THE VIMALAKĪRTI SUTRA 57 Contents Translator’s Introduction 59 The Vimalakīrti Sutra Fascicle One Chapter I. Buddha Land 69 Chapter II. Skillful Means 81 Chapter III. Disciples 85 Chapter IV. Bodhisattvas 97 Fascicle Two Chapter V. Mañjuśrī’s Condolence Visit 107 Chapter VI . Inconceivable 117 Chapter VII. Viewing Sentient Beings 123 Chapter VIII. The Path of Buddhahood 133 Chapter IX. The Dharma Gate of Nonduality 143 Fascicle Three Chapter X. The Buddha Accumulation of Fragrances 149 Chapter XI. Practices of the Bodhisattva 157 Chapter XII. Vision of Akṣobhya Buddha 165 Chapter XIII. Dharma Offering 171 Chapter XIV. Bestowal 177 Bibliography 181 Translator’s Introduction The Vimalakīrti Sutra(Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra) is renowned in contemporary world Buddhism for its breathtaking exposition of the Mahayana doctrine of nonduality, and justiﬁably so. The text imparts its penetrating insight by ﬁrst elaborating the manifold nuances of this doctrine in ﬁnely honed formal lan- guage, next by demonstrating the ideal in exquisite philosophical repartée, and then by dramatizing its lofty understanding in the climax of Vimalakīrti’s “thun- derous silence.” Doctrinally, the Vimalakīrti Sutraelaborates ideas deriving from the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajñāpāramitā) literature and stated more for- mally in the treatises of the Mādhyamika school. Spiritually, the demonstrative quality of Vimalakīrti’s silence, and the vivid interactions between him and his interlocutors, imply a deep connection with the later development of the Chi- nese Chan (Japanese: Zen) school as well. The intellectual charm of the doctrine of nonduality is only heightened by its being situated in such a spectacular religious world. This is no coldly ana- lytical treatise, no harshly systematic rehearsal of religious dogma, but a lively and inventive depiction of religious dialogue that palpably sparkles with humor, insight—and frequent irruptions of the miraculous. This last quality might be ignored by modernist readers, but its effects are too important to allow the ten- dency to go unchallenged. A fantastic congregation, including incredible arrays of gods, celestial bodhisattvas, and other beings, is assembled within Vimalakīrti’s tiny chamber, where they sit on magniﬁcent thrones of unimaginable size—all without jumbling up against each other, and entirely without contorting the dimensions of the ordinary world. The level of impossibility escalates even more when this congregation is then host to an entirely separate world-system, complete with its own mountains and continents, rivers and oceans, which Vimalakīrti grasps as easily as a potter throwing a lump of clay. And to match this incredible assembly there are miracles aplenty, beginning with heavenly ﬂowers raining from above and instantaneous gender reversals, leading up to 59 The Vimalakīrti Sutra the spectacular vision of a galaxy far, far away, where the reigning buddha teaches by means of fragrance rather than words. To top all of this off, a one- bowl-serves-all take-out meal from that world of fragrance is used to feed— and instruct—Vimalakīrti’s guests. (I wonder about the possible efficacy of a chocolate Dharma, but that divine substance is nowhere mentioned!) Though moderate in length the scripture is certainly magniﬁcent in the scale of its vision! At the heart of it all, of course, is the ﬁgure of Vimalakīrti. Throughout the course of the scripture he is identiﬁed as a great bodhi sattva who formerly lived in the “pure land” of the Buddha Akṣobhya, but who has chosen to be reborn in this world in order to teach the recalcitrant sentient beings here. His current identity as householder is but a pose he has assumed, just as his current illness is but a skillful means he has adopted: both are simply devices by which to teach sentient beings. The householder identity is manifestly impossible: he is celi- bate but has children, goes to brothels but is chaste, is rich but without desire, etc. The immense improbability of Vimalakīrti’s person is undoubtedly part of this religious appeal. Chinese readers were fascinated with the ﬁgure of Vimalakīrti, and it is usually said that he represented a type of religious ideal with which unordained literati could identify. Here was a rich and educated layman who could outper- form everyone around him—except, of course, the buddhas themselves—in every conceivable form of endeavor. He enjoyed every imaginable privilege, yet used his energies solely for the beneﬁt of the community around him, a type of service that resonated with Confucian social ideals. No doubt the popularity of the scripture in East Asia has something to do with this congruence with indigenous social ideals and the fascination Chinese Buddhists and interested intellectuals had in a ﬁgure of such diverse and remarkable talents. We should not overlook the active role local clienteles played in determining the selection of Buddhist texts that were presented for them in Chinese translation—the res- idents of East Asia were not passive recipients of Buddhist missionary activity, but very proactive consumers. In contrast to the relative obscurity of this text in India and Tibet, where there is no record of even a single commentary nor even of any art historical imagery based on it, from at least the third century of the common era the Vimalakīrti Sutrabecame one of the favorites of the East Asian tradition. There are over ﬁfteen hundred depictions of Vimalakīrti and Mañjuśrī in dialogue 60 Translator’s Introduction known from East Asian painting and sculpture traditions, as well as a series of inﬂuential commentaries, and innumerable occasional references to the text and its ideas in both religious and secular writings. This is but one example of the manner in which East Asian Buddhism draws on the universalistic themes devel- oped in the Indian homeland of the religion, even as the overall conﬁgurations of the Mahayana in South and East Asia are so profoundly different. It would be wrong, though, to exaggerate the importance of the Vimalakīrti Sutrain China, Korea, or Japan. Although it seems to have been used continu- ously throughout the East Asian Buddhist tradition, both temporally and geo- graphically, there are obvious limitations in the manner of its use. First, even though the text—like many other Mahayana Buddhist scriptures—recommends its own recitation, there is precious little evidence that it was ever very popu- lar as a devotional text, one to be recited for religious beneﬁt. The Lotus Sutra (Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra) and the Pure Land sutras (Sukhāvatīvyūha-sūtra, Amitāyurdhyāna-sūtra) are good examples of sutras used in this manner, of course, and even the massive Flower Garland Sutra(Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra) was used in the same way. Second, the Vimalakīrti Sutranever became the basis for a doctrinal tradition of its own, unlike the other scriptures just mentioned, which were used as scriptural bases of the Tiantai (Korean: Ch’ŏnt’ae; Japan- ese: Tendai), Pure Land, and Huayan (Hwaŏm; Kegon) schools. It is not merely that no independent “Vimalakīrti school” ever developed; the text is frequently mentioned as one of a number of important Mahayana texts but it tends to be listed in the middle of the pack, as it were. It was used occasionally for healing purposes in medieval China and Japan, though not as often as other scriptures. No matter what the time period, readers (both those who read for content and those who recite for religious value) tend to perceive their texts in idio- syncratic ways. One wonders if the medieval Chinese really noticed, for exam- ple, that the goal of all of Vimalakīrti’s efforts was not to create other enlight- ened laypeople like himself but to inspire his listeners to become monastics and embark on the bodhisattva path. Although accomplished bodhisattvas might choose to be reborn as laypeople, or as beings of virtually any identity, the text indicates on numerous occasions that the best response to hearing and under- standing its doctrine of inconceivable liberation was to leave home to become a monk and undertake training in the grandiose vocation of the bodhisattva. Vimalakīrti’s job description, in fact, even included the inspiration of some of 61 The Vimalakīrti Sutra his following to dedicate themselves to the goal of achieving “Hinayana” enlight- enment. Although the Mahayana goal of anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi(complete, perfect enlightenment) was clearly the highest religious ideal presented, for beings of lesser capacity to select lesser targets was not a failing but an appro- priate collateral beneﬁt. Not only does the Vimalakīrti Sutranot share in the “One Vehicle” teaching of the Lotus Sutra,in which all Buddhist practitioners are destined for perfect buddhahood, there is also no explicit hint of any rec- ommendation that one should dedicate lifetimes of training to achieving the sta- tus of an enlightened layperson. Modern readers are very interested in the scene in which a goddess upstages the stodgy śrāvakaor “Hinayana” monk Śāriputra. In a dramatization of the Vimalakīrti story that I saw in San Francisco in the summer of 2000, in which life-size puppets were used to represent the dramatis personae, the highlight of the performance came when the goddess transforms the bodies of herself and Śāriputra into their contrasting genders (depicted by a quick change of the pup- pets’ heads!). From our perspective, this is an important statement of a tradi- tional Buddhist attitude on the status of women, and thus a meaningful religious statement. However, although I have only begun to browse through the Chinese commentarial literature on the Vimalakīrti Sutra,it seems that medieval Chinese interest in this scene was rather different from ours. Whereas for modern peo- ple this is primarily a statement about gender, for medieval Chinese (and, I sus- pect, other East Asian) readers it was primarily a statement about emptiness. Translating the Vimalakīrti Sutrahas been a joy, in no small part because of the inherent interest of the text itself, including not only its speciﬁc doctri- nal formulations but just as importantly its dramatic ﬂair and sense of humor. As well, though, the immense pleasure of preparing this English rendition comes through the great resources that are now available. The present translation is an English rendition of the Chinese translation by Kumārajīva (350–409 or 413), or rather by the team of Kumārajīva, which included such famously gifted students as Seng zhao (373–414) and Daosheng (360?–434). My goal has indeed been to “represent” the Kumārajīva version of the Vimalakīrti Sutra, to create an English version that provides access to the text as it might have been understood by ﬁfth-century Chinese readers. One impli- cation of this decision is that I have rendered the terminology as it occurs in Chi- nese, without attempting to represent what may have been the underlyingIndic 62 Translator’s Introduction (either Sanskrit or Prakrit) terminology, except of course where Chinese char- acters are used to transliterate the Indic sounds. For example, where kleśamight better be rendered “deﬁlement,” the Chinese equivalent of fannaois given here as “afflictions,” because that is what the characters mean. And where the fourth skandha, saṃskāra,is best rendered “conditioning forces” or “impulses” based on the Sanskrit, the Chinese counterpart xingis given as “processes.” Although I obviously do not have direct access to the mind of medieval Chinese readers, I have made frequent use of the Zhu Wei mo jie jing(Taishō Shinshū DaizōkyōVol. 38, No. 1775, 327a–420a), the joint commentary to the Vimalakīrti Sutraleft by Kumārajīva, Sengzhao, and Daosheng, and I have tried to render the sutra in the way that it was understood by these primary ﬁgures of the translation team. To be able to consult this commentary, which assem- bles the comments of the chief translator and his primary assistants in the very translation project involved, was for me a remarkable experience. Practically speaking, I was unable to consult the joint commentary for every line, but I did check its contents when the Chinese phrasing of the sutra itself seemed questionable in some way. Only rarely if at all did the commentators answer my questions directly, and sometimes (especially toward the end of the text, when the density of their comments decreases) they offered no clue what- soever. However, in a refreshingly large number of cases some feature of their remarks allowed me to make a choice between reasonable alternatives, to cre- ate a suitable English analog to their understanding. I have also frequently con- sulted the two other extant Chinese translations of the Vimalakīrti Sutra, the ﬁrst (Taishō No. 474) by Zhi Qian (ﬂ. 220–252); and the other (Taishō No. 476) by the famous seventh-century pilgrim Xuanzang (596?–664); on rare occa- sions I have also consulted the commentary on this later translation by Xuan- zang’s disciple Ji (often referred to as Kuiji, 632–682), the Shuo Wu guo cheng jingshu(Taishō No. 1782). In the terms used within the sutra itself, I have fre- quently sighed in exclamation at the unprecedented quality of this arrangement. Another aspect of how enjoyable this translation project was is the fact that all the extant relevant Chinese texts are now available in well-proofed elec- tronic versions. As a result, my standard practice has been to type the English translation into a word processing ﬁle on the computer screen, alongside text editor windows containing the Zhi Qian, Kumārajīva, and Xuanzang transla- tions and the joint commentary of Kumārajīva, Sengzhao, and Daosheng. A 63 The Vimalakīrti Sutra simple search utility has allowed me to look for parallel usages in other Bud- dhist canonical sources when desired. This is the ﬁrst time I have been able to do translation work in such a manner, and I must express my profound grati- tude to the Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (CBETA, www. cbeta.org) for making this possible. The Vimalakīrti Sutrahas already been published four times in English translation, and I made some use of these resources in preparing the present English text. Of these four versions, only two are of the Kumārajīva text, and unfortunately neither is of sufficient quality to justify its extensive use here. Charles Luk’s older rendering is too freely interpretive to be of help, and in addition he frequently becomes confused regarding the grammatical construc- tion of the original. Burton Watson’s recent translation is better grammatically but his intentional lack of attention to Buddhist technical terms undermines his effort, eliminating a great deal of its intrinsic religious interest. Robert Thur- man’s translation of the Tibetan version of the Vimalakīrti Sutrais a very cred- itable rendition of that text but there are enough differences between it and Kumārajīva’s Chinese version to make extensive use inappropriate here. I have therefore relied primarily on Étienne Lamotte’s translation from the Tibetan, even though it sometimes regularizes the text (i.e., adverts to standard Indian Buddhist usages) in ways that the Thurman rendition does not. To be precise, I have used the English translation of Lamotte’s work done by Sara Boin (Lon- don: Pali Text Society, 1976), which sometimes renders scriptural passages more in line with Lamotte’s reconstructed Sanskrit than his translation of the Tibetan. (The preceding characterizations are based in part on Jan Nattier’s “The Teaching of Vimalakīrti[Vimalakīrti nirdeśa]: A Review of Four English Trans- lations,” Buddhist Literature 2 : 234–58.) For understanding the Chinese grammar of the Kumārajīva version I have consulted the “Yuima-gyō,”a use- ful modern Japanese translation by Jikidō Takasaki, in his and Kōshō Kawa- mura’s Yuima-gyō, Shiyaku Bonten shomon kyō, Shuryōgon zammai kyō [Vimalakīrti Sutra, Questions of the Brahmā (Deva) Viśeṣacinti Sutra, and Śūraṃgama-samādhi Sutra], Monju kyōten[Mañjuśrī Scriptures] no. 2 (Tokyo: Daizō shuppan, 1993), in spite of its emphasis on readings drawn from Lam- otte and the Tibetan translation. Recently, a Sanskrit manuscript of the Vimalakīrti Sutrahas been discovered, and I have acquired transcriptions of selected pas- sages through the kind assistance of Yoshiyasu Yonezawa of Taishō University. 64 Translator’s Introduction Chapter numbers and titles are as in the Taishō edition; section numbers imitate those in Lamotte, varying only where Kumārajīva’s text differs from the Tibetan version followed by Lamotte. 65 THE SUTRA PREACHED BY VIMALAKĪRTI Also called “The Inconceivable Emancipation” Translated by Tripiṭaka Master Kumārajīva of the Yao Qin [Dynasty] 537a7 69 Fascicle One Chapter I Buddha Land 1. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was in the garden of Āmrapālī near Vaiśālī, in the company of a great congregation of eight thousand bhikṣus. 2. There were thirty-two thousand bodhisattvas, recognized by the con- gregation. 3. The [bodhisattvas present] had all accomplished the original prac- tices of great wisdom; were established by the numinous charisma of the buddhas; maintained the correct Dharma for the defense of the Dharma city; made their names heard throughout the ten directions through their ability at the lion’s roar; befriended and paciﬁed people without being requested; exalted the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) and were thus able to keep them from being cut off; subjugated the vengeful Māras and con- trolled those of the heterodox paths; were entirely puriﬁed and had forever transcended the impediments (i.e., afflictions); maintained their minds always in peace and unhindered emancipation; were unfailing in their mindfulness, concentration, dhāraṇī(i.e., memorization of the Dharma), and eloquence; were replete in charity (dāna), morality (śīla), forbearance (kṣānti), exertion (vīrya), meditation (dhyāna), wisdom (prajñā), and the power of skillful means; had attained the forbearance of the nonarising of dharmas and the nonattainment [of all things]; were able to accord with [the truth] in turning the irreversible wheel [of the Dharma]; understood well the characteristics of the dharmas and understood the capacities (lit., “roots”) of sentient beings; had attained fearlessness in sheltering the great congregations; cultivated their minds with merit and wisdom; were paramount in the adornment of 537b their bodies with the [thirty-two primary] characteristics and [eighty sub- sidiary] marks; had dispensed with worldly adornments; were known above and beyond even Mount Sumeru; were ﬁrmly resolute in faith like vajra(i.e., diamond); illuminated the Dharma jewel everywhere and rained down the sweet dew [of the Dharma]; were paramount in the subtleties of the host of [spoken] sounds; profoundly entered into conditioned generation to eliminate the false views; were without any residual inﬂuence of the two extremes of being and nonbeing; preached the Dharma without fear like the lion’s roar; preached with reverberations like thunder; were without measure and beyond measurement; were like ocean captains who had collected the many Dharma jewels; comprehended the profound and wondrous meanings of the Dharmas; understood well the past tendencies and [current] mental processes of sen- tient beings; approached the unparalleled autonomous wisdom of the Buddha, the ten powers, [the four] fearlessnesses, and all the eighteen exclusive [attrib- utes of the Buddha]; had closed all the doorways of the evil destinations but were born in the ﬁve destinations in order to manifest their bodies there; were great medicine kings who were good at healing the various illnesses; pro- vided medicine according to the illness and caused it to be taken; were accom- plished in all the immeasurable merits; had ornamented and puriﬁed all the imeasurable buddha lands; unfailingly used what they saw and heard for the beneﬁt [of others]; and never squandered away their endeavors. Thus were they entirely replete in all merits. 4. Their names were Equivalent Contemplation Bodhisattva, Inequiva- lent Contemplation Bodhisattva, Equivalent-Inequivalent Contemplation Bodhisattva, Autonomy of Meditation King Bodhi sattva, Autonomous Dharma King Bodhisattva, Dharma Characteristic Bodhisattva, Radiance Characteristic Bodhisattva, Radiance Ornament Bodhisattva, Great Orna- ment Bodhisattva, Accum ulation of Jewels Bodhisattva, Accumulation of Eloquence Bodhisattva, Jewel Hand Bodhisattva, Jewel Seal Hand Bodhi- sattva, Constantly Raised Hand Bodhisattva, Constantly Lowered Hand Bodhisattva, Constantly Lamenting Bodhisattva, Roots of Joy Bodhisattva, Joy King Bodhisattva, Eloquent Sound Bodhisattva, Store of Space Bodhi- sattva, Holding the Jewel Torch Bodhisattva, Jewel Courage Bodhisattva, Jewel Vision Bodhisattva, Indra’s Net Bodhisattva, Illumination Net Bodhi- sattva, Unconditional Contemplation Bodhisattva, Accumulation of Wisdom 70 The Vimalakīrti Sutra 537c 71 Chapter I Bodhisattva, Excellent Jewel Bodhisattva, Heavenly King Bodhisattva, Destroyer of Māra Bodhisattva, Lightning-like Virtue Bodhisattva, Autonomous King Bodhisattva, Ornament of the Characteristics of Merit Bodhisattva, Lion’s Roar Bodhisattva, Sound of Thunder Bodhisattva, Sound Striking the Mountains Bodhisattva, Fragrant Elephant Bodhisattva, White Fragrant Elephant Bodhisattva, Constant Exertion Bodhisattva, Unresting Bodhisattva, Wondrous Birth Bodhisattva, Flower Ornament Bodhisattva, Contemplates the Sounds of the World (Avalokiteśvara) Bodhisattva, Attains Great Strength Bodhisattva, Brahmā’s Net Bodhisattva, Jewel Staff Bodhi- sattva, Undefeated Bodhisattva, Ornamented Earth Bodhisattva, Golden Crest Bodhisattva, Pearl Crest Bodhisattva, Maitreya Bodhisattva, Mañjuśrī Dharma Prince Bodhisattva—there were thirty-two thousand such as these. 5. There were also ten thousand Brahmā heavenly kings, Śikhin and others, who descended from the other worlds of four continents to proceed to where the Buddha was in order to hear the Dharma. There were also twelve thousand heavenly emperors (i.e., Indras), who also came from the other worlds of four continents to sit in this assembly, and the other awesomely powerful gods (devas), dragons (nāgas), yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kiṃnaras, and mahoragas, who all came to sit in the assembly. The bhikṣus (monks), bhikṣuṇīs (nuns), upāsakas (laymen), and upāsikās (laywomen) [also] came together to sit in the assembly. 6. At that time the Buddha explained the Dharma for the congregation of immeasurable hundreds of thousands surrounding and revering him. He was like [Mount] Sumeru, the king of mountains, rising high above the ocean. Peacefully seated on the many-jeweled lion seat, he towered over the great congregation of all those who had come there. 7. At that time there was an elder’s son in the city of Vaiśālī named Jewel Accumulation. He and ﬁve hundred other elders’ sons proceeded to where the Buddha was, holding canopies made of the seven treasures. Reverenc- ing [the Buddha’s] feet with their heads, they all simultaneously offered their canopies to the Buddha. 8. The Buddha’s numinous charisma made the jewel-laden canopies all turn into a single canopy, which covered the entire trimegachiliocosm, yet allowing all the characteristics of the breadth and length of this world to appear within it. Also, all the tri mega chilio cosm’s Mount Sumerus, Snowy The Vimalakīrti Sutra 72 Mountains, Mucilinda Mountains, Mahāmucilinda Mountains, Fragrant Mountains, Jewel Mountains, Golden Mountains, Black Mountains, Iron Ring Mountains, and Great Iron Ring Mountains; the oceans, rivers, streams, and springs; the suns, moons, and stars; the palaces of the gods, the palaces of the dragons, and the palaces of the honored gods—all these appeared within that jewel-laden canopy. Also, the buddhas of the ten directions, as well as the buddhas’ preaching of the Dharma, also appeared in that jewel- laden canopy. 9. At that time the entire great congregation observed the numinous power of the Buddha and exclaimed in praise of its unprecedented [quality]. They held their palms together and reverenced the Buddha, gazing up at his revered countenance without interruption. 10. At this the elder’s son Jewel Accumulation proclaimed in verse before the Buddha: 1. Your eyes are pure, And as large as blue lotuses; Your mind is pure, having mastered the concentrations. Long have you accumulated pure action—you are immeasurably praiseworthy; You have guided the congregation with serenity, and therefore we bow our heads to you. 2. We see the Great Sage use numinous transformations To manifest the immeasurable lands throughout the ten directions, Within which the buddhas preach the Dharma, And we thus can see and hear them all! 3. The Dharma power of the Dharma King surpasses all other beings, And you always give the wealth of Dharma to all. Well do you discriminate the characteristics of the dharmas and remain unmoved within the cardinal principle. You have already achieved autonomy with regard to the dharmas, and therefore we bow our heads to you as Dharma King. 4. You explain that the dharmas are neither extant nor non-extant, Although the dharmas are generated from causes and conditions; That they are without self, without creation, without experiencer, Although good and evil karma is also not extinguished. 5. Initially, under the bodhitree you forcefully subjugated Māra, Attaining extinction, like sweet dew, and achieving enlightenment. Without any intention in mind and without experiencing any process, You thoroughly vanquished the heterodox paths. 6. With three turnings of the wheel of the Dharma in the chiliocosm, The wheel is fundamentally always pure. The achievement of enlightenment by gods and humans attests to this, And the Three Jewels are thus manifest in the world. 7. With this wondrous Dharma you save sentient beings, Who after experiencing it never regress from permanent serenity. As the Great Medicine King who saves us from old age, illness, and death, You should be worshiped as a Dharma sea whose virtues are boundless. 8. Immovable before abuse and praise, like [Mount] Sumeru, You are equally compassionate to those who are good or not. Your mental processes are universally same, like space— Who could hear of the Jewel Among Humans without becoming devoted [to you]? 9. Now we offer the World-honored One this subtle canopy Within which is manifested to us the trimegachiliocosm, Including the palaces in which the gods and dragons abide, As well as the gan dharvas and yakṣas. 10. We see all that transpires in the world, As He of the Ten Powers compassionately manifests these transformations. The congregation has observed this rare event and all exclaimed in praise of the Buddha, Chapter I 73 538a And now we bow our heads to the Honored One of the triple world. 11. [You,] the Great Sage and Dharma King, are the refuge of the congregation, Who purify their minds in contemplating [you,] the Buddha, all of them in ecstasy. They each see the World-honored One in front of himself, Through the [eighteen] exclusive attributes of [the Buddha’s] numinous power. 12. The Buddha explains the Dharma with one sound, And sentient beings each attain understanding according to their capacity. Each one says the World-honored One is speaking his own language, Through the exclusive attribute of [the Buddha’s] numinous power. 13. The Buddha preaches the Dharma with one sound, And sentient beings each understand accordingly. Everyone accepts and practices it, and receives its beneﬁt, Through the exclusive attribute of [the Buddha’s] numinous power. 14. The Buddha preaches the Dharma with one sound, But some are afraid and some joyous. Some generate revulsion [to the world of suffering] or eliminate their doubts, Through the exclusive attribute of [the Buddha’s] numinous power. 15. We bow our heads to Him of the Ten Powers and Great Exertion. We bow our heads to Him Who Has Achieved Fearlessness. We bow our heads to Him Residing in the Exclusive Attributes. We bow our heads to the Great Guide of All. 16. We bow our heads to Him Who Can Eradicate the Fetters. We bow our heads to Him Who Has Arrived at the Other Shore. 74 The Vimalakīrti Sutra 75 Chapter I We bow our heads to Him Who Can Save [Beings in All] the Worlds. We bow our heads to Him Who Has Eternally Transcended the Realm of Samsara. 17. You understand the past and future characteristics of sentient beings, And well have you attained emancipation with regard to the dharmas. Unattached to the world, like the lotus ﬂower [growing out of the mud], You always enter well into the practice of empty serenity (i.e., nirvana). 18. You have attained the characteristics of the dharmas without hindrance, And we bow our heads to Him Who Relies On Nothing, Like Space. 11. When the elder’s son Jewel Accumulation ﬁnished speaking this verse, he addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, these ﬁve hundred elders’ sons have all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak- saṃbodhi(complete, perfect enlightenment). We wish to hear of the purity of the countries of the Buddha. Would the World-honored One please explain for the bodhisattvas the practices by which a land is puriﬁed?” The Buddha said, “Excellent, Jewel Accumulation! You are able to inquire on behalf of the bodhisattvas regarding the practices by which the Tathāgata puriﬁed his land. Listen clearly, listen clearly, and consider this well. I will explain it for you.” At this Jewel Accumulation and the ﬁve hun- dred elders’ sons listened as instructed. 12. The Buddha said, “Jewel Accumulation, the categories of sentient beings are the bodhisattvas’ buddha lands. Why is this? Bodhisattvas acquire the buddha lands according to the sentient beings they convert. They acquire the buddha lands according to the sentient beings they discipline. They acquire the buddha lands according to what country sentient beings need to enter into buddha wisdom. They acquire the buddha lands according to what coun- try sentient beings need to generate the roots [for becoming] bodhisattvas. 538b Why is this? Because bodhisattvas’ acquisition of the pure countries is entirely for the beneﬁt of sentient beings. It is like a man who wants to build a palace on empty land who is [able to build it] according to his wish without hindrance. He would never be able to build it in space. Bodhisattvas are like this. In order to accomplish the [salvation of] sentient beings, they vow to acquire the buddha countries. The vow to acquire a buddha land is not done in empty space! 13. “Jewel Accumulation, you should understand that sincerity is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva attains buddhahood, it is sen- tient beings who do not ﬂatter [and lie] that come be born in his country. “A profound mind is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva attains buddhahood, it is sentient beings who are complete in merit that come to be born in his country. “The mind of bodhi(bodhicitta,i.e., the intention to achieve perfect enlight- enment) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddha - hood, sentient beings of the Mahayana come to be born in his country. “Charity (dāna) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—all sentient beings capa- ble of renunciation come to be born in his country. “Morality (śīla,lit., “maintaining the precepts”) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who have fulﬁlled their vows to practice the path of the ten types of good come to be born in his country. “Forbearance (kṣānti) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhi- sattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who have ornamented themselves with the thirty-two marks [of a buddha] come to be born in his country. “Exertion (vīrya) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who have energetically cultivated all the [types of] merit come to be born in his country. “Meditation (dhyāna) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhi- sattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who control their minds and keep them undisturbed come to be born in his country. “Wisdom (prajñā) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who [have achieved] correct concen- tration come to be born in his country. “The four unlimited states of mind (i.e., the brāhma-vihāras) are the bodhi- sattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentientbeings 76 The Vimalakīrti Sutra 77 Chapter I who have developed sympathy, compassion, joy, and equanimity come to be born in his pure land. “The four means of attraction are the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who have been attracted through his emancipation come to be born in his country. “Skillful means are the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings whose skillful means are without hin- drance regarding all the the dharmas come to be born in his country. “The thirty-seven factors of enlightenment are the bodhisattva’s pure land— when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who [have accom- plished the] foundations of mindfulness, correct exertions, numinous capabil- ities, faculties, powers, and the noble path come to be born in his country. “The attitude of rededication [of merit] is the bodhisattva’s pure land— when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, he attains a country that is com- plete in all [forms of] merit. “Explaining how to eliminate the eight difﬁcult realms [where the Buddha and Dharma are unknown] is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhi- sattva achieves buddhahood, his country is without the three evil destina- tions and eight difﬁcult realms. “Maintaining one’s own practice of the precepts without reviling the deﬁciencies of others is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, his country is without the names (i.e., without even the words) ‘violation’ and ‘prohibition.’ “The ten goods are the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings whose lifespans are not interrupted, who are very wealthy, who are chaste, whose words are truthful, who always use gentle language, who do not isolate themselves from their subordinates and who are good at resolving disputes, whose words are always beneﬁcial, who are not jealous, who are not prone to anger, and who have correct views— [all these types of sentient beings] come to be born in his country. 14. “Thus, Jewel Accumulation, according to his sincerity does the bodhi- sattva generate his practice. According to his generation of practice does he attain the profound mind. According to his profound mind does he discipline his intention. According to the disciplining of his intention does he practice in conformity with the teaching. According to his practice in conformanceto the teaching is he able to rededicate [merit]. 538c “According to his rededication does he have skillful means. According to his skillful means does he make sentient beings accomplish [liberation]. According to his accomplishment [of the liberation] of sentient beings is his buddha land pure. According to the purity of the buddha land is his expla- nation of the Dharma pure. According to the purity of his explanation of the Dharma is his wisdom pure. According to the purity of his wisdom is his mind pure. According to the purity of his mind are all his merits pure. “Therefore, Jewel Accumulation, if a bodhisattva wishes to attain a pure land he should purify his mind. According to the purity of his mind is his buddha land pure!” 15. At that time Śāriputra was inﬂuenced by the Buddha’s numinous charisma to have this thought: “If the bodhisattva’s buddha land is pure according to the purity of the bodhisattva’s mind, then when our World-hon- ored One was a bodhisattva his mind must have been pure. Nevertheless, this buddha land is so impure!” The Buddha knew what he was thinking and asked him, “What do you think? Although the blind do not see them, can the sun and moon be any- thing but pure?” [Śāriputra] answered, “No, World-honored One! This is the fault of the blind, not that of the sun and moon.” [The Buddha said], “Śāriputra, it is through the transgressions of sen- tient beings that they do not see the purity of the Tathāgata’s (i.e., my) buddha land. This is not the Tathāgata’s fault! Śāri putra, this land of mine is pure, but you do not see it.” 16. At that time Conch Crest Brahmā King said to Śāriputra, “Do not think thus, saying that this buddha land is not pure. Why? I have witnessed the purity of Śākyamuni’s buddha land. It is like the heavenly palace of Īśvara.” Śāriputra said, “As I observe this land, it is hills and hollows, brambles and gravel, and rocks and mountains—all ﬁlled with deﬁlements.” Conch Crest Brahmā King said, “Sir, your mind has (i.e., perceives) high and low because you are not relying on buddha wisdom. Hence you perceive this land as impure. Śāriputra, the bodhisattva is universally same [in attitude] regarding all sentient beings. The purity of his profound mind relies on buddha wisdom and therefore is able to perceive the purity of this buddha land.” 78 The Vimalakīrti Sutra 539a 79 Chapter I 17. At this the Buddha pointed to the earth with his toe, and instantly the trimegachiliocosm was as if ornamented with a hundred thousand jew- els. It was like the Jewel Ornamentation land, with all its immeasurable mer- its, of Jewel Ornament Buddha. The entire great assembly exclaimed at this unprecedented event, and they all saw themselves sitting on many-jeweled lotus ﬂowers. 18. The Buddha told Śāriputra, “You should now observe the purity of this buddha land.” Śāriputra said, “So it is, World-honored One. Originally I did not see it; originally I did not hear it. Now the purity of the Buddha’s country is entirely apparent.” The Buddha said to Śāriputra, “My buddha country is always pure, like this. It is only so as to save inferior persons here that I manifest it as a deﬁled and impure land. It is like the many-jeweled eating utensils used in common by the gods, the food in which is of different colors depending on their mer- its. Just so, Śāriputra, if a person’s mind is pure he sees the merits and orna- ments of this land.” 19. When the Buddha manifested the purity of this country, the ﬁve hun- dred elders’ sons led by Jewel Accumulation all achieved forbearance of the nonarising of dharmas. Eighty-four thousand people all generated the inten- tion to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. 20. The Buddha then withdrew his numinous powers, and the world returned to its former [appearance]. The thirty-two thousand gods and humans who sought the śrāvakavehi- cle understood that conditioned dharmas were all entirely impermanent and, distantly transcending sensory deﬁle ment, they attained purity of the Dharma eye. Eight thousand bhikṣus [achieved] nonexperiencing of the dharmas, their minds liberated by the elimination of the ﬂaws. 81 Chapter II Skillful Means 1. At that time there was within the great city of Vaiśālī an elder named Vimalakīrti. He had already made offerings to immeasurable buddhas, deeply planting the foundation of goodness. He had attained forbearance of the nonarising [of dharmas], and his eloquence was unhindered. He disported in the numinous penetrations and had achieved all the dhāraṇīs. He had attained fearlessness and had subjugated the troubling vengeance of the Māras. Entering into [all the] gates of profound Dharma, he was excellent at the perfection of wisdom. Having penetrated skillful means, his great vows had been accomplished. Understanding the tendencies of the minds of sen- tient beings, he was also able to discriminate between those of sharp and dull faculties. Long [a practitioner of] the path of buddhahood, his mind was already pure, and he was deﬁnitively [dedicated to] the Mahayana. He con- sidered well the activities of the realms of existence, and, residing in the deportment of the Buddha, his mind was great as the ocean. The buddhas praised him [as their] disciple, and the Indras, Brahmās, and world lords (i.e., heavenly kings) revered him. 2. Wanting to save people, [Vimalakīrti] used his excellent skillful means to reside in Vaiśālī, where with wealth immeasurable he attracted the poor, with the purity of his morality he attracted the miscreants, with the moder- ation of his forbearance he attracted the angry, with great exertion he attracted the indolent, with singleminded concentration he attracted the perturbed, and with deﬁnitive wisdom he attracted the foolish. 3. Although he was a white-robed [layman], he maintained the pure Vinaya conduct of a śramaṇa;although he resided in the home, he was not attached to the triple world. He manifested the existence of wife and sons, but always cultivated chastity. He revealed the existence of subordinates, but always enjoyed transcendence. Although his clothing was richly decorated, 539b 82 The Vimalakīrti Sutra it was with the marks and features [of a Tathāgata] that he adorned his body. Although he drank and ate, the joy of concentration was his [favorite] ﬂavor. If he went to gambling houses or theaters it was only to save people. He hosted those of the heretic paths without breaking his correct faith. Although he illuminated the profane classics he always took pleasure in the Buddha- Dharma. He was revered by all as the one most worthy of offerings. 4. In supporting the correct Dharma he attracted both old and young. In all of his business dealings, although he made worldly proﬁts he never took joy in them. In wandering the crossroads, he dispensed beneﬁt to sentient beings. In entering into government administration, he safeguarded every- one. In entering into the lecture halls, he led people by means of the Mahayana. In entering the schools, he inspired the children. In entering the brothels, he revealed the transgressions [that arise from] desire. In entering the wine shops, he was able to maintain (lit., “establish”) his [good] intention. 5. When he was with the elders, as the most honored of the eminent he explained the excellent Dharma for them. When he was among retired schol- ars as the most honored of the retired scholars he eradicated their attachments. When he was among kṣatriyas, as the most honored among kṣatriyas he taught them forbearance. When he was among brahmans, as the most honored among brahmans he eliminated their arrogance. When he was among the ministers, as the most honored among ministers he taught them the correct Dharma. When he was among princes, as the most honored among princes he instructed them with loyalty and ﬁliality. When he was among palace ofﬁcials, as the most honored among palace ofﬁcials he converted the palace women. 6. When he was among the common people, as the most honored among the common people he had them generate the power of blessings. When he was among Brahmā gods, as the most honored of the Brahmā gods he taught with superior wisdom. When he was among Indras, as the most honored among Indras he man- ifested impermanence. When he was among world-protector [gods], as the most honored among world-protectors he protected sentient beings. The Elder Vimalakīrti used immeasurable skillful means such as these to beneﬁt sentient beings. 83 Chapter II 7. Using skillful means he manifested becoming ill himself. Because he was ill, the king, ministers, elders, retired scholars, brahmans, the princes and the other palace retainers, and innumerable thousands of people all came to inquire about his illness. 8. To those who came, Vimalakīrti used the occasion of his illness to make extensive explanations of the Dharma. “Sirs, the body is impermanent, without strength, without power, with- out solidity. Given the way it rapidly disintegrates, it cannot be trusted (i.e., relied upon). Alternately suffering and vexatious, it accumulates a host of illnesses. Sirs, the wise do not rely on such a body. 9. “This body is like a bit of foam that cannot be grasped. This body is like bubbles that do not last very long. This body is like a mirage, generated from thirst. This body is like a banana tree, with nothing solid within. This body is like a phantasm arising from confused [views]. This body is like a dream, an illusory view. This body is like a shadow, manifested through karmic conditions. This body is like an echo, dependent on causes and con- ditions. This body is like a cloud, which changes and disappears in an instant. This body is like lightning, unstable from one moment to another. 10. “This body is without master, like the earth. This body is without self, like ﬁre. This body is without lifespan, like the wind. This body is with- out person, like water. 11. “This body is insubstantial, being housed in the four elements. This body is empty, transcending self and the qualities of self. This body is igno- rant, like plants and rocks. This body is inactive, being turned by the power of the wind. This body is impure, replete with deﬁlements. This body is untrustworthy, since even though one washes, clothes, and feeds it it will nec- essarily disintegrate. This body is a disaster, vexed by a hundred and one ill- nesses. This body is like a well on a hill, pressed by age. This body is unre- liable, dying in spite of being needed. This body is like a poisonous snake, a vengeful bandit, an empty aggregation. It is the composite of the skandhas, sensory realms, and sensory capacities. “Sirs, this [body] being so calamitous and repugnant, you should wish for the body of the Buddha. Why? 12. “The body of the Buddha is the body of the Dharma. It is generated through immeasurable wisdom and merit. It is generated through morality, 539c meditation, wisdom, emancipation, and the knowledge and vision of eman- cipation. It is generated through sympathy, compassion, joy, and equanim- ity (i.e., the four unlimiteds). It is generated through the perfections of char- ity, morality, forbearance and adaptability, energetic exertion, meditation, emancipation, samādhi, and learned wisdom. It is generated from skillful means; it has been generated from the six penetrations; it is generated from the three illuminations; it is generated from the thirty-seven factors of enlight- enment; it has been generated from concentration and contemplation; it is generated from the ten powers, the four fearlessnesses, and the eighteen exclusive attributes; it is generated from the eradication of all the dharmas that are not good and accumulation of all the good dharmas; it is generated from the truth; it is generated from the absence of negligence. “The Tathāgata’s body is generated from immeasurable pure dharmas such as these. Sirs, if you wish to attain the body of the Buddha and eradi- cate all the illnesses of sentient beings, you should generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi!” 13. Thus did the Elder Vimalakīrti explain the Dharma for those who inquired about his illness, causing innumerable thousands of people to all generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. The Vimalakīrti Sutra 84 Chapter III Disciples 1. At that time the Elder Vimalakīrti thought to himself, “I am lying sick in bed. How can the World-honored One, He of Great Sympathy, not take pity on me?” 2. Knowing what [Vimalakīrti] was thinking, the Buddha immediately told Śāriputra, “Go visit Vimalakīrti and inquire about his illness.” Śāriputra addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in the past, when I was sitting in repose beneath a tree. At the time Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 3. “‘O Śāriputra, you need not take this sitting [in meditation] to be sit- ting in repose. Sitting in repose is to not manifest body and mind in the triple world—this is sitting in repose. To generate the concentration of extinction while manifesting the deportments—this is sitting in repose. Not to relin- quish the Dharma of enlightenment and yet manifest the affairs of [ordinary] sentient beings—this is sitting in repose. To have the mind neither abide internally nor locate itself externally—this is sitting in repose. To be unmoved by the [sixty-two mistaken] views yet cultivate the thirty-seven factors of enlightenment—this is sitting in repose. Not to eradicate the afflictions yet enter into nirvana—this is sitting in repose. “‘Those who are able to sit in this fashion [will receive] the Buddha’s seal of approval.’ 4. “At the time, World-honored One, I simply listened to this explana- tion in silence and was unable to respond. Therefore, I cannot accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness.” 5. The Buddha told Mahāmaudgalyāyana, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Maudgalyāyana addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember 85 once in the past, I had entered the great city of Vaiśālī and was explaining the Dharma to the retired scholars of a certain neighborhood. At the time Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 6. “‘O Mahāmaudgalyāyana, when you explain the Dharma to white- robed retired scholars, you should not explain it as you are now doing. In explaining the Dharma, you should explain according to the Dharma. “‘The Dharma is without sentient beings because it transcends the deﬁle- ments of sentient beings; the Dharma is without self because it transcends the deﬁlements of self; the Dharma is without lifespan because it transcends birth and death (samsara); and the Dharma is without person because it erad- icates the threshold between previous and subsequent [moments]. “‘The Dharma is permanently serene because it extinguishes the char- acteristics; the Dharma transcends characteristics because it is without con- ditions; the Dharma is without names because it eradicates words; the Dharma is without explanation because it transcends discursive thought and reason- ing; the Dharma is without the characteristics of form because it is like space; the Dharma is without hypotheses because it is ultimately empty; the Dharma is without the sense of personal possession because it transcends personal possession; the Dharma is without discrimination because it transcends the consciousnesses; and the Dharma is incomparable because there is nothing to match it; the Dharma is divorced from causation because it is not located in conditionality. “‘The Dharma is identical to Dharma-nature because it inheres in the dharmas; the Dharma accords with suchness because it is without anything that accords with it; the Dharma abides in the actual because it is unmoved by the extremes; the Dharma is motionless because it is not dependent on the six types of sensory data; and the Dharma is without past and future because it is constantly nonabiding. “‘The Dharma concurs with emptiness, accords with the absence of char- acteristics, and responds to inactivity. The Dharma transcends good and ugly, the Dharma is without gain and loss, the Dharma is without generation and extinction, and the Dharma is without refuge. The Dharma surpasses eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. The Dharma is without high and low, the Dharma abides constantly without moving, and the Dharma transcends all practices of contemplation. 86 The Vimalakīrti Sutra 540a Chapter III 87 7. “‘O Mahāmaudgalyāyana, with characteristics such as these, how can the Dharma be explained? Explaining the Dharma should be without explain- ing and without indicating. Listening to the Dharma should be without lis- tening and without attaining. “‘It is like a magician explaining the Dharma to conjured people. 8. “‘One should have such a mindset in explaining the Dharma; one should comprehend that the faculties of sentient beings [include both] sharp and dull. You would do well to be without hindrance in your knowledge and vision. Use the mind of great compassion and praise the Mahayana. Remem- ber to recompense the kindness of the Buddha and do not cut off the Three Jewels. Thus should you explain the Dharma.’ 9. “When Vimalakīrti explained this Dharma, eight hundred retired schol- ars generated the intention to achieve anuttarā sam yak saṃbodhi.I lack this eloquence. Therefore I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” 10. The Buddha told Mahākāśyapa, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Kāśyapa addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in the past, when I was begging in a poor neighborhood, Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 11. “‘O Mahākāśyapa, you have the mind of sympathy and com passion but are unable [to apply it] universally. You have abandoned the wealthy to beg from the poor. “‘Kāśyapa, while abiding in the Dharma of universal sameness, you should proceed in sequence in your begging. “‘It is because of not eating that you should practice begging. “‘It is because of the destruction of one’s physical integrity that you should take that lump of food. It is because of not receiving that you should receive that food. “‘You should enter a village with the idea that it is an empty aggregation. 12. “‘The forms you see are equivalent to [what] the blind [see]; the sounds you hear are equivalent to echoes; the fragrances you smell are equiv- alent to the wind; the ﬂavors you eat should not be discriminated; your tac- tile sensations are like the realizations of wisdom; and you should understand 540b that the dharmas are like phantasms. That which is without self-nature and without other-nature originally was not burning and will not become extin- guished now. 13. “‘Kāśyapa, if you are able to enter the eight emancipations without renouncing the eight perversions, using the characteristic of perversion to enter into the correct Dharma, and using a single meal to give to all, mak- ing offerings to the buddhas and the assembly of worthies and sages—only then should you eat. “‘To eat in this fashion is neither to have the afflictions nor to transcend the afflictions, it is neither to enter into concentration nor to arise from con- centration, it is neither to abide in the world nor to abide in nirvana. “‘Where there is charity, there are neither great nor small blessings, nei- ther beneﬁt nor harm. This is the correct entry into the path of buddhahood, without relying on the śrāvaka[vehicle]. “‘Kāśyapa, if you can eat according to this [understanding] then you will not render void the charity of those who feed you.’ 14. “At the time, World-honored One, the explanation I heard was unprecedented to me, and I immediately generated a profound sense of rev- erence for all bodhisattvas. I also thought, ‘This householder’s eloquence and wisdom being as they are, how could anyone who hears him not gener- ate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi? From now on I will never exhort anyone to undertake the practices of śrāvakaor pratyekabuddha.’ Therefore I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” 15. The Buddha told Subhūti, “You go inquire about Vimala kīrti’s ill- ness.” Subhūti addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in the past, I entered into his home to beg. At the time Vimalakīrti ﬁlled my bowl full of food and said to me, 16. “‘O Subhūti, if you are able to be universally same about eating, then the dharmas are also universally same; if the dharmas are universally same, you should also be universally same about eating. If you can practice begging like this, you may accept the food. “‘If, Subhūti, you refrain from eradicating licentiousness, anger, and stupidity, yet are not equipped with them; if you do not destroy the body, yet 88 The Vimalakīrti Sutra 540c 89 Chapter III accord with the single characteristic; if you do not extinguish stupidity and affection, yet generate wisdom and emancipation; if you use the character- istics of the ﬁve transgressions to attain emancipation, without either eman- cipation or bondage; if you do not perceive the four noble truths, yet do not fail to perceive the truths; neither attaining the results [of becoming a stream- enterer (srotāpanna), and so on,] nor not attaining the results; neither being an ordinary [unenlightened] person nor transcending the state (lit., “dharma”) of ordinary person; neither being a sage nor not being a sage; accomplish- ing all the dharmas yet transcending the characteristics of the dharmas— then you can accept this food. 17. “‘Subhūti, you should only accept this food if you can neither see the Buddha nor hear the Dharma, nor the six teachers of heterodox paths— Pūraṇa Kāśyapa, Maskarin Gośālīputra, Saṃ jayin Vairaṭīputra, Ajita Keśa - kam bala, Kakuda Kātyāyana, and Nirgrantha Jñātiputra, who were your teachers, following whom you left home, [so that] at the defeat of those teach- ers you were also defeated—then you can accept this food. 18. “‘If, Subhūti, you can enter into the heterodox views and not reach the other shore; abide in the eight difﬁculties and not attain the absence of difﬁculty; identify with the afflictions and transcend the pure dharmas; attain the samādhi of noncontention; if all sentient beings generate this concen- tration; if the donors do not name you their ﬁeld of blessings; if those mak- ing offerings to you fall into the three evil destinations; if you join hands with the host of Māras and make them your co-workers; if you do not dif- ferentiate yourself from the host of Māras and the sensory troubles; if you bear resentment toward all sentient beings; if you revile the Buddha, deni- grate the Dharma, and do not enter the Sangha; and if you never attain extinc- tion—if you are like this then you can accept the food.’ 19. “When I heard these words, World-honored One, I was bewildered and did not understand what he had said. I did not know how to answer, so I put down the bowl and tried to leave his house. Vimalakīrti then said, “‘O Subhūti, do not be afraid to take your bowl. What is the meaning of this? If a [phantasmagorical] person whom the Tathāgata has created through the transformation [of conjury] is criticized for this, should he be afraid?’ I said, ‘No.’ Vimalakīrti said, ‘All the dharmas have the character- istic of being like phantasmagorical transformations. You should not have 541a 90 any fear now. Why? All verbal explanations do not transcend this charac- teristic. The wise are not attached to letters, and therefore they have no fear. Why? The nature of letters transcends [their characteristics]; there are no let- ters. This is emancipation, and the characteristic of emancipation is the dhar- mas.’ 20. “When Vimalakīrti explained this Dharma, two hundred gods attained puriﬁcation of their Dharma eyes. Therefore I cannot accept [your instruc- tion] to go inquire about his illness.” 21. The Buddha told Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Pūrṇa addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in the past, when I was beneath a tree in the forest explaining the Dharma to novice bhikṣus. At the time Vimala kīrti came and said to me, 22. “‘O Pūrṇa, you should only explain the Dharma after ﬁrst entering into concentration and contemplating the minds of these people—do not put deﬁled food in a jeweled vessel. You should understand what these bhikṣus are thinking—do not put lapis lazuli together with crystal. “‘You are unable to understand the fundamental sources of sentient beings—do not inspire them with the Hinayana Dharma. Other and self are without ﬂaw, so do not harm them. If someone wants to travel the great path (i.e., practice the Maha yana), do not show them a small pathway. The ocean cannot be contained within the hoofprint of an ox; the radiance of the sun cannot be equaled by that of a ﬁreﬂy. “‘Pūrṇa, these bhikṣus have long since generated the aspiration for the Mahayana but in the midst [of many rebirths] they have forgotten this inten- tion. “‘Why would you teach them with the Hinayana Dharma? When I con- sider the Hinayana, its wisdom is as minute as a blind man’s, [and with it you are] unable to discriminate the sharp and dull faculties of all sentient beings.’ 23. “Then Vimalakīrti entered into samādhiand made the bhikṣus aware of their previous lives. They had planted virtuous roots under ﬁve hundred buddhas and had rededicated them to their [eventual achievement of] anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. [Learning this], they immediately experienced a suddenly The Vimalakīrti Sutra 91 Chapter III expansive reacquisition of that original inspiration. At this the bhikṣus bowed their heads in reverence to Vimalakīrti’s feet. Then Vimalakīrti explained the Dharma for them, and they never again retrogressed from [their progress to] anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. 24. “I thought, ‘ Śrāvakas do not consider the faculties of people and therefore should not explain the Dharma.’ “Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his ill- ness.” 25. The Buddha told Mahākātyāyana, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Kātyāyana addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in the past, when the Buddha brieﬂy explained the essentials of the Dharma to some bhikṣus, and immediately afterward I expanded upon your meaning, discussing the meanings of impermanence, suffering, emptiness, no-self, and extinction. At the time Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 26. “‘O Kātyāyana, do not explain the Dharma of the true characteris- tic using the mental processes of generation and extinction (i.e., samsara). i) “‘Kātyāyana, the dharmas are ultimately neither generated nor extin- guished: this is the meaning of impermanence. ii) “‘The ﬁve skandhas are empty throughout, with no arising: this is the meaning of suffering. iii) “‘The dharmas ultimately do not exist: this is the meaning of empti- ness. iv) “‘There is no self in the self, yet no duality: this is the meaning of no-self. v) “‘The dharmas were originally not burning and will not become extin- guished now: this is the meaning of extinction.’ 27. “When [Vimalakīrti] explained this Dharma, the bhikṣus’ minds attained emancipation. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” 28. The Buddha told Aniruddha, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Aniruddha addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? 541b 92 29. “I remember once in the past I was walking quietly in a certain loca- tion. At the time a Brahmā king named Adorned Purity, in the company of ten thousand Brahmās generating pure radiance, proceeded to where I was. He bowed to my feet in reverence and asked me, ‘How much, Aniruddha, can you see with your divine eye?’ “I answered, ‘Sir, I see the trimegachiliocosm of Śākyamuni’s buddha land as if I were looking at a mango in the palm of my hand.’ 30. “Then Vimalakīrti came and said to me, ‘O Aniruddha, is the see- ing of the divine eye a constructed characteristic, or is it an unconstructed characteristic? If it is a constructed characteristic, then it is equivalent to the ﬁve supernormal powers of the heterodox paths. If it is an unconstructed characteristic then it is unconditioned and should be without seeing (i.e., “views”).’ World-honored One, at the time I remained silent. 31. “Hearing his words, the Brahmās attained something unprecedented, immediately reverenced [Vimalakīrti], and asked him, ‘Who in this world has the true divine eye?’ Vimalakīrti said, ‘There is the Buddha, the World- honored One, who has attained the true divine eye. Always in samādhi, he sees all the buddha lands without any characteristic of duality.’ 32. “At this Adorned Purity Brahmā King and his attending ﬁve hun- dred Brahmā kings all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak- saṃbodhi. They bowed to Vimalakīrti’s feet, then instantly disappeared. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” 33. The Buddha told Upāli, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Upāli addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? “I remember once in the past, there were two bhikṣus who had violated the practice of the Vinaya but from their shame did not dare ask you about it. They came to ask me: ‘O Upāli, we have violated the Vinaya and are sin- cerely ashamed, not daring to ask the Buddha about it. We want you to explain our doubts and the [need for] repentance, so that we may be relieved of the transgressions.’ I immediately explained [the matter] to them according to the Dharma. 34. “At the time Vimalakīrti came and said to me, “‘O Upāli, do not increase these two bhikṣus’ transgressions. You should just remove [the transgressions] and not disturb their minds. Why? The Vimalakīrti Sutra 93 Chapter III “‘The nature of those transgressions does not reside within, it does not reside without, and it does not reside in the middle. “‘As the Buddha has explained, when their minds are deﬁled, sentient beings are deﬁled. When their minds are puriﬁed, sentient beings are puriﬁed. The mind likewise does not reside within, does not reside without, and does not reside in the middle. Just so is the mind, and just so are transgression and deﬁlement. The dharmas are also likewise, in not transcending suchness. “‘Just so, Upāli, when one attains emancipation using the characteris- tics of the mind, is it (i.e., the mind) deﬁled or not?’ I said, ‘It is not.’ “Vimalakīrti said, ‘The characteristics of the minds of all sentient beings are likewise, in being without deﬁlement. 35. “‘O Upāli, to have false concepts is deﬁlement; to be without false concepts is purity. “‘Confusion is deﬁlement, and the absence of confusion is purity. “‘To grasp the self is deﬁlement, and not to grasp the self is purity. “‘Upāli, all the dharmas are generated and extinguished, without abid- ing. Like phantasms or lightning bolts, the dharmas do not depend on each other. They do not abide even for a single instant. The dharmas are all false views, like a dream, like a mirage, like the moon [reﬂected] in water, like an image in a mirror—[all] generated from false conceptualization. Those who understand this are called “upholders of the Vinaya.” Those who understand this are said to “understand well.”’ 36. “At this the two bhikṣus said, ‘Such superior wisdom! Upāli cannot match this! There could be no better explanation of upholding the Vinaya!’ “I then answered, ‘Excluding the Tathāgata, there has never been a śrā- vakaor bodhisattva able to command the eloquence for such a felicitous explanation—such is the brilliance of his wisdom!’ 37. “At the time, the doubts and [need for] repentance of the two bhikṣus were eliminated. They generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak- saṃbodhi, speaking this vow: ‘Let all sentient beings attain this [level of] eloquence!’ Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” 38. The Buddha told Rāhula, “You go inquire about Vimala kīrti’s illness.” Rāhula addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? 541c The Vimalakīrti Sutra “I remember once in the past, the elders’ sons of Vaiśālī came to where I was, bowed their heads to me in reverence, and asked, ‘O Rāhula, you are the son of the Buddha, who forsook the position of universal ruler (cakra- vartin) and left home for the path (i.e., enlightenment). What beneﬁts are there to leaving home?’ “I then explained to them, according to the Dharma, the beneﬁts of the merits of leaving home. At that point Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 39. “‘O Rāhula, you should not explain the beneﬁts of the merits of leav- ing home. Why? To be without beneﬁt and without merits—this is leaving home. One may explain that there are beneﬁts and merits in the conditioned dharmas, but leaving home is an unconditioned dharmaand there are no beneﬁts and merits in unconditioned dharmas. “‘Rāhula, to leave home is to be without that and this, and without inter- mediate. It is to transcend the sixty-two views and be located in nirvana. “‘[Leaving home] is accepted by the wise and practiced by the sagely. It subjugates the host of Māras and [allows one to] transcend the ﬁve destina- tions, purify the ﬁve eyes, attain the ﬁve powers, and establish the ﬁve fac- ulties. It is to be without vexation over “that,” to transcend the host of het- erogeneous evils, and to demolish the heterodox paths. It is to transcend provisional names and emerge from the muck [of samsara]. It is to be with- out attachments, without any sense of personal possession. It is to be without experience, without turmoil. It is to harbor joy within and defend the inten- tions of others. It is to accord with meditation and transcend the host of trans- gressions. If one can be like this, then this is true leaving home.’ 40. “At this Vimalakīrti said to those elders’ sons, ‘You would do well to leave home together in the correct Dharma. Why? It is difﬁcult to encounter a time when a buddha is in the world.’ “The elders’ sons said, ‘O retired scholar, we have heard that the Buddha has said one may not leave home without ﬁrst receiving permission from one’s parents.’ “Vimalakīrti said, ‘So it is. You should immediately generate the inten- tion to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi,and this is to “leave home.” This is sufﬁcient.’ 41. “Then thirty-two elders’ sons all generated the intention to achieve 94 542a anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” 42. The Buddha told Ānanda, “You go inquire about Vimala kīrti’s ill- ness.” Ānanda addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in the past, the World-honored One had a slight illness requiring cow’s milk [as medicine]. I took my bowl and proceeded to the gateway of a great brah- man home. 43. “While I was standing there Vimalakīrti came and said to me, ‘O Ānanda, why are you standing here with your bowl so early in the morning?’ “I said, ‘O retired scholar, the World-honored One has a slight illness requiring cow’s milk, and so I have come here.’ “Vimalakīrti said, ‘Stop, stop, Ānanda! Do not speak thus. The Tathā- gata’s body is the essence of vajra. [In it] the evils are already eradicated and the host of goods universally assembled. What illness could it have, what vexation could there be? 44. “‘Go silently, Ānanda—do not revile the Tathāgata, and do not let anyone else hear such coarse talk. Do not allow the gods of awesome power and virtue and the bodhisattvas who have come from pure lands in other directions to hear these words. “‘Ānanda, even a small degree of blessings (i.e., merit) allows the wheel- turning sage king (cakravartin) to be without illness—how could the immeas- urable blessings of the Tathāgata fail to exceed his in every regard?! “‘Go, Ānanda—do not make us experience this shame. If brahmans in the heterodox paths hear this, they will think, “Who is this teacher, who is unable to save himself from illness but would save others of their ills?” Sir, go in secret haste and do not let anyone hear this. 45. “‘You should understand, Ānanda, the bodies of the Tathāgatas are bodies of the Dharma, not bodies of longing. The Buddha is the World-hon- ored One, who has transcended the triple world. The Buddha’s body is with- out ﬂaws, the ﬂaws having been extinguished. The Buddha’s body is uncon- ditioned and does not ﬁt the [conventional] analytic categories. A body such as this—how could it be ill, how could it be vexed?’ Chapter III 95 96 46. “At the time, World-honored One, I was really ashamed that I might have mistakenly heard what the Buddha had said in spite of being so close. “‘I then heard a voice from space saying, ‘Ānanda, it is as the retired scholar has said. It is just that the Buddha has appeared in this evil age of the ﬁve corruptions and manifests this Dharma to emancipate sentient beings. Go, Ānanda. Take the milk without shame.’ 47. “World-honored One, the eloquence of Vimalakīrti’s wisdom is like this. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his ill- ness.” 48. In similar fashion all of the Buddha’s ﬁve hundred great disciples each explained their original encounters and related what Vimalakīrti had said, and each said he was unable to accept [the Buddha’s instruction] to go inquire about [Vimalakīrti’s] illness. The Vimalakīrti Sutra 97 542b Chapter IV Bodhisattvas 1. At this point the Buddha addressed Maitreya Bodhisattva, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Maitreya addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in the past when I was explaining the practice of the stage of irreversibility for the heavenly king of the Tuṣita Heaven and his subordinates. At the time Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 2. “‘Maitreya, the World-honored One has bestowed on your noble per- son the prediction that you will achieve anuttarā samyak saṃbodhiin a sin- gle lifetime. What lifetime will you use to experience this prediction, past, future, or present? If a past life, then the past life is already extinguished. If a future life, then the future life has not arrived. If the present life, then the present life is nonabiding. It is as the Buddha has explained, “O bhikṣus, you are in this immediate present born, aged, and extinguished.” “‘If you experience this prediction with birthlessness, then the birthless is the primary status [of Hinayanist enlightenment]. Yet within that primary status there is no receiving the prediction, and also no attainment of anut- tarā samyaksaṃbodhi. 3. “‘How, Maitreya, did you receive the prediction of [buddhahood in] a single lifetime? Did you receive the prediction from the generation of such- ness, or did you receive the prediction from the extinction of suchness? “‘If you received the prediction by the generation of suchness, then [understand that] suchness is without generation. If you received the pre- diction by the extinction of suchness, then [understand that] suchness is with- out extinction. “‘All sentient beings are entirely suchlike, and all dharmas are also entirely suchlike. The assembly of sages and wise ones are also suchlike. 542c The Vimalakīrti Sutra Even you, Maitreya, are suchlike. If you received the prediction [of future buddhahood], all sentient beings should also receive it. Why? Suchness is nondual and nondifferentiated. If Maitreya attains anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi, then all sentient beings should also all attain it. Why? All sentient beings are the characteristic of bodhi. If Maitreya attains extinction, then all sentient beings should also all [attain] extinction. Why? The buddhas understand that all sentient beings are ultimately extinguished, which is the characteristic of nirvana, and cannot again be extinguished. “‘Therefore, Maitreya, do not inspire the gods with this teaching. 4. “‘Truly, there is no one who generates the intention to achieve anut- tarā samyaksaṃbodhi,and there is no one who retro gresses. Maitreya, you should have these gods forsake this discriminative view of bodhi. Why? “‘Bodhicannot be attained with the body, and it cannot be attained with the mind. “‘Extinction is bodhi, because of the extinction of the characteristics. “‘Non-contemplation is bodhi, because it transcends the conditions. “‘Non-practice is bodhi,because it is without recollection. “‘Eradication is bodhi,because of renouncing the views. Transcendence is bodhi,because of the transcendence of false concepts. “‘Hindrances are bodhi,because of the hindrance of the vows. “‘Non-entry is bodhi, because of the absence of lustful attachment. Accordance is bodhi, because of accordance with suchness. “‘Abiding is bodhi,because of abiding [in the] Dharma-nature. “‘Approach is bodhi,because of the approach to the reality-limit. “‘Nonduality is bodhi,because of the transcendence of mind and dhar- mas. “‘Universal sameness is bodhi,because of universal sameness with space. “‘The unconditioned is bodhi, because of the absence of generation, abiding, and extinction. “‘Understanding is bodhi,because of the comprehension of the mental processes of sentient beings. “‘Non-assemblage is bodhi, because of the non-assemblage of the entrances (āyatanas, i.e., sensory capacities). “‘Non-aggregation is bodhi,because of the transcendence of the latent inﬂuences of the afflictions. 98 Chapter IV “‘The non-locative is bodhi,because of formlessness. “‘Provisional names are bodhi,because names are empty. “‘The [activities of the] conversion of suchness are bodhi, because of the nonexistence of grasping and forsaking. “‘The non-turbulent is bodhi,because of permanent composure. “‘Good serenity is bodhi,because of the purity of the natures. “‘Non-grasping is bodhi, because of the transcendence of objectiﬁed mentation. “‘Nondifferentiation is bodhi,because of the universal sameness of the dharmas. “‘Non-comparison is bodhi, because of the impossibility of analogy. “‘The subtle is bodhi, because of the difﬁculty of understanding the dharmas.’ 5. “World-honored One, when Vimalakīrti explained this Dhar ma,two hundred gods achieved the forbearance of the non arising of dharmas. There- fore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” 6. The Buddha told Radiance Ornament Youth, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Radiance Ornament Youth addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in the past, when I was coming out of the great city of Vaiśālī just as Vimalakīrti was entering the city. I immediately bowed and asked, ‘Retired scholar, from where are you coming?’ “He answered me, ‘I have come from the place of enlightenment.’ “I asked, ‘Where is the place of enlightenment?’ “He answered, 7. “‘Sincerity is the place of enlightenment, because of the absence of falsity. The generation of practice is the place of enlightenment, because it is able to discriminate things. Profound mind is the place of enlightenment, because of the increase in merit. The mind of bodhi(bodhicitta) is the place of enlightenment, because of the absence of error. 8. “‘Charity is the place of enlightenment, because of not seeking after retribution (i.e., reward). Morality is the place of enlightenment, because of the fulﬁllment of vows. Forbearance is the place of enlightenment, because of the absence of any mental hindrance regarding sentient beings. Exertion 99 543a The Vimalakīrti Sutra is the place of enlightenment, because of not retrogressing. Meditation is the place of enlightenment, because of the pliable disciplining of the mind. Wis- dom is the place of enlightenment, because of the manifest perception of the dharmas. 9. “‘Sympathy is the place of enlightenment, because of the universal sameness of sentient beings. Compassion is the place of enlightenment, because of the forbearance of suffering. Joy is the place of enlightenment, because of taking pleasure in the Dharma. Equanimity is the place of enlight- enment, because of the eradication of repugnance and affection. 10. “‘The numinous penetrations are the place of enlightenment, because of the achievement of the six penetrations (i.e., supernatural abilities). Eman- cipation is the place of enlightenment, because of the ability to forsake. Skill- ful means are the place of enlightenment, because of the salvation of sen- tient beings. The four means of attraction are the place of enlightenment, because of the attraction (i.e., conversion) of sentient beings. Erudition is the place of enlightenment, because of practice according to one’s knowl- edge. Mental control is the place of enlightenment, because of the correct contemplation of the dharmas. The thirty-seven factors of enlightenment are the place of enlightenment, because of forsaking the conditioned dharmas. The truth is the place of enlightenment, because of not misleading the world. “‘Conditioned generation is the place of enlightenment, because igno- rance and so forth through old age and death, are all unexhausted. The afflic- tions are bodhi, because of understanding according to actuality. 11. “‘Sentient beings are the place of enlightenment, because of under- standing no-self. “‘All dharmas are the place of enlightenment, because of understand- ing the emptiness of the dharmas. Subjugation of the Māras is the place of enlightenment, because of not being swayed. The triple world is the place of enlightenment, because of the absence of destinations. The lion’s roar is the place of enlightenment, because of the absence of fear. The [ten] pow- ers, [four] fearlessnesses, and [eighteen] exclusive attributes are the place of enlightenment, because of the absence of transgressions. The three illu- minations are the place of enlightenment, because of the absence of remain- ing hindrances. To understand all the dharmas in a single moment of thought is the place of enlightenment, because of the accomplishment of omniscience. 100 Chapter IV 12. “‘Thus, my good man, should the bodhisattva teach sentient beings according to the perfections. In all that is done, [down to every] lifting or placing of one’s foot, you should understand that all these come from the place of enlightenment and abide in the Buddha-Dharma.’ 13. “When [Vimalakīrti] explained the Dharma ﬁve hundred gods and humans all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” 14. The Buddha told Maintains the World Bodhisattva, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Maintains the World addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? “I remember once in the past when I was residing in a meditation cham- ber, Māra the Evil One, attended by twelve thousand goddesses and in a man- ner like Indra with his drum, music, and song, proceeded to where I was. He and his subordinates bowed their heads to my feet, held their palms together reverentially, and stood to one side. “Thinking it was Indra, I said to him, ‘Welcome, Kauśika! Although [you enjoy] blessings you should not be self-indulgent. You should con- template the impermanence of the ﬁve desires and seek for the foundation of goodness, cultivating the perduring dharmas with regard to your body, life, and wealth.’ “He then said to me, ‘O good sir, [please] receive these twelve thousand goddesses to clean and wash [for you].’ “I said, ‘Kauśika, as a śramaṇaand son of Śākya I have no need for improper things such as this. This would not be appropriate for me.’ 15. “Before I had even ﬁnished saying this Vimalakīrti came and said to me, ‘This is not Indra. This is Māra, who has come only to ridicule you.’ “He then said to Māra, ‘You can give these women to me. If it were I, I would accept them.’ “Māra then thought in shock, ‘Vimalakīrti should not be troubling me!’ He wanted to become invisible and leave but he could not disappear. Even using all his numinous power he was not able to leave. “He then heard a voice from space, saying, ‘Evil One, if you give him the women you will be able to go.’ “Because of his fear, and with eyes casting nervously about, [Māra] gave Vimalakīrti the women. 101 102 16. “Then Vimalakīrti said to the women, ‘Māra has given you to me. You should now all generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃ- bodhi.’ “He then explained the Dharma to them in various ways and caused them to generate the intention for enlightenment. “He then said, ‘Now that you have generated the intention for enlight- enment, you may amuse yourselves in the joy of the Dharma, never again taking pleasure in the ﬁve desires.’ “The goddesses asked, ‘What is the joy of the Dharma?’ “He answered, ‘Joy is to always trust the Buddha. Joy is to desire to hear the Dharma. Joy is to make offerings to the assembly. Joy is to tran- scend the ﬁve desires. Joy is to contemplate the ﬁve skandhas as vengeful bandits. Joy is to contemplate the four elements as poisonous snakes. Joy is to contemplate the interior sensory capacities as being like empty aggrega- tions. Joy is to maintain one’s intention for enlightenment in all situations. Joy is to beneﬁt sentient beings. Joy is to revere teachers. Joy is the exten- sive practice of charity. Joy is the ﬁrm maintenance of the precepts. Joy is forbearance and pliability. Joy is the vigorous accumulation of good roots. Joy is the lack of disturbance in meditation. Joy is to transcend the deﬁle- ments in wisdom. Joy is to disseminate bodhicitta.Joy is the subjugation of the host of Māras. Joy is the eradication of the afflictions. Joy is puriﬁcation of the countries of the buddhas. Joy is the accomplishment of the [thirty-two primary] characteristics and [eighty subsidiary] marks, based on the culti- vation of the merits. Joy is ornamentation of the place of enlightenment. Joy is to hear the profound Dharma without fear. Joy is the three emancipations and not to take the pleasure [of ultimate enlightenment] at an inappropriate time. Joy is to associate with fellow trainees. Joy is for one’s mind to be without hindrance in the midst of those [who are] not one’s fellow trainees. Joy is to defend against evil friends. Joy is to associate closely with good friends. Joy is to be happy and pure in mind. Joy is to cultivate the immeas- urable factors of enlightenment. “‘These are the bodhisattva’s joy in the Dharma.’ 17. “At this Māra the Evil One announced to the women, ‘I want to return with you to the heavenly palace.’ “The women said, ‘You already gave us to this retired scholar. We are The Vimalakīrti Sutra 543b 543c 103 extremely joyful in the joy of the Dharma, and will never again take pleasure in the ﬁve desires.’ “Māra said, ‘If the retired scholar is able to forsake these women, and everything that exists is given to him, then he is a bodhisattva.’ “Vimalakīrti said, ‘I have already forsaken them. You may take them away, but you must make all sentient beings attain ful ﬁll ment of their vows in the Dharma.’ “At this the women asked Vimalakīrti, ‘How should we reside in Māra’s palace?’ 18. “Vimalakīrti said, ‘Sisters, there is a Dharma called “inexhaustible lamp.” You should study it. The inexhaustible lamp is like a lamp that ignites a hundred thousand lamps, illuminating all darkness with an illumination that is never exhausted. Thus, sisters, if a single bodhisattva guides a hun- dred thousand sentient beings, causing them to generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi, that bodhisattva’s intention to achieve enlightenment will also never be extinguished. “‘With each teaching of the Dharma all the good dharmas are naturally increased. This is what is called the “inexhaustible lamp.” Although you reside in Māra’s palace, with this inexhaustible lamp you can cause innumerable gods and goddesses to generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. Thereby you will repay the Buddha’s kindness and also greatly beneﬁt all sen- tient beings.’ 19. “At that time the goddesses bowed their heads to Vimala kīrti’s feet in worship and suddenly disappeared to return to Māra’s palace. “World-honored One, Vimalakīrti’s autonomy, numinous power, wis- dom, and eloquence are like this. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruc- tion] to go inquire about his illness.” 20. The Buddha told the elder’s son Good Virtue,“You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Good Virtue addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? “I remember once in the past when I was holding a great charity assem- bly in my father’s house. We made offerings to all the śramaṇas, brahmans, those of the heterodox paths, the poor, low-class, orphans, and beggars. It lasted fully seven days. At the time Vimala kīrti came into the assembly and Chapter IV The Vimalakīrti Sutra said to me, ‘Elder’s son, you should not hold a great charity assembly like this. You should have an assembly of the charity of the Dharma. What use is a charity assembly of material wealth?’ “I said, ‘Retired scholar, what is an assembly of the charity of Dharma?’ “He answered, 21. “‘An assembly of the charity of the Dharma is to make offerings to all sentient beings simultaneously, without before and after. This is called an assembly of the charity of the Dharma. “‘If you ask how I say this, I say that one uses bodhito generate sym- pathy. One generates great compassion in order to save sentient beings. One generates joy by maintaining the correct Dharma. One practices equanimity by mastering wisdom. 22. “‘One generatesdāna-pāramitā(the perfection of charity) by mas- tering desire. One generates śīla-pāramitā(the perfection of morality) by attracting those who transgress the precepts. One generates kṣanti-pāramitā (the perfection of forbearance) by the Dharma of no-self. One generates vīrya-pāramitā(the perfection of exertion) by transcending the characteris- tics of body and mind. One generates dhyāna-pāramitā(the perfection of meditation) with the characteristic of bodhi.One generates prajñā-pāramitā (the perfection of wisdom) with omniscience. 23. “‘One teaches sentient beings and generates emptiness. Without for- saking the conditioned dharmas, one generates that which is without charac- teristics. One manifests the experience of [re]birth and generates the uncreated. 24. “‘One defends the correct Dharma and generates the power of skill- ful means. One generates the four means of attraction by saving sentient beings. One generates the elimination of conceit by reverencing all. One gen- erates the three perduring dharmas with regard to body, life, and wealth. One generates contemplation of the dharmas within the six mindfulnesses. One generates sincerity with regard to the six types of considerate esteem. One generates pure livelihood with correct practice of the good dharmas. One becomes close to the wise and sagely with puriﬁcation of the mind in joy. One generates a disciplined mind by not having aversion for bad people. One generates the profound mind with the dharmaof leaving home. One gener- ates erudition by practicing according to the explanation. One generates the locus of empty repose with the dharmaof noncontention. In approaching 104 544a Chapter IV buddha wisdom one generates sitting in repose. In releasing the bonds of sentient beings one generates the stages of cultivation. 25. “‘By becoming replete in the [thirty-two primary] characteristics and [eighty subsidiary] marks and by purifying a buddha land one generates meritorious karma. Understanding the thoughts of all sentient beings and how one should explain the Dharma to them, one generates the karma of wisdom. Understanding all the dharmas, one neither grasps nor forsakes. Entering the gate of the single characteristic, one generates the karma of sagacity. Eradicating all the afflictions, all the hindrances, and all the non- good dharmas, one generates all good karma. 26. “‘By attaining omniscience and all the good dharmas, one univer- sally generates the dharmas that assist one’s buddhahood. Thus, good man, is the assembly of the charity of the Dharma. If a bodhisattva resides in this assembly of the charity of the Dharma he will be a great donor. He will also be a ﬁeld of blessings for the entire world.’ “World-honored One, when Vimalakīrti explained this Dharma, two hundred people in the congregation of brahmans all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. 27. “At the time my own mind attained a purity which I exclaimed to be unprecedented, and I bowed my head to Vimala kīrti’s feet in worship. Unfastening my necklace, a hundred thousand [coins] in value, I gave it to him but he did not accept it. I said, ‘Please, retired scholar, you must accept this and give it to whomever you please.’ Vimalakīrti then accepted the neck- lace and divided it into two parts. Taking one part, he gave it to the lowliest beggars in the assembly. Taking the other part, he offered it to the Tathāgata Difﬁcult to Overcome. The entire assembly saw the Radiant Illumination country and Difﬁcult to Overcome Tathāgata. They also saw the necklace on that Buddha change into a four-pillared jewel-laden platform, with mutu- ally noninterfering ornamentation on the four sides. 28. “Having manifested these numinous transformations, Vimala kīrti then said, ‘If a donor with an attitude of universal sameness gives to the lowliest beggars, this is to be like the characteristic of the Tathāgata’s ﬁeld of blessings, with no distinction, and to be equivalent to great compassion without seeking any reward. This is called “to be replete in the charity of the Dharma.”’ 105 106 29. “The lowliest beggars in the city witnessed this numinous power and heard his explanation, and they all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. “Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” 30. In similar fashion all of the bodhisattvas explained their original encounters and related what Vimalakīrti had said, and each said he was unable to accept [the Buddha’s instruction] to go inquire about his illness. End of Fascicle One The Vimalakīrti Sutra 107 544b Fascicle Two Chapter V Mañjuśrī’s Condolence Visit 1. At this point the Buddha addressed Mañjuśrī, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” Mañjuśrī addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, that superior one is difﬁcult to respond to. “He has profoundly attained the true characteristic, and he is good at explaining the essentials of the Dharma. “His eloquence is unhampered, and his wisdom is unhindered. “He completely understands all the deportments of the bodhisattvas, and he has entered into all the secret storehouses of the buddhas. “He has subjugated the host of Māras, and disports himself in the numi- nous penetrations. He has already attained perfection in his wisdom and skill- ful means. “Nevertheless, I will accept your sagely purport and proceed to inquire about his illness.” 2. Thereupon the bodhisattvas, great disciples, Indras, Brahmās, and the four heavenly kings in the assembly all thought, “Now these two great bodhi- sattvas Mañjuśrī and Vimalakīrti will have a discussion. They will certainly explain a wondrous Dharma.” At the time eight thousand bodhisattvas, ﬁve hundred śrā vakas, and a hundred thousand gods all wanted to follow along. Mañjuśrī and the congregation of bodhisattvas and great disciples, with the gods reverentially surrounding them, then entered the great city of Vaiśālī. 544c The Vimalakīrti Sutra 3. At that time the Elder Vimalakīrti thought, “Now Mañjuśrī and a great congregation is coming.” Then with his numinous power he emptied out his room, removing what was there as well as his servants. He left only a single couch, upon which he reclined in his illness. 4. Mañjuśrī entered the house, and he saw the room was empty, with [Vimalakīrti] lying alone on a single couch. Then Vimalakīrti said, “Welcome, Mañjuśrī. You have come with the characteristic of not coming; you see with the characteristic of not seeing.” Mañjuśrī said, “So it is, retired scholar. If one has come, there is no more coming. If one has gone, there is no more going. Why? To come is to come from nowhere; to go is to proceed nowhere. That which can be seen is then invisible. 5. “But enough of this matter. Retired scholar, can this illness be for- born? In its treatment is it diminished, so as not to increase? The World-hon- ored One has made immeasurable courteous in quiries about you. 6. “Retired scholar, what is the cause from which this illness arises? Has it been affecting you long? How will it be extinguished?” Vimalakīrti said, “From stupidity there is affection, and hence the gen- eration of my illness (or: the illness of self). Since all sentient beings are ill, therefore I am ill. If the illness of all sentient beings were extinguished, then my illness would be extinguished. Why? Bodhisattvas enter samsara on behalf of sentient beings. Because there is samsara, there is illness. If sentient beings were able to transcend illness, then bodhisattvas would not also be ill. 7. “It is like an elder whose only son becomes ill, and the parents become ill as well. If the son recovers from the illness, the parents also recover. Bodhi- sattvas are like this. They have affection for sentient beings as if for their own children. When sentient beings are ill the bodhisattvas are ill also, and when sentient beings recover from their illness the bodhisattvas recover also.” He also said, “From what cause does this illness arise? The illness of bodhisattvas arises from great compassion.” 8. Mañjuśrī said, “Retired scholar, why is this room empty, with no ser- vants?” Vimalakīrti said, “The countries of the buddhas are also all empty.” [Mañjuśrī] asked, “With what was it emptied?” 108 Chapter V [Vimalakīrti] answered, “It was emptied with emptiness.” [Mañjuśrī] asked further, “How can emptiness use emptiness?” [Vimalakīrti] answered, “It is empty through nondiscriminating empti- ness.” [Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Can emptiness be discriminated?” [Vimalakīrti] answered, “Discrimination is also empty.” [Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Where should emptiness be sought?” [Vimalakīrti] answered, “It should be sought within the sixty-two [het- erodox] views.” [Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Where should the sixty-two views be sought?” [Vimalakīrti] answered, “They should be sought within the emancipa- tion of the buddhas.” [Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Where should the emancipation of the bud- dhas be sought?” [Vimalakīrti] answered, “It should be sought within the mental processes of all sentient beings. “Also, regarding your question about why there are no servants—all the host of Māras and [followers of] the heterodox paths are all my servants. Why? The host of Māras take pleasure in samsara, and the bodhisattvas do not forsake samsara. Those of the heterodox paths take pleasure in the views, and bodhisattvas are unmoved by the views.” 9. Mañjuśrī said, “Retired scholar, what characteristics does your illness have?” Vimalakīrti said, “My illness is without form, invisible.” [Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Is this an illness of body or of mind?” [Vimalakīrti] said, “It is not of the body, since the body transcends char- acteristics. Nor is it of the mind, since the mind is like a phantasm.” [Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Of the four elements of earth, water, ﬁre, and air, to which element does this illness belong?” [Vimalakīrti] answered, “This illness is not of the earth element, but nei- ther does it transcend the earth element. The water, ﬁre, and wind elements are likewise. However, the illnesses of sentient beings arise from the four elements, and because they are ill I am ill.” 10. At that time Mañjuśrī asked Vimalakīrti, “How should bodhisattvas comfort bodhisattvas who are ill?” 109 The Vimalakīrti Sutra Vimalakīrti said, “Explain that the body is impermanent but do not teach that one should have aversion for one’s body. Explain that the body suffers but do not teach that one should take pleasure in nirvana. Explain that the body is without self but teach that one should guide sentient beings [any- way]. Explain that the body is emptily serene but do not teach that it is ulti- mately extinguished. “Explain that one should regret one’s former transgressions but do not teach that they enter into the past. Comfort the illness of others with one’s own illness. One should recognize the innumerable kalpas of suffering of one’s past lives. One should be mindful of beneﬁting all sentient beings and remember one’s cultivation of blessings, be mindful of one’s pure livelihood without generating vexation but always generating exertion. Be the physi- cian king, healing the host of illnesses. Thus should bodhisattvas comfort bodhisattvas who are ill, making them happy.” 11. Mañjuśrī said, “Retired scholar, how should the bodhisattva who is ill control his mind?” Vimalakīrti said, “The bodhisattva who is ill should think as follows: “‘This present illness of mine comes entirely from the false concepts, confusions, and afflictions of previous lives. There is no actual dharmathat experiences illness.’ “Why? ‘Body’ is a provisional name for a conglomeration of the four elements, and the four elements have no master. “The body also has no self. Furthermore, the arising of this illness is entirely due to attachment to self. Therefore, one should not generate attach- ment regarding the self. You should understand that this is the foundation of illness and so eliminate the conception of ‘self’ and the conception of ‘sen- tient being.’ “You should give rise to the conception of dharmas, thinking as follows: ‘It is only through the combination of a host of dharmas that this body is created. Its arising is only the arising of dharmas, and its extinction is only the extinction of dharmas.’ Also, ‘these dharmas do not know themselves. When they arise, they do not say “I have arisen.” When they are extinguished, they do not say “I have become extinguished.”’ 12. “The bodhisattva who is ill should undertake the conception (or: visualization) of the extinguished dharmas. He should think as follows, ‘This 110 545a 111 conception of the dharmas is also a confused [view]. Such a confused [view] is a great calamity, and I should transcend it.’ What should be transcended? One should transcend the self and [the sense of] personal possession. What is it to transcend the self and [the sense of] personal possession? It is to tran- scend the two dharmas. What is it to transcend the two dharmas? It is to be mindful neither of interior nor exterior dharmas and to practice universal sameness. What is universal sameness? It is for self to be same and for nir- vana to be same. Why? Both self and nirvana are empty. Why are they empty? They are merely names, and therefore empty. Thus these two dharmas are without deﬁni tive nature. When one attains universal sameness there is no remaining illness. There is only the illness of emptiness, and the illness of emptiness is also empty. 13. “Bodhisattvas who are ill should use nonexperience to experience the experiences. They acquire realization without becoming complete in the dharmas of buddhahood and without extinguishing experience. Given the suffering of their bodies, they think of sentient beings in the evil destinations and generate great compassion, [thinking] ‘I have already controlled [my suffering] and I should also control [the suffering] of all sentient beings.’ 