vaisheshika
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vaisheshika [2018/02/26 18:13] (current)
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 +======= Nyaya and Vaisheshika =======
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 +[[Nyaya]] and [[Vaisheshika]]
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 +The [[philosophies]] of [[Nyaya]] and [[Vaisheshika]] are represented by the writings of [[Gautama]] and [Kanada]], respectively. [[Nyaya]] means [[logic]] and [[Vaisheshika]] means to specify the important aspects of concrete [[reality]] ([[Provisional Truth]] - see [[Two Truths]]). The proponents of [[Nyaya]] and [[Vaisheshika]] believed in obtaining [[knowledge]] through [[observation]] and critical [[logic]] (see [[wp>​critical thinking]]. They were like modern [[wp>​scientist]]s. They found that certain principles which can be [[wp>​experience]]d with [[sensory]] [[perception]] are real-[[pratyaksha]],​ that which can be seen and [[wp>​experience]]d. [[Prahana]] means [[proof]]. The proponents of [[Nyaya]] and [[Vaisheshika]] discovered ways of investigating the [[truth]] and they stated that [[truth]] could be [[wp>​prove]]n.
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 +[[Nyaya]] and [[Vaisheshika]] go [[together]]. While [[Vaisheshika]] speaks about [[nine causative substances]] of the [[universe]],​ called [[nava karna dravya]], [[Nyaya]] deals with how to [[think]] about them-the [[wp>​reason]]ing. [[nava]] means [[nine]], [[karna]] means [[causative]],​ [[dravya]] means [[substance]]s. These [[nine causative substances]] are [[ether]], [[air]], [[fire]], [[water]], and [[earth]]; the [[soul]], [[atman]], which is [[spirit]] or [[self]]; [[mind]], [[manas]]; [[time]] [[kala]]; and [[dig]], [[direction]]. 2
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 +[[Vaisheshika]] holds to the [[wp>​atom]]ic [[theory]] of [[existence]] that claims the entire [[universe]] is composed of [[wp>​atom]]s. [[Vaisheshika]] believes the union and separation of [[wp>​atom]]s is guided or [[direct]]ed by the [[will]] of the [[Supreme Being]]. [[Ether]], [[air]], [[fire]], [[water]], and [[earth]] are [[eternal]] [[wp>​atom]]s. The union of [[wp>​atom]]s in [[two]]s, [[three]]s, etc., created [[universal]] [[element]]s at the [[time]] of [[creation]] and these [[wp>​atom]]s [[will]] separate at the [[time]] of [[pralaya]],​ [[wp>​disintegration]] or [[annihilation]]. ​
 +
 +2. Some [[scholar]]s describe the [[element]]s as composed of [[wp>​atom]]s,​ in the [[sense]] of [[wp>​irreducible]] units. In [[Vaisheshika]],​ the [[causative substances]] are [[wp>​atom]]s and the [[element]]s are [[wp>​molecule]]s in the [[wp>​Western]] [[sense]]. [[element]] is the [[gross]]er [[form]]. Each [[element]] is composed of [[wp>​atom]]s of the same [[name]], but also of the other [[four]] [[wp>​atom]]s,​ giving rise to [[wp>​molecule]]s. For example, the [[element]] [[air]] contains pre[[dominate]]ly [[air]] and also contains all the other [[wp>​atom]]s. [[Fire]] is composed mainly of [[fire]] and also contains the other [[wp>​atom]]s. In [[Sankhya]],​ the [[element]]s are composed of the [[tanmatra]]s,​ which are similar to the [[causative substances]] of [[Vaisheshika]],​ but [[subtle]]r than [[wp>​atom]]s. In [[Sankhya]],​ [[Nyaya]], and [[Vaisheshika]],​ the [[tanmatra]]s or [[causative substances]] are [[wp>​irreducible]],​ but the [[element]]s are [[wp>​molecule]]s. Note that we use [[Nyaya]] as a way of [[wp>​reason]]ing and [[understand]]ing [[wp>​experience]] in what we call the [[physical universe]]. The [[content]] is [[Vaisheshika]]. Therefore, the [[concept]] of the [[element]]s and [[wp>​atom]]s belongs under [[Vaisheshika]].
