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 +Part of the List of [[Dharma Terms]] and [[Fair Use]] [[Hyperlinked Shastra commentary]] ([[Non-Profit Educational Purposes for Distance Learning]]) from the [[Buddhist Ayurveda]] Course ([[SUT560]] [[Introduction to Tantra]] and [[SKT220]]) on [[Sanskrit Terms]] of [[Ayurveda]],​ [[Tibetan Medicine]], [[Dharma]] and [[CLN301|Consultations]]
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 +[[Recent Changes]] | [[Ayurveda Terms]] ([[Ayurvedic Chinese Western Medicine Terms from Marma Points of Ayurveda]] | [[Dharma Terms]] | [[Dharma Teachers]], See also [[Six Session Guru Yoga]], [[Extremely Abbreviated Six Session Guru Yoga]], [[Samaya]], [[Tantric Vows]], [[Puja]], [[Sadhana]]
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 +======= Six-Session Guru Yoga Commentary by Geshe Tashi Tsering of Chenrezig Institute ======
 +
 +
 +For a formatted downloadable version, please see: 
 +
 +http://​www.ayurveda-california.com/​distance_learning/​index.php/​buddhist-masters-program/​six-session-guru-yoga/​6-session-guru-yoga-commentary-tashi-tsering-12
 +
 +----
 +
 +This transcription has been very lightly edited, and has not been checked by Ven. Lozang Zopa. All mistakes, omissions, additions, errors, erratic spelling and bizarre punctuation are due solely to the transcriber. This transcript is for study purposes. ​
 + 
 + 
 +Six Session Guru Yoga.
 + 
 + 
 +Teacher:​ Geshe Tashi Tsering
 +Translator:​ Ven. Lozang Zopa
 +Transcribed:​ Carolyn McLeod
 +Chenrezig Institute; 1st April, 2003
 + 
 +Tape 12.
 + 
 +Number eleven reads: - If a person possessed of bodhicitta who properly trains in the bodhisattva trainings does not engage in that while performing one of the seven deeds of body and speech such as killing for the special benefit of others, it is a secondary offence of Not practicing with loving compassion.
 + 
 +What are the seven deeds of body and speech? There are three corresponding to the body and four corresponding to speech – false speech, harsh speech, divisive speech and idle speech. ​
 + 
 +There are occasions in which a bodhisattva has permission for such things. In general, the misdeeds are of two types, there are those which are proscribed misdeeds and those that are misdeeds by their very nature. In this category of proscribed misdeeds there are many that one will have permission to perform.
 + 
 +Let’s say that some animal scampers past you and after the animal comes somebody carrying a gun and they say, ‘did you see an animal go by?’ You can either lie or contribute to the animal’s being killed. At that point, there is permission to speak falsely so that the animal doesn’t get killed. You can say, ‘I didn’t see anything.’
 + 
 +There’s certain doubts raised in relation to this point. In recognition of the fact that telling somebody that you didn’t see an animal go by might be dangerous. For instance, if the person figures out that you did see it and comes back to get you it would be a bit dangerous. They say that rather than saying, ‘I didn’t see an animal’ you could say, ‘where are you coming from; that’s a nice shirt; where are you going anyway?’ [G/L]
 + 
 +The seven deeds of body and speech are misdeeds by their very nature. With those seven acts of body and speech it’s not that a bodhisattva is permitted to perform them at any time. There are specific times in which a bodhisattva has permission to perform them. 
 + 
 +If such an occasion was to present itself and the bodhisattva were to fail to take that opportunity,​ rather just forget about it and discard it, this would be incurring this secondary offence of not practicing with loving compassion. ​
 + 
 +There’s a story told about a group of traders travelling over the high seas to get jewels and precious items; there’s about 30 traders and one of them decides to kill the rest and steal their wealth. The emanation of a bodhisattva was present on board and learns of the plan and rather than allowing the plan to be carried out, killed the person who planned to kill the others. This is a story in which an emanation of a bodhisattva takes the life of one. 
 + 
 +This bodhisattva who takes that one person’s life accumulates the negativity of having taken a life, the story does not imply that there is no negativity associated with the action, for indeed, there is the negativity of killing. However, it’s the negativity of killing one person as opposed to the negativity of killing 30 or so people that the other person would have incurred. One of the reasons for acting in this way was to save the other person from accumulating the negativity of killing 30 people. Secondly, the person who ended up taking the person’s life was also thereby giving the other people a new lease on life – saving 30 people’s lives. In short, in order to be able to perform such an action the person must be capable of sacrificing themselves, which is to say that they must be willing to undergo the effect of such an action. ​
 + 
 +The twelfth reads: - If you willingly embrace any of the five wrong livelihoods and not apply their antidote, it is a secondary offence of Voluntarily accepting a wrong livelihood. The five wrong livelihoods are to seek and acquire through pretension, flattery, intimation or suggestion, coercion and giving.