14. “Just eliminate the illness; do not eliminate dharmas. [Bodhi sattvas] teach [sentient beings] so that they eliminate the basis of their illness. “What is the basis of their illness? It is the presence of objectiﬁed men- tation. It is through objectiﬁed mentation that the basis of illness is consti- tuted. “What is objectiﬁed mentation? It is the triple world. What is it to elim- inate objectiﬁed mentation? It is done with nonattainment. “If there is no attainment, there is no objectiﬁed mentation. What is nonattainment? It is the transcendence of dualistic views. “What are dualistic views? They are the internalistic view and exter- nalistic view. These are without attainment (i.e., not apprehensible). “Mañjuśrī, this is how bodhisattvas who are ill control their minds. This is how they eliminate old age, illness, death, and suffering. This is the bodhi- sattva’s bodhi. If it were not like this, then my cultivation would be a fool- ish waste. It is like one who is victorious over his enemies being called a hero: this is the term for the bodhisattva who has simultaneously eliminated old age, illness, and death. Chapter V 545b 112 15. “Bodhisattvas who are ill should think as follows: ‘If this illness of mine is neither real nor existent, then the illnesses of sentient beings are also neither real nor existent.’ “When performing this contemplation, [such bodhisattvas] may gener- ate an affectionate view of great compassion with regard to (i.e., sentimen- tal compassion toward) sentient beings, but this should be forsaken. Why? “Bodhisattvas eliminate the vexations of sensory data and generate great compassion. If they have an affectionate view of compassion, they would thereby generate aversion toward samsara. If they are able to transcend this they will not have any [such] aversion, and no matter where they are subse- quently reborn they will not be limited by any affectionate view. They will be born without bonds and be able to explain the Dharma to sentient beings and emancipate them from their bonds. “It is as the Buddha has explained: ‘It is impossible for someone with bonds to emancipate others from their bonds. It is only possible for some- one without bonds to emancipate others from their bonds.’ Therefore, bodhi- sattvas should not generate bonds. 16. “What are bonds, and what is emancipation? “A desirous attachment to the ﬂavor of meditation is the bond of bodhi- sattvas; and birth through skillful means is the emancipation of bodhisattvas. “Further, to be without skillful means is to have one’s wisdom in bondage, while to have skillful means is to have one’s wisdom emancipated. “To be without wisdom is to have one’s skillful means in bondage, while to have wisdom is to have one’s skillful means eman cipated. 17. “What is it to be without skillful means and one’s wisdom in bondage? It is for bodhisattvas to use affection to ornament the buddha lands and accom- plish [the salvation of] sentient beings, to control oneself within [the three emancipations of] emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness. This is called being without skillful means and one’s wisdom in bondage. “What is it to have skillful means with one’s wisdom emancipated? It is not to use affection to ornament the buddha lands and accomplish [the lib- eration of] sentient beings, and to control oneself so as to be without aver- sion within [the three emancipations of] emptiness, signlessness, and wish- lessness. This is called having skillful means with one’s wisdom emancipated. “What is it to be without wisdom and have one’s skillful means in bondage? It is for bodhisattvas to plant a host of virtuous roots while abiding The Vimalakīrti Sutra 113 in the afflictions of desire, anger, and false views. This is called being without wisdom with one’s skillful means in bondage. “What is it to have wisdom with one’s skillful means emancipated? It is to transcend the afflictions of desire, anger, and false views and plant a host of virtuous roots, rededicating [the merit to one’s achievement of] anut- tarā samyaksaṃbodhi.This is called having wisdom with one’s skillful means emancipated. 18. “Mañjuśrī, bodhisattvas who are ill should contemplate the dhar- mas like this: “Also, to contemplate the body as impermanent, suffering, empty, and no-self is called wisdom. “Although the body is ill, it always exists in samsara. To beneﬁt all with- out tiring—this is called skillful means. “Also, in contemplating the body, [one should realize] that the body does not transcend illness and illness does not transcend the body, and that this illness and this body are neither new nor old—this is called wisdom. For one’s body to be ill but never die is called skillful means. 19. “Mañjuśrī, thus should bodhisattvas who are ill control the mind. They should not abide within [the controlled mind], and they should also not abide in the uncontrolled mind. Why? To abide in the uncontrolled mind is the Dharma of fools. To abide in the controlled mind is the Dharma of śrā- vakas. Therefore, bodhisattvas should not abide in either the controlled or uncontrolled mind. To transcend these two Dharmas is the practice of bodhi- sattvas. To be within samsara and not undertake polluted practices, to abide in nirvana and never become extinguished: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. 20. i) “It is neither the practice of ordinary [unenlightened persons] nor the practice of the wise and sagely: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ii) “It is neither a deﬁled practice nor a pure practice: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. iii) “Although in the past one [performed] the practices of Māra, in the present one subjugates the host of Māras: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. iv) “To seek omniscience but not to seek it at the improper time: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. v) “Although one contemplates the dharmas as nongenerated, not to enter the primary status [of buddhahood]: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. Chapter V 545c The Vimalakīrti Sutra vi) “Although one contemplates the twelve [factors of] conditioned gen- eration, to enter the heterodox views: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. vii) “Although one attracts all sentient beings, to be without the attach- ment of affection: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. viii) “Although one takes pleasure in transcendence, not to rely on the elimination of body and mind: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ix) “Although one practices [throughout] the triple world, not to destroy the Dharma-nature: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. x) “Although practicing [the emancipation of ] emptiness, to plant the host of virtuous roots: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xi) “Although practicing [the emancipation of] signlessness, to save sen- tient beings: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xii) “Although practicing [the emancipation of] wishlessness, to mani- fest the experience of a body: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xiii) “Although practicing nonactivation, to activate all good practices: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xiv) “Although practicing the six pāramitās (perfections), to universally understand the minds and mental attributes of sentient beings: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xv) “Although practicing the six penetrations, not to exhaust the ﬂaws: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xvi) “Although practicing the four unlimited states of mind, not to desire birth in the Brahmā world: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xvii) “Although practicing concentration, meditation, emancipation, and samādhi,not to be born [in a corresponding heaven] according to one’s con- centration: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xviii) “Although practicing the four foundations of mindfulness, never to transcend the body, sensation, mind, and dharmas: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xix) “Although practicing the four right efforts, not to forsake exertion of body and mind: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xx) “Although practicing the four supernormal abilities, to attain auton- omy in numinous penetration: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xxi) “Although practicing [in the context of] the ﬁve faculties, to dis- criminate the sharp and dull faculties of all sentient beings: this is the prac- tice of bodhisattvas. 114 546a Chapter V xxii) “Although practicing the ﬁve powers, to delight in seeking the ten powers of a buddha: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xxiii) “Although practicing the seven factors of enlightenment, to dis- criminate buddha wisdom: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xxiv) “Although practicing the eightfold noble path, to take pleasure in practicing the unlimited path[s] to buddhahood: this is the practice of bodhi- sattvas. xxv) “Although practicing concentration and contemplation, the auxil- iary factors of the path, yet ultimately never to fall into extinction: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xxvi) “Although practicing [with an awareness of] the nongeneration and nonextinction of the dharmas, to ornament one’s body with the [thirty- two primary] characteristics and [eighty subsidiary] marks: this is the prac- tice of bodhisattvas. xxvii) “Although manifesting the deportment of a śrāvakaor pratyeka- buddha, not to forsake the Buddha-Dharma: this is the practice of bodhi- sattvas. xxviii) “Although being in accord with the ultimate characteristic of the purity of the dharmas, to manifest one’s body where needed: this is the prac- tice of bodhisattvas. xxix) “Although contemplating the buddhas’ countries as permanently serene like space, yet to manifest the various pure buddha lands: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. xxx) “Although attaining the enlightenment of buddhahood, turning the wheel of the Dharma, and entering nirvana, yet not to forsake the bodhisattva path: this is the practice of bodhisattvas.” When [Vimalakīrti] explained [the Dharma] in these words, eight thou- sand gods within the great assembly led by Mañjuśrī all generated the inten- tion to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. 115 Chapter VI Inconceivable 1. At this point Śāriputra saw that there were no seats in the room. He thought, “Where will this congregation of bodhisattvas and great disciples sit?” The Elder Vimalakīrti knew what he was thinking and said to Śāri putra, “Which is it, sir—did you come for the Dharma or come seeking a seat?” Śāriputra said, “I came for the Dharma, not for a seat.” 2. Vimalakīrti said, “O Śāriputra, those who seek the Dharma should begrudge neither body nor life. How much more so a seat! “To seek the Dharma is not a seeking in the context of form, sensation, concept, processes, and consciousness, nor a seeking in the context of the realms (dhātus) and entrances (āyatanas). “[To seek the Dharma] is not a seeking in the context of [the three realms of] desire, form, and formlessness. 3. “O Śāriputra, in seeking the Dharma one should not be attached to the Buddha in seeking, nor be attached to the Dharma in seeking, nor be attached to the congregation [of the Sangha] in seeking. In seeking the Dharma, one should seek without recognizing suffering, one should seek without cut- ting off the accumulation [of suffering], one should seek without contriving the complete realization and cultivation of the path. Why? The Dharma is without contrived theories. If one says ‘I will recognize suffering, cut off the accumulation [of suffering], and realize the extinction [of suffering] and cul- tivate the path,’ this would be a contrived theory and not to seek the Dharma. “O Śāriputra, the Dharma is named extinction: if one practices genera- tion and extinction this is to seek generation and extinction, not to seek the Dharma. “The Dharma is named the undeﬁled: if the dharmas, up to and includ- ing nirvana, are deﬁled, then this is deﬁled attachment and not to seek the Dharma. 117 546b 118 “The Dharma is without any locus of its practice: if one practices in the Dharma, this is a locus of practice and not to seek the Dharma. “The Dharma is without grasping and forsaking: if one grasps and for- sakes the Dharma, then this is grasping and forsaking and not to seek the Dharma. 4. “The Dharma is without locus: if one is attached to locus, this is to be attached to locus and not to seek the Dharma. “The Dharma is named ‘without characteristics’: if one’s understand- ing accords with characteristics, this is to seek characteristics and not to seek the Dharma. “One cannot abide in the Dharma: if one abides in the Dharma, this is to abide in the Dharma and not to seek the Dharma. “One cannot see, hear, sense, or know the Dharma: if one practices see- ing, hearing, sensing, and knowing, this is seeing, hearing, sensing, and know- ing and not to seek the Dharma. 5. The Dharma is named the unconditioned: if one practices [within] the conditioned, this is to seek the conditioned and not to seek the Dharma. “Therefore, Śāriputra, if one seeks the Dharma one should be without seeking regarding all the dharmas.” When he spoke these words, ﬁve hundred gods attained purity of the Dharma eye with regard to the dharmas. 6. At this time the Elder Vimalakīrti asked Mañjuśrī, “Sir, in your wan- derings throughout the immeasurable ten million koṭis of incalculable num- bers of [buddha] countries, which buddha land has lion seats made with the best and most wondrous qualities?” Mañjuśrī said, “Retired scholar, in the east, as many countries away as there are grains of sand in thirty-six Ganges Rivers, there is a world-system called Characteristic of Sumeru. Its buddha is called Sumeru Lamp King, who is manifest [in that world] at present. That buddha’s body is eighty-four thousand yojanas tall. His lion seat is eighty-four thousand yojanas high and paramount in ornamentation.” 7. At this the Elder Vimalakīrti manifested the power of numinous pen- etration, and immediately that Buddha dispatched thirty-two thousand lion seats, tall, wide, and pure in ornamentation, which arrived in Vimalakīrti’s The Vimalakīrti Sutra 119 room. This was something the bodhisattvas, great disciples, Indras, Brah- mās, and four heavenly kings had never seen before. The breadth of the room entirely accommodated the thirty-two thousand lion seats with no obstruction. Nor was there any deformation of the city of Vaiśālī, Jambudvīpa, or all the worlds of four continents. All appeared just as before. 8. At this time Vimalakīrti said to Mañjuśrī, “Take a lion seat and sit there along with the bodhisattvas and superior ones. You should adjust [the size of] your body to match the image of the seat.” Those bodhisattvas who had attained the numinous penetrations imme- diately transformed themselves to become forty-two thousand yojanas [tall] and sat on the lion seats. But none of the beginner bodhisattvas and great disciples were able to ascend [the seats]. At that time Vimalakīrti said to Śāriputra, “Take a lion seat.” Śāriputra said, “Retired scholar, this seat is [so] huge I am unable to ascend it.” Vimalakīrti said, “O Śāriputra, after you have worshiped Sumeru Lamp King Tathāgata you will be able to sit there.” Then the beginner bodhisattvas and great disciples worshiped Sumeru Lamp King Tathāgata and were immediately able to sit on the lion seats. 9. Śāriputra said, “Retired scholar, this is unprecedented! Such a small room has accommodated these huge seats, and there is no hindrance in the city of Vaiśālī, nor is there any distortion in the villages and towns of Jam- budvīpa, nor in all the worlds of four continents, nor in the palaces of the gods, dragon kings, and demonic spirits.” 10. Vimalakīrti said, “O Śāriputra, the buddhas and bodhisattvas have an emancipation called ‘inconceivable.’ For a bodhisattva residing in this emancipation, the vastness of [Mount] Sumeru can be placed within a mus- tard seed without [either of them] increasing or decreasing in size. Sumeru, king of mountains, will remain in appearance as before, and the gods of the [heavens of the four heavenly kings and the Trayastriṃśa [Heaven] will not sense or know their own entry [into the mustard seed]. Only those one is try- ing to save will see Sumeru enter into the mustard seed. This is called abid- ing in the teaching of inconceivable emancipation. Chapter VI 546c 120 11. “Also, [a bodhisattva] may cause the waters of the four great oceans to enter into a single pore. “[The bodhisattva does so] without discomforting the ﬁsh, turtles, tor- toises, crocodiles, and [other] aquatic life forms, and the fundamental char- acteristics of those great oceans [remain] as before. The dragons, demonic spirits, and asuras do not realize that they have entered [into the single pore]. At this, the sentient beings [just mentioned] are not discomforted. 12. “Furthermore, Śāriputra, a bodhisattva residing in inconceivable emancipation who eradicates grasping of the great tri mega chiliocosm does so just like a potter grasping a wheel in his right palm: were he to throw it past world-systems as numerous as the grains of sand in the Ganges River, the sentient beings within [that great trimegachiliocosm] would be unaware of where they had gone. Also, when it returns to its original location, none of them would have any conception of having gone and returned, and the fundamental characteristics of this world-system would be as before. 13. “Furthermore, Śāriputra, if there are sentient beings who can be saved through their desire for longevity, a bodhisattva will extend seven days into an entire kalpaand cause those sentient beings to consider it a kalpa.If there are sentient beings who can be saved through their desire for brevity of lifespan, a bodhisattva will compress an entire kalpainto seven days and cause those sentient beings to consider it [only] seven days. 14. “Furthermore, Śāriputra, a bodhisattva who resides in inconceivable emancipation can assemble the ornaments of all the buddha lands in a sin- gle country to manifest them to sentient beings. “Furthermore, a bodhisattva can take the sentient beings of a buddha land in the right palm and ﬂy to all ten directions, showing them everything, without moving from the original location. “Furthermore, Śāriputra, a bodhisattva can make visible in a single pore all the articles offered to the buddhas by [all] the sentient beings throughout the ten directions. Also, he can make visible all the suns, moons, and con- stellations of the countries of the ten directions. “Furthermore, Śāriputra, a bodhisattva can without physical harm inhale through the mouth all the winds of the worlds in the ten directions, and the trees outside [the bodhisattva] will not be damaged [by the winds]. The Vimalakīrti Sutra 121 15. “Also, during the kalpa-ending conﬂagration of the world-systems of the ten directions, he can take all the ﬁres within his abdomen, and though the ﬁres will be as before he will not be harmed. “Also, passing beyond buddha world-systems in the lower direction more numerous than the sands of the Ganges River, he can take a single buddha land and lift it up in the upper direction, passing beyond world-sys- tems more numerous than the sands of the Ganges River. Like holding a nee- dle or a thorn, he is not inconvenienced [at all by doing so]. 16. “Also, Śāriputra, a bodhisattva who resides in inconceivable eman- cipation is able to use the numinous penetrations to manifest the body of a buddha, or to manifest the body of a pratyekabuddha,or to manifest the body of a śrāvaka,or to manifest the body of an Indra, or to manifest the body of a Brahmā king, or to manifest the body of a world lord (i.e., heavenly king), or to manifest the body of a universal ruler. 17. “Also, [a bodhisattva can take] all the sounds in the world-systems of the ten directions, high, medium, and low, and can change them into the sounds (i.e., voices) of the Buddha, playing the sounds of impermanence, suf- fering, emptiness, and no-self, with all the various Dharmas explained by the buddhas of the ten directions within those sounds, to be heard everywhere. 18. “ Śāriputra, I have now brieﬂy explained the power of the bodhi- sattva’s inconceivable emancipation. If I were to explain it extensively a kalpawould be exhausted without completing it!” 19. Then Mahākāśyapa, hearing the teaching of the bodhisattva’s incon- ceivable emancipation, exclaimed that it was unprecedented and said to Śāriputra, “It is as if someone displayed to a blind person all the colors and forms he cannot see. In the same fashion, when all the śrāvakas hear this teaching of the inconceivable emancipation, they are not able to comprehend it. When the wise hear it, who among them would not generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi? “How is it that we have long cut off our capacity [for understanding]? With regard to this Mahayana we are like destroyed seeds. When all the śrā- vakas hear this teaching of the inconceivable emancipation, they should all scream out a cry to shake the tri megachiliocosm. All the bodhisattvas should accept this Dharma with great joy. Chapter VI 547a 122 “If there are bodhisattvas who devoutly understand this teaching of inconceivable emancipation, all the congregations of Māras will be unable to do anything to them.” When Mahākāśyapa spoke these words, thirty-two thousand gods all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃ- bodhi. 20. At that time Vimalakīrti said to Mahākāśyapa, “Sir, the majority of those acting as Māra kings in the incalculable asaṃ khyeyas of world-sys- tems are bodhisattvas residing in the inconceivable emancipation. They man- ifest themselves as Māra kings through the power of skillful means, to teach sentient beings. “Also, Kāśyapa, as to the immeasurable bodhisattvas of the ten direc- tions, there may be people who beg them for a hand, foot, ear, nose, head, eye, marrow, brain matter, blood, ﬂesh, skin, bone, village, town, wife and sons, slave, elephant, horse, vehicle, gold, silver, lapis lazuli, sapphire, agate, coral, emerald, pearl, conch shell, clothing, or food. “Beggars such as these are usually bodhisattvas residing in the incon- ceivable emancipation, who use the power of skillful means to go test [the bodhisattvas] and make them resolute. Why? Bodhisattvas who reside in the inconceivable emancipation possess the power of awesome virtue and there- fore manifest the practice of pressuring, showing sentient beings difﬁculties such as these. Ordinary people are inferior and lack energy, and they are unable to pressure bodhisattvas in this way. It is like the kick of a dragon or elephant, which is not something a donkey could withstand. “This is called the ‘gate of wisdom and skillful means of bodhisattvas residing in the inconceivable emancipation.’” The Vimalakīrti Sutra 123 547b Chapter VII Viewing Sentient Beings 1. At this point Mañjuśrī asked Vimalakīrti, “How should the bodhisattva view sentient beings?” Vimalakīrti said, i) “As if he were a magician seeing a conjured person, so should a bodhi- sattva view sentient beings. ii) “Like a wise person seeing the moon in water, iii) like seeing the image of a face in a mirror, iv) like a mirage when it is hot, v) like the echo of a shout, vi) like clouds in the sky, vii) like water collecting into foam, viii) like bubbles upon water, ix) like the ﬁrmness of the banana tree, x) like the prolonged abiding of lightning, xi) like a ﬁfth element, xii) like a sixth skandha, xiii) like a seventh sense, xiv) like a thirteenth entrance (āyatana), xv) like a nineteenth realm (dhātu)—so should a bodhisattva view sen- tient beings. xvi) “Like form in the formless realm, xvii) like a seedling emerging from burned grain, xviii) like a stream-enterer’s mistaken view of the body, xix) like a non-returner’s (anāgāmin) entrance into a womb, xx) like an arhat’s three poisons, xxi) like a bodhisattva who has achieved forbearance breaking the pro- hibition against anger, 124 xxii) like a buddha’s latent inﬂuences of the afflictions, xxiii) like a blind man seeing forms, xxiv) like the inhalation and exhalation of someone who has entered the concentration of extinction, xxv) like the tracks of birds in the sky, like the child of a barren woman, xxvi) like a conjured person generating the afflictions, like waking up in a dream, xxvii) like one who has entered nirvana being reborn, like ﬁre without smoke—so should a bodhisattva view sentient beings.” 2. Mañjuśrī said, “If a bodhisattva views sentient beings in this fashion, how should he practice sympathy?” Vimalakīrti said, “The bodhisattva who views [sentient beings] in this fashion should think to himself, ‘I should explain the Dharma for sentient beings in this fashion, and this will constitute true sympathy. “‘I should practice the sympathy of extinction, because of the absence of anything generated; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of no-heat, because of the absence of the afflictions; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of sameness, because of the same- ness of the three periods of time; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of nondisputation, because of the absence of generation; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of nonduality, because of the non- conjunction of interior and exterior; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of nondestruction, because of the ulti- mate exhaustion [of the characteristics of sympathy]; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of resoluteness, because of inde- structibility; practice the sympathy of purity, because of the essential purity of the dharmas; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of no extremes, because of its being like space; practice the sympathy of an arhat, because of the destruction of the “bandits” of the fetters; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of a bodhisattva, because of the paciﬁ- cation of sentient beings; practice the sympathy of a Tathāgata, because of attainment of the characteristic of “thusness”; The Vimalakīrti Sutra 547c 125 “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of a buddha, because of the enlight- enment of sentient beings; practice the sympathy of the naturally [accom- plished sage], because of the imperceptibility of causes; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of bodhi,because of the sameness of the single taste; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of inequivalence, because of the erad- ication of the affections; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of great compassion, because of guid- ing [sentient beings] by means of the Mahayana; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of nonrevulsion, because of the con- templation of emptiness and no-self; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of the charity of Dharma, because of the absence of regrets; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of morality, because of converting the transgressors; practice the sympathy of forbearance, because of protect- ing others and self; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of exertion, because of carrying the burden for sentient beings; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of concentration, because of not expe- riencing the ﬂavors [of desire]; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of wisdom, because of the absence of any time of non-understanding; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of skillful means, because of the man- ifestation of all [teaching methods]; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of non-hiding, because of the purity of sincerity; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of the profound mind, because of the absence of heterogeneous practices; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of the non-crazed, because of not using false conventions; “‘[I should] practice the sympathy of peace and joy, because of causing [beings] to attain the joy of buddhahood—thus is the sympathy of the bodhi- sattva.’” 3. Mañjuśrī asked further, “What is compassion?” [Vimalakīrti] answered, “The merits achieved by the bodhisattva are entirely shared with all sentient beings.” Chapter VII 126 [Question:] “What is joy?” Answer: “If there is beneﬁt, then one rejoices without regret.” [Question:] “What is forsaking?” Answer: “The blessings generated are without expectation.” 4. Mañjuśrī also asked, “For the bodhisattva who fears samsara, what should be his reliance?” Vimalakīrti said, “A bodhisattva who fears samsara should rely on the power of the Tathāgata’s merit.” Mañjuśrī also asked, “The bodhisattva who wishes to rely on the power of the Tathāgata’s merit—in what should he abide?” Answer: “The bodhisattva who wishes to rely on the power of the Tathā- gata’s merit should abide in saving all sentient beings.” 5. [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “If one wishes to save sentient beings, what should be eradicated?” Answer: “If one wishes to save sentient beings, the afflictions should be eradicated.” [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “If one wishes to eradicate the afflictions, what should one practice?” Answer: “One should practice correct mindfulness.” [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “How does one practice correct mindfulness?” Answer: “One should practice nongeneration and nonextinction.” [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What dharmas are nongenerated and what dhar- mas are nonextinguished?” Answer: “The not-good are [to be] nongenerated, and the good dhar- mas are [to be] nonextinguished.” [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of good and bad [dharmas]?” Answer: “The body is their fundamental basis.” [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of the body?” Answer: “Desire is its fundamental basis.” [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of desire?” Answer: “False discrimination is its fundamental basis.” 6. [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of false dis- crimination?” Answer: “Confused conception is its fundamental basis.” The Vimalakīrti Sutra 548a 127 [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of confused con- ception?” Answer: “The nonabiding is its fundamental basis.” [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of nonabiding?” Answer: “Nonabiding is without any fundamental [basis]. Mañjuśrī, all dharmas are established on the fundamental [basis] of nonabiding.” 7. At the time, there was a goddess in Vimalakīrti’s room who, upon seeing the great men listening to the Dharma being explained, made herself visible and scattered heavenly ﬂowers over the bodhisattvas and great dis- ciples. When the ﬂowers reached the bodhisattvas they all immediately fell off, but when they reached the great disciples they adhered and did not fall off. Even using all their numinous powers, the disciples were unable to remove the ﬂowers. 8. At that time, the goddess asked Śāriputra, “Why would you remove the ﬂowers?” [Śāriputra] answered, “These ﬂowers are contrary to the Dharma, so I would remove them.” The goddess said, “Do not say that these ﬂowers are contrary to the Dharma! Why? These ﬂowers are without discrimination. Sir, it is you who are generating discriminative thoughts. If one who has left home in the Buddha-Dharma has discrimination, this is contrary to the Dharma; if such a one is without discrimination, this is in accord with the Dharma. “Look at the bodhisattvas, to whom the ﬂowers do not adhere—this is because they have eradicated all discriminative thoughts. “For example, when a person is afraid, non-human [beings] are able to control him. Thus, since the disciples fear samsara, then forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangibles control you. None of the ﬁve desires can affect those who have transcended fear. “It is only because the latent inﬂuences [of your afflictions] are not yet exhausted that the ﬂowers stick to your bodies. “For those in whom the latent inﬂuences are exhausted, the ﬂowers do not stick.” 9. Śāriputra said, “Have you stayed in this room long?” Answer: “I have stayed in this room as long as you have been emanci- pated.” Chapter VII 128 Śāriputra said, “How long have you stayed here?” The goddess said, “How long has it been since your emancipation?” Śāriputra was silent and did not answer. The goddess said, “What is your great wisdom that you remain silent?” Answer: “Emancipation is not to be spoken of, and so I did not know what to say.” The goddess said, “Speech and words are entirely the characteristics of emancipation. Why? “Emancipation is neither internal, nor external, nor intermediate. Words are also neither internal, nor external, nor intermediate. Therefore, Śāripu- tra, the explanation of emancipation does not transcend words. Why? “All dharmas have the characteristic of emancipation.” Śāriputra said, “Is it not also that emancipation is the transcendence of licentiousness, anger, and stupidity?” The goddess said, “On behalf of the self-conceited, the Buddha explained that emancipation is the transcendence of licentiousness, anger, and stupid- ity. If one is not self-conceited, the Buddha explains that licentiousness, anger, and stupidity are emancipation.” 10. Śāriputra said, “Excellent, excellent! O goddess, what attainment do you have, and through what realization do you have eloquence such as this?” The goddess said, “It is because I am without attainment and without real- ization that my eloquence is like this. Why? If one had attainment and real- ization, this would be to be self-conceited with regard to the Buddha-Dharma.” 11. Śāriputra asked the goddess, “Which of the three vehicles do you seek?” The goddess said, “Since I convert sentient beings with the śrā vaka Dharma I am a śrāvaka. Since I convert sentient beings with the Dharma of causality I am a pratyekabuddha. Since I convert sentient beings with the Dharma of great compassion, I am a Mahayanist. 