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 +** [[Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute]] of [[Medicine Buddha Healing Center]] **
 +
 +
 +[[Home]] | [[Clinic]] | [[Featured Content]] | [[Buddhist Ayurvedic Distance Learning |Distance Learning]] | [[About Us]] | [[Donate]] | [[Non-Profit]] | [[Recent Changes]] | Phone: 1-510-292-6696
 +
 +Part of the List of [[Dharma Terms]] from the [[Buddhist Ayurveda]] Course ([[SKT220]] ) on [[Sanskrit Terms]] of [[Ayurveda]] and [[Dharma]]
 +----
 +
 +
 +======= Shravaka =======
 +
 +http://​ayurveda-tcm.com/​ayurvedic-chinese-medicine-distance-learning/​doku.php?​id=shravaka
 +
 +[[Shravaka]] / Sravaka
 +
 +The [[Shravaka]] [[Sangha]],
 +
 +Both men and [[women]],
 +
 +[[Contemplate]] and [[practice]] the [[Four Noble Truths]],
 +
 +Concealing the [[real]] ([[Ultimate Truth]]) and displaying the [[provisional]] ([[Conventional Truth]] or [[Provisional Truth]]). (See [[Two Truths]]) (TD 33)
 +
 +[[Shravaka]] is [[Sanskrit]] and [[literal]]ly [[means]] "one who [[hear]]s or [[listen]]s."​ It is
 +[[tradition]]ally explained as referring to those who "​[[hear]] the [[sound]] of the
 +[[Buddha]]'​s [[teaching]] and [[awaken]] to the [[way]]."​ Thus the word "​[[Hearer]]"​ is sometime used as a [[translation]] of [[Shravaka]].
 +
 +"They [[become]] [[enlightened]] as soon as they [[hear]] the [[Buddha]] [[speak]] the [[Dharma]] of
 +the [[Four Noble Truths]]. They are one of the [[Two Vehicles]] (see also [[Three Vehicles]]). They [[feel]] that
 +every[[thing]] in this [[world]] is [[suffering]] ([[Dukkha]]),​ [[Empty]], without a [[self]] ([[No Self]]), and
 +[[impermanent]],​ and so are determined to [[end birth and death]]. They have the
 +outlook that:
 +
 +The [[three realms]] are like a prison.
 + 
 +[[Birth and death]] are like hateful enemies. ​
 +
 +To them the [[Desire Realm]], the [[Form Realm]], and the [[Formless Realm]] seem like a
 +penitentiary,​ and they detest [[birth and death]]. Their [[attitude]] is, 'I
 +absolutely must [[end birth and death]], and until I do, I won't rest for even a
 +day.' Therefore, they [[cultivate]] all [[kind]]s of [[ascetic practice]]s to cast offf
 +[[birth and death]] -- which is the [[attachment]] of [[Sound Hearer]]s ([[Shravaka]]). . . .
 +
 +[[Sound Hearer]]s are basically [[Arhat]]s who have certified to the [[first]], [[second]],
 +[[third]], and [[fourth]] [[fruit]]s. Yet they too fail to [[recognize]] the [[Thus Come One]]'​s
 +[[Treasury]],​ for they only [[know]] the [[emptiness of people]], unlike commoners who
 +are [[attached]] in every [[respect]] to [[views of self]] and what belongs to a [[self]]
 +saying, 'This is mine; this belongs to me.' Those of the [[Two Vehicles]] are
 +not [[attached]] to [[self]], but they are [[attached to Dharma]]s. They don't
 +[[understand]] that:
 +
 +Even [[Dharma]]s must be [[renounce]]d,​
 +
 +Much more non-[[Dharma]]s. ​
 +
 +One has to put down all [[Dharma]]s,​ how much more what is not in accord with
 +[[Dharma]]. But for them [[Dharma]]s are not yet [[empty]], and so they still have
 +[[attachment]]s and are of the [[Small Vehicle]] ([[Lesser Vehicle]])."​ ([[FAS]] PII(2) 57)
 +
 +The [[first]] [[Shravaka]]s were the [[five]] former companions of the [[Buddha]] who
 +became [[enlighten]]ed after [[hearing]] the [[Buddha]] explain the [[Four Noble Truths]] (see
 +entry) in the [[Deer Park]] at [[wp>​Varanasi]].
 +
 +[[Shravaka]] is often used synonymously with [[Arhat]].
 +
 +======= Four Kinds of Sound Hearers =======
 +
 +1) Fixed [[Sound Hearer]]s.
 +
 +2) [[Sound Hearer]]s of Overweening [[Pride]].
 +
 +3) [[Sound Hearer]]s Who Have [[Retreat]]ed from the [[Bodhi Resolve]] ([[Bodhichitta]]).
