Buddhist prakrit texts which subsequently assimilated to the Classical Sanskrit standard in varying degrees.[18]
 According to Tiwari (1955), there were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit: paścimottarī (Northwestern,​ also called Northern or Western), madhyadeśī (lit., middle country), pūrvi (Eastern) and dakṣiṇī (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of the first three dialects are even attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas,​ of which the first one was regarded as the purest (Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa,​ 7.6). According to Tiwari (1955), there were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit: paścimottarī (Northwestern,​ also called Northern or Western), madhyadeśī (lit., middle country), pūrvi (Eastern) and dakṣiṇī (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of the first three dialects are even attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas,​ of which the first one was regarded as the purest (Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa,​ 7.6).
-======= Decline ​=======+ 
 +==Decline==
 See also: [[wp>​Termination of spoken Sanskrit]] See also: [[wp>​Termination of spoken Sanskrit]]
 There are a number of sociolinguistic studies of spoken Sanskrit which strongly suggest that oral use of Sanskrit is limited, with its development having ceased sometime in the past.[19] Accordingly,​ says Pollock (2001), "most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, Sanskrit is dead"​.[16] He describes it in comparison with the "​dead"​ language of Latin:[20] There are a number of sociolinguistic studies of spoken Sanskrit which strongly suggest that oral use of Sanskrit is limited, with its development having ceased sometime in the past.[19] Accordingly,​ says Pollock (2001), "most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, Sanskrit is dead"​.[16] He describes it in comparison with the "​dead"​ language of Latin:[20]
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 Sir William Jones, speaking to the Asiatic Society in Calcutta (now Kolkata) on February 2, 1786, said: Sir William Jones, speaking to the Asiatic Society in Calcutta (now Kolkata) on February 2, 1786, said:
 The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists. The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.
-======= Phonology ​=======+ 
 +==Phonology==
 Further information:​ Śikṣā Further information:​ Śikṣā
 Classical Sanskrit distinguishes about 36 phonemes. There is, however, some allophony and the writing systems used for Sanskrit generally indicate this, thus distinguishing 48 sounds. Classical Sanskrit distinguishes about 36 phonemes. There is, however, some allophony and the writing systems used for Sanskrit generally indicate this, thus distinguishing 48 sounds.
sanskrit.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:13 (external edit)