12. “Śāriputra, just as a person who has entered a campakaforest can smell only campakaand no other smells, thus it is if you enter this room— you can smell only the fragrance of the Buddha’s merit and do not delight in smelling the fragrance of the merit of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas. “Śāriputra, those Indras, Brahmās, four heavenly kings, and the gods, dragons, and spirits who enter this room all hear this Superior One (i.e., The Vimalakīrti Sutra 548b 129 Vimalakīrti) explain the correct Dharma, and they all leave delighting [only] in the fragrance of the Buddha’s merit and generating the intention [to achieve anuttarā samyak saṃbodhi]. “Śāriputra, I have stayed in this room twelve years. From the beginning I have not heard the Dharma of śrāvakaand pratyekabuddha; I have only heard the buddhas’ inconceivable Dharma of the bodhisattvas’ great sym- pathy and great compassion. 13. “Śāriputra, this room constantly manifests eight unprecedentedly rare dharmas. What are these eight? i) “This room is always illuminated with golden light, with no variation day or night. It is not bright due to the illumination of sun and moon. This is the ﬁrst unprecedentedly rare dharma. ii) “Those who enter this room are not afflicted by the deﬁle ments. This is the second unprecedentedly rare dharma. iii) “This room always has Indras, Brahmās, the four heavenly kings, and bodhisattvas from other regions who arrive and gather without inter- ruption. This is the third unprecedentedly rare dharma. iv) “In this room there is constant explanation of the six perfections and the nonretrogressive Dharma. This is the fourth unprecedentedly rare dharma. v) “This room always produces the gods’ supreme string music, which generates the sound of the teaching of the immeasurable Dharma. This is the ﬁfth unprecedentedly rare dharma. vi) “This room has four great storehouses ﬁlled with the many jewels, which are given to the destitute and used to save the poor without limit. This is the sixth unprecedentedly rare dharma. vii) “To this room Śākyamuni Buddha, Amitābha Buddha, Akṣobhya Buddha, Jewel Virtue Buddha, Jewel Mirage Buddha, Jewel Moon Buddha, Jewel Ornament Buddha, Difﬁcult to Overcome Buddha, Lion’s Echo Buddha, and Achievement of All Beneﬁts Buddha, and the immeasurable buddhas of the ten directions such as these all come when the Superior One is mind- ful of them; and they extensively explain to him the buddhas’ secret Dharma storehouse and, having explained it, then return [to their own worlds]. This is the seventh unprecedentedly rare dharma. viii) “In this room appear all the ornamented palaces of the gods and the pure lands of the buddhas. This is the eighth unprecedentedly rare dharma. Chapter VII 548c The Vimalakīrti Sutra “Śāriputra, this room always manifests the eight unprecedentedly rare dharmas. Who could see these inconceivable things and still take pleasure in the śrāvakaDharma?” 14. Śāriputra said, “Why do you not transform your female body?” The goddess said, “For the past twelve years I have sought the charac- teristic of being female and have comprehended it to be unattainable (i.e., imperceptible). Why should I transform it? It is as if a magician has created a conjured female. If someone asked her, ‘Why do you not transform your female body?’ would that person’s question be proper or not?” Śāriputra said, “It would not. An indeterminate characteristic that has been conjured—why should it be transformed?” The goddess said, “All dharmas are also like this, in being without deter- minate characteristics. So why do you ask, ‘Why do you not transform your female body?’” 15. Then the goddess used the power of numinous penetration and changed Śāriputra’s body to be like that of a goddess, and she transformed her own body to be like Śāriputra. She then asked, “Why do you not trans- form this female body?” Śāriputra, in the goddess’s form, answered, “I do not know how you transformed me now into this female body.” The goddess said, “Śāriputra, if you were able to transform this female body, then all females would also be able to transform themselves. Just as Śāriputra is not female but is manifesting a female body, so are all females likewise. Although they manifest female bodies, they are not female. “Therefore, the Buddha has explained that all dharmas are neither male nor female.” At this point the goddess withdrew her numinous power, and Śāri - putra’s body returned to as it was before. The goddess asked Śāriputra, “Now where does the characteristic of form of the female body occur?” Śāriputra said, “The characteristic of form of the female body is with- out occurrence and without non-occurrence.” The goddess said, “All the dharmas are also likewise, in being without occurrence and without non-occurrence. This ‘without occurrence and with- out non-occurrence’ is as the buddhas have explained.” 130 Chapter VII 16. Śāriputra asked the goddess, “When you die here, where will you be reborn?” The goddess said, “Wherever the Buddha’s [activity of] conversion is born (i.e., generated), likewise will I be born.” [Śāriputra] said, “Where the Buddha’s [activity of] conversion is gen- erated is not [a place] of death and birth.” The goddess said, “Sentient beings are likewise without death and birth.” Śāriputra asked the goddess, “How long will it be until you attain anut- tarā samyaksaṃbodhi?” The goddess said, “When you are reborn as an [unenlightened] ordinary person, I will achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi.” Śāriputra said, “For me to be an ordinary person—this will never hap- pen!” The goddess said, “My attaining of anuttarā samyak saṃ bodhi—this too will never happen. Why? Bodhiis without any locus of abiding. Therefore there is no one who attains it.” Śāriputra said, “The buddhas who attain anuttarā samyak saṃbodhi, including those who have attained it and those who will attain it, are as numer- ous as the sands of the Ganges River. What about all of them?” The goddess said, “It is entirely through conventional words and num- bers that one talks of the existence of the three periods of time. It is not that there is past, future, and present in bodhi!” The goddess said, “Śāriputra, have you attained arhatship?” [Śāriputra] said, “There is no attainment, and so have I attained it.” The goddess said, “The buddhas and bodhisattvas are also like this. There is no attainment, and so have they attained [anuttarā samyaksaṃ- bodhi].” 17. At this time Vimalakīrti said to Śāriputra, “The goddess has already served ninety-two koṭis of buddhas. She is able to disport in the numinous penetrations of the bodhisattva, her vows are complete, she has attained for- bearance of the nonarising of dharmas, and she abides in nonretrogression. By virtue of her original vows she is able to manifest the teaching of sen- tient beings as she wishes.” 131 549a Chapter VIII The Path of Buddhahood 1. Mañjuśrī then asked Vimalakīrti, “How should the bodhisattva penetrate the path of buddhahood?” Vimalakīrti said, “If a bodhisattva traverses the unacceptable paths, this is to penetrate the path of buddhahood.” [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “How does the bodhisattva traverse the unac- ceptable paths?” [Vimalakīrti] answered, “The bodhisattva practices the ﬁve [deeds of] interminable [retribution] without becoming distraught. “He goes to the hells without the deﬁlements of transgression; goes among the animals without the errors of ignorance, conceit, and so on. “He goes among the hungry ghosts replete in merit; traverses the paths of the form and formless realms without considering himself superior. “He manifests acting out of desire but transcends the deﬁled attachments; manifests acting out of anger at sentient beings but is without aversion. “He manifests acting out of stupidity but uses wisdom to control his mind. “He manifests acting out of lust but forsakes both internal and external and does not begrudge his own life; manifests the practicing of moral infrac- tions but peacefully resides in the pure precepts, even unto harboring great fear about even minor transgressions; manifests acting out of anger but is always sympathetically forbearant; manifests acting out of laziness, yet vigorously cultivates merit; manifests acting out of a disturbed mind, yet is always mind- fully concentrated; manifests acting out of stupidity, yet penetrates both mun- dane and supramundane wisdom. “He manifests the practicing of ﬂattery and deception, yet uses good skill- ful means to accord with the meanings found in the sutras; manifests acting out of conceit, yet is like a bridge for sentient beings. 133 549b 134 “He manifests acting out of the afflictions, yet is always pure in mind; manifests becoming a Māra, yet accords with the wisdom of the Buddha and follows no other teaching; manifests becoming a śrāvaka, yet for sentient beings explains Dharmas they have not heard before; manifests becoming a pratyekabuddha,yet accomplishes great compassion to teach sentient beings; manifests becoming destitute, yet has the unlimited merit of the ‘hand of treasures’; manifests becoming maimed through criminal punishment, yet adorns himself with all the [thirty-two primary] characteristics and [eighty subsidiary] marks; manifests becoming low-born, yet is [actually] born within the Buddha’s lineage and replete in its various merits; manifests becoming feeble and ugly, yet attains the body of a Nārāyaṇa, which all sentient beings enjoy seeing. “He manifests becoming old and sick, yet always eradicates the roots of illness and transcends the fear of death. “He manifests having the material requisites, yet always views [the world as] impermanent and is truly without desire; manifests having wife, concu- bines, and mistresses, yet always distantly transcends the muddy ﬁlth of the ﬁve desires; manifests dumbness (i.e., muteness), yet accomplishes eloquence and unfailing dhāraṇīs. “He manifests becoming a ‘false ford’ (i.e., a heretic), yet uses the cor- rect ford to ‘cross over’ sentient beings [to salvation]. “He manifests entering all the destinies, yet eradicates their causes and conditions; and manifests nirvana, yet does not eradicate samsara. “Mañjuśrī, if a bodhisattva can traverse the unacceptable paths in this way, this is to penetrate the path of buddhahood.” 2. At this Vimalakīrti asked Mañjuśrī, “What is the seed of the Tathā- gata?” Mañjuśrī said, “The possession of a body constitutes this seed. Igno- rance and affection constitute this seed. Lust, anger, and stupidity constitute this seed. The four confusions constitute this seed. The ﬁve hindrances con- stitute this seed. The six entrances (āyatanas) constitute this seed. The seven loci of consciousness constitute this seed. The eight heterodox dharmas and nine loci of affliction constitute this seed. The ten evil actions constitute this seed. In essence, the sixty-two mistaken views and all the afflictions consti- tute this seed.” The Vimalakīrti Sutra 135 3. [Vimalakīrti] said, “Why is this?” [Mañjuśrī] answered, “Anyone who sees the unconditioned and enters the primary status [of Hinayana enlightenment] will be unable to generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak saṃbodhi. “It is just as lotus ﬂowers do not grow on dry land on the high plateau— these ﬂowers grow in the muddy ﬁlth of the lowly marshes. Thus one who sees the unconditioned dharmas and enters the primary status will never be able to generate the dharmas of a buddha. It is only within the mud of the afflictions that sentient beings give rise to the dharmas of a buddha. “Or again, it is like planting a seed in space, where it would never grow— only in nightsoil-enriched earth can it ﬂourish. In this way, one who enters the unconditioned primary status will not be able to generate the dharmas of a buddha. “It is only when one generates a view of self as great as Mount Sumeru that one is able to generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃ- bodhiand generate the dharmas of a buddha. “Therefore, you should understand that all the afflictions constitute the seed of the Tathāgata. It is like not being able to attain the priceless jewel- pearl without entering the ocean. Therefore, if one does not enter the great sea of the afflictions, one will not be able to attain the jewel of omniscience.” 4. At this time Mahākāśyapa exclaimed, “Excellent, excellent, Mañjuśrī! It is well that you have spoken thus; truly, it is as you have said! The ﬁeld of the sensory troubles constitutes the seed of the Tathāgata. “We [disciples] are now unable to bear generating the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. It will only be after [we have committed] the transgressions [leading to] the ﬁve interminable [hells] that we will be able to generate that intention and generate the dharmas of a buddha. [As we are] now we will never be able to generate it. 5. “It is like a man whose sense organs are destroyed being unable to beneﬁt from the ﬁve desires. Likewise, śrāvakas who have eradicated the fetters are unable to beneﬁt from the dharmas of a buddha and will never vow [to achieve buddhahood]. 6. “Therefore, Mañjuśrī, ordinary people can respond to the dharmas of a buddha, but śrāvakas cannot. Why? When an ordinary person hears the Buddha-Dharma he is able to generate the intention to achieve unsurpassable Chapter VIII 549c 136 enlightenment and not eradicate the Three Jewels. Even if śrāvakas spend their whole lives hearing about the dharmas of a buddha, [including the ten] powers, [the four] fearlessnesses, [and the other] unique [dharmas of a buddha], they will never be able to generate the intention to achieve unsur- passable enlightenment!” 7. At that time there was a bodhisattva in the assembly named Univer- sally Manifests the Form Body. He asked Vimalakīrti, “O retired scholar, who are your parents, wife and sons, relatives, sub- ordinates, servants, and friends? Where are your slaves, servants, elephants, horses, and vehicles?” At this, Vimalakīrti replied in verse: 1. The perfection of wisdom is the bodhisattva’s mother; Skillful means is his father. All the assembly of guides Without exception are the causes of his birth. 2. Joy in the Dharma is his wife, And the mind of sympathy and compassion his daughters. The mind of goodness and sincerity is his sons, And ultimate emptiness and serenity his home. 3. His congregation of disciples is the sensory troubles, Which he converts as he wishes. The factors of enlightenment are his good friends, On whom he depends to achieve correct enlightenment. 4. The dharmas of the perfections are his companions, And the four types of attraction his dancing girls, Who sing the words of Dharma And thereby create their music. 5. In the garden of dhāraṇī And the grove of the ﬂawless Dharma, Is the pure and wonderful ﬂower of the intention for enlightenment And the fruit of wisdom and emancipation. The Vimalakīrti Sutra 137 6. The pool of the eight emancipations Is ﬁlled with the peaceful waters of concentration. Scattering the ﬂowers of the seven purities, Here bathe the undeﬁled persons. 7. His elephants and horses are the ﬁve penetrations that race, And the Mahayana is his chariot. Control is through singlemindedness, So he wanders the roads of the eightfold correct [paths]. 8. With the [thirty-two primary] characteristics replete to ornament his form, And the host of [eighty subsidiary] marks to decorate his bodies, Shame is his upper garment, And the profound mind his ﬂowered necklace 9. His wealth is the seven treasures [of the Dharma], Which he bestows in teaching so that [beings] will ﬂourish. He practices according to [the Buddha’s] explanation And rededicates [the ensuing merit] for great beneﬁt. 10. The four dhyānas are his seat, From which his pure livelihood is generated. Erudition increases his wisdom And becomes the sound of his own enlightenment. 11. His food is the sweet dew of the Dharma, And his drink the ﬂavor of emancipation. With the pure mind does he bathe, Using the categories of the precepts as his incense powder. 12. Demolishing the bandits of the afflictions, He is courageous and invincible. Subjugating the four types of Māras, The banner of his victory is erected at the place of enlightenment. 13. Although he understands there is no generation and no extinction, He is born so as to manifest [the Dharma] to others. Chapter VIII 550a 138 He manifests all the countries, With none invisible, as [plain as] the sun. 14. He makes offerings to the immeasurable koṭis Of Tathāgatas throughout the ten directions, Without having any thought of discriminating Between the buddhas and himself. 15. Although he understands that the buddha lands And sentient beings are empty, He always practices purifying his land, Teaching the hosts of beings. 16. The various categories of sentient beings— Their forms, sounds, and deportments— The bodhisattva with the power of fearlessness Can simultaneously manifest them all. 17. Recognizing the affairs of the host of Māras, And while seeming to go along with their activities, He uses wisdom and good skillful means, So that he can manifest anything he wishes. 18. He may manifest old age, illness, and death To accomplish [the liberation of] the hosts of beings. Comprehending that [all things] are like phantasma gorical transformations, His penetration is without hindrance. 19. He may manifest the kalpa-ending conﬂagration, In which heaven and earth are entirely incinerated. To the hosts of people who have the conception of permanence, He illuminates [the truth] so that they understand impermanence. 20. Innumerable koṭis of sentient beings All come to request the bodhisattva’s [assistance]. He simultaneously goes to their homes And converts them so that they turn toward the path of buddhahood. The Vimalakīrti Sutra 139 21. The magical arts prohibited in the scriptures, The various skills and arts— He manifests the performance of all these things To beneﬁt the hosts of beings. 22. In all the religious teachings of this world Does he leave home [to dedicate himself], Thereby to release people from their delusions, So they will not fall into heterodox views. 23. He may become the god of the sun or moon, A Brahmā king, or a world lord, And at times he may become earth or water, Or again wind or ﬁre. 24. When there are epidemics in the middle of a kalpa He manifests himself as medicinal plants. If someone takes [these herbs], They eradicate illness and eliminate the host of poisons. 25. When there are famines in the middle of a kalpa He manifests himself as food and drink, First saving the hungry and thirsty, And then speaking of the Dharma to people. 26. When armed soldiers appear in the middle of a kalpa He generates sympathy for them. He converts the sentient beings, Causing them to abide in noncontention. 27. If there are great armies Facing each other with equal strength, The bodhisattva manifests his awesome power, And, subjugating them, imposes peace. 28. In all the countries, Wherever there are hells Does he go to save [the beings there] From their sufferings. Chapter VIII 550b 140 29. In all the countries, Wherever animals devour one another, He always manifests being born there To provide beneﬁt for them there. 30. He manifests experiencing the ﬁve desires And also manifests the practice of dhyāna, Making Māra distressed At being unable to take control. 31. For a lotus ﬂower to be born in the midst of ﬁre Can certainly be called rare! To practice dhyānawithin the desires— This is just as rare. 32. He may manifest himself as a prostitute, Enticing those who enjoy sensuality. First enticing them with desire, And later causing them to enter the wisdom of the Buddha. 33. He may become a village master, Or become a merchant guide, National teacher, great minister— In order to beneﬁt sentient beings. 34. For the destitute He manifests inexhaustible treasuries, Thereby exhorting and guiding them, Causing them to generate the intention to achieve enlightenment. 35. For those who are selﬁsh and conceited, He manifests himself as a great warrior, Decimating the pretensions [of sentient beings], And causing them to abide in the unsurpassable path. 36. The hosts of the fear-stricken He shields and comforts, First giving them fearlessness The Vimalakīrti Sutra 141 And then causing them to generate the intention to achieve enlightenment. 37. He may manifest the transcendence of licentious desire And become a transcendent of the ﬁve penetrations, Guiding the hosts of beings And making them abide in morality, forbearance, and sympathy. 38. Seeing those who should be served, He manifests himself as a servant. Taking joy in the afﬁrmation of one’s intention, [Those to be honored] generate the intention to achieve enlightenment. 39. In accordance with the needs of others, He causes them to enter into the path of buddhahood. Using the power of good skillful means He provides sufﬁciency to all. 40. Thus are the paths immeasurable Which he traverses without restriction. His wisdom is without limit In saving the innumerable hosts [of beings]. 41. Even if we had all the buddhas Throughout immeasurable koṭis of kalpas Praise his merits, They would not be able to do so completely. 42. Whoever hears the Dharma such as this And does not generate the intention to achieve bodhi— Excluding those who do not even seem human— Are ignorant fools. Chapter VIII 550c Chapter IX The Dharma Gate of Nonduality 1. At that time Vimalakīrti said to the congregation of bodhisattvas, “Sirs, how does the bodhisattva enter the Dharma gate of nonduality? Each of you explain this as you wish.” Within the assembly was a bodhisattva named Autonomous Dharma, who said, “Sirs, generation and extinction (i.e., samsara) constitute a dual- ity. Since the dharmas were fundamentally not generated, now they are with- out extinction. To attain this [understanding is to achieve] forbearance of the nonarising of dharmas. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 2. Maintenance of Virtue Bodhisattva said, “The self and the self’s attrib- utes constitute a duality. It is because of the existence of the self that the self’s attributes occur. If the self does not exist, then there are no attributes of self. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 3. Unblinking Bodhisattva said, “Experience and nonexperience con- stitute a duality. If dharmas are not experienced, they cannot be attained (i.e., are imperceptible). Because of unattainability, there is no grasping, no for- saking, no production, and no activity. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 4. Crown of Virtue Bodhisattva said, “Deﬁlement and purity constitute a duality. If one sees the real nature of deﬁlement, then there is no charac- teristic of purity, and one accords with the extinction of characteristics. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 5. Excellent Constellation Bodhisattva said, “Motion and mindfulness constitute a duality. If there is motionlessness, there is no-mindfulness. If there is no-mindfulness, there is no discrimination. To penetrate this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 6. Excellent Eye Bodhisattva said, “The single characteristic and the non-characteristic constitute a duality. If one understands that the single 143 551a 144 characteristic is the non-characteristic, and does not grasp the non-charac- teristic but enters into universal sameness, this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 7. Wonderful Arm Bodhisattva said, “The aspirations of bodhisattvas and the aspirations of śrāvakas constitute a duality. If one contemplates that the characteristics of mind (i.e., mental aspirations) are empty, like phan- tasmagorical transformations, there is no aspiration of bodhisattvas and no aspiration of śrāvakas. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 8. Puṣya Bodhisattva said, “What is good and what is not good consti- tute a duality. If one does not generate the good and what is not good, enter- ing into and penetrating the limit of the non-characteristics, this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 9. Lion Bodhisattva said, “Transgression and blessing constitute a dual- ity. If one penetrates the nature of transgression, then it is not different from blessings. Using the vajrawisdom to deﬁn itively comprehend this charac- teristic, and to be neither in bondage nor emancipated, is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 10. Lion Mind Bodhisattva said, “To have ﬂaws and to be ﬂaw less con- stitute a duality. If one can attain the equivalence of the dharmas, then one will not generate the conception of ﬂaws and ﬂaw lessness. Being unattached to characteristics, but also not abiding in the absence of characteristics, is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 11. Pure Emancipation Bodhisattva said, “The constructed and the uncon- structed constitute a duality. If one transcends all categories, then the mind is like space. If one’s wisdom is pure and without hindrance, this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 12. Nārāyaṇa Bodhisattva said, “The mundane and supramundane con- stitute a duality. The emptiness that is the nature of the mundane is the supra- mundane. Within these to neither enter nor exit, neither overﬂow nor dis- perse, is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 13. Excellent Mind Bodhisattva said, “Samsara and nirvana constitute a duality. If one sees the nature of samsara, there is no samsara. To be with- out bondage and without emancipation, neither generating nor extinguished— to understand in this way is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 14. Manifest Perception Bodhisattva said, “Exhaustible and inexhaustible The Vimalakīrti Sutra 145 constitute a duality. Whether the dharmas are ultimately exhaustible or inex- haustible, they are all [marked by] the characteristic of inexhaustibility. The characteristic of inexhaustibility is emptiness. Emptiness is without the char- acteristics of exhaustible and inexhaustible. To enter thus is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 15. Universal Maintenance Bodhisattva said, “Self and no-self consti- tute a duality. Since even the self is unattainable, how could no-self be attain- able? Those who see the real nature of the self will never again generate duality. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 16. Thunder God Bodhisattva said, “Wisdom and ignorance constitute a duality. The real nature of ignorance is wisdom. Furthermore, wisdom can- not grasp and transcend all the categories [of reality]. To be universally same and nondual with respect to this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 17. Joyful Vision Bodhisattva said, “Form and the emptiness of form constitute a duality. Form is emptiness—it is not that form extinguishes emptiness but that the nature of form is of itself empty. Likewise are feel- ing, conception, process, and consciousness. Consciousness and emptiness are two. Consciousness is emptiness—it is not that consciousness extin- guishes emptiness but that the nature of consciousness is of itself empty. To [abide] within and penetrate this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 18. Characteristic of Wisdom Bodhisattva said, “The differentiation of the four types [of elements] (i.e., earth, water, ﬁre, and air) and the differ- entiation of the type of space constitute a duality. The nature of the four types [of elements] is the nature of emptiness. Given that the former and latter [types of elements] are empty, the intermediate is also empty. To understand the natures of the types [of elements] in this way is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 19. Wonderful Mind Bodhisattva said, “The eye and forms constitute a duality. If one understands that the nature of the eye is neither licentious, nor angry, nor stupid with regard to forms, this is called serene extinction. Like- wise, the ear and sounds, the nose and smells, the tongue and tastes, the body and tangibles, and the mind and dharmas constitute dualities. If one under- stands that the nature of the mind is neither licentious, nor angry, nor stupid with regard to dharmas, this is called serene extinction. To abide peacefully within this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” Chapter IX 551b 146 20. Inexhaustible Mind Bodhisattva said, “Charity and the rededication [of the merit of charity] to omniscience constitute a duality. The nature of charity is the nature of the rededication to omniscience. Likewise, morality, forbearance, exertion, meditation, and wisdom constitute dualities with the rededication to omniscience. The nature of wisdom is the nature of the re - dedication to omniscience. To enter the single characteristic with respect to this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 21. Profound Wisdom Bodhisattva said, “[The three emancipations of] emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness constitute dualities. The empty is the signless, and the signless is the wishless. If [one achieves] the empty, the signless, and the wishless, then there is no mind, thought, or consciousness. In this single gate of emancipation are the three gates of emancipation. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 22. Serene Capacity Bodhisattva said, “Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha constitute dualities. The Buddha is the Dharma, and the Dharma is the Sangha. These Three Jewels all [have] the characteristic of the unconditioned and are equivalent to space, and all dharmas are also likewise. To be able to prac- tice accordingly is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 23. Unhindered Mind Bodhisattva said, “The body and the extinction of the body constitute a duality. The body is identical to the extinction of the body. Why? Those who see the real characteristic of the body do not gener- ate seeing the body and seeing the extinction of the body. Body and the extinc- tion of the body are without duality and cannot be differentiated (lit., “with- out discrimination”). To neither be surprised or afraid with respect to this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 24. Superior Excellence Bodhisattva said, “The good [actions] of body, speech, and mind constitute dualities. These three [types of] action all have the characteristic of the nonconstructed. The body’s characteristic of the non- constructed is the same as speech’s characteristic of the nonconstructed. Speech’s characteristic of the nonconstructed is the same as the mind’s char- acteristic of the nonconstructed. The characteristic of the nonconstructed of these three [types of] action is the same as the characteristic of the noncon- structed of all dharmas. To be able to be in accord with this wisdom of the nonconstructed is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 25. Field of Blessings Bodhisattva said, “Meritorious action, transgressive The Vimalakīrti Sutra 551c 147 action, and immobility constitute dualities. The real nature of these three [types of] action is emptiness. Emptiness is without meritorious action, trans- gressive action, and immobility. Not to generate these three [types of] action is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 26. Flower Ornament Bodhisattva said, “The generation of dualities from the self constitutes a duality. To see the real characteristic of the self is to not generate dualistic dharmas. If one does not abide in dualistic dhar- mas, then there is no consciousness. To be without consciousness is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 27. Store of Virtue Bodhisattva said, “The characteristics of the attain- able (i.e., the perceptible) constitute dualities. If there is unattainability, then there is no grasping and forsaking. If there is no grasping and no forsaking, this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 28. Superior Moon Bodhisattva said, “Darkness and illumination con- stitute a duality. If there is no darkness and no illumination, then there is no duality. Why? If one enters into the concentration of extinction, there is no darkness and no illumination. The characteristics of all the dharmas are also like this. To enter this with universal sameness is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 29. Jewel Seal Hand Bodhisattva said, “To delight in nirvana and not to delight in the world constitute a duality. If one does not delight in nirvana and does not have aversion for the world, then there is no duality. Why? If there is bondage, then there is emancipation. If there is fundamentally no bondage, who would seek emancipation? Without bondage or emancipation, then there is no delighting or aversion. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 30. Crown of Pearls King Bodhisattva said, “The correct path and the heterodox paths constitute a duality. Those who abide in the correct path do not discriminate between the heterodox and the correct. To transcend this duality is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” 31. Delights in the Real Bodhisattva said, “The real and the unreal con- stitute a duality. To really see is not to see reality, and how much more so the not-real? Why? That which the physical eye cannot see can be seen by the wisdom eye, but this wisdom eye is without seeing and without not-see- ing. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” Chapter IX The Vimalakīrti Sutra 32. After the various bodhisattvas had thus each made their explana- tions, [Vimalakīrti] asked Mañjuśrī, “How does the bodhisattva enter the Dharma gate of nonduality?” Mañjuśrī said, “As I understand it, it is to be without words and with- out explanation with regard to all the dharmas—without manifestation, with- out consciousness, and transcending all questions and answers. This is to enter the Dharma gate of non duality.” 