 + 
 +Basically these types of wrong livelihood involve some type of deception; whether it’s through speaking nicely to somebody in order to accomplish something to your own ends or maintaining pretence about something. Notice how the motivation in each of these is so you, yourself, may obtain something, thus you act in a certain way. This is the basic point for this Voluntarily accepting a wrong livelihood.
 + 
 +What do we need to do? If such an intention were to arise, then we should apply the antidote to it. 
 + 
 +The thirteenth reads: - If you make a mockery and laugh, sprout distracting babble or try to make others laugh and so forth, it is the secondary offence of Making a mockery and excessively joking.
 + 
 +This word that is translated as mockery has the connotations of frivolousness and to imply that another is mistaken. Here it is something directed at another person, making a mockery.
 + 
 +The fourteenth reads: - If you feel or express that ‘bodhisattvas should not delight in nirvana, they should turn their backs on it. Bodhisattvas should not fear disturbing emotions; they do not need to completely isolate their mind from such things. After all, enlightenment must be attained after circling in samsara for three countless eons,” it is a secondary offence of Thinking only about going through samsara.
 + 
 + ​What’s nirvana? Do you understand Nirvana – in English - having passed beyond sorrow? What’s the essence or nature of having passed beyond sorrow – nirvana? Student: - liberation from cyclic existence. ​
 +Geshe-la mentioned it last week didn’t he? It’s an analytical cessation in which one has abandoned all afflictive obscurations without exception. It’s in effect, an analytical cessation of having abandoned suffering; for what is the cause of suffering – the disturbing emotions. Bodhisattvas do not take afflictive obscurations as their primary object of abandonment – that is not their emphasis. Reason being is they are not striving primarily for the pleasure of pacification.
 + 
 +It says that bodhisattvas should not fear the disturbing emotions – the thinking underlying this statement is that since bodhisattvas do not take the afflictive obscurations as their primary object of abandonment,​ then they have no need to fear disturbing emotions. Do you think that’s true? 
 + 
 +Bodhisattvas should not fear disturbing emotions; they do not need to completely their minds from such things. After all, enlightenment must be obtained after circling in samsara for three countless eons. It follows that expressing that sentiment to another is not a secondary offence of thinking only about going through samsara because that is in fact the case. Do you understand the secondary offence that we are dealing with here? 
 + 
 +If you look at the quote; the first thing it says is, Bodhisattvas should not delight in nirvana, they should turn their backs on it. That’s one. Secondly, Bodhisattvas should not fear disturbing emotions; they do not need to completely isolate their minds from such things. What follows is, essentially,​ the reason that the person is giving to support those two statements: - After all, enlightenment must be attained after circling in samsara for three countless eons. 
 + 
 +Student. Inaudible and not repeated by Ven. Lozang Zopa in English. [All laugh]
 +Geshe-la. In fact the two elements that you are dealing with are actually part of the reason, they are meant to be taken together as a single statement. You have enlightenment must be attained after circling in samsara for three countless eons.
 +Essentially they are saying that bodhisattvas must cycle within samsara for three countless eons in attaining Buddhahood. Is that accurate? It’s not accurate because? ​
 +It’s not accurate to say that the bodhisattva must cycle within cyclic existence for three countless eons because?
 +Student. You can attain Buddhahood in one short lifetime.
 +Student. Inaudible and not repeated in English by Ven. Lozang Zopa. 
 +Geshe-la. Where are you getting that implication from?
 +Student. Inaudible and not repeated in English by Ven. Lozang Zopa. 
 +Ven. Lozang Zopa. But they never identified disturbing emotions as the cause for Buddhahood in that.
 +Student. Inaudible and not repeated in English by Ven. Lozang Zopa. 
 +Ven. Lozang Zopa. it actually says, ‘after circling in samsara for three countless eons. Geshe-la was asking what is the fault in this. Why is it faulty to hold this type of position?
 +Student. Because bodhisattvas also want to be free from suffering, not for their own sake but for the sake of all sentient beings. ​
 +Geshe-la. There’s a meaning to be draw from that isn’t there?
 + They are saying that since we have to remain in samsara for three countless eons then we have to turn our backs on nirvana, which is in fact saying that we shouldn’t be striving for it and hence bodhisattvas should not fear disturbing emotions. ​
 + 
 +In respect to matters that relate to their own welfare, bodhisattvas are 100 times more fearful of disturbing emotions than a Hearer. They are very apprehensive about self-cherishing,​ because once they start to fall prey to self-cherishing their cherishing of others diminishes and this is their primary concern; the maintenance and development of a sense in which they cherish others. This is very important to the mind of enlightenment. They guard very fervently against the decline of the mind of enlightenment. Understand?
