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 +© 2009 
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 +in place that disallow modification. However, if any Buddhist group or scholar of 
 +Buddhism has legitimate reason to modify and/or adapt the contents of any such 
 +file (such as for inclusion of the contents in a publically available online database ​
 +of Buddhist sources), please contact us for permission and unrestricted files.
 +Translated from the Chinese ​
 +(Taishō Volume 12, Number 353) 
 +Diana Y. Paul 
 +Translated from the Chinese ​
 +(Taishō Volume 14, Number 475) 
 +John R. McRae 
 +Numata Center ​
 +for Buddhist Translation and Research ​
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka 20-I, 26-I
 +© 2004 by Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai and 
 +Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research ​
 +All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored ​
 +in a retrieval system, or transcribed in any form or by any means 
 +—electronic,​ mechanical, photocopying,​ recording, or otherwise— ​
 +without the prior written permission of the publisher. ​
 +First Printing, 2004 
 +ISBN: 1-886439-31-1 ​
 +Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2004113588 ​
 +Published by 
 +Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research ​
 +2620 Warring Street ​
 +Berkeley, California 94704 
 +Printed in the United States of America
 +A Message on the Publication ​
 +of the English Tripiṭaka ​
 +The Buddhist canon is said to contain eighty-four thousand different teachings. ​
 +I believe that this is because the Buddha’s basic approach was to prescribe a 
 +different treatment for every spiritual ailment, much as a doctor prescribes a 
 +different medicine for every medical ailment. Thus his teachings were always ​
 +appropriate for the particular suffering individual and for the time at which the 
 +teaching was given, and over the ages not one of his prescriptions has failed to 
 +relieve the suffering to which it was addressed. ​
 +Ever since the Buddha’s Great Demise over twenty-five hundred years ago, 
 +his message of wisdom and compassion has spread throughout the world. Yet 
 +no one has ever attempted to translate the entire Buddhist canon into English ​
 +throughout the history of Japan. It is my greatest wish to see this done and to 
 +make the translations available to the many English-speaking people who have 
 +never had the opportunity to learn about the Buddha’s teachings. ​
 +Of course, it would be impossible to translate all of the Buddha’s eighty-four ​
 +thousand teachings in a few years. I have, therefore, had one hundred thirty-nine ​
 +of the scriptural texts in the prodigious Taishō edition of the Chinese Buddhist ​
 +canon selected for inclusion in the First Series of this translation project. ​
 +It is in the nature of this undertaking that the results are bound to be criti- ​
 +cized. Nonetheless,​ I am convinced that unless someone takes it upon himself ​
 +or herself to initiate this project, it will never be done. At the same time, I hope 
 +that an improved, revised edition will appear in the future. ​
 +It is most gratifying that, thanks to the efforts of more than a hundred Bud- 
 +dhist scholars from the East and the West, this monumental project has finally ​
 +gotten off the ground. May the rays of the Wisdom of the Compassionate One 
 +reach each and every person in the world. ​
 +NUMATAYehan ​
 +Founder of the English ​
 +August 7, 1991 Tripiṭaka Project
 +Editorial Foreword ​
 +In January 1982, Dr. NUMATAYehan,​ the founder of the Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai ​
 +(Society for the Promotion of Buddhism), decided to begin the monumental ​
 +task of translating the complete Taishō edition of the Chinese Tripiṭaka (Bud- 
 +dhist canon) into the English language. Under his leadership, a special prepara- ​
 +tory committee was organized in April 1982. By July of the same year, the Trans- ​
 +lation Committee of the English Tripiṭaka was officially convened. ​
 +The initial Committee consisted of the following members: (late) HANAYAMA ​
 +Shōyū (Chairperson),​ (late) BANDŌShōjun,​ ISHIGAMI Zennō, (late) KAMATA ​
 +Shigeo, KANAOKAShūyū,​ MAYEDASengaku,​ NARAYasuaki,​ (late) SAYEKI ​
 +Shinkō, (late) SHIOIRIRyōtatsu,​ TAMARUNoriyoshi,​ (late) TAMURAKwansei, ​
 +URYŪZURyūshin,​ and YUYAMAAkira. Assistant members of the Committee ​
 +were as follows: KANAZAWAAtsushi,​ WATANABEShōgo,​ Rolf Giebel of New 
 +Zealand, and Rudy Smet of Belgium. ​
 +After holding planning meetings on a monthly basis, the Committee selected ​
 +one hundred thirty-nine texts for the First Series of translations,​ an estimated ​
 +one hundred printed volumes in all. The texts selected are not necessarily lim- 
 +ited to those originally written in India but also include works written or com- 
 +posed in China and Japan. While the publication of the First Series proceeds, ​
 +the texts for the Second Series will be selected from among the remaining works; ​
 +this process will continue until all the texts, in Japanese as well as in Chinese, ​
 +have been published. ​
 +Frankly speaking, it will take perhaps one hundred years or more to accom- ​
 +plish the English translation of the complete Chinese and Japanese texts, for 
 +they consist of thousands of works. Nevertheless,​ as Dr. NUMATAwished,​ it is 
 +the sincere hope of the Committee that this project will continue unto comple- ​
 +tion, even after all its present members have passed away. 
 +It must be mentioned here that the final object of this project is not aca- 
 +demic fulfillment but the transmission of the teaching of the 
 +Buddha to the whole world in order to create harmony and peace among 
 +humankind. To that end, the translators have been asked to minimize the use of
 +Editorial Foreword ​
 +explanatory notes of the kind that are indispensable in academic texts, so that the 
 +attention of general readers will not be unduly distracted from the primary text. 
 +Also, a glossary of selected terms is appended to aid in understanding the text. 
 +To my great regret, however, Dr. NUMATApassed away on May 5, 1994, at 
 +the age of ninety-seven,​ entrusting his son, Mr. NUMATAToshihide,​ with the con- 
 +tinuation and completion of the Translation Project. The Committee also lost its 
 +able and devoted Chairperson,​ Professor HANAYAMAShōyū,​ on June 16, 1995, 
 +at the age of sixty-three. After these severe blows, the Committee elected me, 
 +then Vice President of Musashino Women’s College, to be the Chair in October ​
 +1995. The Committee has renewed its determination to carry out the noble inten- ​
 +tion of Dr. NUMATA, under the leadership of Mr. NUMATAToshihide. ​
 +The present members of the Committee are MAYEDASengaku (Chairper- ​
 +son), ISHIGAMIZennō,​ ICHISHIMAShōshin,​ KANAOKAShūyū,​ NARAYasuaki, ​
 +TAMARUNoriyoshi,​ URYŪZURyūshin,​ YUYAMAAkira,​ Kenneth K. Tanaka, ​
 +WATANABEShōgo,​ and assistant member YONEZAWAYoshiyasu. ​
 +The Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research was established ​
 +in November 1984, in Berkeley, California, U.S.A., to assist in the publication ​
 +of the BDK English Tripiṭaka First Series. In December 1991, the Publication ​
 +Committee was organized at the Numata Center, with Professor Philip Yam- 
 +polsky as the Chairperson. To our sorrow, Professor Yampolsky passed away 
 +in July 1996. In February 1997, Dr. Kenneth K. Inada became Chair and served ​
 +in that capacity until August 1999. The current Chair, Dr. Francis H. Cook, has 
 +been continuing the work since October 1999. All of the remaining texts will 
 +be published under the supervision of this Committee, in close cooperation with 
 +the Editorial Committee in Tokyo. ​
 +MAYEDASengaku ​
 +Chairperson ​
 +Editorial Committee of 
 +the BDK English Tripiṭaka
 +Publisher’s Foreword ​
 +The Publication Committee shares with the Editorial Committee the responsi- ​
 +bility of realizing the vision of Dr. Yehan Numata, founder of Bukkyō Dendō ​
 +Kyōkai, the Society for the Promotion of Buddhism. This vision is no less than 
 +to make the Buddha’s teaching better known throughout the world, through the 
 +translation and publication in English of the entire collection of Buddhist texts 
 +compiled in the Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō,​published in Tokyo in the early part 
 +of the twentieth century. This huge task is expected to be carried out by several ​
 +generations of translators and may take as long as a hundred years to complete. ​
 +Ultimately, the entire canon will be available to anyone who can read English ​
 +and who wishes to learn more about the teaching of the Buddha. ​
 +The present generation of staff members of the Publication Committee ​
 +includes Marianne Dresser; Brian Nagata, president of the Numata Center for 
 +Buddhist Translation and Research, Berkeley, California; Eisho Nasu; and Rev- 
 +erend Kiyoshi Yamashita. The Publication Committee is headquartered at the 
 +Numata Center and, working in close cooperation with the Editorial Commit- ​
 +tee, is responsible for the usual tasks associated with preparing translations for 
 +publication. ​
 +In October 1999, I became the third chairperson of the Publication Com- 
 +mittee, on the retirement of its very capable former chair, Dr. Kenneth K. Inada. ​
 +The Committee is devoted to the advancement of the Buddha’s teaching through ​
 +the publication of excellent translations of the thousands of texts that make up 
 +the Buddhist canon. ​
 +Francis H. Cook 
 +Chairperson ​
 +Publication Committee ​
 +Contents ​
 +A Message on the Publication of the English Tripiṭaka ​
 +NUMATAYehan v 
 +Editorial Foreword MAYEDASengaku vii 
 +Publisher’s Foreword Francis H. Cook ix 
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +Contents 3 
 +Translator’s Introduction Diana Y. Paul 5 
 +Text of the Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 7 
 +Bibliography 53 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +Contents 57 
 +Translator’s Introduction John R. McRae 59 
 +Text of the Vimalakīrti Sutra 67 
 +Bibliography 181 
 +Glossary 183 
 +Index 189 
 +A List of the Volumes of the BDK English Tripiṭaka (First Series) 211
 +Contents ​
 +Translator’s Introduction 5 
 +The Teaching of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 7 