33. Mañjuśrī then asked Vimalakīrti, “We have each made our own expla- nations. Sir, you should explain how the bodhisattva enters the Dharma gate of nonduality.” At this point Vimalakīrti was silent, saying nothing. Mañjuśrī exclaimed, “Excellent, excellent! Not to even have words or speech is the true entrance into the Dharma gate of nonduality.” When this “Discourse on Entering the Dharma Gate of Nonduality” was explained, ﬁve thousand bodhisattvas within the congregation all entered the Dharma gate of nonduality and attained forbearance of the nonarising of dharmas. End of Fascicle Two 148 552a 149 Fascicle Three Chapter X The Buddha Accumulation of Fragrances 1. At this point Śāriputra thought to himself, “It is almost noon. What will all these bodhisattvas eat?” Then Vimalakīrti, knowing his thoughts, said, “The Buddha has explained the eight emancipations. You, sir, have accepted them as your practice. How can you mix up the desire for food and [that of] listening to the Dharma? If you wish to eat, then just wait a moment. I will provide you with an unprece- dented meal.” 2. Then Vimalakīrti entered into samādhiand, using his powers of numi- nous penetration, manifested to the great congregations that in the upper direction, past buddha lands as numerous as the sands of forty-two Ganges Rivers, there was a country called Host of Fragrances, with a buddha named Accumulation of Fragrances, who currently exists in that world. In compar- ison with the world-systems of the other buddhas thoughout the ten direc- tions, the fragrances [experienced by] the humans and gods of that country are supreme. In that land, the names “śrāvaka”and “pratyeka buddha”do not exist—there is only the great congregation of pure bodhisattvas, for whom the Buddha explains the Dharma. In that world all the buildings are made of fragrance. In doing walking meditation on that fragrant earth, the gardens are all fragrant. The fragrance of the food there circulates throughout the immeasurable worlds in the ten directions. At the time, that Buddha and the bodhisattvas [in that country] were just sitting together to eat. The gods in attendance [in Vimalakīrti’s assembly] 552b 150 all exclaimed at the ornament of fragrance, and they all generated the inten- tion to achieve anuttarā samyak saṃbodhi,making offerings to that buddha and the bodhisattvas. Everyone in the great congregations [in Vimalakīrti’s room] saw this. 3. At that time, Vimalakīrti asked the congregation of bodhisattvas, “Sirs, who is able to go get food from that buddha?” Through the inﬂuence of Mañjuśrī’s awesome numinous power, they all remained silent. Vimalakīrti said, “Sir, are you not ashamed for this great congregation?” Mañjuśrī said, “As the Buddha has said, one should not belittle those of no learning.” 4. At this Vimalakīrti, without rising from his seat, created by transfor- mation a bodhisattva whose [thirty-two primary] characteristics and [eighty subsidiary] marks were radiantly bright, whose glorious presence was par- ticularly excellent, surpassing all in the assembly. [Vimalakīrti] announced to him, “Go to the world in the upper direction where, separated from here by buddha lands as numerous as the sands of forty-two Ganges Rivers, there is a country named Host of Fragrances. The buddha [of that country], named Accumulation of Fragrances, is just sitting down to eat with the bodhisattvas. Go there, and say as I tell you: ‘Vimalakīrti bows his head to the feet of the World-honored One, and with great respect he inquires immeasurable times as to whether you might have some slight illness, some slight vexation, and whether your energies are at peace. He wishes to obtain the leftovers of the World-honored One’s meal, which would be given to accomplish the Buddha’s work in the sahāworld. “‘It will cause those who delight in inferior dharmas to disseminate the great path, and it will also cause the Tathāgata’s (i.e., Buddha Accumulation of Fragrances) reputation to be universally known.’” 5. Then the conjured bodhisattva ascended to the upper direction in front of the assembly. The entire congregation saw him arrive at that Host of Fra- grances world and worship at that Buddha’s feet. They also heard him say, “Vimalakīrti bows his head to the feet of the World-honored One, and with great respect he inquires immeasurable times as to whether you might have some slight illness, some slight vexation, and whether your energies are at peace. He wishes to obtain the leftovers of the World-honored One’s The Vimalakīrti Sutra 151 meal, which would be given to accomplish the Buddha’s work in the sahā world. “It will cause those who delight in inferior dharmas to disseminate the great path, and it will also cause the Tathāgata’s reputation to be universally known.” 6. When the great beings there saw the conjured bodhisattva, they exclaimed that it was unprecedented. “Where has this superior person come from? Where is the sahāworld? What does he mean, ‘those who delight in inferior dharmas’?” So did they question the Buddha [Accumulation of Fragrances], and that buddha said, “In the lower direction, separated from here by buddha lands as numerous as the sands of forty-two Ganges Rivers, is a world named sahā. The buddha there is named Śākyamuni, who exists at present in an evil age of the ﬁve corruptions. He extensively disseminates the teaching of the path in order to enlighten those who delight in inferior dharmas. One of his bodhisattvas is named Vimala kīrti, who resides in the inconceivable eman- cipation and explains the Dharma for the bodhisattvas [of the sahāworld]. Therefore, he has sent this conjured [bodhisattva] here to praise my name and extol this land, so that those bodhisattvas will increase their merit.” 7. The bodhisattvas there said, “How was he able to create this conjured [bodhisattva]? How great are his powers of merit, fearlessness, and the bases of numinous [power]?” That Buddha said, “[Vimalakīrti’s powers are] extremely great. He sends transformations to all the ten directions, where they carry out the Buddha’s work and beneﬁt sentient beings.” 8. Then Accumulation of Fragrances Tathāgata gave his bowl with its host of fragrances and ﬁlled with fragrant food to the conjured bodhisattva. The nine million bodhisattvas there then all spoke in unison, “We wish to proceed to the sahāworld to make offerings to Śākyamuni Buddha. We also wish to see Vimalakīrti and the other bodhisattva congregations.” The Buddha said, “You may go. “However, withdraw the fragrance of your bodies, so as not to cause the sentient beings there to generate thoughts of deluded attachment. Also, you should forsake your original forms, so as not to cause those seeking to become bodhisattvas in that country to be ashamed of themselves. In addition, you Chapter X 552c 152 must not harbor feelings of belittlement or thoughts of the hindrances [pre- sent in that world]. Why? The countries of the ten directions are all like space (i.e., devoid of ﬁxed reality). Furthermore, [you should realize] that the bud- dhas do not completely manifest their pure lands solely in order to convert those who delight in inferior dharmas.” 9. Then, by means of the Buddha’s awesome numinous [penetrations] and Vimalakīrti’s power, the conjured bodhisattva took the bowl and food and, accompanied by those nine million bodhisattvas, suddenly disappeared from that world. In an instant, they arrived at Vimalakīrti’s house. 10. Vimalakīrti then created by transformation nine million lion seats, excellently ornamented as before, and the bodhisattvas all sat upon them. The conjured bodhisattva gave the bowl full of fragrant food to Vimalakīrti. The fragrance of the food wafted through Vaiśālī and the [whole] trimegachiliocosm. When the brahmans and retired scholars of Vaiśālī smelled this fra- grance, their bodies and minds were joyful, and they exclaimed at the unprece- dented [event]. At this, Moon Canopy, the leader of the elders, followed by eighty-four thousand people, came and entered Vimalakīrti’s house. Seeing that the room contained so many lion seats, which were so tall and broad, with excellent ornamentation, in great joy they all worshiped the congregation of bodhisattvas and great disciples, then stood to one side. The earth spirits, sky spirits, and gods of the desire and form realms, smelling this fragrance, also entered Vimalakīrti’s house. 11. Then Vimalakīrti said to Śāriputra and the other great śrāvakas, “Sirs, you may eat the Tathāgata’s food of the ﬂavor of sweet dew, which is per- fumed with the limitless intention of great compassion, and which will not be diminished by its consumption.” 12. Another śrāvakawondered, “There is not much of this food, yet everyone in the great assembly is supposed to eat!” The conjured bodhisattva said, “Do not measure the limitless blessings and sagacity of the Tathāgata with the small merit and small wisdom of a śrāvaka! Even were the four seas to dry up, this food would not be exhausted. Even if everyone ate as much as [Mount] Sumeru for an entire kalpa, we would never be able to exhaust it. Why? That which is left over from the The Vimalakīrti Sutra 153 meal of someone who fully possesses the merits of morality, meditation, wis- dom, sagacity, emancipation, and the vision and hearing of emancipation can never be exhausted.” 13. At this, the bowl of food satisﬁed all within the assembly, yet was unchanged and undepleted. The bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, gods, and humans who ate this food became physically peaceful and happy, as if they were all bodhisattvas who take pleasure in ornamenting their [buddha] countries. Also, their pores all exuded wondrous fragrances, just like the fragrances of the trees of the Host of Fragrances country. 14. Vimalakīrti then asked the bodhisattvas from the Host of Fragrances [world], “How does Accumulation of Fragrances Tathāgata explain the Dharma?” Those bodhisattvas said, “In our land the Tathāgata explains [the Dharma] without words. He simply uses the host of fragrances to make the gods and humans enter into the practice of the Vinaya. The bodhisattvas each sit beneath fragrant trees, smelling such wondrous fragrances, from which they attain the ‘samādhiof the repository of all virtues.’ Those who attain this samādhi all become replete in the merits of the bodhisattva.” 15. Those bodhisattvas asked Vimalakīrti, “Now, how does the World- honored One Śākyamuni explain the Dharma here?” Vimalakīrti said, “The sentient beings of this land are obdurate and difﬁcult to convert, and so the Buddha disciplines them by means of stern language. “He says, ‘These are the hells, these are the animals, and these are the hungry ghosts. These are the places of difﬁculty, and these are the places where the foolish are born. “‘These are licentious practices of the body, and these are the retribu- tions for licentious practices of the body. These are licentious practices of the mouth, and these are the retributions for licentious practices of the mouth. These are licentious practices of the mind, and these are the retributions for licentious practices of the mind. “‘This is to kill sentient beings, and this is the retribution for killing sen- tient beings. This is to take what is not given, and this is the retribution for taking what is not given. This is licentiousness, and this is the retribution for licentiousness. This is false speech, and this is the retribution for false speech. Chapter X 553a 154 This is slander, and this is the retribution for slander. This is defamation, and this is the retribution for defamation. This is meaningless speech, and this is the retribution for meaningless speech. “‘These are desire and jealousy, and this is the retribution for desire and jealousy. These are anger and vexation, and this is the retribution for anger and vexation. These are heterodox views, and this is the retribution for het- erodox views. This is parsimony, and this is the retribution for parsimony. This is immorality (lit., “breaking the precepts”), and this is the retribution for immorality. This is anger, and this is the retribution for anger. This is laziness, and this is the retribution for laziness. This is perturbation, and this is the retribution for perturbation. This is stupidity, and this is the retribu- tion for stupidity. “‘This is to be bound by the precepts, this is to maintain the precepts, and this is to transgress the precepts. This is what you should do, and this is what you should not do. These are hindrances, and these are not hindrances. These are transgressions, and these are not transgressions (lit., “transcend transgression”). This is pure, and this is deﬁled. This is to have ﬂaws, and this is to be ﬂawless. This is the wrong path, and this is the correct path. This is the conditioned, and this is the unconditioned. This is worldly, and this is nirvana.’ “Since the minds of people so difﬁcult to convert are like monkeys, one must use several types of Dharma to control their minds, so that they can be disciplined. It is like elephants and horses who are stubborn and uncontrol- lable, who can only be disciplined by making them suffer to the bone. Because the sentient beings [of this world] are obdurate like this, [Śākyamuni] uses all sorts of painfully strict language to get [sentient beings] to enter into the Vinaya.” 16. When those bodhisattvas heard this explanation, they all said, “How unprecedented! Thus the World-honored One Śākyamuni Buddha conceals his immeasurable autonomous powers and uses that which is enjoyed by the poverty-stricken to save sentient beings. The bodhisattvas here are also able to labor and be humble, and it is with immeasurable great compassion that they have been born in this buddha land.” Vimalakīrti said, “The bodhisattvas of this land are resolute in their com- passion for the sentient beings here. Truly, it is as you have said. Thus in a The Vimalakīrti Sutra 155 single lifetime they beneﬁt more sentient beings than you do in that country (i.e., the Host of Fragrances world) in a hundred thousand kalpas of prac- tice. Why? 17. “This sahāworld has ten excellent dharmas (i.e., features) that are lacking in the other pure lands. What are these ten? i) “The poor are attracted by charity, ii) “the transgressors are attracted by pure precepts, iii) “the angry are attracted by forbearance, iv) “the lazy are attracted by exertion, v) “the perturbed are attracted by meditation, vi) “the foolish are attracted by wisdom, vii) “those who experience the eight difﬁculties are saved by explana- tion of how to eliminate difﬁculties, viii) “those who take pleasure in the Hinayana are saved by the teach- ing of the Mahayana, ix) “those without merit may be saved by the various good roots, and x) “[the liberation of] sentient beings is constantly being accomplished by means of the four attractions. “These are the ten.” 18. Those bodhisattvas said, “How many dharmas do bodhisattvas have to accomplish in their ﬂawless practice in this world to be born in a pure land?” Vimalakīrti said, “Bodhisattvas accomplish eight dharmas in their ﬂaw- less practice in this world so as to be born in a pure land. What are the eight? i) “They beneﬁt sentient beings without seeking recompense, ii) “they experience various sufferings in place of all sentient beings, iii) “they donate all the merit from their actions to others, iv) “in humility and non-interference they are even-minded toward all sentient beings, v) “they view [other] bodhisattvas as if they were buddhas, vi) “they hear and do not doubt sutras they have not heard before, vii) “they do not become refractory toward śrāvakas, and viii) “they are not jealous of the offerings [received by] others and do not become haughty over beneﬁt to themselves. “In these [eight dharmas] they discipline their minds, always reﬂecting on their own errors and not proclaiming the short comings of others, yet Chapter X 553b 156 always singlemindedly seeking the various merits. These are the eight dhar- mas.” When Vimalakīrti and Mañjuśrī explained this Dharma to the great con- gregation, a hundred thousand gods and humans all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi,and ten thousand bodhisattvas attained the forbearance of the non arising of dharmas. The Vimalakīrti Sutra 157 Chapter XI Practices of the Bodhisattva 1. Meanwhile, the Buddha had been explaining the Dharma in the garden of Āmrapālī. The land there suddenly expanded and became ornamented, and the entire assembly became gold in color. Ānanda asked the Buddha, “World-honored One, due to what causes and conditions are there these propitious responses? This place has suddenly expanded and became ornamented, and the entire assembly has become gold in color!” The Buddha told Ānanda, “This is because Vimalakīrti and Mañ juśrī, together with the great congregations that surround and revere them, will decide they want to come here. It is in anticipation of this that these propi- tious responses have occurred.” 2. Just then Vimalakīrti said to Mañjuśrī, “We should go together to see the Buddha, to revere him and make offerings along with the bodhisattvas.” Mañjuśrī said, “Excellent! Let us go. This is just the right time.” Vimalakīrti, using his numinous power, lifted the great congregations together with the lion seats in his right hand and proceeded to where the Buddha was. When he arrived there he placed them on the ground. He bowed his head to the Buddha’s feet, then circumambulated him seven times. Hold- ing his palms together single mindedly, he then stood to one side. The bodhisattvas all left their seats and bowed their heads to the Buddha’s feet, then circumambulated him seven times, and stood to one side. The great disciples, Śakras, Brahmās, four heavenly kings, and so on, also all left their seats to bow their heads to the Buddha’s feet, and then stood to one side. Then the World-honored One, according to custom, requested that the bodhisattvas all sit once again. They all followed these instructions, and the congregation sat and became settled. 3. The Buddha said to Śāriputra, “Have you seen what this bodhisattva, this great being, has done with his autonomous numinous power?” 553c 158 [Śāriputra said,] “Yes, I have seen.” [The Buddha said,] “What do you think about it?” [Śāriputra said,] “World-honored One, I look upon what has been done as inconceivable. It is something that my mind cannot ﬁgure out and which my powers cannot even estimate.” 4. Then Ānanda addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, the fragrance I smell now is one I have never experienced before. What fragrance is it?” The Buddha told Ānanda, “This is the fragrance from the pores of those bodhisattvas.” Then Śāriputra said to Ānanda, “Our pores are also emitting this fra- grance.” Ānanda said, “Where does it come from?” [Śāriputra] said, “This elder, Vimalakīrti, brought the leftover meal from the buddha of the Host of Fragrances country to his house [for us to] eat, and so all our pores are fragrant like this.” 5. Ānanda asked Vimalakīrti, “How long will this fragrance last?” Vimalakīrti said, “Until the food is digested.” [Ānanda] said, “When will the food be digested?” [Vimalakīrti] said, “The energy of this food will be digested after seven days. 6. “Also, Ānanda: i) “If a śrāvakawho has not yet entered the primary status [of Hinayana enlightenment] eats this food, it will only be digested after he enters the pri- mary status. ii) “If someone who has already entered the primary status eats this food, it will only be digested after his mind is emancipated. iii) “If someone who has not generated the intention [to follow the] Mahayana eats this food, it will only be digested after he has generated that intention. iv) “If someone who has already generated the [Mahayana] intention eats this food, it will only be digested after he has attained forbearance of the birthlessness of dharmas. v) “If someone who has already attained forbearance of the nonarising of dharmas eats this food, it will only be digested after he has reached his penultimate rebirth. The Vimalakīrti Sutra vi) “It is as if there were a medicine called ‘superior ﬂavor’ that is digested only after all the poisons in the body of the person who takes it have been eliminated. 7. “Like this, this food eliminates all the poisons of the afflictions and then is digested.” Ānanda addressed the Buddha, “This is unprecedented! World-honored One, can fragrant food perform the Buddha’s work like this?” The Buddha said, “Just so, just so, Ānanda. 8. “There are buddha lands where the illumination of the Buddha per- forms the Buddha’s work, or where the bodhisattvas perform the Buddha’s work, or where conjured persons created by the Buddha perform the Buddha’s work, or where the bodhi tree performs the Buddha’s work, or where the Buddha’s clothing and bedding perform the Buddha’s work, or where food performs the Buddha’s work, or where groves and pavilions perform the Buddha’s work, or where the thirty-two characteristics and eighty subsidiary marks perform the Buddha’s work, or where the Buddha’s body performs the Buddha’s work, or where space performs the Buddha’s work. Sentient beings respond to these conditions and are able to enter into the practice of the Vinaya. 9. “There are [other buddha lands] where dreams, phantasms, shadows, echos, images in mirrors, the moon [reﬂected in] water, mirages during times of heat, and other metaphors perform the Buddha’s work; or where sounds, words, and letters perform the Buddha’s work; or where a pure buddha land is serene and silent, where the wordless, the explanationless, the manifesta- tionless, the consciousnessless, the unconstructed, and the unconditioned perform the Buddha’s work. 10. “Thus, Ānanda, given the buddhas’ deployment of the deportments and their various actions, there is nothing that is not the Buddha’s work. “Ānanda, there may occur these eighty-four thousand gateways of afflic- tion of the four Māras, which trouble sentient beings. 11. “The buddhas use these dharmas to perform the Buddha’s work— this is called ‘to enter into the Dharma gates of all the buddhas.’ “When bodhisattvas enter these gates, even if they see all the pure and excellent buddha lands they do not become happy, do not desire them, and do not become elated; even if they see all the impure buddha lands, they do not become sad, do not become hindered, and do not become melancholy. 159 Chapter XI 554a 160 They merely generate pure minds with regard to the buddhas, being joyful and respectful toward the unprecedented [teachings they encounter]. “The merits of the buddhas, the Tathāgatas, are universally same, and it is in order to convert sentient beings that they manifest different buddha lands. 12. “Ānanda, when you observe the buddhas’ countries, the lands are numerous but space is not (i.e., there is only one “space”). Likewise, when you observe the form bodies of the buddhas, they are numerous but their unhindered wisdom is not. 13. “Ānanda, regarding the buddhas’ form bodies; their awesome char- acteristics and qualities; their morality, meditation, wisdom, emancipation, knowledge and vision of emancipation; their powers, fearlessnesses, [and other] exclusive attributes [of the buddhas]; their great sympathy, great com- passion, and the practices of the deportments; their lifespan, explanation of the Dharma, and teaching; and their puriﬁcation of buddha countries where they accomplish [the emancipation of] sentient beings— “all [the buddhas] are identically replete in all these Buddha-Dharmas. Therefore, they are called samyaksaṃbuddha,they are called tathāgata,they are called buddha. “Ānanda, if I were to explain the meanings of these three [Sanskrit] phrases extensively, you would not be able to experience them completely even if you had the lifespan of a kalpa! Even if all the sentient beings in the trimegachiliocosm were, like Ānanda, paramount in erudition, and retained them mindfully with dhāraṇī, and even if they had lifespans of a kalpa,they would not be able to experience them completely! Thus it is, Ānanda, that the anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhiof the buddhas is limitless, and their wisdom and eloquence is inconceivable!” 14. Ānanda addressed the Buddha, “From now on I will not be able to consider myself erudite.” The Buddha told Ānanda, “Do not become discouraged. Why? I have explained that you are the most erudite among the śrāvakas. I did not say [among the] bodhisattvas. But stop, Ānanda! The wise should not [attempt to] evaluate the bodhisattvas. How could the total depth of the ocean be cal- culated? All the merits of the bodhisattvas’ meditation, wisdom, dhāraṇī, and eloquence are immeasurable. The Vimalakīrti Sutra 554b 161 “Ānanda, you [śrāvakas] have forsaken the practices of the bodhisattva. The power of numinous penetration that Vimalakīrti has manifested on this one occasion would be impossible for śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas to do by their powers of transformation even in a hundred thousand kalpas.” 15. At that time the bodhisattvas who had come from the Host of Fra- grances world held their palms together and addressed the Buddha, “World- honored One, when we ﬁrst saw this land we generated the concept of its inferiority. Now we are ashamed of ourselves and have abandoned this atti- tude. Why? The skillful means of the buddhas are inconceivable. In order to save sentient beings, they manifest different buddha countries in accordance with the responses of [sentient beings]. “Please, O World-honored One, bestow upon us a bit of your Dharma as we return to the other world, so that we might remember you.” 16. The Buddha told the bodhisattvas, “You should learn the teaching of the emancipation of the exhaustible and inexhaustible. What is the exhaustible? “It is the conditioned dharmas. What is the inexhaustible? It is the uncon- ditioned dharmas. If you are bodhisattvas, you should neither exhaust the conditioned nor abide in the unconditioned. 17. “What is it not to exhaust the conditioned? It is neither to transcend great sympathy nor to forsake great compassion, to profoundly generate the aspiration to achieve omniscience and never forget it even momentarily. It is to teach sentient beings without ever becoming tired, to be constantly mind- ful of following the teaching of the four attractions. It is to defend the cor- rect Dharma without fear for one’s own life, to plant good roots without becoming fatigued. It is for one’s intent to always be on peaceful abiding and one’s skillful means rededicated [to anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi]. It is to seek the Dharma without tiring and explain the Dharma without parsimony, and to energetically make offerings to the buddhas. “By doing so one will enter samsara without fear, be without sad ness or joy regarding the various honors and disgraces, not be little the unlearned and revere the learned as if they are buddhas, cause those who have fallen into the afflictions to generate correct mindfulness, distantly transcend pleasure and not consider it valuable, not be attached to one’s own pleasure yet cel- ebrate the pleasure of others, have the concept that being in the dhyānas is Chapter XI 162 like being in the hells, and have the concept that being in samsara is like being in a garden or pavilion. “One will have the concept that seeing one coming to make a request is like [seeing] an excellent teacher, have the concept that to forsake one’s var- ious possessions is to be replete in omniscience, have the concept that to see transgressors is to generate salviﬁc protection, have the concept of the pāramitās (perfections) being one’s parents, and have the concept of the [thirty-seven] factors of enlightenment being one’s subordinates. One’s gen- eration of practices and [planting of] good roots will be limitless. One will create one’s own buddha land with the various ornamentations of the pure countries [of different buddhas]. “Practicing limitless charity, one will become replete in the [thirty-two primary] characteristics and [eighty subsidiary] marks. Eliminating all evil, one will purify one’s body, speech, and mind. Being born and dying for count- less kalpas, one will remain courageous [throughout]. Hearing of the immeas- urable merits and intention of the buddhas, one will never become tired. With the sword of wisdom one will destroy the ‘bandits’ of the afflictions, and one will emerge from the skandhas, realms (dhātus), and entrances (āyatanas). “One will bear the burden of sentient beings and always make them become emancipated. With great exertion one will subjugate the armies of Māra. One will always seek the practice of wisdom of the real characteris- tic of no-mindfulness. One will know satisfaction through minimal desire regarding the worldly dharmas. One will seek the supramundane dharmas without tiring. Yet one will be able to accord with the profane, without either forsaking the worldly dharmas or breaking the deportments. One will gen- erate the sagacity of numinous penetration and entice sentient beings [to sal- vation]. One will not forget what one has heard through the dhāraṇīof mem- ory. One will discriminate well [between] those of the various capacities and eliminate the doubts of sentient beings. One will expound upon the Dharma without hindrance, taking pleasure in one’s eloquence. One will be pure in carrying out the ten types of good and experience the blessing of gods and humans. One will cultivate the four unlimiteds and open up the path to the Brahmā heavens. One will exhort and request [others to] explain the Dharma and be accordingly joyous in praising its excellence. The Vimalakīrti Sutra Chapter XI 163 554c “Attaining the Buddha’s voice, one will be good in [acts of] body, speech, and mind. Attaining the deportments of the Buddha, one will profoundly cul- tivate the good qualities, with one’s practice becoming increasingly excellent. With the Mahayana teaching, one will become a bodhisattva monk. Without mental laxity, one will not fail in the host of goods. Practicing a Dharma such as this, one is called ‘a bodhisattva who does not exhaust the conditioned.’ 18. “What is a bodhisattva who does not abide in the unconditioned? “It is to cultivate [the emancipation of the] empty without taking the empty as one’s realization. It is to cultivate [the emancipations of] signless- ness and wishlessness without taking the signless and the wishless as one’s realization. It is to cultivate non activation without taking nonactivation as one’s realization. It is to contemplate impermanence without having aver- sion for the roots of goodness. It is to contemplate worldly suffering with- out considering samsara evil. It is to contemplate no-self while teaching peo- ple without tiring. It is to contemplate extinction without undergoing permanent extinction. It is to contemplate transcendence while cultivating the good with mind and body. “It is to contemplate the absence of any refuge while going for refuge in the dharmas of goodness. It is to contemplate the birthless, yet to bear the burden for all [sentient beings] using the dharmas of birth. It is to contem- plate the ﬂawless, yet not eliminate the ﬂaws. It is to contemplate the absence of any practice, yet to teach sentient beings using the dharmas of practice. It is to contemplate emptiness and nonexistence, yet not to forsake great com- passion. It is to contemplate the position of the correct Dharma, yet not to follow the Hinayana. “It is to contemplate the empty falsity of the dharmas, which are with- out solidity, without selfhood, without subject, and without characteristic. It is not to consider merit, meditation, and wisdom to be in vain when one’s original vow has not been fulﬁlled. Practicing a Dharma such as this, one is called ‘a bodhisattva who does not abide in the unconditioned.’ 19. “Furthermore, in order to be complete in merit one should not abide in the unconditioned; and in order to be complete in wisdom one should not exhaust the conditioned. “In order to [achieve] great sympathy and compassion, one should not abide in the unconditioned; in order to fulﬁll one’s original vow, one should not exhaust the conditioned. In order to accumulate the medicines of the Dharma, one should not abide in the unconditioned; in order to bestow med- icines according [to the needs of sentient beings], one should not exhaust the conditioned. In order to understand the illnesses of sentient beings, one should not abide in the unconditioned; in order to extinguish the illnesses of sen- tient beings, one should not exhaust the conditioned. O good sirs, a bodhi- sattva who cultivates this Dharma does not either exhaust the conditioned or abide in the unconditioned. This is called ‘the teaching of the emancipa- tion of the exhaustible and inexhaustible.’ You should learn this.” 20. When those bodhisattvas heard the explanation of this Dharma they were all extremely happy, and they scattered hosts of wondrous ﬂowers of several colors and fragrances throughout the trimegachiliocosm, making offerings to the Buddha, this teaching, and the bodhisattvas [of this world]. They bowed their heads to the Buddha’s feet and exclaimed at this unprece- dented [teaching], saying, “Śākyamuni Buddha is able to perform the skill- ful means of this excellent practice in this [world].” Saying this, they sud- denly disappeared, returning to that other country. 