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 +1 The [[nine dravyas]] or [[causative]] [[substance]]s are [[earth]], [[water]], [[fire]], [[air]], [[ether]], [[time]] [[direction]],​ [[soul]], and [[mind]]. ​
 +
 +2 According to [[Vaisheshika]],​ there are [[five]] kinds of [[atom]]s: [[ether]], [[air]], [[fire]], [[water]], and [[earth]], each having its own [[qualities]]. [[Akasha]] ([[ether]]),​ the first [[substance]],​ is the substratum of the [[quality]] of [[sound]]. There is only one [[atom]] of [[ether]] and it is [[universal]]. [[Akasha]] is also translated as [[space]] or [[sound]] and cannot be [[perceive]]d [[direct]]ly. It is unlimited, eternal and [[universal]],​ so it does not have a perceptible [[dimension]]. It is [[formless]],​ so it does not have [[color]]. Therefore, [[Akasha]] cannot be [[perceive]]d,​ but it can be [[infer]]red as a [[quality]] of [[sound]]. [[Akasha]] is not made up of parts and does not depend upon any other [[substance]] for [[existence]]. It is all-[[pervading]] in the [[sense]] that it has unlimited [[dimension]] and its [[quality]] of [[sound]] is [[perceive]]d everywhere. ​
 +
 +
 +
 +----
 +List of [[Ayurveda Terms]] | [[Vata|Previous Term]] | [[Pitta|Next Term]]
 +
 +----
 +Return to the [[Buddhist Ayurveda Encyclopedia]] and 
 +[[Ayurvedic Terms]] and [[Glossary of Dharma]] | [[Recent Changes]]
 +
 +====== Fair Use Bibliographic Sources ======
 +[[Fair Use]]: ​
 +
 +Primary [[Fair Use]] Compilation Source: ​
 +
 +[[Vaidya]] [[Vasant Lad]], [[Textbook of Ayurveda Volume 1]] Fundamental Principles, [[wp>​Albuquerque]],​ [[wp>New Mexico]]: [[Ayurvedic Press]], 2001, p. 
 +
 +[[ISBN 1883725070]] ​ Hardback: 335 pages.  ​
 +http://​www.ayurveda.com/​ayurvedic_press/​textbook1_of_ayurveda.html
 +
 +http://​www.amazon.com/​gp/​product/​1883725070/​ref=ase_medicinebuddh-20
 +
 +[[Vasant Lad]], [[BAMS]], [[MAsc]], [[Ayurvedic Institute Gurukula Notes]], [[Ayurvedic Institute]],​ 1994-2006; ​
 +
 +and many other sources (see [[Bibliography]]).
 +
 +Primary Original Source: The [[Tripitaka]] of [[Sutra]], [[Shastra]] and [[Vinaya]] [[Dharma]] teachings (as found in the scripture storehouse of the [[India]]n [[Sanskrit]]- [[Siddham]],​ [[Chinese]],​ [[Tibetan]] and [[Japanese]] traditions of the [[Nalanda Tradition]] of ancient [[Nalanda University]]) of [[Shakyamuni Buddha]], and his [[Arya]] [[Sagely]] [[Bodhisattva]] [[Bhikshu]] [[Monk]] and [[Upasaka]] disciples and especially [[Nagarjuna]] [[Sushruta Samhita|Suśruta-saṃhitā]] सुश्रुतसंहिता was composed by [[Sushruta|Suśruta]] सुश्रुत and redacted by [[Bhishu]] [[Nagarjuna]],​ [[Charaka Samhita|Charaka-saṃhitā]] चरकसंहिता was composed by [[Agnivesha|Agniveśa]] अग्निवेश and later edited by [[Charaka|Charaka]] चरक [[Patanjali]],​ [[Astanga Hridaya Samhita|Aṣṭāṅga-hṛdaya-saṃhitā]] अष्टाग्ङहृदयसंहिता was composed by [[Vagbhata|Vāgbhaṭa]] वाग्भट,​ [[Atreyea]],​ [[Agnivesa]], ​ [[Kashyap Samhita]] (Sanskrit: कश्यप संहिता),​ also known as Braddha Jivakiya Tantra
 +
 +These [[Good and Wise Advisors]] ([[Kaliyanamitra]]) [[Dharma Master]] teachers include [[Arya]] [[Venerable]]s [[Om Tare Tuttare Ture]] [[Om Ah Hum]] and [[Namo]] to [[Jivaka]], [[Charaka]],​ [[Lao Zi]] - [[Mahakashapa]],​ [[Ashwagosha]],​ [[Shantideva]] - [[Hui Neng]] - [[Shen Kai]] [[Sheng Ren Shr]], [[Bodhidharma]],​ the 16 [[Nalanda Acharyas]] 1. [[Nagarjuna]]-[[Manjushri]],​ 2. [[Arydeva]],​ 3. [[Buddhapalita]],​ 4. [[Bhavaviveka]],​ 5. [[Chandrakirti]] and [[Chandragomin]],​ 6. [[Shantideva]],​ 7. [[Shantarakshita]],​ 8. [[Kamalashila]],​ 9. [[Asanga]]-[[Maitreya]],​ 10. [[Vasubhandu]],​ 11. [[Dignaga]],​ 12. [[Dharmakirti]],​ 13. [[Vimuktisena]],​ 14. [[Haribhadra]],​ 15. [[Gunaprabha]],​ 16. [[Shakyaprabha]];​ [[Dharmarakshita]],​ [[Atisha]], [[Tsong Khapa]], [[Thogme