 +Chapter I. The Merits of the Tathāgata’s True Dharma 9 
 +Chapter II. The Ten Ordination Vows 13 
 +Chapter III. The Three Great Vows 15 
 +Chapter IV. Acceptance of the True Dharma 17 
 +Chapter V. The One Vehicle 23 
 +Chapter VI. The Unlimited Noble Truths 31 
 +Chapter VII. The Tathāgatagarbha 33 
 +Chapter VIII. The Dharma Body 35 
 +Chapter IX. The Underlying Truth: The Meaning of Emptiness 37 
 +Chapter X. The One Noble Truth 39 
 +Chapter XI. The One Refuge 41 
 +Chapter XII. The Contrary Truths 43 
 +Chapter XIII. The Inherently Pure 45 
 +Chapter XIV. The True Sons [and Daughters] of the Tathāgata 47 
 +Chapter XV. Śrīmālā 49 
 +Bibliography 53
 +Translator’s Introduction ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar(Śrīmālādevī siṃ ha nāda-sūtra) ​
 +is a Mahayana text no longer extant in Sanskrit but preserved in both the Chi- 
 +nese and Tibetan Buddhist canons. This text is a unique development within ​
 +the Buddhist tradition because of its egalitarian and generous view concerning ​
 +women, portraying, on the one hand, the dignity and wisdom of a laywoman ​
 +and her concern for all beings, and, on the other, the role of woman as philoso- ​
 +pher and teacher. The major philosophical emphases of the text are the theories ​
 +of the “womb of the Buddha” (tathāgatagarbha) and the One Vehicle (ekayāna). ​
 +Because of the number of citations and references that are retained in San- 
 +skrit Buddhist texts, the Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanāda-sūtraseems to have been widely ​
 +circulated at one time throughout India. The Chinese Buddhist canon has pre- 
 +served two versions of the text: an earlier translation by Guṇabhadra (394–468), ​
 +from which this English translation has been made, and a later translation by 
 +Bodhiruci (672–727). ​
 +The story of Queen Śrīmālā has a simple and beautiful theme, full of lush 
 +imagery and metaphors. The bodhisattva is the essential agent through whom 
 +living beings are instructed in the profound teaching of the tathāgatagarbha ​
 +(“womb of the Buddha”). A future buddha who is still embracing the teachings ​
 +and instructing others, Queen Śrīmālā becomes a bodhisattva who explains the 
 +doctrine of the tathāgatagarbhain the presence of the Buddha, after her par- 
 +ents send her a letter requesting that she study the teaching (Dharma). Awak- 
 +ening to the thought of enlightenment (bodhicitta),​ meditating upon the Buddha, ​
 +she visualizes him and expresses the wish to follow the bodhisattva path. Receiv- ​
 +ing the prediction of her future buddhahood from the Buddha, she enters the 
 +path of the True Dharma and thus begins her bodhisattva practice. ​
 +Queen Śrīmālā,​ who had the “lion’s roar”—or eloquence—of a buddha, ​
 +first converts the women of her kingdom, then her husband, a non-Buddhist, ​
 +and finally the men. Śrīmālā is praised for her intelligence and compassion, not
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +for her beauty or wealth, which are implicit. She is proficient in explaining the 
 +Dharma and is charismatic,​ as are all the bodhisattvas throughout Buddhist lit- 
 +erature. Queen Śrīmālā describes the True Dharma using four metaphors: 1) the 
 +great cloud, which is the source of all good merits pouring forth on living beings; ​
 +2) the great waters, which are the source for creating all good meritorious acts; 
 +3) the great earth, which carries all things just as the True Dharma supports all 
 +living things; and 4) the four jewel storehouses,​ which are the four types of 
 +instructions that living beings accept and embrace. ​
 +The text raises the question of the possibility of female buddhas. This ques- 
 +tion had continually vexed Buddhist scholars and commentators,​ who attempted ​
 +to come to terms with the possibility of a relationship between the notion of the 
 +ultimate spiritual perfection or buddhahood and the feminine. Such a relation- ​
 +ship was viewed with ambivalence. This question was raised only by Mahayana ​
 +Buddhists, particularly those who proclaimed the one path to universal buddha- ​
 +hood. For these Buddhists, all men and women equally had the nature of the 
 +Buddha. If women were truly capable of having buddha-nature in this lifetime ​
 +without denying their female gender, this would implicitly indicate that women 
 +were not biologically determined as religiously,​ psychologically,​ and physically ​
 +inferior to men. 
 +One popular theme in Mahayana Buddhist texts had been the teaching of 
 +transformation from female to male, providing a means, both literary and spir- 
 +itual, for women to become bodhisattvas and buddhas. Other texts and com- 
 +mentaries suggest that there is no need to undergo a gender change through ​
 +either vowing to despise the female nature or through rebirth as a male after 
 +death as a female. ​
 +The controversy that arose among scholars concerning Queen Śrī mālā’s ​
 +level of spiritual attainment may reflect continual controversy among Buddhists ​
 +with regard to the bodhisattva ideal and the image of buddhahood as female. ​
 +The entire tone of the text, in which the bodhisattva is the supporter, accep- ​
 +tor, and compassionate Dharma mother, suggests female imagery. The question ​
 +of whether or not women were ever recognized as potential or imminent buddhas ​
 +remains unanswered. ​
 +A comprehensive text that teaches the skillful means 
 +of the One Vehicle. Translated from the Sanskrit by the 
 +Central Indian Tripiṭaka Master Guṇabhadra in 435 C.E.
 +Chapter I 
 +The Merits of the Tathāgata’s ​
 +True Dharma ​
 +Thus have I heard. One time the Buddha was residing in the Jeta Garden of 
 +Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park in the city of Śrāvastī [in the kingdom of Kosala]. At 
 +that time King Prasenajit and Queen Mallikā, who had only recently attained ​
 +faith in the Dharma, said these words together, “Śrīmālā,​ our daughter, is 
 +astute and ex tremely intelligent. If she has the opportunity to see the Buddha, ​
 +she will certainly understand the Dharma without doubting [its truth]. Some 
 +time we should send a message to her to awaken her religious state of mind.” ​
 +The queen said, “Now is the right time.” The king and queen then wrote 
 +a letter to Śrīmālā,​ praising the Tathāgata’s immeasurable merits, and dis- 
 +patched a messenger named Candirā to deliver the letter to the kingdom of 
 +Ayodhyā [where Śrīmālā was queen]. Entering the palace, the messenger ​
 +respectfully conferred the letter to Śrīmālā who rejoiced upon receiving it, 
 +raising the letter to her head [as a sign of reverence]. She read and under- ​
 +stood it, arousing a religious mind of rare quality. Then she said to Candirā ​
 +in verse: ​
 +“I hear the name ‘Buddha,​’ ​
 +The One who is rarely in the world. ​
 +If my words are true [that the Buddha is now in the world] ​
 +Then I will honor him. 
 +“Since I humbly submit that the Lord Buddha ​
 +Came for the sake of the world, ​
 +He should be compassionate with me 
 +Allowing me to see him.” ​
 +At that very moment of reflection, ​
 +The Buddha appeared in heaven, ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +Radiating pure light in all directions, ​
 +And revealing his incomparable body. 
 +Śrīmālā and her attendants ​
 +Prostrated themselves reverently at his feet, 
 +And with pure minds, ​
 +Praised the true merits of the Buddha: ​
 +“The body of the Tathāgata, excellent in form, 
 +Is unequaled in the world, ​
 +Being incomparable and inconceivable. ​
 +Therefore, we now honor you. 
 +“The Tathāgata’s form is inexhaustible ​
 +And likewise his wisdom. ​
 +All things eternally abide [in him]. 
 +Therefore, we take refuge in you. 
 +“Having already exorcised the mind’s defilements ​
 +And the four kinds [of faults] of body [and speech] ​
 +You have already arrived at the undaunted stage. ​
 +Therefore we worship you, the Dharma King. 
 +“By knowing all objects to be known, ​
 +And by the self-mastery of your body of wisdom, ​
 +You encompass all things. ​
 +Therefore, we now honor you. 
 +“We honor you, the One who transcends all measures [of space 
 +and time]. ​
 +We honor you, the One who is incomparable. ​
 +We honor you, the One who has the limitless Dharma. ​
 +We honor you, the One beyond conceptualization.” ​
 +[Śrīmālā:​] ​
 +“Please be compassionate and protect me, 
 +Causing the seeds of Dharma to grow [within me] 
 +Chapter I 
 +In this life and in future lives, ​
 +Please, Buddha, always accept me.” ​
 +[The Buddha:​] ​
 +“I have been with you for a long time, 
 +Guiding you in former lives. ​
 +I now again accept you. 
 +And will do likewise in the future.” ​
 +[Śrīmālā:​] ​
 +“I have produced merits ​
 +At present and in other lives. ​
 +Because of these virtuous deeds 
 +I only wish to be accepted.” ​
 +Then Śrīmālā and all of her attendants prostrated themselves before the 
 +Buddha’s feet. The Buddha then made this prediction among them: 
 +“You praise the true merits of the Tathāgata because of your virtuous ​
 +deeds. After immeasurable periods of time, you will become sovereign among 
 +the gods (devas). In all lives you will continually see me and praise me in 
 +my presence, in the same manner as you are doing now. You will also make 
 +offerings to the immeasurable numbers of buddhas for more than twenty ​
 +thousand immeasurable periods of time. Then you (Śrīmālā) will become ​
 +the buddha named Universal Light (Samantaprabha),​ the Tathāgata, Arhat, ​
 +Perfectly Enlightened One. Your buddha land will have no evil destinies and 
 +no suffering due to old age, illness, deterioration,​ torments. . . . There will 
 +be no evil whatsoever, not even the word for evil. Those who are in your 
 +land will have the five desires [of the senses fulfilled],​ longevity, physical ​
 +power, and physical beauty, and will be happier than even the gods who con- 
 +trol enjoyments created by others. They all will be exclusively Mahayana, ​
 +having habitually practiced virtuous deeds, and assembling in your land.” ​
 +When Queen Śrīmālā had received this prediction, the innumerable gods, 
 +humans, and other beings vowed to be born in her land. The Buddha pre- 
 +dicted to everyone that they all would be born there.
 +Chapter II 
 +The Ten Ordination Vows 
 +At that time Śrīmālā,​ having received the [Buddha’s] prediction, respectfully ​
 +arose to take the ten major ordination vows. 