 +
 +4) [[Transformation]]ally Responding [[Sound Hearer]]s.
 +
 +'​Be[[cause]] the [[root]]s of those in the [[two]] [[categories]] of the fixed and those of
 +overweening [[pride]] have not yet [[ripen]]ed,'​ they cannot [[become]] [[Buddha]]s. (just yet).
 +
 +"Fixed [[Sound Hearer]]s are simply withered sprouts and sterile [[seed]]s and are
 +[[self]]-ending [[Arhat]]s who only [[know]] about themselves and do not [[know]] about
 +[[teaching]] and [[transform]]ing [[living beings]]. ​
 +
 +[[Sound Hearer]]s of Overweening [[Pride]] always [[feel]] they are [[high]]er than anyone else. For example, the [[five]] [[thousand]]
 +[[Bhikshu]]s who withdrew when the [[Buddha]] spoke the [[Dharma Flower Sutra]] ([[Lotus Sutra]]) were
 +all [[Sound Hearer]]s of Overweening [[Pride]]. There are also [[Sound Hearer]]s who
 +once [[Resolve]]d their [[mind]]s on [[Bodhi]] ([[Bodhichitta]]) and [[practice]]d the [[Bodhisattva]] [[way]] ([[Dasha Paramita]] and [[Four Great Vows]]) -- for
 +awhile. But then they stopped and turned back, like [[Shariputra]],​ who decided
 +to [[walk]] the [[Bodhisattva]] [[Path]] ([[Marga]]) but met someone who wanted his [[eye]]s. He
 +concluded it was too hard, and so he gave up his [[Resolve]] for [[Bodhi]]. He
 +brought forth the [[Bodhi Resolve]] ([[Bodhichitta]]) 20,000 [[Buddha]]s ago, yet to this day he is still
 +a [[Sound Hearer]] -- one who has [[retreat]]ed from the [[Bodhi Resolve]] ([[Bodhichitta]]). . . . And so
 +[[cultivation]] is not easy.
 +
 +"There are several well-[[know]]n examples of [[Transformation]]ally Respondng [[Sound Hearer]]s:
 +
 +[[Inside]] concealing their [[Bodhisattva]] [[conduct]],​
 +
 +[[Outside]] [[manifest]]ing [[Sound Hearer]] bodies. ​
 +
 +One such is [[Purnmaitrayaniputra]],​ who, although a [[Sound Hearer]] on the
 +[[outside]],​ [[inside]] is [[walking]] the [[Bodhisattva]] [[way]]. Another is the [[Venerable]]
 +[[Ananda]], who has [[vow]]ed to go and be the [[attendant]] of any of the countless
 +[[Buddha]]s who [[appear]] in the [[world]]. The [[vow]] made by [[Rahula]] is that he will be
 +the eldest son for anyone who [[become]]s a [[Buddha]] throughout the [[ten directions]]
 +and the [[three times]]. The [[root]]s of the [[first]] [[two]] [[categories]] -- Fixed
 +[[Sound Hearer]]s and Those of Overweening [[Pride]] -- are not yet [[mature]]."​
 +([[FAS-P]]II]] (2) 134-135)
 +
 +----
 +List of [[Dharma Terms]] | [[Buddha | Previous Term]] | [[Dharma | Next Term]]
 +
 +----
 +Return to the [[Buddhist Ayurveda Encyclopedia]] and 
 +[[Glossary of Dharma]] and [[Ayurvedic Terms]] | [[Recent Changes]]
 +
 +====== Fair Use Bibliographic Sources ======
 +[[Fair Use]]: ​
 +Primary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: [[Ron Epstein]], Ph.D, compiler, [[Buddhism A to Z]], Burlingame, [[California]],​ [[Buddhist Text Translation Society]], 2003, p. 
 +[[ISBN 0881393533]] ​ Paperback: 284 pages. ​ http://​www.BTTSOnline.org ​    ​www.Amazon.com ​  
 +http://​www.bttsonline.org/​product.aspx?​pid=118
 +http://​www.amazon.com/​gp/​product/​0881393533/​ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20
 +and many other sources (see [[Bibliography]]).
 +
 +Primary Original Source: The [[Tripitaka]] of [[Sutra]], [[Shastra]] and [[Vinaya]] [[Dharma]] teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the [[India]]n [[Sanskrit]]- [[Siddham]],​ [[Chinese]],​ [[Tibetan]] and [[Japanese]] traditions of the [[Nalanda Tradition]] of ancient [[Nalanda University]]) of [[Shakyamuni Buddha]], and his [[Arya]] [[Sagely]] [[Bodhisattva]] [[Bhikshu]] [[Monk]] and [[Upasaka]] disciples.