 + 
 +When it relates to matters of their own welfare they are extremely apprehensive or afraid of the disturbing emotions, yet when it comes to matters for the sake of others, they are not fearful or apprehensive of the disturbing emotions. Similarly, they are not afraid of undergoing suffering for the sake of others yet they are afraid of undergoing suffering merely for their own sake. 
 + 
 +This has some implications for the other statement in which we saw there are occasions in which a bodhisattva has permission to perform these seven deeds of body and speech. A bodhisattva is not afraid to accumulate negativity if it’s for the welfare of others; they are not afraid of engaging that. However, if it’s negativity for their own sake then this is something they are quite apprehensive about in light of their fear that their sense of cherishing others is going to diminish. The reason relates to the fact that the bodhisattvas emphasise the main practice of cherishing others. ​
 + 
 +If you were to feel or express this sentiment, it would be a secondary offence of thinking only about going through samsara.
 + 
 +In general, it is the case that bodhisattvas take rebirth wherever the most benefit for others can be had. Having taken rebirth they work to accomplish that benefit. Yet, it’s not appropriate for us who have taken the vows of a bodhisattva to go on and say, or think, that they must remain in cyclic existence to benefit others.
 + 
 +The reason Geshe-la has taken the opportunity to hammer in this point is because the Tibetan isn’t entirely clear and he’s wondering if it’s the same case in English. ​
 + 
 +The fifteenth reads: - If you do not dispel the stains of not having kept your word or having a disreputable word, and do not try to abandon the grounds for such unpleasant remarks being made about you, it is a secondary offence of Not avoiding a bad reputation.
 + 
 +It’s important that we refrain from things that will give us a bad reputation. It’s not appropriate for us to display bad behaviour or make certain inappropriate expressions and so forth because, doing so, could lead to you getting a bad reputation and you’re supposed to avoid such a thing. To not avoid the actions that are going to lead to a bad reputation can lead to a secondary offence. ​
 + 
 +The sixteenth reads; If, seeing that a severe punishment would correct another person’s faulty behaviour and speech, you do not use those means to correct him just so you can avoid hurting his feelings; it is a secondary offence of Not correcting others even though they are afflicted. ​ Understand? Can you give an example of when this might be the case?
 + 
 +Is it clear in English? Let’s say that a person is doing something faulty and that you could say something to turn them away from that faulty behaviour but you recognise that in doing so, you might hurt their feelings. Rather than place the importance on acting to help them to turn away from that negative act, you place the emphasis on not hurting their feelings; in that case, you run the risk of incurring this secondary offence. ​
 + 
 +If you see that you are capable of correcting their behaviour through such a way, you must act upon it. If you are not able to correct their behaviour and repair this faulty thing there is no benefit, all you will do is make this person angry. In that case, it’s probably best not to arouse the person’s anger. ​
 + 
 +Student. What if there’s a danger that the relationship ends as a result of you saying that particular thing?
 +Geshe-la. Let’s say a friend smokes marijuana and you have the opportunity to speak with the person and get them to quit. It might hurt their feelings a bit, it might cause harm to the relationship a bit but if you say something that can get them to stop then you must take that opportunity to intervene. To not do so, is to run the risk of incurring this secondary offence. ​
 + 
 +If you were to think, ‘oh no, maybe I’m going to hurt the person’s feelings’,​ and then on that basis, you refrain from it. If the person has not reached a point where, as a result of your intervention,​ they are going to quit, then that’s a different story. ​
 + 
 +As for what happens if the relationship breaks or you cease the relationship and you no longer have the opportunity to help the person, Geshe-la reckons that really isn’t possible. If we are dealing with a situation in which someone is capable of intervening to get them to refrain from this activity, then clearly the person who is receiving the intervention is going to trust the person who is making the  comment. There’s going to be some basis to the relationship that makes them receptive to the statement that’s made. Although their feelings might be hurt in the meantime, Geshe-la doesn’t think that acting in this way is going to completely break this relationship to the point that they are no longer able to help them. 
 + 
 +Being capable of correcting behaviour in this case refers to being capable of intervening so that they stop the faulty behaviour in question.
 + 
 +If a person gets annoyed with you, basically they just don’t want to listen to what you’re saying. In which case, if they don’t want to listen to what you’re saying, this is not a case in which you are capable of correcting the behaviour – the person will just start smoking again, for instance. ​
 + 
 +Then it reads: -The nine secondary offences from Neglecting those with lax ethics up to and including this one, are incompatible with ethics. The second of the six perfections.
