The philosophies of Nyaya and Vaisheshika are represented by the writings of Gautama and [Kanada]], respectively. Nyaya means logic and Vaisheshika means to specify the important aspects of concrete reality (Provisional Truth - see Two Truths). The proponents of Nyaya and Vaisheshika believed in obtaining knowledge through observation and critical logic (see critical thinking. They were like modern scientists. They found that certain principles which can be experienced with sensory perception are real-pratyaksha, that which can be seen and experienced. Prahana means proof. The proponents of Nyaya and Vaisheshika discovered ways of investigating the truth and they stated that truth could be proven.
Nyaya and Vaisheshika go together. While Vaisheshika speaks about nine causative substances of the universe, called nava karna dravya, Nyaya deals with how to think about them-the reasoning. nava means nine, karna means causative, dravya means substances. These nine causative substances are ether, air, fire, water, and earth; the soul, atman, which is spirit or self; mind, manas; time kala; and dig, direction. 2
Vaisheshika holds to the atomic theory of existence that claims the entire universe is composed of atoms. Vaisheshika believes the union and separation of atoms is guided or directed by the will of the Supreme Being. Ether, air, fire, water, and earth are eternal atoms. The union of atoms in twos, threes, etc., created universal elements at the time of creation and these atoms will separate at the time of pralaya, disintegration or annihilation.
2. Some scholars describe the elements as composed of atoms, in the sense of irreducible units. In Vaisheshika, the causative substances are atoms and the elements are molecules in the Western sense. element is the grosser form. Each element is composed of atoms of the same name, but also of the other four atoms, giving rise to molecules. For example, the element air contains predominately air and also contains all the other atoms. Fire is composed mainly of fire and also contains the other atoms. In Sankhya, the elements are composed of the tanmatras, which are similar to the causative substances of Vaisheshika, but subtler than atoms. In Sankhya, Nyaya, and Vaisheshika, the tanmatras or causative substances are irreducible, but the elements are molecules. Note that we use Nyaya as a way of reasoning and understanding experience in what we call the physical universe. The content is Vaisheshika. Therefore, the concept of the elements and atoms belongs under Vaisheshika.
2 According to Vaisheshika, there are five kinds of atoms: ether, air, fire, water, and earth, each having its own qualities. Akasha (ether), the first substance, is the substratum of the quality of sound. There is only one atom of ether and it is universal. Akasha is also translated as space or sound and cannot be perceived directly. It is unlimited, eternal and universal, so it does not have a perceptible dimension. It is formless, so it does not have color. Therefore, Akasha cannot be perceived, but it can be inferred as a quality of sound. Akasha is not made up of parts and does not depend upon any other substance for existence. It is all-pervading in the sense that it has unlimited dimension and its quality of sound is perceived everywhere.
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and many other sources (see Bibliography).
Primary Original Source: The Tripitaka of Sutra, Shastra and Vinaya Dharma teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the Indian Sanskrit- Siddham, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese traditions of the Nalanda Tradition of ancient Nalanda University) of Shakyamuni Buddha, and his Arya Sagely Bodhisattva Bhikshu Monk and Upasaka disciples and especially Nagarjuna Suśruta-saṃhitā सुश्रुतसंहिता was composed by Suśruta सुश्रुत and redacted by Bhishu Nagarjuna, Charaka-saṃhitā चरकसंहिता was composed by Agniveśa अग्निवेश and later edited by Charaka चरक Patanjali, Aṣṭāṅga-hṛdaya-saṃhitā अष्टाग्ङहृदयसंहिता was composed by Vāgbhaṭa वाग्भट, Atreyea, Agnivesa, Kashyap Samhita (Sanskrit: कश्यप संहिता), also known as Braddha Jivakiya Tantra
These Good and Wise Advisors (Kaliyanamitra) Dharma Master teachers include Arya Venerables Om Tare Tuttare Ture Om Ah Hum and Namo to Jivaka, Charaka, Lao Zi - Mahakashapa, Ashwagosha, Shantideva - Hui Neng - Shen Kai Sheng Ren Shr, Bodhidharma, the 16 Nalanda Acharyas 1. Nagarjuna-Manjushri, 2. Arydeva, 3. Buddhapalita, 4. Bhavaviveka, 5. Chandrakirti and Chandragomin, 6. Shantideva, 7. Shantarakshita, 8. Kamalashila, 9. Asanga-Maitreya, 10. Vasubhandu, 11. Dignaga, 12. Dharmakirti, 13. Vimuktisena, 14. Haribhadra, 15. Gunaprabha, 16. Shakyaprabha; Dharmarakshita, Atisha, Tsong Khapa, Thogme Zangpo, Nyingma Padmasambhava, Yeshe Tsogyel, Machig Lapdron, Tilopa, Naropa, Milarepa, Sakya Pandita, Kumarajiva, Xuan Zang, Baozhi, Hui Yuan, Daosheng, Changzhi, Fazang, Han Shan, Shi De, Yunmen, Nichiren, Honen, Shinran, Kukai, Dogen, Hakuin, Jamgon Kongtrul, Nyingma Penor Rinpoche, Bakula Rinpoche, Dagri Rinpoche, Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche, Geshe Lama Kongchog, Longchen Rapjampa - Gosok Rinpoche, Phabongkha Rinpoche, Patrul Rinpoche, Tenzin Gyatso the Dalai Lama, Sakya Trizin, Hsu Yun, Hsuan Hua, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Choden Rinpoche, Garchen Rinpoche, Karmapa, Mingyur Rinpoche, Geshe Ngwang Dakpa, Geshe Sopa Rinpoche, Seung Sahn, Thich Nhat Hanh, Ajahn Chah, Ajahn Sumedho, S. N. Goenka, Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha, making offerings and b [[bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two attainments of Maha Punya and Maha Prajna Paramita. And Om Ah Hum thanks to other modern day masters. We consider them to be in accord with Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua’s “Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers”
Nalanda Online University's teachings are based especially on the following Buddhist Scriptures: Lama Tsong Khapa's Lam Rim, the Dharma Flower Lotus Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Ksitigarbha Sutra, the Bhaisajya Guru Sutra, the Dharani Sutra, the Vajra Sutra, the Prajna Paramita Hridayam Heart Sutra, the Vimalakirti Sutra, the Sanghata Sutra, the Sutra of Golden Light, the Srimala Devi Sutra, the Sutra in 42 Sections, the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Hui Neng Sutra, Vasubandhu's Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas, Maitreya's Ornament for Clear Realizations (Abhisamayalamkara), Chandrakirti's Supplement to Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Middle Way (Madhyamakavatara), Vasubandhu's Treasury of Manifest Knowledge (Abhidharmakosha) and the Tantras and Mantras of the Vajrayana the 42 Hands and Eyes, Guhyasamaja, the Kalachakra, the Vajrayogini, the Heruka, the Chakrasamvara, the Chod, the Hayagriva, the Hevajra, the Yamantaka, the Kalarupa, the Manjushri Nama Samgiti, the Vajrakilaya, the Vajrapani, the Vajra Claws Dakini, the Mahakala, the Tara, the White Umbrella Goddess (She Dan Do Bo Da La), Kirti Losang Trinle's Grounds and Paths of Secret Mantra, and Aku Sherab Gyatso's The Two Stages of the Guhyasamaja Tantra and their commentaries (shastras) by the above Arya Tripitakacharya Dharma Masters. Making offerings and bowing at your feet I make requests. Please bestow on me the two attainments of Maha Punya and Maha Prajna Paramita.
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