 +“O Lord, from now until I am enlightened: ​
 +1) “I will not transgress the discipline that I have received. ​
 +2) “I will have no disrespect toward the venerable elders. ​
 +3) “I will not hate living beings. ​
 +4) “I will not be jealous of others with regard to either their physical ​
 +appearance or their possessions. ​
 +5) “I will not be stingy although I have little sustenance. ​
 +“O Lord, from now until I am enlightened: ​
 +6) “I will not accumulate property for my own benefit. Whatever I receive ​
 +will be used to assist living beings who are poor and suffering. ​
 +7) “I will practice the four all-embracing acts (giving, kind speech, ​
 +benefiting others, and cooperation toward leading all beings to virtuous deeds) ​
 +for all living beings, and not for myself. I accept all living beings without ​
 +lust, without satiation, and without prejudice. ​
 +8) “When I see living beings who are lonely, imprisoned, ill, and afflicted ​
 +by various misfortunes and hardships, I will never forsake them, even for a 
 +moment, for I must bring them peace. Through my good deeds I will bring 
 +them benefits and liberate them from their pain. Only then will I leave them. 
 +9) “When I see those who hunt or domesticate animals, slaughter, or com- 
 +mit other such offenses against the precepts, I will never forsake them. When 
 +I obtain this power [to teach all beings], I will restrain those who should be 
 +restrained and assist those who should be assisted wherever I see such living ​
 +beings. Why? Because by restraining and assisting them, one causes the eter- 
 +nal continuation of the Dharma. If the Dharma continues eternally, gods and 
 +humans shall flourish and the evil destinies shall diminish in number. Then 
 +the wheel of the Dharma that is turned by the Tathāgata will again be turned. ​
 +Because I see these benefits I will save, and never quit [teaching living beings]. ​
 +“O Lord, from now until I am enlightened: ​
 +10) “I accept the True Dharma, never forgetting it. Why? Because those 
 +who forget the Dharma forget the Mahayana. Those who forget the Mahayana ​
 +forget the perfections (pāramitās). Those who forget the perfections do not 
 +aspire toward the Mahayana. If the bodhisattvas are not committed to the 
 +Mahayana, they cannot have the aspiration to accept the True Dharma. Act- 
 +ing according to their pleasure, they will not be able to transcend the level 
 +of common people. ​
 +“Because I have seen, in this way, the immeasurably great errors [of 
 +humans] and have seen the immeasurable merits of the bodhisattvas,​ those 
 +great beings (mahāsattvas) who will accept the True Dharma, I will accept ​
 +these great ordination vows. 
 +“O Lord of the Dharma manifested before me, you are my witness. Even 
 +though the Lord Buddha presently witnessed [my testimony], living beings’ ​
 +virtuous deeds are superficial. Some of them are skeptical and extremely dif- 
 +ficult to save through these ten ordination vows. They engage in immoral ​
 +activities for long periods of time and are unhappy. In order to bring peace 
 +to them, I now declare, in your presence, that my vows are sincere. ​
 +“If I receive these ten major ordination vows and practice them as I have 
 +stated them, by [the power of] these true words, heavenly flowers will rain 
 +down and divine music will ring out upon this assembly.” ​
 +Just as Śrīmālā said these words, a shower of heavenly flowers poured ​
 +from the sky and divine music rang out: “It is so! It is so! What you have 
 +said is true, not false.” Having seen these wondrous flowers and having heard 
 +this music, the entire assembly no longer was skeptical, rejoicing immea- ​
 +surably and exclaiming, “We wish to stay with Queen Śrīmālā and together ​
 +we would like to join in practice with her.” ​
 +The Buddha predicted to all that their wish [to stay with Queen Śrīmālā] ​
 +would be fulfilled. ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +Chapter III 
 +The Three Great Vows 
 +At that time Śrīmālā again, in the presence of the Buddha, professed the three 
 +great vows: 
 +“By the power of my earnest aspiration, may I bring peace to innumer- ​
 +able and unlimited living beings. By my virtuous deeds, throughout all rebirths ​
 +may I attain the wisdom of the True Dharma.” This is called the first great 
 +“Having attained the wisdom of the True Dharma, for the sake of all liv- 
 +ing beings, may I explain [the Dharma] without wearying.” This is called ​
 +the second great vow. 
 +“In accepting the True Dharma, may I abandon body, life, and wealth ​
 +and uphold the True Dharma.” This is called the third great vow. 
 +At that time the Lord prophesied to Śrīmālā,​ “With reference to the three 
 +great vows, just as all forms are contained in space, so likewise the bodhi- ​
 +sattva vows, which are as numerous as the sands of the Ganges River, are 
 +all contained in these three great vows. These three vows are the truth and 
 +are extensive.” ​
 +Chapter IV 
 +Acceptance of the 
 +True Dharma ​
 +At that time Queen Śrīmālā said to the Buddha, “Having received the Buddha’s ​
 +power, I will now explain the great vow which is controlled [by the princi- ​
 +ple of the True Dharma], being the truth without error.” ​
 +The Buddha said to Śrīmālā,​ “I permit you to explain as you wish.” ​
 +Śrīmālā said to the Buddha, “The bodhisattva vows, which are as numer- ​
 +ous as the sands of the Ganges River, are all contained in the one great vow 
 +that is called ‘acceptance of the True Dharma.’ Acceptance of the True 
 +Dharma truly is the great vow.” ​
 +The Buddha praised Śrīmālā:​ “Excellent! Excellent! Your wisdom ​
 +(prajñā)and skillful means (upāya) are most profound and subtle! You have 
 +already, for a long time, increased in virtue. In the future, living beings who 
 +develop such virtue will be able to understand you. Your explanation of the 
 +acceptance of the True Dharma is that which the buddhas of the past, pres- 
 +ent, and future have explained, now explain, and will explain. Having real- 
 +ized supreme, complete enlightenment (anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi),​ I also 
 +speak of this acceptance of the True Dharma. I explain that acceptance of 
 +the True Dharma has merits that cannot be limited. The Tathāgata’s wisdom ​
 +and eloquence also are without limits. Why? Because in this acceptance of 
 +the True Dharma there are great merits and great benefits.” ​
 +Queen Śrīmālā said to the Buddha, “Again, having received the Buddha’s ​
 +power, I shall further explain the extension of the acceptance of the True 
 +Dharma.” ​
 +The Buddha said, “Then please explain.”
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +1. Immeasurable ​
 +A. Like a Great Cloud 
 +Śrīmālā said to the Buddha, “The meaning of the extension of the accept- ​
 +ance of the True Dharma is immeasurable. It includes all teachings of the 
 +Buddha, consisting of eighty-four thousand discourses. ​
 +“Like a great cloud that appeared at the time of creation, showering ​
 +down multicolored rain and many kinds of jewels, acceptance of the True 
 +Dharma rains forth innumerable rewards and innumerable virtues.” ​
 +B. Like the Great Waters ​
 +“O Lord, at the time of creation, the three thousand great worlds and the forty 
 +billion kinds of continents emerged from the great waters. Similarly, the innu- 
 +merable worlds of the Mahayana, the supernatural powers of all the bodhi- ​
 +sattvas, the peace and happiness of all worlds, the magical omnipotence of 
 +all worlds, and the peace of the transcendental worlds that has not been expe- 
 +rienced by gods and humans from the time of creation—all these emerge ​
 +from acceptance of the True Dharma.” ​
 +C. Like the Great Earth, the “Supporter” ​
 +“Moreover,​ acceptance of the True Dharma is like the great earth that supports ​
 +four weights. What are the four? The great seas, the mountains, vegetation, ​
 +and living beings. Similarly, like that great earth, good sons and daughters who 
 +accept the True Dharma build the great earth and carry four responsibilities. ​
 +Who are the four? 1) Living beings who have parted from good friends either ​
 +have not heard [the Dharma] or are without the Dharma. By advising them to 
 +cultivate the good deeds of humans and gods, [good sons and daughters] pre- 
 +pare them [for entering the path]. 2) For those who want to be disciples (śrā- ​
 +vakas) they present the disciple vehicle. 3) For those who want to be pratyeka- ​
 +buddhas (solitary enlightened ones) they present the pratyekabuddhavehicle. ​
 +And 4) for those who want to be [followers of the Great Vehicle], they pres- 
 +ent the Mahayana. These are the good sons and good daughters who accept ​
 +the True Dharma, build the great earth, and carry the four responsibilities. ​
 +“Therefore,​ Lord, good sons and daughters who accept the True 
 +Dharma, build the great earth, and carry the four responsibilities become ​
 +Chapter IV 
 +friends without being asked for the sake of all living beings. In their great 
 +compassion, they comfort and sympathize with living beings and become ​
 +the Dharma mother of the world.” ​
 +2. Like the Great Earth, ​
 +Which Has Four Jewel Storehouses ​
 +“Again, acceptance of the True Dharma is like the great earth that has four 
 +kinds of jewel storehouses. What are the four? They are: 1) the priceless, 2) 
 +the supremely valuable, 3) the moderately valuable, and 4) the slightly valu- 
 +able. These are the great earth’s four kinds of jewel storehouses. ​
 +“Similarly,​ good sons and daughters who accept the True Dharma and 
 +build the great earth obtain the four kinds of most precious jewels, namely, ​
 +living beings. Who are the four? 1) Those who have not heard [the Dharma] ​
 +or are without the Dharma to whom the good sons and daughters who have 
 +accepted the True Dharma present the [cultivation of] merits and virtuous ​
 +deeds of humans and gods. 2) Those who want to be disciples are presented ​
 +with the disciple vehicle. 3) Those who want to be pratyeka buddhas are pre- 
 +sented with the pratyekabuddhavehicle. And 4) those who want to [follow ​
 +the Great Vehicle] are presented with the Maha yana. 
 +“Therefore,​ all the good sons and daughters who obtain the great jew- 
 +els, namely living beings, realize extraordinarily rare merits because of accept- ​
 +ance of the Dharma. Lord, the great jewel storehouse is the acceptance of 
 +the True Dharma.” ​
 +3. Identical with the True Dharma Itself ​
 +“Lord, ‘acceptance of the True Dharma’ means the True Dharma [itself] is 
 +not different from acceptance of the True Dharma. The True Dharma [itself] ​
 +is identical with acceptance of the True Dharma.” ​
 +4. Identical with the Perfections ​
 +“Lord, the perfections are not different from the one who accepts the True 
 +Dharma. The one who accepts the True Dharma is identical with the per- 
 +fections. Why? 