164 The Vimalakīrti Sutra 555a 165 Chapter XII Vision of Akṣobhya Buddha 1. At this point the World-honored One asked Vimalakīrti, “When you wish to see the Tathāgata, in what ways do you view the Tathāgata?” Vimalakīrti said, “As if contemplating the real characteristic of my own body—so do I view the Buddha. “When I view the Tathāgata, he does not come in the past, does not go in the future, and does not abide in the present. “I neither view him as form, nor view him as the suchness of form, nor view him as the nature of form. I neither view him as feeling, conception, process, or consciousness; nor view him as the suchness of consciousness; nor view him as the nature of consciousness. “He does not arise from the four great elements and is identical to space. He has no accumulation of the six sensory capacities, and his eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind have already passed beyond and are not within the triple world. “Having transcended the three deﬁlements, he is in accord with the three emancipations. Complete in the three illuminations, he is equivalent to ignorance. “He is neither the single characteristic nor different characteristics. He is neither a self-characteristic nor an other-characteristic. He is neither with- out characteristics, nor does he grasp characteristics. “He is not of this shore, nor of the other shore, nor of the current [of samsara] in between, yet he converts sentient beings. I view him in extinc- tion, yet he is not permanently in extinction. He is neither this nor that, and he neither uses this nor uses that. “He cannot be understood with wisdom, nor can he be known by con- sciousness. He is without darkness (i.e., ignorance), without brightness (i.e., understanding), without name, and without characteristic. He is without 166 strength, without weakness, and neither pure nor deﬁled. He does not occupy a region, nor does he transcend the regions. “He is neither conditioned nor unconditioned. He is without manifest- ing and without explaining. “He is neither charitable nor stingy, neither observant nor transgressive [of the precepts], neither forbearant nor angry, neither energetic nor lazy, neither composed nor perturbed, and neither wise nor foolish. He is neither sincere nor dissembling, neither coming nor going, neither exiting nor enter- ing. All the paths of words are eliminated. “He is neither a ﬁeld of blessings nor not a ﬁeld of blessings. He is nei- ther one worthy of offerings (i.e., arhat) nor not one worthy of offerings. “He neither grasps nor forsakes; he neither has characteristics nor is without characteristics. “He is identical to the true limit and equivalent to the Dharma-nature. “He is indescribable, incalculable; he transcends appellations and meas- ures. He is neither great nor small. “He is neither vision, nor hearing, nor perceiving, nor knowing; he tran- scends the host of fetters. He is equivalent to the various types of wisdom and identical to sentient beings. He is without discrimination with regard to the dharmas. “He is entirely without failing, without impurity, without vexation, with- out intentionality (lit., “unconstructed”), without activation, without gener- ation, and without extinction; without fear, without sorrow, without joy, with- out dislike, and without attachment; without past, without future, and without present. He cannot be discriminated or manifested using any verbal expla- nations at all. “World-honored One, such is the body of the Tathāgata, and thus do I perform its contemplation. To use this contemplation is called the correct contemplation. If [one uses some] other contemplation, this is called the incorrect contemplation.” 2. Śāriputra then asked Vimalakīrti, “Where did you die to become born here?” Vimalakīrti said, “Are there death and birth in the dharmas as you appre- hend (lit., “attain”) them?” Śāriputra said, “There are no death and birth [in the dharmas].” The Vimalakīrti Sutra 555b 167 [Vimalakīrti said,] “If the dharmas are without the characteristics of death and birth, why do you ask ‘Where did you die to become born here?’ What do you mean? It is as if a magician conjures up a man and a woman— do they die and become born?” Śāriputra said, “They do not die and become born.” [Vimalakīrti said,] “But can you not have heard the Buddha explain that the dharmas are like conjured characteristics?” [Śāriputra said,] “So I have.” [Vimalakīrti said,] “If all the dharmas are like conjured characteristics, why do you ask ‘Where did you die to become born here?’ Śāriputra, death is the characteristic of the destruction of false dharmas, and birth is the char- acteristic of continuity of false dharmas. Although bodhisattvas die, they do not exhaust their roots of goodness, and although they are born they do not nurture the various evils.” 3. Then the Buddha told Śāriputra, “There is a country called Wondrous Joy (Abhirati), where the Buddha is entitled Akṣobhya (Immovable). Vimalakīrti died in that country prior to being born here.” Śāriputra said, “This is unprecedented! World-honored One, this per- son is able to forsake a pure land and come take pleasure in this place of great anger and harm.” Vimalakīrti said to Śāriputra, “What do you think? When the sun’s light appears, is it conjoined with darkness?” [Śāriputra] answered, “No. When the sun’s light appears, the darkness disappears.” Vimalakīrti said, “Why does the sun come to Jambudvīpa?” [Śāriputra] answered, “To illuminate it and eliminate the darkness.” Vimalakīrti said, “Bodhisattvas are like this. Even though they are born in impure buddha lands in order to convert sentient beings, they are not there- fore conjoined with the darkness of stupidity. They merely extinguish the darkness of the afflictions of sentient beings.” 4. At this time the great congregation eagerly wished to see the Won- drous Joy world, Akṣobhya Tathāgata, and his congregations of bodhisattvas and śrāvakas. Knowing what the entire assembly was thinking, [the Buddha] told Vimalakīrti, “Good man, on behalf of this assembly, manifest Won drous Joy Chapter XII 168 world, Akṣobhya Tathāgata, and his congregations of bodhisattvas and śrā- vakas. The congregations all wish to see them.” Vimalakīrti then thought to himself, “Without getting up from my seat I should lift the Wondrous Joy world, including its Iron Ring Mountains; streams, rivers, oceans, springs; [Mount] Sumeru and the other mountains; the sun, moon, and stars; the palaces of the gods, dragons, demonic spirits, and Brahmā gods; its congregations of bodhisattvas and śrāvakas; the cities, towns, villages, men and women, adults and childen; and even Akṣobhya Tathāgata with the bodhitree and its wondrous lotus ﬂowers, which are able to perform the Buddha’s work throughout the ten directions. There are three jeweled stairways from Jambudvīpa to the Tuṣita Heaven, and the gods descend these jeweled stairways. They all worship Akṣobhya Tathāgata and listen to his Dharma. The people of Jambudvīpa also climb those stairways, ascending to Tuṣita to see the gods there. “The Wondrous Joy world is composed of such immeasurable merits, from the Akaniṣṭha Heaven above to the water limit (i.e., the disk of water) below. I will grasp it in my right hand, as a potter does a wheel, bringing it into this world like carrying a ﬂower garland, to show all the congregations.” 5. Thinking this thought, [Vimalakīrti] entered samādhiand manifested the power of numinous transformation. With his right hand he grasped the Wondrous Joy world and placed it in this land. 6. Those congregations of bodhisattvas and śrāvakas [in that Wondrous Joy world], as well as the other gods and humans who had attained numi- nous penetration, all said, “O World-honored One, who is taking us away? Please save us!” Akṣobhya Buddha said, “This is not my doing. This is being done through the numinous power of Vimalakīrti. The others, who had not attained numinous penetration, were unaware of where they were going. Although the Wondrous Joy world entered this land, it did not expand or contract. At this the [sahā] world was not constricted, but unchanged from before. 7. At this point Śākyamuni Buddha told the great congregations, “You may view the Wondrous Joy world, Akṣobhya Tathāgata, and the ornamen- tations of that country, and the pure practices of the bodhisattvas and purity of the disciples.” The Vimalakīrti Sutra 555c 556a 169 They all said, “Yes, we see them.” The Buddha said, “Bodhisattvas who wish to attain pure buddha lands such as this should learn the path that has been practiced by Akṣobhya Tathā- gata.” When this Wondrous Joy world was manifested, fourteen nayutas of people in the sahāworld generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak- saṃbodhi,all wishing to be born in the Wondrous Joy buddha land. Śākya- muni Buddha predicted for them, saying, “You will be born in that country.” Then the beneﬁts in response of having the Wondrous Joy world in this country were ﬁnished, and it returned to its original place, as seen by the entire congregation. 8. The Buddha told Śāriputra, “Did you see this Wondrous Joy world and Akṣobhya Buddha?” [Śāriputra said,] “Yes, I saw them. World-honored One, I wish that every sentient being could attain a pure land like that of Akṣobhya Buddha and obtain the power of numinous penetration like Vimalakīrti. “World-honored One, we have quickly attained good beneﬁt, seeing these people and making offerings directly to them. Those sentient beings who hear this sutra, either now [while you are] present or after the Buddha’s nirvana, will also attain good beneﬁt. How much more so if, after hearing it, they devoutly understand, accept, recite, explain, and practice according to it! 9. “Those who get hold of this sutra will attain the [entire] storehouse (i.e., treasury) of the Dharma jewel. “If one reads, recites, explains its meaning, or practices according to its explanation, one will be protected and remembered by the buddhas. To make offerings to such a person—understand that this is to make offerings to the Buddha. To copy and maintain these fascicles of scripture—understand that the Tathāgata is present in that room. Those who hear this sutra and are able to become joyful accordingly will achieve omniscience. If one is able to devoutly understand this sutra, even just a single four-phrase verse (gāthā), and explain it to others—understand that such people will immediately receive a prediction of [their future achievement of] anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi.” Chapter XII 171 Chapter XIII Dharma Offering 1. At this time Śakra Devānām Indra, who was in the great congregation, announced to the Buddha, “World-honored One, although I have listened to a hundred thousand sutras by yourself and Mañjuśrī, I had never heard this scripture of the deﬁnitive true characteristic of the inconceivable, autonomous, numinous penetration. 2. “According to my understanding of the meaning explained by you, if there are sentient beings who hear this sutra and who devoutly understand, accept and maintain, and read and recite it, they will deﬁnitely attain this Dharma, and will not doubt it. How much more so if they cultivate accord- ing to its explanation! Such people will immediately close off the host of evil destinations and open the gateways of good. They will always be pro- tected and remembered by the buddhas. They will subjugate the heterodox teachings and demolish the vengeful Māras. They will cultivate bodhiand reside peacefully in the place of enlightenment. They will walk in the very footsteps the Tathāgata has trod. 3. “World-honored One, if there are those who accept and maintain, read and recite, and cultivate [this sutra] as it has explained, I and my subordi- nates will make offerings and serve them. “As to the villages, towns, mountain forests, and wildernesses where this sutra is found, I and my subordinates will go to those locations in order to listen to the Dharma. I will cause those who do not yet believe to believe, and those who already believe will be protected.” 4. The Buddha said, “Excellent, excellent! Heavenly emperor, it is as you have spoken. I am happy for you! “This sutra extensively explains the inconceivable anuttarā samyak- saṃbodhiof the buddhas of the past, present, and future. Therefore, heav- enly emperor, if good men and women accept and maintain, read and recite, The Vimalakīrti Sutra and make offerings to this sutra, that is tantamount to making offerings to the buddhas of the past, present, and future. 5. “Heavenly emperor, even if the entire trimegachiliocosm were ﬁlled with Tathāgatas as numerous as the sugar cane, bamboo, reeds, rice, hemp, and forests, and if a good man or woman were to revere, honor, praise, make offerings, and provide all their needs for a kalpaor even less than a kalpa, until after the nirvana of those Tathāgatas; “After [the nirvana of those Tathāgatas], if he or she erected a stupa of the seven treasures above the relics of every one of those Tathāgatas’ bod- ies, as long and wide as a single fourfold world and as tall as the Brahmā heaven, [with each stupa constituting] a ﬁeld ornamented with all [manner of] ﬂowers, incense, garlands, banners, and musicians, paramount in most subtle wonder; and “If [that good man or woman] made offerings to [these stupas] for a kalpaor less than a kalpa— “What do you think, heavenly emperor? Would the blessings planted by that person be great or not?” Śakra Devānām Indra said, “They would be great, World-honored One! One could not fully explain their merit, even in a hundred thousand koṭis of kalpas.” 6. The Buddha told the heavenly emperor, “You should understand, the good man or woman who hears this scripture of the inconceivable emanci- pation and who devoutly understands, accepts, recites, and practices it will have blessings even greater than the former person. “Why? The enlightenment of all the buddhas is born from this. The char- acteristic of bodhi is immeasurable, and based on this the blessings are immeasurable.” 7. The Buddha told the heavenly emperor, “At a time immeasurable asaṃkhyeyas of kalpas in the past, there was a buddha named Medicine King (Bhaiṣajyarāja), a Tathāgata, Arhat, Fully Enlightened One, One Endowed with Wisdom and Conduct, Well-gone One, Knower of the World, Supreme Master of Discipline, Teacher of Gods and Humans, Buddha, and World- honored One. His world was called Great Ornamentation. His kalpawas called Ornamentation. “That buddha’s lifespan was twenty small kalpas. 172 556b Chapter XIII 173 “He had a śrāvakasangha of thirty-six koṭis of nayutas [of members], and a bodhisattva sangha of twelve koṭis. “Heavenly emperor, at the time there was a wheel-turning sage king named Jeweled Canopy, who was endowed with the seven treasures [of the cakravartin] and ruled the fourfold world. The king had one thousand sons, who were handsome, courageous, and able to subjugate their enemies. 8. “At the time Jeweled Canopy and his subordinates made offerings to Medicine King Tathāgata, providing all that he needed for a full ﬁve kalpas. After ﬁve kalpas he told his thousand sons, ‘You should also make offerings to the Buddha with a profound mind, like me.’ Then the thousand sons, accepting their father’s order, made offerings to Medicine King Tathāgata, and they provided for his needs for another full ﬁve kalpas. 9. “One of those sons, named Moon Canopy, sat alone, thinking ‘Might there be some offering that would exceed even this?’ “Through the Buddha’s numinous power, a god’s voice was heard from space, ‘Good man, the offering of the Dharma surpasses all other offerings.’ “[Moon Canopy] then asked, ‘What is an offering of the Dharma?’ “The god said, ‘You may go ask Medicine King Tathāgata. He will give you an extensive explanation of offerings of the Dharma.’ Prince Moon Canopy immediately proceeded to Medicine King Tathāgata and bowed to his feet, then stood to one side and addressed the Buddha, ‘World-honored One, of all the offerings, offerings of the Dharma are superior. What are offerings of the Dharma?’ 10. Buddha [Medicine King] said, “Good man, offerings of the Dharma are those made to the profound sutras explained by the buddhas. “In all the worlds, these are difﬁcult to believe in, difﬁcult to accept. They are subtle and difﬁcult to see, pure and without deﬁle ment. They can- not be attained with only discriminative thinking. “They are contained in the storehouse of the Dharma of the bodhisattvas. They are sealed by the seal of dhāraṇī.They take one to [the stage of] non- retrogression and to the accomplishment of the six perfections. “They discriminate the meanings well, and they accord with the dharma of bodhi.They are supreme among the host of sutras and induct one into great sympathy and compassion. They transcend the affairs of the hosts of Māras and the various heterodox views. They accord with the dharmaof causes and conditions. 174 11. “They are without self, without person, without sentient being, with- out lifespan. They [teach the three emancipations of] emptiness, signless- ness, wishlessness and nonactivation. “They are able to make sentient beings take their seat in the place of enlightenment and turn the wheel of the Dharma. “They are praised by all the gods, dragons, [demonic] spirits (yakṣas), gandharvas, and so on. “They are able to make sentient beings enter the store[house] of the Buddha-Dharma. “They accommodate all the [types of] wisdom of the worthies and sages. They explain the path practiced by the host of bodhisattvas. They rely on the meanings of the true characteristic of the dharmas. They illuminate the dhar- mas of impermanence, suffering, emptiness, no-self, and extinction. “They are able to save all sentient beings who commit infractions. They can render afraid the Māras, heretics, and those attached to desire. “They are praised by all the buddhas, worthies, and sages. They reject the suffering of samsara and reveal the joy of nirvana. They are explained by all the buddhas of the ten directions and three periods of time. “One who hears such sutras, and devoutly understands, accepts and maintains, and reads and recites them, will with the power of skillful means explain them clearly and with discriminative understanding for sentient beings. This is because that person will be maintaining and protecting the Dharma. This is called the ‘offering of the Dharma.’ 12. “Furthermore, when one practices as is explained in the Dharma, one will be in accord with the twelve [factors of] causes and conditions, transcend the heterodox views, and attain forbearance of the birthlessness of dharmas. There is deﬁnitively no self and no sentient beings, and within the retributive results of the causes and conditions there [will be in such persons] no dis- agreement, no contention, and the transcendence of all the qualities of self. “They will rely on meanings, not on words. They will rely on wisdom, not on knowledge. They will rely on sutras of comprehensive meaning and not rely on sutras of incomplete meaning. They will rely on the Dharma and not rely on a person. They will be in accord with the characteristics of the Dharma, without anywhere that is entered, without any refuge. Ignorance will be thoroughly extinguished, and hence the processes will be thoroughly The Vimalakīrti Sutra 556c 175 extinguished. Thus birth will be thoroughly extinguished, and hence old age and death will be thoroughly extinguished. “If one performs such a contemplation, the twelve [factors of] causes and conditions will be without the characteristic of being exhausted. One will not generate views again. This is called the ‘offering of the supreme Dharma.’” 13. The Buddha told the heavenly emperor, “When Prince Moon Canopy heard this Dharma from Medicine King Buddha, he attained the forbearance of compliance. Taking off his jeweled robe and bodily ornaments, he offered them to the Buddha, saying ‘World-honored One, after your nirvana I will practice the offering of the Dharma and defend the correct Dharma. Please use your numinous charisma compassionately, so that I will be able to sub- jugate the vengeful Māras and cultivate the practices of the bodhisattva.’” Knowing the profound thoughts in [the prince’s] mind, [Medicine King] Buddha made the prediction, “At the very end, you will defend the Dharma city.” 14. [The Buddha told the] heavenly emperor, “Prince Moon Canopy then saw the purity of the Dharma. Hearing the Buddha bestow a prediction [of future buddhahood] on him, he developed faith and left home. After cul- tivating the good Dharma with exertion for not very long, he attained the ﬁve numinous penetrations and became a bodhisattva. He attained dhāraṇī and unending eloquence. After the nirvana of that buddha, using the power of the numinous penetrations, dhāraṇī, and eloquence that he had attained, he disseminated the wheel of the Dharma that Medicine King Buddha had turned for a full ten short kalpas. Through his diligent practice and exertion in defending the Dharma, in that lifetime Moon Canopy bhikṣuconverted a million koṭis of people, who became irreversible in their [quest for] anuttarā samyak saṃbodhi.Fourteen nayutas of people generated the profound inspi- ration to become śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas. Immeasurable sentient beings gained birth in the heavens. “Heavenly emperor, was not the Prince Jeweled Canopy of that time an unusual person! As of now he has attained buddhahood and is entitled Jewel Mirage Tathāgata. Those thousand princes became the thousand buddhas of the bhadrakalpa.The ﬁrst achieved buddhahood as Krakucchandra, and the last will be the Tathāgata named Ruci. Moon Canopy bhikṣuwas I myself. Chapter XIII 557a The Vimalakīrti Sutra 15. “Thus, heavenly emperor, you should understand this essential point: the offering of the Dharma excels all other offerings. It is supreme, incom- parable. Therefore, heavenly emperor, you should use the offering of the Dharma to make offerings to the buddhas.” 176 177 Chapter XIV Bestowal 1. At this point the Buddha told Maitreya Bodhisattva, “Maitreya, I now bestow on you this Dharma of anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi, which I have accu- mulated over immeasurable koṭis of asaṃ khyeyas of kalpas. Sutras of this type should, during the ﬁnal period after my nirvana, be circulated exten- sively throughout Jambudvīpa by you and others with your numinous power, so [the Dharma] is not cut off. “Why? In the future time, there will be good men and women, as well as gods, dragons, demonic spirits, gandharvas, rakṣasas, and so on, who will generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhiand take pleas- ure in the great Dharma. If they are unable to hear sutras such as this, they will lose its good beneﬁt. When people such as this hear these sutras, they must with great faith and joy realize their rarity and accept them with humil- ity, explaining them extensively according to the beneﬁts that sentient beings will receive from them. 2. “Maitreya, you should understand that bodhisattvas [may] have two [inferior] characteristics. What are these two? The ﬁrst is the fondness for miscellaneous phrases and literary embellishment. The second is their lack of fear of penetrating deeply into the actualities of profound meanings. “You should understand that it is novice bodhisattvas who are fond of miscellaneous phrases and literary embellishment. Those who lack the fear of entering into profound scriptures that are without deﬁlement and without attachment, and who upon hearing them become pure in mind and accept and maintain, read and recite, and practice them as explained—you should under- stand that these [bodhisattvas] have been cultivating the path for a long time. 3. “Maitreya, there are two other dharmas (i.e., characteristics) regard- ing how those who are called novices are unable to be deﬁnite about the extremely profound Dharma. What are these two? 557b 178 i) “The ﬁrst is that when they hear profound sutras for the ﬁrst time, they become fearful, generate doubts, and are unable to follow [those sutras]. Reviling them and lacking faith in them, they say ‘I have not heard this before. Where did it come from?’ ii) “The second is that, when there are those who defend, maintain, and explain profound sutras such as these, [the novices] are unable to associate with [those teachers], make offerings to them, and revere them. Or, at times they talk about [the teachers’] transgressions and errors. “You should understand that those who have these two dharmas are novice bodhisattvas. They only harm themselves, and they are unable to con- trol their minds within the profound Dharma. 4. “Maitreya, there are two other dharmas concerning bodhisattvas who devoutly understand the profound Dharma, but who still harm themselves and are unable to attain forbearance of the non arising of dharmas. What are these two? i) “The ﬁrst is to belittle novice bodhisattvas and not instruct them. ii) “The second is to understand the profound Dharma, but with a dis- crimination that grasps at characteristics. “These are the two dharmas.” 5. When Maitreya heard this explanation he addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, this is unprecedented! It is as you have explained. “I will distantly transcend such evils and maintain the Dharma of anut- tarā samyaksaṃbodhithat the Tathāgata has accumulated over innumerable asaṃkhyeyas of kalpas. “If in the future there are good men and women who seek the Mahayana, I will make certain that they get hold of such sutras. Using their power of mindfulness, I will cause them to receive and maintain, read and recite, and extensively explain them for others. “World-honored One, if in the latter age there are those able to receive, maintain, read, recite, and explain them for others, one should understand that these will all be established by Maitreya’s numinous power.” The Buddha said, “Excellent, excellent, Maitreya! It is as you have explained. I am happy for you!” 6. At this all the bodhisattvas held their palms together and addressed the Buddha, “We too, after the Buddha’s nirvana, will extensively disseminate The Vimalakīrti Sutra the Dharma of anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi throughout the countries of the ten directions. We will also guide those who explain the Dharma and cause them to obtain this sutra.” 7. Then the four heavenly kings addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, in every place, whether city, village, mountain forest, or wilderness, where there are those who read and recite and explain these fascicles of scrip- ture, we will lead our palace retainers in proceeding to those places, to lis- ten to the Dharma and protect those people. For an area of a hundredyojanas we will make it convenient [to hear their explanations] without seeking.” 8. At this point the Buddha said to Ānanda, “Accept and maintain this sutra, and disseminate it extensively.” Ānanda said, “Assuredly. I have already accepted and maintained its essentials. World-honored One, what is the name of this sutra?” The Buddha said, “Ānanda, this sutra is named the ‘Discourse of Vimalakīrti.’ It is also called the ‘Dharma Gate of the Inconceivable Emancipation.’ As such you should accept and maintain it.” When the Buddha ﬁnished explaining this sutra, the Elder Vimala kīrti, Mañjuśrī, Śāriputra, Ānanda, and all the great congregations of gods, humans, and asuras, hearing what the Buddha had explained, rejoiced greatly. End of Fascicle Three 179 Chapter XIV Bibliography Boin, Sara, trans. The Teaching of Vimalakīrti (Vimalakīrtinirdeśa). London: Pali Text Society, 1976. English translation of Étienne Lamotte’s French translation, listed below. Lamotte, Étienne, trans. L’enseignement de Vimalakīrti.Louvain: Bibliothèque du Muséon, 1962. Luk, Charles (Lu Ku’an Yü), trans. The Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra.Berkeley, CA: Sham - bhala, 1972. Nattier, Jan. “The Teaching of Vimalakīrti [Vimalakīrti nirdeśa]: A Review of Four Eng- lish Translations,” Buddhist Literature2 (2000): 234–58. Takasaki, Jikidō, and Kōshō Kawamura, trans. “Yuima-gyō,”Yuima-gyō, Shiyaku Bon- ten shomon kyō, Shuryōgon zammai kyō[Vimalakīrti Sutra, Questions of the Brahmā (Deva) Viśeṣacinti Sutra, and Śūraṃgama-samādhi Sutra], Monju kyōten[Mañjuśrī Scriptures] no. 2. Tokyo: Daizō shuppan, 1993. Thurman, Robert A. F., trans. The Holy Teaching of Vimalakīrti: A Mahāyāna Scripture. University Park, PA and London: Pennsylvania University Press, 1976. Watson, Burton, trans. The Vimalakīrti Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. 181 Glossary anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi:Complete, perfect enlightenment. See also bodhi. arhat (“one who is worthy” of offerings): A saint who has completely eradicated the pas- sions and attained liberation from the cycle of birth and death (samsara); arhatship is the highest of the four stages of spiritual attainment in the Hinayana. See also Hinayana; samsara. asura:A class of supernatural beings; a demigod. bodhi:Enlightenment; the state of the highest perfection of wisdom; the state of undeﬁled purity and eternal bliss. bodhicitta:Lit., “mind (citta) of enlightenment (bodhi),” the aspiration or intention to attain enlightenment undertaken by a bodhisattva in order to help other sentient beings to liberation. See also bodhisattva. bodhisattva (“enlightenment being”): One who has engendered the profound aspiration to achieve enlightenment (bodhicitta) on behalf of all sentient beings, through the practice of the perfections (pāramitās). The spiritual ideal of the Mahayana. See also bodhicitta;Mahayana; perfections. bodhitree: The tree under which a buddha attains enlightenment. buddhahood: The state of becoming or being a buddha; the goal of the bodhisattva path. buddha land: A cosmic world or realm in which a particular buddha dwells. Also called buddha country. buddha-nature: The potentiality of becoming a buddha; the essential nature of a buddha inherent in all sentient beings. deva:A class of supernatural beings; a god or divine being. dhāraṇī:Generally, a powerful verbal incantation or mantra; also, “to hold,” as a con- tainer for good spiritual qualities. In earliest Mahayana texts the term refers to a mnemonic device for the recollection of Buddhist doctrine. 183 Glossary dharma:Any phenomenon, thing, or element; the elements that make up the per- ceived phenomenal world. Dharma: The truth, law; the teachings of the Buddha. Dharma body (dharmakāya): The manifestation of the Buddha as ultimate reality or suchness. See also suchness. Dharma-nature: The essential nature of all that exists, same as true suchness and the Dharma body. See also Dharma body; suchness. dhyāna:Meditation; a state of meditative concentration and absorption. emptiness (śūnyatā): The absence of substantiality or inherent existence of the self and all phenomena (dharmas); all dharmas arise only through the dependent origination of causes and conditions (pra tītya samutpāda). Direct insight into emptiness is the attainment of prajñā(transcendental wisdom). See also dharma; prajñā. enlightenment. See bodhi. entrances (āyatanas): The six sense organs of eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind and their six corresponding objects—form, sound, smell, taste, tangible objects, and mental objects, totaling twelve. See also realms; sense organs; senses. evil destiny/destination: Refers to rebirth in one of the three lower realms of sam- saric existence, the realms of animals, hungry ghosts (pretas), or hell. See also samsara. four continents: According to Buddhist cosmology, the four large land masses in the ocean around Mount Sumeru, each in one of the cardinal directions, which com- prise the world of human beings. See also Mount Sumeru. four correct postures: The four basic physical postures of walking, standing, sitting, and lying down; a Buddhist practitioner strives to maintain mindfulness in all of these postures. See also mindfulness. four elements: The four physical elements that constitute material things (dharmas)— earth, ﬁre, water, and wind. four heavenly kings: The guardian gods of the four cardinal directions, rulers of the four continents. See also four continents. four noble truths: The basic doctrine of Buddhism: 1) the truth of suffering, 2) the truth of the cause of suffering, 3) the truth of the cessation of suffering, and 4) the truth of the path that leads to nirvana. See also nirvana. 184 Glossary four unlimiteds (brāhma-vihāras): Four mental states or qualities to be cultivated by bodhisattvas—sympathy (maitrī), compassion (karuṇā), joy (muditā), and equa- nimity (upekṣā). Also called four unlimited states of mind. gandharva:A heavenly musician. garuḍa:A mythological being in the form of a giant bird. Hinayana (“Small Vehicle”): A term applied by Mahayana Buddhists to various early schools of Buddhism whose primary soteriological aim is individual salvation. Hinayana followers are grouped into the two categories of śrāvakas and pratyeka- buddhas and there are four stages of spiritual attainment, culminating in arhat- ship. See also arhat; Mahayana; non-returner; once-returner; pratyekabuddha; śrāvaka;stream-enterer. kalpa:An eon, an immensely long period of time. kiṃnara:A class of mythological beings, half bird and half human, that make celes- tial music. lion’s roar: A metaphor for great eloquence in teaching the Dharma. Mahayana: (“Great Vehicle”): A form of Buddhism that developed in India around 100 B.C.E. and which exalts as its religious ideal the bodhisattva, great beings who aspire to enlightenment on behalf of all sentient beings. See also bodhi- sattva. mahoraga:A class of snake-like mythological beings. Maitreya: The future Buddha, currently still a bodhisattva. See also bodhisattva. Mañjuśrī: The bodhisattva who represents wisdom. See also bodhisattva. Māra: The Evil One, the personiﬁcation of the realm of desire; a symbol of the afﬂic- tions that hinder progress on the path to Buddhahood. mindfulness: A fundamental Buddhist practice of maintaining awareness and clear observation during all one’s activities, physical or mental, in order to bring the mind under control and to a state of rest and provide a stable basis for more pro- found knowledge and insight. Mount Sumeru: In Buddhist cosmology, the highest mountain rising from the center of the world, surrounded by an ocean in which the four continents that comprise the world of human beings are situated. See also four continents. nirvana: Liberation from samsara, a state in which all passions are extinguished and the highest wisdom attained; bodhi, enlightenment. See also bodhi;samsara. 