 + 
 +The first seven secondary offences are incompatible with generosity, and then the next nine are incompatible with ethics. Having covered those first sixteen, we move to the seventeenth which reads: -If you respond in kind when another abuses you, becomes angry with you, beats you, or exposes your hidden faults, it is a secondary offence of Being separated from the four qualities of a spiritual practitioner. [End side a]
 + 
 +Should another become angry with you, you should not treat them in kind; even though another exposes your hidden faults you should not respond by exposing their hidden faults. Even though a person says some of these nasty types of things or acts in this way, you should not respond in that exact same way, because that’s retaliation and so it involves practicing some patience. ​
 + 
 +The first word of strength that’s used is abuse, shey wa [?], which is also used in [?] which means to scold, and this is refers to when another scolds you. It’s clear what another becoming angry with you means and the same with beats you; and to expose one’s hidden faults, we are talking about faults that we actually have and in the presence of other people this person digs them out – exposing the fault to everyone present. To respond in kind to any one of those expressions would be the secondary offence of being separated from the four qualities of the spiritual practitioner. ​
 + 
 + ​Number eighteen reads: - If you commit a fault against another, or suspect that they have committed one and, out of bitterness, pride or laziness you do not apologise in an appropriate way, it is a secondary offence of Neglecting the angry. This is clear?
 + 
 +A person might become annoyed or upset with you and you shouldn’t think, ‘oh they’re just angry.’ You should make an attempt to pacify their anger or frustration. ​
 + 
 +Number nineteen reads: - If out of bitterness, ill will or wanting to respond, you do not accept an apology from someone who has wronged you even though they try to make amends in accordance with the Dharma, it is a secondary offence of Rejecting another person’s apology.
 + 
 +What is the difference between this secondary offence and the root downfall, which reads: -Lashing out at another without listening even though they have apologised; number 3.
 + 
 +Which is the greater negativity? It seems that the secondary offence it’s graver, it involves bitterness. ​
 + 
 +Student. The root downfall involves anger, whereas this one involves bitterness.
 +Geshe-la. It mainly seems to be the bit about anger, but also in the root downfall there is the implication that the person who refuses the apology or lashes out without listening to the apology, is holding themselves to be above the other, as it mentions. Through showing anger through their gestures and speech, they act as if they are high and mighty while the other person is below them. Whereas here, we are simply dealing with a case where, out of either bitterness or ill will or just plain not wanting to respond, the person does not accept the apology.
 + 
 +The next reads: - If you assent to the notion that it is not a fault to hold on to the angry thoughts that arise towards others, it is a secondary offence of Following thoughts of anger. ​ Which we have, don’t we. Whether its anger, pride or jealousy, we follow it, which is in effect lending support or reinforcing it. 
 + 
 +What do we need to do? We need, on a regular basis, to reflect upon the drawbacks and short comings of anger and the other disturbing emotions. If we are able to meditate repeatedly on the short comings then when such a disturbing emotion becomes manifest, immediately you call to mind the drawbacks of such an attitude. ​
 + 
 +The main point is seeing shortcomings as such things – seeing a fault as a fault. These four preceding secondary offence are incompatible with patience. ​
 + 
 +If you gather a circle of followers in the hopes of obtaining esteem, veneration, material gain and the like, it is a secondary offence of Gathering a following out of desire for esteem and reverence. ​
 + 
 +This is a case in which a person gathers following not with the intention to benefit the people but with the hopes of obtaining esteem, veneration, material gain and the like. When we take the vows of a Bodhisattva,​ then we are vowing to look after others and in doing so it’s important to be looking after them for their benefit, for their sake,  rather than for one’s own personal aims, such as material gain. To act in that way runs the risk of incurring the secondary offence of Gathering a following out of desire for esteem and reverence. ​
 + 
 +If due to laziness or idleness, you embrace and do not try to dispel the pleasure of sleeping during the dependent arising - except the afternoon session, during the first and last parts of the night, or the pleasures of dullness, lying in bed, and so forth, it is the secondary offence of Not acting to dispel laziness and the like. If you do not try to dispel the pleasure of sleeping during the day or during the first and last parts of the nights or the pleasure of dullness, lying in bed and so forth it’s the secondary offence of Not acting to dispel laziness and the like.
 + 
 +Except in the afternoon session –when is the afternoon session? [All laugh] Falling asleep during the 2.30 session?? [All laugh] special exceptions seem to be made for this afternoon time. The more colloquial expression is [nyung ngo?], the afternoon session here takes one of the syllables from the afternoon, calling it the session of that period – the afternoon session.