 +
 +These [[Good and Wise Advisors]] ([[Kaliyanamitra]]) [[Dharma Master]] teachers include [[Arya]] [[Venerable]]s [[Om Tare Tuttare Ture]] [[Om Ah Hum]] and [[Namo]] to [[Jivaka]], [[Charaka]],​ [[Lao Zi]] - [[Mahakashapa]],​ [[Ashwagosha]],​ [[Shantideva]] - [[Hui Neng]] - [[Shen Kai]] [[Sheng Ren Shr]], [[Bodhidharma]],​ the 16 [[Nalanda Acharyas]] 1. [[Nagarjuna]]-[[Manjushri]],​ 2. [[Arydeva]],​ 3. [[Buddhapalita]],​ 4. [[Bhavaviveka]],​ 5. [[Chandrakirti]] and [[Chandragomin]],​ 6. [[Shantideva]],​ 7. [[Shantarakshita]],​ 8. [[Kamalashila]],​ 9. [[Asanga]]-[[Maitreya]],​ 10. [[Vasubhandu]],​ 11. [[Dignaga]],​ 12. [[Dharmakirti]],​ 13. [[Vimuktisena]],​ 14. [[Haribhadra]],​ 15. [[Gunaprabha]],​ 16. [[Shakyaprabha]];​ [[Dharmarakshita]],​ [[Atisha]], [[Tsong Khapa]], [[Thogme Zangpo]], [[Nyingma]] [[Padmasambhava]],​ [[Yeshe Tsogyel]], [[Machig Lapdron]], [[Tilopa]], [[Naropa]], [[Milarepa]],​ [[Sakya Pandita]], [[Kumarajiva]],​ [[Xuan Zang]], [[Baozhi]], [[Hui Yuan]], ​ [[Daosheng]],​ [[Changzhi]],​ [[Fazang]], [[Han Shan]], [[Shi De]], [[Yunmen]], [[Nichiren]],​ [[Honen]], [[Shinran]],​ [[Kukai]], [[Dogen]], [[Hakuin]], [[Jamgon Kongtrul]], [[Nyingma]] [[Penor Rinpoche]], [[Bakula Rinpoche]], [[Dagri Rinpoche]], [[Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche]], [[Geshe Lama Kongchog]], [[Longchen Rapjampa]] - [[Gosok Rinpoche]], [[Phabongkha Rinpoche]], [[Patrul Rinpoche]], [[Tenzin Gyatso]] the [[Dalai Lama]], [[Sakya Trizin]], [[Hsu Yun]], [[Hsuan Hua]], [[Lama Zopa Rinpoche]], [[Choden Rinpoche]], [[Garchen Rinpoche]], [[Karmapa]],​ [[Mingyur Rinpoche]], [[Geshe Ngwang Dakpa]], [[Geshe Sopa Rinpoche]], [[Seung Sahn]], [[Thich Nhat Hanh]], [[Ajahn Chah]], [[Ajahn Sumedho]], [[S. N. Goenka]], [[Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha]], making [[offerings]] and [[b [[bowing]] at your feet I make [[request]]s. Please bestow on me the [[two attainments]] of [[Maha]] [[Punya]] and [[Maha]] [[Prajna Paramita]]. And [[Om Ah Hum]] thanks to other [[modern day masters]]. ​ We consider them to be in accord with [[Tripitaka Master]] [[Hsuan Hua]]’s "​[[Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers]]"​
 +
 +[[Nalanda Online University]]'​s teachings are based especially on the following [[Buddhist Scriptures]]:​ [[Lama]] [[Tsong Khapa]]'​s [[Lam Rim]], the Dharma Flower [[Lotus Sutra]], the [[Avatamsaka Sutra]], the [[Shurangama Sutra]], the [[Ksitigarbha Sutra]], the [[Bhaisajya Guru Sutra]], the [[Dharani Sutra]], the [[Vajra Sutra]], the [[Prajna Paramita]] Hridayam [[Heart Sutra]], the [[Vimalakirti Sutra]], the [[Sanghata Sutra]], the [[Sutra of Golden Light]], the [[Srimala Devi Sutra]], the [[Sutra in 42 Sections]], the [[Mahaparinirvana Sutra]], the [[Hui Neng Sutra]], [[Vasubandhu]]'​s [[Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas]], Maitreya'​s [[Ornament for Clear Realizations]] ([[Abhisamayalamkara]]),​ [[Chandrakirti]]'​s [[Supplement to Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Middle Way]] ([[Madhyamakavatara]]),​ [[Vasubandhu]]'​s [[Treasury of Manifest Knowledge]] ([[Abhidharmakosha]]) and the [[Tantra]]s and [[Mantra]]s of the [[Vajrayana]] the [[42 Hands and Eyes]], [[Guhyasamaja]],​ the [[Kalachakra]],​ the [[Vajrayogini]],​ the [[Heruka]], the [[Chakrasamvara]],​ the [[Chod]], the [[Hayagriva]],​ the [[Hevajra]],​ the [[Yamantaka]],​ the [[Kalarupa]],​ the [[Manjushri Nama Samgiti]], the [[Vajrakilaya]],​ the [[Vajrapani]],​ the [[Vajra Claws Dakini]], the [[Mahakala]],​ the [[Tara]], the [[White Umbrella Goddess]] ([[She Dan Do Bo Da La]]), [[Kirti Losang Trinle]]'​s [[Grounds and Paths of Secret Mantra]], and [[Aku Sherab Gyatso]]'​s [[The Two Stages of the Guhyasamaja Tantra]] and their commentaries ([[shastra]]s) by the above Arya [[Tripitakacharya]] [[Dharma Master]]s. Making [[offerings]] and [[bowing]] at your feet I make [[request]]s. Please bestow on me the [[two attainments]] of [[Maha]] [[Punya]] and [[Maha]] [[Prajna Paramita]].