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +1) “Good sons and daughters who accept the True Dharma give even their 
 +body and limbs for those who respond to giving. By protecting these [living ​
 +beings’] intentions, they teach them. When they are thus taught and caused to 
 +abide in the True Dharma, this is called the perfection of giving (dāna). ​
 +2) “Good sons and daughters teach the protection of the six senses, the 
 +purification of body, speech, and mind, and the cultivation of the four cor- 
 +rect postures [in walking, standing, sitting, and reclining] to those who respond ​
 +to discipline. By protecting these [living beings’] intentions, they teach them. 
 +When they are thus taught and caused to abide in the True Dharma, this is 
 +called the perfection of discipline (śīla). ​
 +3) “Good sons and daughters teach nonhatred, supreme patience, and 
 +neutrality in outer expression to those who respond to patience. By protect- ​
 +ing these [living beings’] intentions, they teach them. When they are thus 
 +taught and caused to abide in the True Dharma, this is called the perfection ​
 +of patience (kṣānti). ​
 +4) “Good sons and daughters do not teach indolence but the desire [to 
 +practice], supreme perseverance,​ and cultivation of the four correct postures ​
 +to those who respond to perseverance. By protecting these [living beings’] ​
 +intentions, they teach them. When they are thus taught and caused to abide 
 +in the True Dharma, this is called the perfection of perseverance (vīrya). ​
 +5) “Good sons and daughters teach tranquility,​ constant mindfulness not 
 +conditioned by external objects, and recollection of all actions and speech ​
 +over long periods of time to those who respond to meditation. By protecting ​
 +these [living beings’] intentions, they teach them. When they are thus taught ​
 +and caused to abide in the True Dharma, this is called the perfection of med- 
 +itation (dhyāna). ​
 +6) “Good sons and daughters, when questioned concerning the mean- 
 +ing of all things, extensively teach all treatises and all arts, without trepida- ​
 +tion, causing those who respond to wisdom to reach the ultimate in science ​
 +and art. By protecting these [living beings’] intentions, they teach them. 
 +When they are thus taught and caused to abide in the True Dharma, this is 
 +the perfection of wisdom (prajñā). ​
 +“Therefore,​ O Lord, the perfections are not different from the one who 
 +accepts the True Dharma. The one who accepts the True Dharma is identi- ​
 +cal with the perfections. ​
 +Chapter IV 
 +“O Lord, now receiving your power, I will further explain the greatness ​
 +[of the True Dharma].” ​
 +The Buddha said, “Please do so.” ​
 +[Identical with the One 
 +Who Accepts the True Dharma] ​
 +Śrīmālā said to the Buddha, “‘Acceptance of the True Dharma’ means accept- ​
 +ance of the True Dharma is not different from the one who accepts the True 
 +Dharma. Good sons and daughters who accept the True Dharma are identi- ​
 +cal with acceptance of the True Dharma. Why? Because good sons and daugh- ​
 +ters who accept the True Dharma abandon three things for the sake of accept- ​
 +ance of the True Dharma. What are the three? They are body, life, and wealth. ​
 +“When good sons and daughters abandon the body, they become equal 
 +to the last limit of the cycle of birth and death (samsara). Having parted from 
 +old age, illness, and death, they realize the indestructible,​ eternal, unchang- ​
 +ing, and inconceivable merits of the Tathāgata’s Dharma body (dharmakāya). ​
 +“When they abandon life, they become equal to the last limit of the cycle 
 +of birth and death. Ultimately, having parted from death, they realize the lim- 
 +itless, eternal, and inconceivable merits, penetrating all the profound Buddha- ​
 +Dharmas. ​
 +“When they abandon property, they become equal to the last limit of the 
 +cycle of birth and death. Having realized the inexhaustible,​ indestructible, ​
 +ultimately eternal, inconceivable,​ and complete merits that are not common ​
 +to all other living beings, they obtain the excellent offerings of all living beings. ​
 +“Lord, good sons and daughters who have abandoned these three (body, ​
 +life, and wealth) and have accepted the True Dharma will always obtain the 
 +predictions of all the buddhas [concerning their buddhahood],​ and will be 
 +honored by all living beings. ​
 +“Furthermore,​ O Lord, good sons and daughters who accept the True 
 +Dharma without distortion, and without deception or misrepresentation,​ will 
 +love the True Dharma and accept the True Dharma, entering into Dharma ​
 +friendship when the [four groups of followers] (monks, nuns, laymen, and 
 +laywomen) are forming rival factions that cause the destruction and disper- ​
 +sion [of the sangha]. Those who enter into Dharma friendship will certainly ​
 +receive the prediction [of their future buddhahood] by all the buddhas. ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +“O Lord, I see that acceptance of the True Dharma has such great pow- 
 +ers. Because you are the eye of truth, the wisdom of truth, the source of the 
 +Dharma, and you penetrate all things, you are the basis for the True Dharma ​
 +and know all things.” ​
 +At that time, the Lord was joyous over Śrīmālā’s explanation concern- ​
 +ing the great powers of acceptance of the True Dharma. [The Buddha said,​] ​
 +“Śrīmālā,​ what you have said is true. The great powers of acceptance of the 
 +True Dharma are like a very strong man who only briefly touches a [vul- 
 +nerable] part of one’s body yet causes great pain. Similarly, Śrīmālā,​ barely ​
 +accepting the True Dharma causes suffering to Māra, the Evil One. I do not 
 +see even one remaining good act that can cause suffering to Māra in the man- 
 +ner that only barely accepting the True Dharma does. 
 +“Moreover,​ the bull king has a form without equal, surpassing all other 
 +bulls. Similarly, even just barely accepting the True Dharma in the Mahayana ​
 +is superior to all the virtuous deeds of the two vehicles, because it is so 
 +extensive. ​
 +“The majestic bearing and uniqueness of great Mount Sumeru surpasses ​
 +all other mountains. Similarly, the [merit of] abandonment of body, life, and 
 +wealth in the Mahayana, acceptance of the True Dharma with a benevolent ​
 +heart, surpasses [the merit of] those who have engaged only in the virtuous ​
 +deeds of the Maha yana but do not abandon body, life, and wealth. Because ​
 +of its extensiveness,​ of course it is superior to the two vehicles. ​
 +“Thus, Śrīmālā,​ through acceptance of the True Dharma, explain [this 
 +teaching] to living beings, teach and convert living beings, and confirm liv- 
 +ing beings [in the Dharma]. ​
 +“Therefore,​ Śrīmālā,​ acceptance of the True Dharma has these great 
 +benefits, these great blessings, and these great fruits. Śrīmālā,​ even if I explain ​
 +the merits and benefits of acceptance of the True Dharma for countless peri- 
 +ods of time, I shall not reach the end [of explaining it]. Therefore, accept- ​
 +ance of the True Dharma has immeasurable and unlimited merits.” ​
 +Chapter V 
 +The One Vehicle ​
 +The Buddha said to Queen Śrīmālā,​ “Now you should further explain the 
 +acceptance of the True Dharma that was taught by all the buddhas.” ​
 +Queen Śrīmālā said to the Buddha, “Very well, O Lord, I will, upon 
 +receiving your exhortation.” Then she said to the Buddha, “O Lord, accept- ​
 +ance of the True Dharma is [acceptance of] the Mahayana. Why? Because ​
 +the Mahayana brings forth all the good acts of the world and of the tran- 
 +scendental, of the disciples and of the pratyekabuddhas. O Lord, just as the 
 +eight great rivers flow from Lake Anavatapta, so likewise all the good acts 
 +of the world and of the transcendental,​ of the disciples and of the pratyeka- ​
 +buddhas, emerge from the Mahayana. ​
 +“O Lord, moreover, just as all seeds are able to grow [only] when they 
 +depend upon the earth, so likewise all the good acts of the world, of the tran- 
 +scendental, of the disciples, and of the pratyekabuddhas are able to increase ​
 +[only] when they depend upon the Mahayana. Therefore, O Lord, abiding ​
 +in the Mahayana, one accepts Mahayana—this is identical with abiding in 
 +the two vehicles and accepting all the good acts of the world, of the tran- 
 +scendental, and of the two vehicles. ​
 +“What are the six stations that the Lord explains? They are: 1) the con- 
 +tinuity of the True Dharma, 2) the extinction of the True Dharma, 3) the rules 
 +of the Prātimokṣa,​ 4) the discipline of the Vinaya, 5) renunciation of one’s ​
 +home, and 6) ordination. On behalf of the Mahayana, the Lord preaches these 
 +six stations. Why? Because the continuity of the True Dharma is explained ​
 +for the sake of the Mahayana. Continuity of the Mahayana is continuity of 
 +the True Dharma. Extinction of the Mahayana is extinction of the True 
 +Dharma. ​
 +“The rules of the Prātimokṣaand the discipline of the Vinaya have the 
 +same meaning even though they are different in name. The discipline of the
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +Vinaya is learned by Mahayanists. Why? Because one renounces home and 
 +becomes ordained for the sake of the Buddha. Therefore, the conduct of the 
 +Mahayana, which is the [perfection of] discipline, is the Vinaya—renounc- ​
 +ing one’s home and taking ordination. ​
 +“Consequently,​ in the case of the arhat, there is no renunciation of home 
 +nor taking ordination [as a separate vehicle from the Mahayana]. Why? 