 + 
 +If you indolently pass the time, always attached to diversions and banter about politics, crime and women, it is a secondary offence of Engaging in idle talk out of desire. ​ This relates to idle speech, one of the four types of speech in the 10 non-virtues. These three, 21, 22,23 are incompatible with Enthusiastic effort. ​
 + 
 +We have groups of the secondary offence being linked with the perfection they are incompatible with – generosity, ethics, patience and joyous effort. ​
 + 
 +Number twenty-four reads: - If you want to place the mind in equilibrium,​ but out of bitterness or laziness, do not go to others to receive personal instructions on absorption, it is a secondary offence of Not seeking the meaning of absorption.
 + 
 +Given that you like and have an interest in absorption if you do not act on that but, out of laziness or bitterness, do not go to others to seek instruction to further your practice of it, this is the secondary offence of Not seeing the meaning of absorption.
 + 
 +Number twenty-four could also be translated as Not exerting yourself for the sake of absorption, which works with the meaning.
 + 
 +Twenty-five reads: - If you embrace and do not try to dispel any one of the five obscurations that hinder concentration,​ it is a secondary offence of Not acting to purify the obscurations to absorption. The five obscurations that hinder concentration are: - 1. excitement and regret 2. ill will 3. drowsiness and dullness 4. yearning for sensory objects and 5. doubt. ​
 + 
 +If you crave the bliss of concentration and consider the experience and taste of it to be an important quality, it is a secondary offence of Considering the taste of concentration to be an important quality.
 + 
 +What’s the purpose of meditation? It’s what Geshe-la has always said: - the purpose of meditation is to reduce and eventually abandon the disturbing emotions. When engaging in meditation practice of absorption and so on and so forth, we should think that we are doing so in order to obtain liberation or Buddhahood. If rather than practising for those, we were to practice because we like the bliss of absorption, then that activity acts as a cause for cyclic existence. It’s important that we proceed so that our actions in meditation do not act as causes for cyclic existence but for the state of freedom. In general the bliss of absorption is samsaric; the pleasure of absorption is a samsaric pleasure. If you are attached to that, then you are attached to the pleasures of samsara. ​
 + 
 +The phrase gom pa has two different meanings or implications. The first carried the connotations of familiarity or habituation. For instance, acquainting yourself with the more positive side of things; making the positive states of mind manifest and acquainting yourself with those things. That is one of the meanings of gompa. The certain word that Geshe-la is focusing on is meditation, which has these different aspects to it. One of which is the aspect of gaining acquaintance with – familiarity.
 + 
 +The other implication is of meditating one pointedly upon an object, preventing distraction from one’s meditative object, focusing one pointedly upon it in order to overcome disturbing emotions. ​
 + 
 +When you are ready with a response to somebody’s question , that is a sign that you hare prepared and are ready to think about it yourself; whereas, if you have no response to a question somebody gives, that’s a sign that you have not gone through that preparation and have not prepared yourself to think about it. When somebody asks, ‘what’s the purpose of meditation? How does meditation help?’ you’ve got to say something, don't you?
 + 
 +If someone says, ‘What’s the purpose of meditation?​’ then you can say, ‘the purpose of meditation is two fold; on the one hand it helps to stop the distractedness of mind and on the other hand it helps to improve and develop the positive states of mind, preventing disturbing emotions from becoming manifest.’
 + 
 +One day Geshe-la asked Chodron, ‘why do you bother with these robes of a monastic? What is the purpose of dressing up like this anyway?’ and Chodron said, ‘I don’t know.’ Do you remember? [All laugh] What if somebody says to you, ‘why do you wear a robe?’ and you say, ‘I don’t know.’ [All laugh] Ven. Lozang Zopa, ‘it’s the only thing clean in the closet’ [general laughter]
 + 
 +It’s important that we what we do is done for a purpose and with reason - that’s why we do things, because there’s a purpose and a reason for it; Gathering a following out of desire for esteem and reverence. ​
 + 
 +It’s important that we think about these things. Then if somebody comes along and asks you a question, you are prepared to give a response and you are prepared to think about it yourself should the occasion arise. It’s important that we have a purpose and a reason for our actions. This is very important. If you answer, ‘oh, because others are doing that,’ – what is that; or, ‘I don’t know, everybody was wearing clothes like this so I decided to do it too.’
 + 
 +That’s it for this evening. Thank you very much.
 + 
 +
  
six-session_guru_yoga_commentary_geshe_tashi_tsering_of_chenrezig_institute_12.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:13 (external edit)