 +
 +
 +Secondary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: The [[Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism]], 2nd ed., San Francisco, California: Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada, 1998: http://​www.budaedu.org.tw
 +
 +Secondary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: Muller, Charles, editor, [[Digital Dictionary of Buddhism]] [DDB], Toyo Gakuen University, Japan, 2007:  Username is "​guest",​ with no password.
 +http://​buddhism-dict.net/​ddb - Based in large part on the [[Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms]] with Sanskrit and English Equivalents (by [[Soothill]] and Hodous) Delhi, India: [[Motilal Banarsidass]],​ 1997.
 +
 +Secondary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: Ehrhard, Diener, Fischer, et al, The [[Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen]], Boston, Massachusetts:​ [[Shambhala Publications]],​ 1991.  296 pages. ​ ISBN 978-0-87773-520-5 ​ http://​www.Shambhala.com,​
 +http://​www.amazon.com/​gp/​product/​0877735204/​ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20,​
 +http://​www.shambhala.com/​html/​catalog/​items/​isbn/​978-0-87773-520-5.cfm
 +Secondary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: [[Vaidya]] [[Vasant Lad]], [[Textbook of Ayurveda]], [[Ayurvedic Press]], 2002; 
 +[[Vasant Lad]], [[BAMS]], [[MAsc]], [[Ayurvedic Institute Gurukula Notes]], [[Ayurvedic Institute]],​ 1994-2006; ​
 +
 +----
 +NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under [[Shastra tradition]] and "​[[Fair Use]]" by an [[Anonymous]] [[Buddhist Monk]] [[Redactor]] (Compiler) of this Online [[Buddhist Encyclopedia]] Compilation) ​
 +
 +----
 +----
 +====== Course Codes ======
 +[[Course Codes]] for the [[Buddhist Ayurveda]] [[Ayurvedic Distance Learning]] Program are as follows:
 +[[AYR108]] | [[HRB108]] | [[CLN301]] | [[HUM108]] | [[HIS108]] | [[YOG108]] | [[NUT108]] | [[AYR190]] | [[AYR220]] | [[AYR230]] | [[AYR240]] | [[AYR241]] | [[AYR250]] | [[AYR260]] | [[SKT108]] | [[SKT210]] |[[SKT220]] | [[SUT310]]
 +
 +----
 +====== Technical Notes ======
 +See the [[Technical Notes]] please.
 +
 +====== Contact Us ======
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 +[[http://​www.Ayurveda-Berkeley.com | Ayurveda-Berkeley.com]] ​ |  [[http://​www.Ayurveda-California.com | www.Ayurveda-California.com]]
 +[[http://​www.Ayurveda-School.net | www.Ayurveda-School.net]] ​ |  [[http://​www.Ayurveda-TCM.com | www.Ayurveda-TCM.com]]
 +http://​ayurveda-tcm.com/​ayurvedic-chinese-medicine-distance-learning
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 +[[Medicine Buddha Mantra]]: [[Om]] [[Namo]] [[Bhagavate]] [[Bhaisajya]] [[Guru]] [[Vaidurya]] [[Prabaha]] [[Rajaya]] [[Tathagataya]] [[Arhate]] [[Samyamsambodhi]] [[Tadyata]] [[Om]] [[Bhaisajye]] Bhaisajye [[Bhaisajya]] [[Samudgate]] [[Svaha]]. ​
 +[[Medicine King Bodhisattva]] [[Jeweled Ax Mantra]] 16 (Line 64 of the 
 +[[Great Compassion Mantra]] of [[Avalokiteshvara]]) of the [[42 Hands and Eyes Mantras]]: ​
 +[[Syi lu seng e mu chywe ye Nan Wei la ye Wei la ye Sa wa he]].
 +----
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 +----
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shravaka.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:13 (external edit)