 +Because the arhat renounces his home and is ordained for the sake of the 
 +Tathāgata. The arhat, seeking refuge in the Buddha, is afraid. Why? Because ​
 +the arhat lives in a state of fear toward all conditioning forces, as if a man 
 +holding a sword wished to cause him harm. Therefore, the arhat has no ulti- 
 +mate happiness. Why? O Lord, being a [final] refuge, one does not seek 
 +refuge. Living beings who are without a refuge, having this or that fear, seek 
 +refuge because of these fears. Likewise, arhats who have fears seek refuge ​
 +in the Tathāgata because of these fears. ​
 +“O Lord, arhats and pratyekabuddhas are afraid. Because these arhats ​
 +and pratyekabuddhas still have not extinguished their lives, these [psy- 
 +chophysical forces] continue. They have not completed the practice of purity, ​
 +and so remain impure. Because their actions are not ultimate, they still have 
 +actions to perform. Because they have not reached that [final stage], they still 
 +have defilements that should be severed. Because these are not severed, one 
 +is far from the realm of nirvana. Why? Because only the Tathāgata, Arhat, ​
 +Perfectly Enlightened One attains final nirvana, being endowed with all mer- 
 +its. Arhats and pratyekabuddhas are not endowed with all merits. When it is 
 +said that they attain nirvana, this is [merely] the skillful means of the Buddha. ​
 +“Because only the Tathāgata attains final nirvana, being endowed with 
 +inconceivable merits, arhats and pratyekabuddhas are only endowed with 
 +conceivable merits. When it is said that they attain nirvana, this is [merely] ​
 +the skillful means of the Buddha. ​
 +“Because only the Tathāgata attains final nirvana, eliminating trans- ​
 +gressions that should be eliminated and endowed with supreme purity, arhats ​
 +and pratyekabuddhas who still have transgressions are not supremely pure. 
 +When it is said that they attain nirvana, this is [merely] the skillful means of 
 +the Buddha. ​
 +“Only the Tathāgata attains final nirvana, is revered by all living beings, ​
 +and surpasses the arhat, pratyekabuddha,​and bodhisattva realms. Therefore, ​
 +Chapter V 
 +arhats and pratyekabuddhas are far from the realm of nirvana. When it is 
 +said that the arhats and pratyekabuddhas meditate on liberation, have the 
 +four wisdoms, and have ultimately attained their resting place, this is also 
 +the skillful means of the Tathāgata and is taught as the incomplete meaning. ​
 +Why? There are two kinds of death. What are the two? They are ordinary ​
 +death and the inconceivable death of transformation [for a purpose]. Ordi- 
 +nary death refers to living beings who live in unreality. The inconceivable ​
 +death of transformation [for a purpose] refers to the mind-made bodies of 
 +the arhats, pratyekabuddhas,​ and greatly powerful bodhisattvas until the time 
 +of their supreme, complete enlightenment. ​
 +“Within these two kinds of death, it is the ordinary death through which 
 +arhats and pratyekabuddhas have completely attained the knowledge said to 
 +have ‘extinguished their lives.’ Because they attain realization (nirvana) with 
 +remainder, it is said that ‘the practice of holiness has been completely upheld.’ ​
 +Because their errors and defilements have been eliminated, it is said that 
 +‘their actions have been completed,​’ actions which the common people, gods, 
 +and seven kinds of educated people are incapable of performing. Because ​
 +arhats and pratyekabuddhas cannot be reborn since their defilements are 
 +eliminated, it is said that ‘they are not reborn.’ When it is said that ‘they are 
 +not reborn,’ this is not because they have eliminated all defilements nor 
 +exhausted allbirths. Why? Because there are defilements that cannot be elim- 
 +inated by arhats and pratyekabuddhas. ​
 +“There are two kinds of defilements. What are the two? They are latent ​
 +defilements and active defilements. There are four kinds of latent defilements. ​
 +They are: 1) the stage of all [false] views of monism, 2) the stage of desir- ​
 +ing sense pleasures, 3) the stage of desiring forms, and 4) the stage of desir- ​
 +ing existence. From these four stages of [defilement],​ there are all the active ​
 +defile ments. ‘What is active’ is momentary and associated with the momen- ​
 +tariness of the mind. O Lord, the mind does not associate with the stage of 
 +beginningless ignorance [in the same manner]. ​
 +“O Lord, the power of these four latent defilements is a basis for all 
 +active defilements but cannot possibly be compared in number, fraction, ​
 +counting, similarity, nor resemblance to ignorance [in power]. ​
 +“O Lord, such is the power of the stage of ignorance! The power of the 
 +stage of ignorance is much greater than the other stages represented by the 
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +fourth stage of desire for existence. The power of the stage of ignorance is 
 +like that of the wicked Evil One (Māra), whose form, power, longevity, and 
 +retainers are both superior to and more powerful than the heaven where the 
 +gods control the enjoyments created by others. Its power is far superior to 
 +that of the other stages of defilement represented by the fourth stage of desire ​
 +for existence. This basis for the active defilements,​ more numerous than the 
 +sands of the Ganges River, causes the four kinds of defilements to continue ​
 +for a long time. The arhats’ and pratyekabuddhas’ wisdom cannot eliminate ​
 +it. Only the Tathāgata’s enlightenment-wisdom can eliminate it. Yes, O Lord, 
 +the stage of ignorance is extremely powerful! ​
 +“O Lord, the three states of existence arise, conditioned by clinging to 
 +existence and by defiled actions. In like manner, O Lord, the three forms of 
 +mind-made bodies of arhats, pratyekabuddhas,​ and greatly powerful bodhi- ​
 +sattvas are conditioned by the stage of ignorance and by pure actions. In 
 +these three levels (the arhat, pratyekabuddha,​ and bodhisattva stages), the 
 +three kinds of mind-made bodies and pure actions are based upon the latent ​
 +stage of ignorance. Because all things are conditioned and not unconditioned, ​
 +the three kinds of mind-made bodies and pure actions are conditioned by the 
 +stage of ignorance. ​
 +“O Lord, thus the other stages of defilement,​ represented by the fourth ​
 +stage of desire for existence, are not identical with the stage of ignorance ​
 +with respect to action. The stage of ignorance is different from the four stages ​
 +and is eliminated by the buddha stages and by the enlightenment-wisdom of 
 +the Buddha. Why? Arhats and pratyekabuddhas eliminate the four kinds of 
 +stages but their purity is not complete, for they have not attained autonomy ​
 +nor have they accomplished their realization [of enlightenment]. ​
 +“‘Their purity that is not completed’ refers to the stage of ignorance. O 
 +Lord, arhats, pratyekabuddhas,​ and bodhisattvas in their very last body do 
 +not know and do not awaken to the various phenomena because of the imped- ​
 +iments of the stage of ignorance. Because they are not aware [of these phe- 
 +nomena] they cannot absolutely eliminate what should be eliminated. Because ​
 +they do not eliminate [all defilements] they are ‘liberated with remaining ​
 +faults,’ which is not ‘liberation separated from all faults.’ They have ‘purity ​
 +with remaining’ [purification to be done,] which is not purity in its entirety. ​
 +They ‘accomplish merits with remaining’ [merits to be accomplished,​] which 
 +Chapter V 
 +is not entirely meritorious. Because they accomplish liberation with remain- ​
 +der, purity with remainder, and merits with remainder, arhats, pratyekabuddhas, ​
 +and bodhisattvas know suffering with remainder, eliminate the source of suf- 
 +fering with remainder, attain the extinction of suffering with remainder, and 
 +practice the path with remainder. This is ‘attaining partial nirvana.’ ​
 +“Those who attain partial nirvana are ‘turned toward the nirvana realm.’ ​
 +If one knows all suffering, entirely eliminates the source of suffering, attains ​
 +the complete extinction [of suffering], and practices the entire path, one will 
 +attain permanent nirvana in a world that is impermanent and decadent, imper- ​
 +manent and distressed. In a world without protection, a world without a 
 +refuge, there is a protector and a refuge. Why? There is attainment of nir- 
 +vana because of [the differentiation between] inferior and superior phe- 
 +nomena. [O Lord, there is attainment of nirvana because of the equality of 
 +all phenomena.] Because of the equality of knowledge, one attains nirvana. ​
 +Because of the equality of liberation, one attains nirvana. Because of the 
 +equality of purity, one attains nirvana. Therefore, nirvana has the same qual- 
 +ity as liberation. ​
 +O Lord, if the stage of ignorance is not absolutely eliminated, then one 
 +does not attain the same quality of knowledge and liberation. Why? If the 
 +stage of ignorance is not absolutely eliminated, then phenomena more numer- ​
 +ous than the sands of the Ganges River that should be eliminated will not be 
 +absolutely eliminated. Because phenomena more numerous than the sands 
 +of the Ganges River that should be eliminated are not eliminated, the phe- 
 +nomena more numerous than the sands of the Ganges River that should be 
 +attained will not be attained, and [the phenomena] that should be manifested ​
 +will not be manifested. Therefore, the accumulation [of defilements] in the 
 +stage of ignorance produces both the defilements that are severed by the prac- 
 +tice of the entire path and the virulent defilements,​ as well as the virulent ​
 +defilements of the mind, of meditation, of concentration,​ of contemplation, ​
 +of insight, of skillful means, of wisdom, of the results [of the path], of attain- ​
 +ment, of power, and of fearlessness. These are all the active defilements more 
 +numerous than the sands of the Ganges River that are eliminated by the 
 +enlightenment-wisdom of the Tathāgata. ​
 +“All these defilements are due to the stage of ignorance. All the active ​
 +defilements that arise are caused by and conditioned by the stage of ignorance. ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +O Lord, among the defilements that arise, the mind and its various faculties ​
 +arise together momentarily. O Lord, the mind does not associate with the 
 +stage of beginningless ignorance [in the same manner]. ​
 +“O Lord, all phenomena more numerous than the sands of the Ganges ​
 +River that should be eliminated by the Tathāgata’s enlightenment-wisdom ​
 +are supported and sustained by the stage of ignorance. For example, all the 
 +seeds that depend on the earth for their life, sustenance, and growth would 
 +be ruined if the earth were ruined. Similarly, all phenomena more numerous ​
 +than the sands of the Ganges River that should be eliminated by the Tathā- ​
 +gata’s enlightenment-wisdom are based upon the stage of ignorance for their 
 +life, sustenance, and growth. ​
 +“If the stage of ignorance is eliminated, all phenomena more numerous ​
 +than the sands of the Ganges River that should be eliminated by the Tathā- ​
 +gata’s enlightenment-wisdom will be eliminated. If all defilements and vir- 
 +ulent defilements are eliminated, all phenomena more numerous than the 
 +sands of the Ganges River will be attained by the Tathāgatas,​ who penetrate ​
 +them without obstruction. Omniscience is separate from all transgressions, ​
 +attaining all the merits of the Dharma King, the Dharma Lord, attaining ​
 +autonomy and manifesting the stage of autonomy from all phenomena. ​
 +“O Tathāgata, Arhat, Perfectly Enlightened One, who has the lion’s roar, 
 +the complete extinction of one’s life, ‘the complete practice of holiness,​’ ‘the ​
 +completion of actions,’ and the ‘non acceptance of rebirth’ have been explained ​
 +up until now, based upon your lion’s roar, for their complete meaning. ​
 +“O Lord, there are two kinds of knowledge that do not accept rebirth. ​
 +First, there is the knowledge of the Tathāgatas who, by means of their unsur- ​
 +passed powers, subdue the four Evil Ones, appear in all worlds, and are wor- 
 +shiped by all living beings. They attain the inconceivable Dharma body, all 
 +spheres of knowledge, and unobstructed autonomy in all things. In this stage 
 +there is no action nor attainment that is higher. Having the ten magnificent ​
 +powers [of knowledge] they ascend to the supreme, unexcelled, fearless stage. ​
 +With their omniscient, unobstructed knowledge, they understand without rely- 
 +ing on another. This wisdom that does not accept rebirth is the lion’s roar. 