Zangpo]], [[Nyingma]] [[Padmasambhava]],​ [[Yeshe Tsogyel]], [[Machig Lapdron]], [[Tilopa]], [[Naropa]], [[Milarepa]],​ [[Sakya Pandita]], [[Kumarajiva]],​ [[Xuan Zang]], [[Baozhi]], [[Hui Yuan]], ​ [[Daosheng]],​ [[Changzhi]],​ [[Fazang]], [[Han Shan]], [[Shi De]], [[Yunmen]], [[Nichiren]],​ [[Honen]], [[Shinran]],​ [[Kukai]], [[Dogen]], [[Hakuin]], [[Jamgon Kongtrul]], [[Nyingma]] [[Penor Rinpoche]], [[Bakula Rinpoche]], [[Dagri Rinpoche]], [[Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche]], [[Geshe Lama Kongchog]], [[Longchen Rapjampa]] - [[Gosok Rinpoche]], [[Phabongkha Rinpoche]], [[Patrul Rinpoche]], [[Tenzin Gyatso]] the [[Dalai Lama]], [[Sakya Trizin]], [[Hsu Yun]], [[Hsuan Hua]], [[Lama Zopa Rinpoche]], [[Choden Rinpoche]], [[Garchen Rinpoche]], [[Karmapa]],​ [[Mingyur Rinpoche]], [[Geshe Ngwang Dakpa]], [[Geshe Sopa Rinpoche]], [[Seung Sahn]], [[Thich Nhat Hanh]], [[Ajahn Chah]], [[Ajahn Sumedho]], [[S. N. Goenka]], [[Mama Ayur Punya Jyana Pushtim Kuriye Svaha]], making [[offerings]] and [[b [[bowing]] at your feet I make [[request]]s. Please bestow on me the [[two attainments]] of [[Maha]] [[Punya]] and [[Maha]] [[Prajna Paramita]]. And [[Om Ah Hum]] thanks to other [[modern day masters]]. ​ We consider them to be in accord with [[Tripitaka Master]] [[Hsuan Hua]]’s "​[[Seven Guidelines for Recognizing Genuine Teachers]]"​
 +
 +[[Nalanda Online University]]'​s teachings are based especially on the following [[Buddhist Scriptures]]:​ [[Lama]] [[Tsong Khapa]]'​s [[Lam Rim]], the Dharma Flower [[Lotus Sutra]], the [[Avatamsaka Sutra]], the [[Shurangama Sutra]], the [[Ksitigarbha Sutra]], the [[Bhaisajya Guru Sutra]], the [[Dharani Sutra]], the [[Vajra Sutra]], the [[Prajna Paramita]] Hridayam [[Heart Sutra]], the [[Vimalakirti Sutra]], the [[Sanghata Sutra]], the [[Sutra of Golden Light]], the [[Srimala Devi Sutra]], the [[Sutra in 42 Sections]], the [[Mahaparinirvana Sutra]], the [[Hui Neng Sutra]], [[Vasubandhu]]'​s [[Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas]], Maitreya'​s [[Ornament for Clear Realizations]] ([[Abhisamayalamkara]]),​ [[Chandrakirti]]'​s [[Supplement to Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Middle Way]] ([[Madhyamakavatara]]),​ [[Vasubandhu]]'​s [[Treasury of Manifest Knowledge]] ([[Abhidharmakosha]]) and the [[Tantra]]s and [[Mantra]]s of the [[Vajrayana]] the [[42 Hands and Eyes]], [[Guhyasamaja]],​ the [[Kalachakra]],​ the [[Vajrayogini]],​ the [[Heruka]], the [[Chakrasamvara]],​ the [[Chod]], the [[Hayagriva]],​ the [[Hevajra]],​ the [[Yamantaka]],​ the [[Kalarupa]],​ the [[Manjushri Nama Samgiti]], the [[Vajrakilaya]],​ the [[Vajrapani]],​ the [[Vajra Claws Dakini]], the [[Mahakala]],​ the [[Tara]], the [[White Umbrella Goddess]] ([[She Dan Do Bo Da La]]), [[Kirti Losang Trinle]]'​s [[Grounds and Paths of Secret Mantra]], and [[Aku Sherab Gyatso]]'​s [[The Two Stages of the Guhyasamaja Tantra]] and their commentaries ([[shastra]]s) by the above Arya [[Tripitakacharya]] [[Dharma Master]]s. Making [[offerings]] and [[bowing]] at your feet I make [[request]]s. Please bestow on me the [[two attainments]] of [[Maha]] [[Punya]] and [[Maha]] [[Prajna Paramita]].
 +
 +----
 +NOTE: Numerous corrections and enhancements have been made under [[Shastra tradition]] and "​[[Fair Use]]" by an [[Anonymous]] [[Buddhist Monk]] [[Redactor]] (Compiler) of this Online [[Buddhist Encyclopedia]] Compilation) ​
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 +----
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 +[[Medicine King Bodhisattva]] [[Jeweled Ax Mantra]] 16 (Line 64 of the 
 +[[Great Compassion Mantra]] of [[Avalokiteshvara]]) of the [[42 Hands and Eyes Mantras]]: ​
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vaisheshika.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:13 (external edit)