 +“O Lord, second, there is the knowledge of arhats and pratyekabuddhas ​
 +who cross over the fears of birth and death and gradually attain the happi- ​
 +ness of liberation with this thought: ‘I have parted from the fears of birth and 
 +Chapter V 
 +death and no longer experience the suffering of birth and death.’ Lord, when 
 +arhats and pratyekabuddhas meditate, they do not accept rebirth and have 
 +insight into the supremely restful stage of nirvana. ​
 +“O Lord, those who first attained that stage [of nirvana] were not igno- 
 +rant of the Dharma and were not dependent upon others. They also knew 
 +they had attained the stages with remainder [through their own efforts], and 
 +would inevitably attain supreme, complete enlightenment (anuttarā samyak- ​
 +saṃbodhi). Why? Because the śrāvaka(disciple) and pratyekabuddhavehi- ​
 +cles are included in the Mahayana. The Maha yana is the buddha vehicle. ​
 +Therefore, the three vehicles are the One Vehicle. ​
 +“Those who attain the One Vehicle attain supreme, complete enlight- ​
 +enment. Supreme, complete enlightenment is the realm of nirvana. The realm 
 +of nirvana is the Dharma body of the Tathāgata. Attaining the absolute Dharma ​
 +body is [attaining] the absolute One Vehicle. The Tathāgata is not different ​
 +from the Dharma body. The Tathāgata is identical to the Dharma body. If 
 +one attains the absolute Dharma body then one attains the absolute One Vehi- 
 +cle. The absolute [One Vehicle] is unlimited and unceasing. ​
 +“O Lord, the Tathāgata, who is not limited by time, is the Tathāgata, ​
 +Arhat, Perfectly Enlightened One, equal to the utmost limit [of the cycle of 
 +birth and death]. The Tathāgata is without limitation. His great compassion ​
 +also is unlimited, bringing peace and comfort to the world. His unlimited great 
 +compassion brings unlimited peace and comfort to the world. This explana- ​
 +tion is a good explanation concerning the Tathāgata. If one again speaks of 
 +the inexhaustible Dharma, the eternally abiding Dharma that is the refuge of 
 +all worlds—this is also a good explanation concerning the Tathāgata. There- ​
 +fore, in a world that has not been saved, a world without a refuge, there is an 
 +inexhaustible,​ eternally abiding refuge equal to the utmost limit [of the cycle 
 +of birth and death], namely, the Tathāgata, Arhat, Perfectly Enlightened One. 
 +“The Dharma is the path of the One Vehicle. The sangha is the assem- ​
 +bly of the three vehicles. These two refuges are not the ultimate refuge. They 
 +are called ‘the partial refuge.’ Why? The Dharma of the path of the One 
 +Vehicle attains the absolute Dharma body. Furthermore,​ there can be no 
 +Dharma body other than that of the One Vehicle. ​
 +“The assembly of the three vehicles (the sangha), being afraid, seeks 
 +refuge in the Tathāgata. Those students who go out to practice turn toward ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +supreme, complete enlightenment. Therefore, these two refuges are not the 
 +ultimate refuge but are limited refuges. ​
 +“If there are living beings who are subdued by the Tathāgata, they will 
 +seek refuge in the Tathāgata, attain the permeation of the Dharma, and will 
 +have faith and happiness, seeking refuge in the Dharma and Sangha. These 
 +two refuges, [however,] are not two refuges, for they seek refuge in the Tathā- ​
 +gata. Seeking refuge in the supreme truth is seeking refuge in the Tathāgata. ​
 +“The supreme truth of these two refuges is the ultimate refuge, the Tathā- ​
 +gata. Why? Because the Tathāgata is not different from the two refuges. The 
 +Tathāgata is identical with the three refuges. Why? Because of the path of 
 +the One Vehicle. The Tathāgata, who has perfected the four states of fear- 
 +lessness, is the one who teaches with the lion’s roar. The Tathāgata, accord- ​
 +ing to individual dispositions,​ teaches through skillful means. This is the 
 +Mahayana and not the three vehicles. The three vehicles enter the One Vehi- 
 +cle. The One Vehicle is the supreme vehicle.” ​
 +Chapter VI 
 +The Unlimited Noble Truths ​
 +“O Lord, the disciples and pratyekabuddhas first saw the noble truths with 
 +their one knowledge that eliminates the latent stages [of defilement]. With 
 +their one knowledge, one of the four wisdoms, they eliminate [the source of 
 +suffering, namely, the four latent stages of defilements];​ know [suffering]; ​
 +practice virtue [according to the path]; and realize [extinction]. They under- ​
 +stand these four [noble truths] very well. O Lord, they do not have the most 
 +supreme transcendental wisdom but are gradually reaching the four wisdoms ​
 +and the four conditions (i.e., the four noble truths). The Dharma that is not 
 +gradually reached is supreme transcendental wisdom. O Lord, supreme wis- 
 +dom is like a diamond. ​
 +“O Lord, the disciples and pratyekabuddhas do not eliminate the stage 
 +of beginningless ignorance. Their initial wisdom of the noble truths is [not] 
 +supreme wisdom. Lord, because they do not have the wisdom of the two 
 +kinds of noble truths, they eliminate [only] the latent stages [of defilement]. ​
 +O Lord, the Tathāgata, Arhat, Perfectly Enlightened One is not the realm of 
 +all the disciples and pratyeka buddhas. ​
 +“The inconceivable wisdom of emptiness eliminates the stores of all 
 +defilements. O Lord, the ultimate wisdom that destroys the stores of all defile- ​
 +ments is called supreme wisdom. The initial wisdom of the noble truths is 
 +not ultimate wisdom but is the wisdom that is turned toward supreme, com- 
 +plete enlightenment. ​
 +“O Lord, the meaning of ‘noble’ does not refer to all the disciples and 
 +pratyekabuddhas. Because the disciples and pratyekabuddhas have perfected ​
 +limited merits and have perfected ‘partial’ merits, they are called ‘noble.’ ​
 +The ‘noble truths’ are not the truths of the disciples and pratyekabuddhas ​
 +nor are they the merits of the disciples and pratyekabuddhas. ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +“O Lord, these truths are those originally known by the Tathāgata, Arhat, ​
 +Perfectly Enlightened One. Later, on behalf of the world, which is the womb 
 +of ignorance, he appeared to extensively teach what are known as the ‘noble ​
 +truths.’” ​
 +Chapter VII 
 +The Tathāgatagarbha ​
 +“The ‘noble truths’ have a most profound meaning, which is extremely sub- 
 +tle, difficult to know, and not of the cognitive and finite realms. What is 
 +known by those who have this wisdom isinconceivable to the entire world. ​
 +Why? Because this [profound meaning of the noble truths] explains the most 
 +profound tathāgatagarbha. The tathāgatagarbhais the realm of the Tathā- ​
 +gata, which is not known by all the disciples and pratyekabuddhas. The tathā - 
 +gata garbhaexplains the meaning of the noble truths. Because the tathā gata - 
 +garbhais most profound, explaining the noble truths also is most profound, ​
 +extremely subtle, difficult to know, and not of the cognitive and finite realms. ​
 +What is known by those who have this wisdom is inconceivable to the entire ​
 +world.” ​
 +Chapter VIII 
 +The Dharma Body 
 +If there are no doubts with reference to the tathāgatagarbha that is concealed ​
 +by the innumerable stores of defilement,​ then there also will be no doubts ​
 +with reference to the Dharma body that transcends the innumerable stores ​
 +of defilement. In explaining the tathāgatagarbha,​one explains the Dharma ​
 +body of the Tathāgata, the inconceivable buddha realms, and skillful means. ​
 +“The mind that attains this determination then believes and understands ​
 +the twofold noble truths. Likewise, what is difficult to know and to under- ​
 +stand is the meaning of the twofold noble truths. What is their meaning? ​
 +They are referred to as the ‘conditioned’ noble truths and the ‘unconditioned’ ​
 +noble truths. ​
 +“The ‘conditioned’ noble truths are the ‘limited’ four noble truths. Why? 
 +Because one who depends on others cannot know all suffering, eliminate all 
 +sources of suffering, realize all extinctions of suffering, and practice the 
 +entire path. Therefore, O Lord, the cycle of birth and death is both condi- ​
 +tioned and unconditioned;​ nirvana likewise is [conditioned and uncondi- ​
 +tioned], being [nirvana] with remainder (conditioned) and [nirvana] without ​
 +remainder (unconditioned). ​
 +“The ‘unconditioned’ noble truths are the ‘unlimited’ four noble truths. ​
 +Why? With his own power, one [who knows the unlimited noble truths] can 
 +know all suffering, sever all sources of suffering, realize all extinctions of 
 +suffering, and practice the entire path. 
 +“These, then, are the eight noble truths. The Tathāgatas taught the four 
 +[conditioned] noble truths [as skillful means]. The meaning of the four uncon- ​
 +ditioned noble truths are the actions of the Tathāgatas,​ Arhats, Perfectly ​
 +Enlightened Ones, who alone are ultimate. The actions of arhats and pratyeka- ​
 +buddhas are not ultimate. Why? Because phenomena are not inferior, mediocre, ​
 +or superior, one attains nirvana. Why? With reference to the meaningof the 
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +four unconditioned noble truths, the actions of the Tathāgatas,​ Arhats, Per- 
 +fectly Enlightened Ones are ultimate. Because all the Tathāgatas,​ Arhats, ​
 +Perfectly Enlightened Ones know all future suffering, sever all defilements ​
 +as well as the sources of all virulent defilements that have been accumulated, ​
 +and extinguish all the elements in the mind-made bodies [of the three vehi- 
 +cles], they realize the extinction of all suffering. ​
 +“O Lord, the extinction of suffering is not the destruction of the Dharma. ​
 +The ‘extinction of suffering’ signifies the Dharma body of the Tathāgata, ​
 +which is from beginningless time uncreated, non arising, indestructible,​ free 
 +from destruction,​ eternal, inherently pure, and separate from all the stores ​
 +of defilement. O Lord, the Dharma body is not separate from, free from, or 
 +different from the inconceivable Buddha-Dharmas that are more numerous ​
 +than the sands of the Ganges River. ​
 +“O Lord, the Dharma body of the Tathāgata is called the tathā gata - 
 +garbhawhen it is inseparable from the stores of defilement.” ​
 +Chapter IX 
 +The Underlying Truth: ​
 +The Meaning of Emptiness ​
 +“O Lord, the wisdom of the tathāgatagarbhais the Tathāgata’s wisdom of 
 +emptiness (śūnyatā). O Lord, the tathāgatagarbhahas not been seen nor attained ​
 +originally by all the arhats, pratyekabuddhas,​ and powerful bodhisattvas. ​
 +“O Lord, there are two kinds of wisdom of emptiness with reference to 
 +the tathāgatagarbha. The tathāgatagarbhathat is empty is separate from, 
 +free from, and different from the stores of all defile ments. And the tathā- ​
 +gatagarbhathat is not empty is not separate from, not free from, and not dif- 
 +ferent from the inconceivable Buddha-Dharmas more numerous than the 
 +sands of the Ganges River. ​
 +“O Lord, the various great disciples can believe in the Tathā ​ gata with 
 +reference to the two wisdoms of emptiness. All arhats and pratyekabuddhas ​
 +revolve in the realm of the four contrary views because of their knowledge ​
 +of emptiness. Thus, arhats and pratyekabuddhas do not originally see nor 
 +attain [the wisdom of the tathāgatagarbha]. The extinction of all suffering ​
 +is only realized by the buddhas who destroy the stores of all defilements and 
 +practice the path that extinguishes all suffering.” ​
 +Chapter X 
 +The One Noble Truth 
 +“O Lord, among these four noble truths, three are impermanent and one is 
 +permanent. Why? Because three of the [four] noble truths are conditioned. ​
 +What is ‘conditioned’ is impermanent and what is ‘impermanent’ is false 
 +and deceptive in nature. What is ‘false and deceptive in nature’ is not true, 
 +is impermanent,​ and is not a refuge. Therefore, the [three] noble truths, ​
 +namely, ‘there is suffering,​’ ‘there is the source of suffering,​’ and ‘there is 
 +the path,’ are not the supreme truth for they are neither permanent nor a 
 +refuge.” ​
 +Chapter XI 
 +The One Refuge ​
 +“The one noble truth, namely, ‘the extinction of suffering,​’ is separate from 
 +the conditioned. What is ‘separate from the conditioned’ is permanent. What 
 +is ‘permanent’ is not false and deceptive in nature. What is ‘not false and 
 +deceptive in nature’ is true, permanent, and a refuge. Therefore, the noble 
 +truth of the extinction [of suffering] is the supreme truth.” ​
 +Chapter XII 
 +The Contrary Truths ​
 +“The noble truth of the extinction [of suffering] is inconceivable,​ transcending ​
 +all the conditions of the consciousness of living beings. This is also not the 
 +knowledge of arhats and pratyekabuddhas who, like those born blind, can- 
 +not see all shapes; or like a week-old infant who cannot see the disc of the 
 +moon. The truth of the extinction of suffering, similarly, does not belong to 
 +the condition of the common person’s consciousness nor to the two vehi- 
 +cles’ realm of knowledge. The common person’s consciousness refers to the 
 +two contrary views. The wisdom of all arhats and pratyekabuddhas is pure 
 +[in comparison with that of the common person]. ​
 +“‘Limited views’ refer to the common person’s adherence to the mis- 
 +conception that there is a substantial ego within the five psycho physical ele- 
 +ments (skandhas), which then causes the two views that are designated ‘con- ​
 +trary,’ namely, eternalism and nihilism. If one considers the conditioned states ​
 +impermanent,​ this is nihilism and not the correct view. If one considers nir- 
 +vana permanent, this is eternalism and not the correct view. Because of mis- 
 +conceptions,​ there are such views. ​
 +“In the sense organs of the body, which are discriminative in nature, ​
 +some perceive the destruction of phenomena in the present moment. Unable ​
 +to see phenomena in continuity, they become nihilistic in their views because ​
 +of misconceptions. The ignorant, who are unable to uderstand or know the 
 +momentary consciousness with reference to its continuity, become eternal- ​
 +istic in their views because of misconceptions. By this or that principle, they 
 +discriminate and maintain inadequate positions to an extreme degree. Because ​
 +of foolish misconceptions they adhere to erroneous conceptions and contrary ​
 +views, namely, nihilism and eternalism. ​
 +“O Lord, living beings have contrary ideas when they have acquired the 
 +five psychophysical elements of the individual. The impermanent is considered ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +permanent, suffering is considered happiness. The nonsubstantiality of the 
 +self is considered a substantial self, the impure is considered pure. The knowl- ​
 +edge of all arhats and pratyekabuddhas has not originally apprehended the 
 +Dharma body of the Tathāgata nor the realm of his omniscience. If there are 
 +living beings who believe in the Buddha’s words, they will have thoughts ​
 +of permanence, of happiness, of self, and of purity. These are not contrary ​
 +views but are correct views. Why? The Dharma body of the Tathāgata is the 
 +perfection of permanence, the perfection of happiness, the perfection of the 
 +substantial self, and the perfection of purity. Those who see the Dharma body 
 +of the Buddha in this way are said to see correctly. Those who see correctly ​
 +are the true sons and daughters of the Buddha. They arise from the Buddha’s ​
 +words, from the True Dharma, and from conversion to the Dharma, attain- ​
 +ing the remaining benefits of the Dharma. ​
 +“O Lord, pure wisdom is the perfection of wisdom that belongs to all 
 +arhats and pratyekabuddhas. This pure wisdom, although it is called pure wis- 
 +dom, with reference to the [conditioned noble] truth of the extinction [of suf- 
 +fering] is not the realm [of unconditioned wisdom]. Of course, the wisdom of 
 +[those beginning to study] the four basic truths (i.e., the four noble truths) also 
 +[does not belong to the realm of unconditioned wisdom]. Why? The three vehi- 
 +cles’ first actions were not ignorant of the Dharma. Because of their princi- ​
 +ples, they understood and attained [enlightenment]. The Buddha explained the 
 +four basic truths for their sake. O Lord, these four basic truths are the Dharma ​
 +of the world. O Lord, the one refuge is all refuges. It is the transcendental and 
 +supreme refuge, namely, the truth of the extinction [of suffering].” ​
 +Chapter XIII 
 +The Inherently Pure 
 +“O Lord, the cycle of birth and death depends on the tathāgata garbha, because ​
 +the tathāgatagarbhais referred to as the original limit [of the cycle of birth 
 +and death], which is unknowable. O Lord, ‘tathāgatagarbha’is referred to 
 +as the cycle of birth and death for a proper designation. O Lord, the cycle of 
 +birth and death is the extinction of the senses and the subsequent arising of 
 +[new] inexperienced senses. This is called the cycle of birth and death. ​
 +“O Lord, these two phenomena—birth and death—are the tathāgata- ​
 +garbha. It is worldly convention to say ‘there is birth’ and ‘there is death.’ ​
 +‘Death’ is the extinction of one’s senses. ‘Birth’ is the arising of new senses. ​
 +“The tathāgatagarbhais neither life nor death. The tathāgata garbhais ​
 +separate from the conditioned. The tathāgatagarbhais eternal and unchang- ​
 +ing. Therefore, the tathāgatagarbhais the basis, the support, and the foun- 
 +dation. O Lord, the tathāgatagarbhais not separate, not severed, not liber- ​
 +ated from, and not different from the inconceivable Buddha-Dharmas. O 
 +Lord, the basis, support, and foundation of conditioned phenomena, which 
 +are severed from, separate from, and different from the Buddha-Dharmas, ​
 +[also] are the tathāgatagarbha. ​
 +“O Lord, if there were no tathāgatagarbhathere would be no revulsion ​
 +toward suffering, nor aspiration to seek nirvana. Why? Because the seven 
 +[mental] phenomena—the six [sense] consciousnesses and the knowledge ​
 +of [their accompanying] mental phenomena—do not continue even momen- ​
 +tarily and do not accept the impressions of suffering, there cannot be revul- ​
 +sion for suffering nor aspiration to seek nirvana. ​
 +“The tathāgatagarbhais without any prior limit, is non arising, and is 
 +indestructible,​ accepting suffering, having revulsion toward suffering, and 
 +aspiring to nirvana. O Lord, the tathāgatagarbhais not a substantial self, 
 +nor a living being, nor ‘fate,’ nor a person. The tathāgatagarbhais not a 
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +realm for living beings who have degenerated into the belief of a substan- ​
 +tially existent body or for those who have contrary views, or who have minds 
 +bewildered by emptiness. ​
 +“O Lord, the tathāgatagarbhais the womb of thedharmas, the womb 
 +of the Dharma body, the transcendental womb, and the inherently pure womb. 
 +This tathāgatagarbhathat is inherently pure is the inconceivable realm of 
 +the Tathāgata that has been contaminated by extrinsic defilements and other 
 +virulent defile ments. Why? The good mind is momentary and not contami- ​
 +nated by defilements. The evil mind is also momentary but is not contami- ​
 +nated by defile ments either. Defilements do not affect the mind. The mind 
 +does not affect defilements. Then how does the mind, which is unaffected ​
 +by nature, become defiled? O Lord, there are defilements and there are defiled ​
 +minds. The fact that there is defilement in a mind that is inherently pure is 
 +difficult to comprehend. Only the buddhas, the lords, who have the eye of 
 +truth and the wisdom of truth, who are the sources of the Dharma and pen- 
 +etrate the Dharma, and who are the refuge of the True Dharma, can com- 
 +prehend this truth.” ​
 +When Queen Śrīmālā had explained the difficulties in comprehending ​
 +[the inherently pure mind’s defilement],​ she was questioned by the Buddha. ​
 +The Buddha, with extreme joy, praised her, “Yes, it is so! It is so! The fact 
 +that there is defilement in a mind that is inherently pure is difficult to com- 
 +prehend. There are two subjects that are difficult to completely comprehend. ​
 +They are the mind that is inherently pure and the fact that this [same] mind 
 +has been contaminated by defilements. These two subjects can be heard by 
 +you and the bodhisattva māhasattvas who have the great Dharma. The oth- 
 +ers, namely, the disciples, can only believe through the Buddha’s words.” ​
 +Chapter XIV 
 +The True Sons [and Daughters] ​
 +of the Tathāgata ​
 +[The Buddha said,] “If my disciples comply with their [early stages of] faith 
 +and [subsequent] more fervent faith, then they will attain the ultimate after 
 +completing their subsequent wisdom of the Dharma that is based upon the 
 +illumination of faith. ‘The subsequent wisdom of the Dharma’ is the insight ​
 +and fundamental investigation into the realms of sensation and conscious- ​
 +ness; insight into karmic retribution;​ insight into the eye of the arhat; insight ​
 +into the happiness of the autonomy of mind and into the happiness of med- 
 +itation; and insight into the supernatural powers of the arhats, pratyeka- ​
 +buddhas, and powerful bodhisattvas. When these five kinds of insight have 
 +been completed, even after my final nirvana, in future generations,​ my dis- 
 +ciples who have [the early stages of] faith, the [subsequent] more fervent ​
 +faith, and the subsequent wisdom of the Dharma that is based upon the illu- 
 +mination of faith will attain the ultimate even though their inherently pure 
 +minds become contaminated by defilements. The ‘ultimate’ is the cause for 
 +entering the path of the Mahayana. Faith in the Tathā gata has great benefits. ​
 +Do not slander my [Dharma’s] profound meaning.” ​
 +Then Queen Śrīmālā said to the Buddha, “There are still remaining great 
 +benefits which I will explain, with the Buddha’s permission.” ​
 +The Buddha said, “Again, please explain.” ​
 +Queen Śrīmālā said to the Buddha, “The three kinds of good sons and 
 +daughters who, within the most profound meaning [of the Dharma], have sep- 
 +arated themselves from injury [to the Dharma], produce great merits, enter- ​
 +ing the path of the Mahayana. What are the three [kinds of good sons and 
 +daughters]? They are those good sons and daughters who 1) develop their 
 +own wisdom of the most profound Dharma, 2) develop the subsequent wis- 
 +dom of the Dharma [that is based upon the illumination of faith], and 3) revere ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +the Lord though they do not completely understand the most profound ​
 +Dharma. ​
 +“What is known only by the buddhas is not our realm. These [above- ​
 +mentioned] are called the good sons and daughters who revere the Tathā- ​
 +gata. Only these are the good sons and daughters.”
 +Chapter XV 
 +Śrīmālā ​
 +[Śrīmālā said,] “All the remaining living beings who stubbornly cling to false 
 +teachings, instead of to the most profound Dharma, turn their backs to the 
 +True Dharma and habitually practice the corrupt ways of various hetero- ​
 +doxies. These corrupt ways must be subdued by the [Dharma] King’s pow- 
 +ers and by the powers of the divine nāgas.” ​
 +When Queen Śrīmālā and her attendants paid obeisance to the Buddha, ​
 +the Buddha said, “Excellent,​ excellent, Queen Śrīmālā! In the most profound ​
 +Dharma, protected by skillful means, subdue what is not the Dharma. Main- 
 +tain well its correctness. You have already been very close to the hundreds ​
 +of millions of buddhas and can explain this [Dharma’s] meaning.” ​
 +At that time the Lord emitted a most excellent light, radiating every- ​
 +where over the assembly. His body ascended into the sky, higher than seven 
 +talatrees. Walking in the sky, he returned to the kingdom of Śrāvastī. Then 
 +Queen Śrīmālā and her attendants together faced the Buddha and were tran- 
 +sfixed by the sight of him, not moving for even a moment. [The Buddha,​] ​
 +having passed through their field of vision, caused them to be exalted. Each 
 +individual praised the Tathāgata’s merits and was mindful of him. The Buddha ​
 +then reentered the city. Turning toward [her husband,] King Mitrayaśas, ​
 +Queen Śrīmālā praised the Mahayana. All the women of the city, seven years 
 +of age and older, were converted to the Mahayana. King Mitrayaśas was also 
 +converted to the Mahayana. All the men, seven years of age and older, were 
 +converted to the Mahayana. Then all the citizens of the state were turned ​
 +toward the Mahayana. ​
 +Then the Lord entered the Jeta Garden, spoke to the venerable Ānanda, ​
 +and called upon Śakra, the king of heaven. Śakra, along with his retinue, imme- 
 +diately arrived in the presence of the Buddha. Then the Lord turned toward ​
 +the king of heaven, Śakra, and to the venerable Ānanda and extensively ​
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +explained this text. Having explained it, he said to Lord Śakra, “You should ​
 +accept and read this sutra, O Kauśika. Good sons and daughters, in innu- 
 +merable kalpas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges River, cultivate the 
 +practice of enlightenment and practice the six perfections. If these good sons 
 +and daughters learn and read this sutra and uphold it, their blessings will be 
 +immense. ​
 +“How much more [advantageous] will it be for those who explain this 
 +text. Thus, O Kauśika, you must read this sutra on behalf of the thirty-three ​
 +heavens, defining and extensively explaining it.” ​
 +Then the Buddha said to Ānanda, “You also must accept and read this 
 +sutra. For the sake of the four groups of followers you must extensively ​
 +explain this sutra.” ​
 +Then the king of heaven, Śakra, asked the Buddha, “O Lord, what is the 
 +name of this sutra? How does one adhere [to its teaching]?​” ​
 +The Buddha said to Lord Śakra, “This sutra has immeasurable and lim- 
 +itless merits. All the disciples and buddhas cannot, ultimately, have insight ​
 +into [these merits] nor know them. Kauśika, you should know all the great 
 +merits that are so subtle and profound in this sutra. Now I shall, on your 
 +behalf, briefly explain its name. Listen well, listen well and remember this 
 +[text].” ​
 +Then the king of heaven, Śakra, and the venerable Ānanda said to the 
 +Buddha, “Excellent,​ O Lord! Yes, we will do as you have instructed.” ​
 +The Buddha said, “This sutra praises the supreme merits of the True 
 +Dharma of the Tathāgata [in Chapter I]. In this manner accept it. It explains ​
 +[in Chapter II] the ten inconceivable ordination vows. In this manner accept ​
 +it. It explains [in Chapter III] the great aspiration that embraces all aspira- ​
 +tions. In this manner accept it. It explains [in Chapter IV] the inconceivable ​
 +acceptance of the True Dharma. In this manner accept it. It explains [in Chap- 
 +ter V] the entrance into the One Vehicle. In this manner accept it. It explains ​
 +[in Chapter VI] the unlimited noble truths. In this manner accept it. It explains ​
 +[in Chapter VII] the tathāgatagarbha.In this manner accept it. It explains [in 
 +Chapter VIII] the Dharma body. In this manner accept it. It explains [in Chap- 
 +ter IX] the underlying truth: the meaning of emptiness. In this manner accept ​
 +it. It explains [in Chapter X] the one [noble] truth. In this manner accept it. It 
 +explains [in Chapter XI] the one refuge that is eternal and quiescent. In this 
 +Chapter XV 
 +manner accept it. It explains [in Chapter XII] the contrary truths. In this man- 
 +ner accept it. It explains [in Chapter XIII] the inherently pure mind that is cov- 
 +ered [by defilements]. In this manner accept it. It explains [in Chapter XIV] 
 +the true sons [and daughters] of the Tathāgata. In this manner accept it. Teach 
 +the Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar. In this manner accept it. 
 +“Again, O Kauśika, the explanations of this sutra eliminate all doubts. ​
 +Be steadfast in the complete meaning [of this text] and enter the path of the 
 +One Vehicle. O Kauśika, today this scripture, the Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of 
 +the Lion’s Roar, has been transmitted to you. As long as the Dharma con- 
 +tinues, accept, read, extensively define, and explain [this sutra].” ​
 +Lord Śakra said to the Buddha, “Very well, O Lord, we will reverently ​
 +receive your holy teaching.” Then the king of heaven, Śakra, the venerable ​
 +Ānanda, and all the great assemblies of gods, asuras, and gandharvas, among 
 +others, heard the Buddha’s teaching and joyfully put it into practice. ​
 +End of the Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar
 +Bibliography ​
 +Paul, Diana. “A Prolegomena to the ‘Śrīmālādevī Sūtra’and the Tathāgata garbhaThe- ​
 +ory: The Role of Women in Buddhism.” Dissertation. Madison, WI: University of 
 +Wisconsin, 1974. 
 +—. “The Buddhist Feminine Ideal: Queen Śrīmālā and the Tathāgatagarbha.”Disser- ​
 +tation. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1980. 
 +—. “The Concept of Tathāgatagarbhain the Śrīmālādevī Sūtra(Sheng-man ching),​” ​
 +Journal of the American Oriental Society99/2 (1979): 191–203. ​
 +Takasaki, Jikido. A Study of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra):​ Being a Treatise on 
 +the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Serie Orientale Roma 33. 
 +Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1966. 
 +Wayman, Alex, and Hideko Wayman. The Lion’s Roar of Queen Śrīmālā:​ A Buddhist ​
 +Scrip ture on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory.New York and London: Columbia Uni- 
 +versity Press, 1974. 
 +Zimmermann, Michael. A Buddha Within: The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra:​ The Earliest ​
 +Exposition of the Buddha-Nature Teaching in India.Tokyo:​ International Research ​
 +Institute for Advanced Buddhology, Soka University, 2002. 
 +[[Fair Use]] Source: https://​​digital/​dBET_Srimala_Vimalakirti_2004.pdf
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