185 Glossary non-returner (anāgāmin): The third of the four stages of spiritual attainment in the Hinayana; one who has attained this stage is no longer subject to rebirth in the realm of desire. See also Hinayana; triple world. once-returner (sakṛdāgāmin): The second of the four stages of spiritual attainment in the Hinayana; one who has attained this state is subject to rebirth only once in each of the three realms of the triple world before attaining nirvana. See also Hinayana; nirvana; triple world. One Vehicle (ekayāna): The Buddha vehicle, the Mahayana teaching that leads to complete enlightenment and attainment of buddhahood, contrasted with the teachings of the two Hinayana vehicles. The One Vehicle includes and tran- scends all three vehicles of the śrāvaka, pratyeka buddha,and bodhisattva paths. See also vehicle. pāramitā.See perfections. perfections (pāramitās): Six qualities to be perfected by bodhisattvas on their way to complete enlightenment—1) charity or giving (dāna), 2) discipline or moral- ity (śīla), 3) forbearance or patience (kṣānti), 4) exertion or perseverance (vīrya), 5) meditation (dhyāna), and 6) wisdom (prajñā). See also bodhisattva. prajñā:Transcendental, liberative wisdom; one of the perfections. See also perfec- tions. Prātimokṣa:A part of the Vinaya which contains the disciplinary rules for monas- tics. See also Vinaya. pratyekabuddha(“solitary enlightened one”): One of the two kinds of Hinayana sages, along with śrāvakas, who seek to reach the stage of arhat and attain nirvana. A pratyekabuddhaattains liberation through direct observation and understand- ing of the principle of dependent origination without the guidance of a teacher, and does not teach others. See also arhat; Hinayana; nirvana; śrāvaka. psychophysical elements, forces (skandhas): The ﬁve elements of form, feeling, con- ception, mental process, and consciousness which comprise the personality and give rise to the mistaken view of a permanent, inherent self. rakṣasa:A type of demon. realms (dhātus): The realms of sensory experience brought about by the interaction of the six sense organs with their corresponding objects, and their resulting con- sciousnesses, totaling eighteen. See also entrances; sense organs; senses. Śākyamuni: The historical Buddha, who lived in India in the ﬁfth century B.C.E. and whose life and teachings form the basis for Buddhism. 186 Glossary samādhi:A mental state of concentration, focusing the mind on one point; also a transcendent mental state attained by the repeated practice of concentration. samsara: The cycle of existence, the continuous round of birth and death through which beings transmigrate; the world of suffering, contrasted with the bliss of nirvana. See also nirvana. samyaksaṃbuddha:One who has attained complete, perfect enlightenment (anut- tarā samyaksaṃbodhi). See also anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. Śāriputra: A principal disciple of the Buddha. In several Mahayana sutras such as the Vimalakīrti Sutrathe ﬁgure of Śāriputra serves as an example of the infe- rior learning and understanding of the Hinayana śrāvakapath. sense organs: The six sense organs of the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind. See also entrances; realms; senses. senses: The sense perceptions that correspond to the six sense organs—visual, audi- tory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, and mental perceptions. See also entrances; realms; sense organs. skillful means (upāya): The various methods and means used by buddhas and bodhi- sattvas to guide and teach sentient beings, adapted to their different capacities. śramaṇa:Mendicant, monk; another name for a Buddhist monk, originally applied to those who maintained an ascetic practice. śrāvaka(“auditor”): Originally, a disciple of the Buddha, one of those who heard him expound the teachings directly; later, the term came to refer to one of the two kinds of Hinayana followers, along with pratyekabuddhas, to distinguish them from followers of the Mahayana. See also Hinayana; Mahayana; pratyekabuddha. stream-enterer (srota-āpanna): The ﬁrst of the four stages of spiritual attainment in the Hinayana; one who has entered the stream of the Dharma by destroying var- ious wrong views. See also Hinayana. suchness: Ultimate reality; the state of things as they really are. Insight into the such- ness of all phenomena, i.e., as empty of inherent self-existence, arising only through dependent origination, is perfect wisdom (prajñā). See also emptiness; prajñā. sutra: A Buddhist scripture, a discourse of the Buddha. Capitalized, the term refers to one of the three divisions of the Tripiṭaka. See also Tripiṭaka. Tathāgata: An epithet for a buddha, meaning one who has gone to (gata) and come from (āgata) suchness (tathā), i.e., the embodiment of the truth of suchness. See also suchness. 187 Glossary tathāgatagarbha: Lit., the “womb (garbha) of the Tathāgata,” the inherent capacity for buddhahood within all sentient beings. See also buddhahood; Tathāgata. Three Jewels: Buddha, Dharma (the teachings), and Sangha (the monastic commu- nity), also called the three refuges. Tripiṭaka: The three divisions or “baskets” (piṭakas) of the Buddhist canon: the Sutras, discourses and teachings of the Buddha; the Vinaya, codes of monastic disci- pline; and the Abhidharma, scholastic treatises on the Buddhist teachings. triple world: The three realms of samsaric existence: the realm of desire (kāma dhātu), i.e., the world of ordinary consciousness accompanied by desires; the realm of form (rūpadhātu), in which desires have been eliminated but the physical body remains; and the formless realm (ārūpya dhātu), in which the physical body no longer exists. See also samsara. universal ruler (cakravartin): The ideal king, as conceived of in Indian philosophy. Also called wheel-turning sage king. vehicle (yāna): The various Buddhist paths of practice. The Hinayana comprises the two vehicles of the śrāvakaand pratyekabuddha, contrasted with the bodhi- sattva vehicle of the Mahayana. See also Hinayana; Mahayana; One Vehicle; pratyekabuddha; śrāvaka. Vinaya: Precepts and rules of conduct for monastics; along with the Abhi dharma and the Sutras, one of the three divisions of the Tripiṭaka. See also Tripiṭaka. yakṣa:A type of demon. 188 Index 189 A Abhirati. SeeWondrous Joy world Accumulation of Eloquence 70 Accumulation of Fragrances 149, 150, 151, 153 Accumulation of Jewels 70 Accumulation of Wisdom 70 Achievement of All Beneﬁts 129 act(s), action(s), activity(ies) (see also deed) 20, 24, 25, 26, 28, 35, 36, 44, 60, 81, 131, 152, 143, 155, 159 completion of 25, 28 of conversion 131 defiled, immoral 14, 26 four all-embracing 13 good 6, 22, 23, 146, 163 meritorious 6, 146, 147 pure 26, 72 ten evil 134 three types of 146, 147 transgressive 146–147 Adorned Purity 92 affection(s) 89, 100, 108, 112, 114, 125, 134 affliction(s) 63, 69, 85, 88, 89, 98, 100, 102, 105, 110, 113, 124, 126, 127, 134, 149, 151, 159, 161, 162, 167 aggregation(s), empty (see alsonon - aggregation) 83, 87, 102 Ajita Keśakambala 89 Akaniṣṭha Heaven 168 Akṣobhya 60, 129, 165, 167, 168, 169 Amitābha 129 Amitāyurdhyāna-sūtra61 Āmrapālī 69, 157 anāgāmin. Seenon-returner Ānanda 49, 50, 51, 95, 96, 157 Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park 9 anger 77, 88, 113, 123, 128, 133, 134, 154, 167 animals 13, 133, 140 Aniruddha 91, 92 anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi(see also enlightenment, complete) 17, 29, 62, 75, 79, 84, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 113, 115, 121, 122, 129, 131, 149, 150, 156, 160, 161, 169, 171, 175, 177, 178, 179 arhat(s), arhatship (see alsosage, sagely) 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 35, 37, 43, 44, 47, 123, 124, 131, 166 art(s) 20, 60, 153 aspiration(s) 14, 15, 45, 50, 90, 144, 161 assembly(ies) (see alsocongregation) 14, 49, 59, 71, 88, 97, 102, 103, 105, 107, 150, 143, 149, 150, 153, 157, 167 charity 103, 104, 105 great 51, 79, 115, 152 of the three vehicles (see alsosangha) 29 asuras 51, 71, 120, 179 attachment(s) 82, 94, 98, 110, 112, 114, 151, 166, 177 deﬁled 117, 133 Index attainment (see alsononattainment) 6, 27, 28, 97, 111, 124, 128, 131 Attains Great Strength 71 Autonomous Dharma 143 Autonomous Dharma King 70 Autonomous King 70 autonomy 26, 28, 47, 72, 103, 114 Autonomy of Meditation King 70 Avalokiteśvara 71 aversion 104, 110, 112, 133, 147, 163 āyatana. Seeentrance Ayodhyā 9 B bandit(s) 83, 102, 124, 151, 162 beauty 6, 11 beggar(s), begging 87, 88, 103, 105, 106, 122 being (see alsononbeing) 70 being(s) (see alsogreat being; living being; sentient being) 5, 11, 13, 59, 61, 62, 72, 127, 151, 152, 153, 141 beneﬁt(s) 13, 14, 17, 22, 44, 47, 60, 61, 62, 70, 74, 76, 82, 88, 94, 102, 103, 113, 126, 149, 151, 153, 140, 151, 155, 169, 177 Bhaiṣajyarāja. SeeMedicine King bhikṣu(s) (see alsomonk) 69, 71, 79, 90, 91, 92, 93, 97, 175 bhikṣuṇī. Seenun birth(s) 25, 45, 112, 114, 150, 163, 167, 175 birth and death (see alsorebirth; samsara) 21, 28–29, 35, 45, 86, 131, 166, 167 birthless, birthlessness 97, 158, 163, 174 Black Mountains 72 blessing(s) 22, 50, 82, 88, 89, 95, 101, 105, 110, 126, 144, 152, 162, 166, 172 bodhi(see alsoenlightenment) 98–99, 100, 104 characteristic of 98, 104 mind of (see alsobodhicitta) 76, 99 bodhicitta(see alsobodhi,mind of; enlightenment, intention for) 5, 76, 99, 102 Bodhiruci 5 bodhisattva(s) 5, 6, 14, 18, 26, 27, 59, 61, 69, 75–76, 77, 78, 88, 93, 95, 97, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 131, 133, 134, 150, 152, 153, 143, 144, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 163, 164, 167, 168, 169, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178 beginner, novice 119, 177, 178 conjured 150, 151, 152 great 60, 107 mahāsattvas 46 path 5, 60, 115 powerful 25, 26, 37, 47 practice(s) 5, 113–115, 157, 161, 168, 175 realms 24 stages 26 vows 15, 17 bodhitree 73 body(ies) 10, 20, 21, 22, 26, 43, 46, 62, 70, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 95, 98, 104, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 117, 119, 121, 123, 126, 127, 130, 134, 151, 145, 146, 151, 152, 153, 159, 163, 175 buddha, of the Buddha, Tathāgata 10, 21, 49, 83, 84, 95, 118, 121, 159, 160, 166, 172 Dharma 21, 28, 29, 35–36, 44, 46, 50, 83, 95 female 130 form 160 mind-made 25, 26, 36 of a Nārāyaṇa 134 of wisdom 10 190 Index body, life, and wealth 15, 21, 22, 101, 104 body, speech, and mind 20, 163 Boin, Sara 64, 181 bond(s), bondage 89, 105, 112, 113, 144, 147 Brahmā(s) 81, 92, 107, 119, 128, 129, 157 gods 82, 168 heaven(s) 162, 172 king(s) 71, 92, 121, 153 world 114 brahman(s) 82, 83, 95, 103, 105, 152 Brahmā’s Net 71 brāhma-vihāras. Seefour unlimiteds; mind, four unlimited states of Buddha (see alsoŚākyamuni; Tathāgata; World-honored One) 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 81, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 112, 117, 118, 121, 128, 130, 131, 134, 151, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 163, 164, 165, 167, 169, 171, 172, 173, 175, 177, 178, 179 body, Dharma body 44, 83, 84, 95 eighteen exclusive attributes of 70, 74 merit(s) 10, 128, 129 nirvana 169, 178 power(s) 17, 72, 74, 79, 173 skillful means of 24 teaching(s) 18, 51 wisdom 26, 70, 134, 140 womb of. Seetathāgatagarbha words 44, 46 work 150, 151, 159, 168 buddha(s) 5, 6, 11, 17, 21, 23, 37, 46, 48, 49, 50, 60, 69, 72, 76, 81, 88, 90, 94, 98, 107, 109, 118, 119, 120, 121, 124, 125, 129, 130, 131, 149, 150, 152, 141, 149, 150, 151, 152, 155, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176 body(ies) 118, 121, 160 female 6 power(s) 115 merit(s) 160, 162 vehicle 29 wisdom 75, 78, 105, 115 Buddha-Dharma(s) 21, 36, 37, 45, 82, 101, 115, 127, 128, 149, 160, 174 Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha (see also Three Jewels) 69, 89, 146 buddhahood 5, 6, 21, 62, 76, 77, 97, 98, 105, 111, 113, 115, 125, 149, 175 path of 81, 88, 115, 133, 134, 152, 141 buddha country(ies), land(s), realm(s) 11, 35, 69, 70, 75, 76, 78, 79, 92, 102, 105, 108, 112, 115, 118, 120, 121, 129, 152, 149, 150, 151, 153, 154, 159, 160, 161, 162, 167, 169 buddha-nature 6 Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra. See Flower Garland Sutra Buddhism, Buddhist(s) 6, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64 canonical sources, canon(s) 5, 64 literature, scriptures, text(s) 5, 6, 60, 61 C cakravartin(see alsoking, wheel-turn- ing; universal ruler) 92, 95, 173 campaka128 Candirā 9 capacity(ies) 62, 69, 74, 121, 162 sensory. Seesensory, capacities causality 128 cause(s) 47, 108, 125, 150 causes and conditions 72, 83, 134, 157, 173, 174 twelve factors of 174, 175 191 Index Chan 59 characteristic(s) 71, 75, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 98, 104, 105, 108, 109, 118, 120, 124, 128, 130, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 160, 162, 163, 165, 166, 167, 174, 175, 177, 178 of bodhi 98, 104, 172 of the dharmas 69, 72, 75, 89, 115, 147, 174 of mind 93, 104, 144, 146 self-, of the self 147, 165 single 89, 105, 143–144, 146, 165 thirty-two primary (see alsothirty-two primary characteristics, marks) 70, 102, 105, 115, 134, 151, 150, 159, 162 true 91, 107, 171, 174 Characteristic of Sumeru 118 Characteristic of Wisdom 145 charisma, charismatic 6, 69, 71, 78, 175 charity (see alsodāna;giving) 69, 76, 84, 88, 99, 102, 103, 104, 105, 125, 146, 162 child, children 60, 82, 108, 124, 168 chiliocosm (see alsotrimegachiliocosm) 73 China vii, 61 Chinese 5, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63 language 60, 62, 63, 64 Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Asso- ciation (CBETA) 64 Ch’ŏnt’ae. SeeTiantai school commentary(ies) 6, 60, 61, 62, 63 common people, person (see alsoordinary people, person) 14, 25, 43, 82 compassion (see alsofour unlimiteds) 5, 77, 84, 87, 100, 112, 125, 136, 154 great 19, 29, 87, 104, 105, 108, 111, 112, 125, 128, 129, 134, 152, 154, 160, 161, 163, 173 concentration(s) 27, 69, 72, 76, 81, 82, 84, 88, 89, 90, 114, 115, 125, 137 of extinction 85, 124, 147 concept(s), conception, conceptualization 10, 110, 111, 117, 120, 138, 144, 145, 161, 162, 165 confused 126, 127 erroneous, false 43, 93, 98, 110 Conch Crest 78 condition(s), conditioning forces (see alsocauses and conditions) 24, 43, 63, 83, 86, 98, 159 four (see alsofour noble truths) 31 conditioned 20, 26, 27, 35, 39, 41, 43, 118, 154, 161, 163, 164, 166 dharmas 79, 94, 100, 104, 161 generation 70, 100, 114 noble truth(s) 35, 39, 44 Confucian 60 congregation(s) (see alsoassembly) 59, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 105, 107, 117, 122, 136, 143, 148, 150, 151, 152, 157, 167, 168, 169 great 69, 71, 72, 108, 149, 150, 156, 157, 167, 168, 171, 179 consciousness(es) 43, 47, 86, 113, 134, 145, 146, 147, 148, 159, 165 six sense 45 Constant Exertion 71 Constantly Lamenting 70 Constantly Lowered Hand 70 Constantly Raised Hand 70 constellations (see alsostars) 120 Contemplates the Sounds of the World. SeeAvalokiteśvara contemplation 27, 84, 86, 100, 104, 112, 115, 125, 166, 175 conversion 44, 99, 100, 131 convert(s), converted, converting 5, 22, 49, 75, 82, 125, 128, 136, 138, 139, 152, 153, 154, 160, 165, 169, 175 192 Index Crown of Pearls King 147 Crown of Virtue 143 D dāna(see alsocharity; giving) 20, 69, 76 dāna-pāramitā.Seeperfection, of charity, giving Daosheng 62, 63 darkness 103, 147, 165, 167 death (see alsobirth and death; old age, illness, and death) 6, 21, 25, 45, 100, 131, 134, 166, 167, 175 deed(s) (see alsoact, action, activity) ﬁve, of interminable retribution 133 good, virtuous 11, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 22 deﬁlement(s) 24, 25, 26, 27–28, 36, 46, 47, 51, 63, 78, 79, 83, 86, 93, 102, 129, 133, 143, 165, 173, 177 active 25, 26, 27 latent 25, 31 of the mind 10, 27, 46 stages of 25, 26, 31 stores of 31, 35, 36, 37 virulent 27, 28, 36, 46 Delights in the Real 147 desire(s) 20, 60, 82, 102, 104, 113, 114, 120, 125, 126, 133, 134, 140, 141, 149, 154, 159, 162, 174 ﬁve 11, 101, 102, 103, 127, 134, 135, 140 for existence 26 realm 117, 152 destination(s), destiny(ies) 100, 134 evil 11, 13, 70, 77, 89, 111, 171 ﬁve 70, 94 Destroyer of Māra 71 deva.Seegod dhāraṇī(s) 69, 81, 134, 136, 160, 162, 173, 175 dharma(s) 46, 72, 75, 77, 79, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 97, 98, 99, 100, 104, 105, 110–111, 113, 114, 115, 118, 126, 127, 128, 130, 135, 136, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 155, 159, 162, 163, 166, 167, 173, 174, 179, 178 birthlessness 158, 174 characteristic(s) of 69, 72, 75, 89, 147, 174 conditioned 79, 94, 100, 104, 161 eight 129–30, 134, 155–56 false, inferior 150, 151, 152, 167 good 84, 103, 104, 105, 126, 163 nonarising of 69, 79, 81, 99, 131, 143, 148, 156, 158, 178 pure, purity of 84, 89, 115, 124 ten excellent 155 three perduring 101, 104 unconditioned 94, 135, 161 Dharma (see alsoBuddha-Dharma; Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha; True Dharma) 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 29, 30, 31, 36, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 60, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 78, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 112, 113, 115, 117–118, 121, 124, 127, 128, 129, 134, 136, 137, 139, 141, 146, 149, 151, 153, 154, 156, 157, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 168, 171, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179 body(ies) of (see alsoDharma body) 83, 95 charity of 104, 105, 125 city 69, 175 correct 69, 82, 88, 94, 104, 129, 161, 163, 175 dew of 70, 137 eye(s) 79, 90 gate(s) 81, 143–48, 159 Hinayana, śrāvaka90, 113, 128, 129, 130 jewel(s) 70, 169 193 Index Dharma (continued) joy in, of 102, 103, 136 mother 6, 19 offering(s) 171, 173, 174, 175, 176 storehouse 129, 173 wheel of 14, 69, 73, 115, 174, 175 Dharma body 21, 28, 29, 35, 36, 44, 46, 50 Dharma Characteristic 70 dharmakāya. SeeDharma body Dharma King (see alsoBuddha) 10, 28, 49, 72, 74 Dharma-nature 86, 98, 114, 166 Dharma Prince. SeeMañjuśrī dhātu.Seerealm dhyāna(s) (see alsomeditation) 20, 69, 76, 140, 161 four 137 dhyāna-pāramitā.Seeperfection, of meditation Difﬁcult to Overcome 105, 129 difﬁculty(ies) 89, 99, 122, 153, 155 eight 89, 155 disciple(s) (see also śrāvaka) 18, 19, 23, 29, 31, 33, 46, 47, 50, 63, 81, 85, 127, 135, 136, 168 great 37, 96, 107, 117, 119, 127, 152, 157 vehicle (see alsoHinayana) 18, 19 discipline (see alsomorality; śīla) 13, 20, 23 perfection of. Seeperfection, of disci- pline, morality discrimination 86, 109, 126, 127, 143, 146, 166, 178 divine 60 eye 92 music 14 nāgas 49 doctrinal, doctrine(s) 5, 59, 61, 62 donor(s) 89, 105 doubt(s), doubting 9, 35, 51, 74, 92, 93, 155, 162, 171, 178 dragon(s) (see alsonāga) 71, 72, 73, 119, 120, 122, 128, 168, 174, 177 dualistic, duality(ies) 91, 92, 111, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147 E earth (see alsofour elements; great earth) 23, 28, 79, 83, 109, 135, 138, 139, 145, 149, 152 East Asia, East Asian 60, 61, 62 eighteen exclusive attributes 70, 74, 84, 100 eighty subsidiary marks 70, 102, 105, 115, 134, 137, 150, 159, 162 ekayāna.SeeOne Vehicle elder(s) 13, 71, 72, 75, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 94, 103, 104, 108, 152, 158 eloquence (see alsolion’s roar) 5, 17, 69, 81, 87, 88, 93, 96, 103, 107, 128, 134, 160, 162, 175 Eloquent Sound 70 emancipation(s) (see alsoliberation) 69, 75, 77, 84, 89, 90, 91, 93, 100, 109, 112, 114, 119, 128, 136, 137, 144, 146, 147, 153, 160, 161, 163, 164 eight 88, 137, 149 inconceivable 119, 120, 121, 122, 151, 172, 179 three (see alsoemptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness) 102, 112, 114, 146, 165, 147 emptiness 37, 46, 62, 86, 91, 100, 104, 109, 111, 114, 121, 125, 136, 144, 145, 147, 163, 174 meaning of 37, 50, 91 wisdom of 31, 37 emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness (see alsoemancipations, three) 112, 114, 146, 174 194 Index enlightenment 26, 44, 50, 73, 85, 94, 115, 123, 136, 137, 140, 141, 172 complete, perfect, ultimate, unsurpass- able (see alsoanuttarā sam yak - saṃbodhi) 17, 25, 29, 30, 31, 62, 75, 76, 102, 135–36 factors of 102, 115, 136 Hinayana, Hinayanist 62, 97, 135, 158 intention for, thought of (see also bodhicitta) 5, 102, 103, 136 place of 99–101, 102, 137, 171, 174 thirty-seven factors of 77, 84, 85, 100, 162 -wisdom 26, 27, 28 entrance(s) 98, 117, 123, 134, 162 equanimity (see alsofour unlimiteds) 77, 84, 100, 104 Equivalent Contemplation 70 Equivalent-Inequivalent Contemplation 70 eternalism (see alsonihilism) 43 evil(s) 11, 46, 73, 94, 95, 102, 162, 163, 167, 178 actions, ten 134 age of the ﬁve corruptions 96, 151 destinations, destinies 11, 13, 70, 77, 89, 111, 171 Evil One(s) (see alsoMāra) 22, 26, 28, 101, 102 Excellent Constellation 143 Excellent Eye 143 Excellent Jewel 71 Excellent Mind 144 exertion(s) (see alsoperseverance; vīrya) 69, 74, 76, 77, 81, 83, 99, 110, 114, 125, 146, 155, 162, 175 perfection of. Seeperfection, of exer- tion, perseverance existence 26, 81, 131, 143 desire for 25, 26 realms of 81 experience 73, 94, 104, 111, 114, 143 extinction (see alsogeneration and extinction; nirvana) 23, 28, 31, 73, 89, 91, 97, 98, 115, 117, 124, 137, 143, 145, 146, 163, 165, 166, 174 of the body 110, 146 concentration of 85, 124, 147 of the senses 45 of suffering (see alsofour noble truths) 27, 35, 36, 37, 41, 43, 44, 117 eye(s) 72, 86, 101, 122, 145, 147, 165 of the arhat 47 Dharma 79, 90, 118 divine 92 ﬁve 94 of truth 22, 46 wisdom 147 F faculty(ies) 28, 77, 81, 87, 91 dull 90, 114 ﬁve 94, 114 sharp 90, 114 faith 9, 30, 47, 70, 82, 175, 177, 178 fault(s) 10, 26 fear(s), fearful 24, 28, 70, 90, 100, 101, 102, 127, 133, 134, 140, 161, 166, 177, 178 fearless, fearlessness(es) 27, 28, 69, 74, 81, 138, 140, 151, 160 four 30, 70, 84, 100, 136 feeling (see also skandha) 145, 165 female (see alsogender; woman, women) 6, 130 fetters (see alsoimpediment) 74, 124, 135, 166 Field of Blessings 146 ﬁliality 82 ﬁre(s) (see alsofour elements) 83, 109, 121, 124, 139, 140, 145 ﬁve desires. Seedesire(s), ﬁve 195 Index ﬂaw(s) 79, 90, 95, 114, 144, 154, 163 ﬂawless, ﬂawlessness 136, 144, 154, 155, 163 ﬂower(s) (see alsolotus ﬂower) 14, 127, 135, 136, 137, 164, 168, 172 heavenly 14, 59, 127 Flower Garland Sutra 61 Flower Ornament 71, 147 food 79, 87, 88, 89, 90, 122, 137, 139, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 158, 159 forbearance (see alsokṣānti;patience) 69, 76, 81, 82, 99, 100, 102, 123, 125, 141, 146, 155, 175 of the nonarising of dharmas 69, 79, 81, 99, 131, 143, 148, 156, 158, 174, 178 perfection of. Seeperfection, of for- bearance, patience forces, conditioning (see alsopsycho - physical elements, forces; skandha) 24, 63 form(s) (see also skandha) 10, 15, 22, 25, 26, 77, 79, 86, 87, 109, 117, 120, 121, 123, 124, 127, 130, 137, 138, 145, 151, 160, 165 realm 133, 152 formless, formlessness 99, 117 realm 123, 133 four all-embracing acts. Seeact(s), four all-embracing four attractions 77, 100, 104, 136, 155, 161 four confusions 134 four continents 71, 119 four correct postures 20 four elements (see alsoearth; ﬁre; water; wind) 83, 102, 109, 110 four groups of followers (see alsolay- man; laywoman; monk; nun) 21, 50 four heavenly kings 107, 119, 128, 129, 157, 179 four jewel storehouses 6, 19 four noble truths (see alsonoble truths) 31, 35, 39, 44, 89 four responsibilities 18 four right efforts 114 four supernormal abilities 114 four unlimiteds (see alsocompassion; equanimity; joy; mind, four unlimited states of; sympathy) 84, 162 four wisdoms. Seewisdom(s), four fragrance(s), fragrant 60, 87, 128, 129, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 158, 159, 164 Fragrant Elephant 71 Fragrant Mountains 72 G gandharvas 51, 71, 73, 174, 177 Ganges River(s) 15, 17, 26, 27, 28, 36, 37, 50, 118, 120, 121, 131, 149, 150, 151 garuḍas 71 gāthā.Seeverse, four-phrase gender (see alsofemale; woman, women) 6, 59, 62 generation 97, 98, 108, 124, 147 conditioned 70, 100, 114 of practice(s) 77, 99, 162 generation and extinction 86, 91, 98, 117, 137, 143, 166 giving (see alsoacts, four all-embracing; charity; dāna) 13, 20 perfection of. Seeperfection(s), of charity, giving god(s) 11, 13, 18, 19, 25, 26, 51, 59, 71, 72, 73, 79, 82, 90, 95, 98, 99, 101, 103, 107, 115, 118, 119, 122, 128, 129, 139, 149, 152, 153, 155, 162, 168, 173, 174, 177, 179 Brahmā 82, 167 goddess(es) 62, 101, 102, 103, 127–28, 130–31 Golden Crest 71 196 Index Golden Mountains 72 good(s), goodness 6, 73, 82, 84, 86, 95, 99, 114, 126, 144, 163, 169, 171, 175, 177 actions, acts, deeds 6, 13, 18, 22, 23, 146 dharmas 84, 103, 104, 105, 126, 163 foundation of 81, 101 karma 73, 105 mind 46, 136 roots 102, 155, 161, 162, 163, 167 skillful means 133, 138, 141 ten types of 76, 77, 162 good friends 18, 102, 136 good men and women, sons and daugh- ters 18, 19, 20, 21, 47–48, 50, 171, 172, 177, 178 Good Virtue 103 great being (see alsomahāsattva) 14, 151, 157 great cloud 6, 18 great earth 6, 18, 19 Great Iron Ring Mountains (see alsoIron Ring Mountains) 72 Great Ornament 70 Great Ornamentation world 172 Great Sage (see alsoBuddha) 72, 74 Great Vehicle (see alsoMahayana) 18, 19 great waters 6, 18, 120 Guṇabhadra 5, 7 H happiness (see alsojoy) 18, 24, 28, 30, 44, 47 heaven(s) 9, 26, 114, 119, 138, 175 Brahmā 162, 172 king of (see also Śakra) 49, 50, 51 thirty-three 50 heavenly emperor(s), kings (see alsofour heavenly kings) 71, 81, 97, 121, 171, 172, 173, 175, 176 Heavenly King 71 hell(s) 133, 139, 153, 162 ﬁve interminable 135 heretic(s) 82, 134, 174 heterodox(ies) 49, 147, 171 paths 69, 73, 89, 92, 94, 95, 103, 109, 147 views 89, 109, 114, 139, 154, 173, 174 Hinayana, Hinayanist 62, 90, 97, 135, 155, 158, 163 hindrance(s) (see alsofetters) 75, 76, 77, 87, 98, 99, 100, 102, 105, 119, 134, 138, 144, 152, 154, 162 Holding the Jewel Torch 70 home, leaving, renouncing (see also renunciation) 23, 24, 61, 89, 94, 104, 127, 139, 175 Host of Fragrances world 149, 150, 153, 155, 158, 161 householder (see alsolayman, laymen; laypeople, layperson) 60, 85 Huayan school 61 human(s) 11, 13, 14, 18, 19, 73, 79, 101, 127, 144, 149, 153, 155, 162, 168, 179 Hwaŏm. SeeTiantai school I ignorance 25, 28, 31, 32, 100, 133, 134, 145, 165, 174 stage of 25–26, 27, 28 illness(es) (see alsoold age, illness, and death) 11, 70, 95, 108, 109, 110, 11, 112, 134, 139, 150 of the body 83, 109, 113 of sentient beings 84, 108, 109, 111, 112, 164 of Vimalakīrti. SeeVimalakīrti, illness of illumination(s) 47, 103, 129, 147, 159 three 84, 100, 165 Illumination Net 70 197 Index Immovable. SeeAkṣobhya impediment(s) (see alsoaffliction) 26, 69 impermanence 82, 91, 101, 121, 138, 163, 174 India, Indian 5, 7, 60, 61, 64 Indra(s) (see also Śakra Devānām Indra) 71, 81, 82, 101, 107, 119, 121, 128, 129 Indra’s Net 70 Inequivalent Contemplation 70 Inexhaustible Mind 146 inﬂuence(s) 70, 150 latent 98, 124, 127 infractions 133, 174 intention(s) 20, 73, 77, 82, 90, 94, 135, 141, 152, 158, 162 to attain anuttarā sam yak saṃ bodhi 75, 79, 84, 87, 88, 92, 93, 94–95, 98, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 115, 121, 122, 129, 135, 150, 156, 169, 177 for enlightenment (see alsobodhi citta) 76, 102, 103, 135–36, 140, 141 Iron Ring Mountains (see also Great Iron Ring Mountains) 72, 168 Īśvara 78 J Jambudvīpa 119, 167, 168, 177 Japan 61 Japanese language 59, 61, 64 jealous, jealousy 13, 77, 154, 155 Jeta Garden 9, 49 jewel(s), jeweled 18, 19, 71, 72, 73, 79, 90, 105, 129, 135, 168, 175 Dharma (see alsoThree Jewels) 70, 169 storehouses, four 6, 19 Jewel Accumulation 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79 Jewel Courage 70 Jeweled Canopy 173, 175 Jewel Hand 70 Jewel Mirage 129, 175 Jewel Moon 129 Jewel Mountains 72 Jewel Ornament 79, 129 Jewel Ornamentation world 79 Jewel Seal Hand 70, 147 Jewel Staff 71 Jewel Virtue 129 Jewel Vision 70 Ji 63 joy, joyful, joyous (see alsofour unlimit- eds; happiness) 22, 46, 62, 74, 77, 82, 84, 94, 100, 102, 103, 104, 121, 125, 126, 141, 152, 160, 161, 162, 166, 169, 174, 177 in, of the Dharma 102, 103, 136 Joyful Vision 145 Joy King 70 K Kakuda Kātyāyana 89 kalpa(s) 50, 110, 120, 121, 139, 141, 152, 155, 160, 161, 162, 172, 173, 175, 177, 178 bhadra- 175 -ending conﬂagration 121, 138 karma, karmic 47, 73, 83, 105 Kāśyapa (see alsoMahākāśyapa) 87, 88, 122 Kātyāyana (see alsoMahā kāt yā yana) 91 Kauśika (see alsoŚakra) 50, 51, 101 Kawamura, Kōshō 64, 181 Kegon. SeeHuayan school kiṃnaras 71 king(s) 9, 22, 71, 83, 119, 173 Brahmā 71, 78, 92, 121, 139 dragon (see also nāga) 119 of heaven (see alsoŚakra) 49, 50, 51 heavenly (see alsofour heavenly kings) 71, 81, 97, 121 Māra 122 198 Index medicine, physician 70, 73, 110 wheel-turning (see also cakravartin) 95, 173 kingdom 5, 9, 49 knowledge 25, 27, 28, 31, 37, 43, 44, 45, 84, 87, 100, 160, 174 Korea, Korean 61 Kosala 9 Krakucchandra 175 kṣānti(see alsoforbearance; patience) 20, 69, 76 kṣānti-pāramitā.Seeperfection, of for- bearance, patience kṣatriyas 82 Kuiji. SeeJi Kumārajīva 62, 63, 64, 65, 67 L Lake Anavatapta 23 Lamotte, Étienne 64, 65, 181 layman, laymen 21, 60, 71, 81 laypeople, layperson 61, 62 laywoman, laywomen 5, 21, 71 liberation (see alsoemancipation) 25, 26, 27, 28, 61 of sentient beings 78, 112, 138, 155 licentious, licentiousness (see alsolust, lustful) 88, 128, 141, 145, 153 lifespan(s) 77, 83, 86, 120, 160, 172, 174 light 10, 49, 129, 167 lightning 83, 93, 123 Lightning-like Virtue 71 limit(s), limitation(s), limited 17, 21, 29, 30, 31, 35, 43, 45, 61, 98, 112, 129, 141, 144, 166, 168 Lion 144 Lion Mind 144 lion seat(s) 71, 118, 119, 152, 157 Lion’s Echo 129 lion’s roar (see alsoeloquence) 5, 28, 30, 69, 70, 100 Lion’s Roar 71 livelihood 104, 110, 137 living being(s) (see alsobeing[s]; sen- tient being) 5, 6, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24,25, 28, 30, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49 longevity 11, 26, 120 Lord. SeeBuddha lotus ﬂower(s) 72, 75, 79, 135, 140, 168 Lotus Sutra61, 62 Luk, Charles 64, 181 lust, lustful (see alsolicentious, licen- tiousness) 13, 98, 133, 134 M Mādhyamika 59 Mahākāśyapa (see alsoKāśyapa) 87, 121, 122, 135 Mahākātyāyana (see alsoKātyā yana) 91 Mahāmaudgalyāyana (see alsoMaud gal - yāyana) 85, 86, 87 Mahāmucilinda Mountains 72 māhasattva(s) (see alsogreat being) 14 Mahayana, Mahayanist (see alsoGreat Vehicle) 5, 6, 11, 14, 18, 19, 22, 23–24, 29, 30, 47, 49, 59, 61, 62, 76, 81, 82, 87, 90, 121, 125, 137, 155, 158, 163, 178 mahoragas 71 Maintains the World 101 Maintenance of Virtue 143 Maitreya 71, 97, 98, 177, 178 Mallikā, Queen 9 Manifest Perception 144 Mañjuśrī 60, 71, 107–110, 111, 113, 115, 118, 119, 123, 124, 125–27, 133, 134–35, 148, 150, 156, 157, 171, 179 Mañjuśrī Scripture. See Monju kyōten Māra(s) (see alsoEvil One) 22, 26, 73, 100, 101, 102–103, 113, 122, 134, 140, 162, 174 199 Index Māra(s) (continued) four 137, 159 host(s) of 84, 94, 102, 107, 109, 113, 138, 173 vengeful 69, 81, 171, 175 mark(s) 82 eighty subsidiary 70, 102, 105, 115, 134, 137, 150, 159, 162 thirty-two (see alsothirty-two marks, primary characteristics) 76 Maskarin Gośālīputra 89 Maudgalyāyana (see alsoMahā maud - galyāyana) 85 meaning 18, 20, 23, 25, 28, 31, 33, 35, 47, 51, 89, 91, 133, 160, 169, 171, 173, 174, 177 of the Dharma 47, 49, 70 of emptiness 37, 50, 91 of the noble truths 33, 35 medicinal, medicine(s) 70, 95, 139, 159, 164 Medicine King 73, 172, 173, 175 meditation (see alsodhyāna) 20, 27, 47, 69, 76, 84, 85, 94, 100, 101, 102, 112, 114, 146, 149, 153, 155, 160, 163 perfection of. Seeperfection, of medi- tation mental 99, 100, 114, 144, 163 phenomena, seven 45 processes 70, 73, 91, 98, 109 mentation, objectiﬁed 99, 111 merit(s) 6, 9, 11, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 31, 49, 50, 69, 70, 76, 77, 78, 79, 83, 94, 95, 99, 113, 125, 126, 128, 129, 133, 134, 137, 141, 146, 151, 152, 153, 155, 156, 160, 163, 172 cultivation of 19, 102, 133 great 17, 47, 50 immeasurable 9, 14, 22, 50, 70, 79, 162, 168 true 10, 11 meritorious 27, 105 action, acts 6, 146, 147 metaphor(s) 5, 6, 159 mind(s) (see alsobody, speech, and mind) 9, 25, 28, 35, 46, 47, 63, 69, 73, 78, 79, 81, 85, 86, 90, 91, 92, 93, 98, 100, 102, 109, 113, 114, 133, 137,144, 145, 146, 152, 153, 154, 158, 163, 165, 175 of bodhi(see also bodhicitta) 76, 99 characteristic(s) of 93, 104, 144 of compassion 87, 136 controlled, control of, disciplined, disciplining 76, 100, 104, 110, 111, 113, 133, 154, 155, 178 deﬁled, deﬁlements of 10, 27, 46, 47, 93 four unlimited states of (see alsofour unlimiteds) 76, 114 -made bodies. Seebody(ies), mind- made profound 76, 77, 78, 99, 104, 125, 137, 173 pure, purified, purity of 10, 46, 51, 72, 74, 78, 79, 81, 93, 102, 104, 105, 134, 137, 160, 177 mindful, mindfully 49, 110, 111, 129, 133, 160, 161 mindfulness(es) 20, 69, 77, 143, 162, 178 correct 126, 161 four foundations of 114 six 104 ministers 82, 83, 140 mirage(s) 83, 93, 123, 159 Mitrayaśas, King 49 monism 25 Monju kyōten64, 181 monk(s) (see alsobhikṣu) 21, 61, 62, 70, 163 moon(s) 43, 72, 78, 93, 120, 123, 129, 139, 159, 168 Moon Canopy 152, 173, 175 200 Index morality (see alsodiscipline; śīla) 69, 76, 81, 83, 84, 99, 125, 141, 146, 153, 160 per fection of. Seeperfection, of disci- pline, morality Mount Sumeru(s) 22, 70, 71, 73, 119, 135, 152, 168 Mucilinda Mountains 72 N nāga(s) (see alsodragon) 49, 71 name(s) 9, 23, 77, 86, 94, 99, 110, 111, 149, 165 Nārāyaṇa 134, 144 Nattier, Jan 64, 181 nihilism (see alsoeternalism) 43 Nirgrantha Jñātiputra 89 nirvana 24, 27, 29, 35, 43, 85, 88, 94, 98, 110, 111, 113, 115, 117, 124, 134, 144, 147, 154, 174 aspiration for 45 Buddha’s, of the Tathāgata 75, 169, 172, 175, 177, 178 ﬁnal 24, 27 partial, with remainder 27, 32, 35 permanent, without remainder 27, 35 realm of 24, 25, 27, 29 noble truths (see alsofour noble truths) 31–32, 33, 35, 39, 41, 43 conditioned, limited 35, 39 unconditioned, unlimited 31, 35, 36, 50 nonactivation 114, 163, 174 nonarising 36, 45 of dharmas 69, 79, 81, 99, 131, 143, 148, 156, 158, 178 nonattainment 69, 111 nonbeing (see alsobeing) 70 non-Buddhist 5 noncontention 89, 104, 139 nondual, nonduality 59, 98, 124, 143, 144, 145 nonexistence 99, 163 nonexperience 111, 143 nonretrogression, nonretrogressive 129, 131, 173 non-returner 123 no-self 91, 100, 104, 113, 121, 125, 145, 163, 174 novice(s) 90, 177, 178 numinous charisma 69, 71, 78, 175 penetration(s) 81, 100, 107, 114, 118, 119, 121, 130, 131, 149, 152, 161, 162, 168, 169, 171, 175 power(s) 72, 74, 77, 79, 101, 103, 106, 108, 127, 130, 150, 151, 157, 168, 173, 177, 178 transformation(s) 72, 105, 168 nun(s) 21, 71 O object(s) 10, 20 objectiﬁed mentation 99, 111 offering(s) 11, 21, 81, 82, 88, 89, 102, 103, 104, 138, 150, 151, 155, 157, 161, 164, 166, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178 old age, illness, and death 21, 73, 111, 138 omniscience 28, 44, 100, 104, 105, 113, 135, 146, 161, 162, 169 One Vehicle 5, 7, 23, 29, 30, 50, 51, 62 ordinary people, person (see alsocommon people, person) 89, 122, 131, 135 ordination 23, 24 vows, ten 13–14, 50 ornamentation 102, 105, 118, 152, 162, 168 Ornamentation kalpa172 Ornamented Earth 71 Ornament of the Characteristics of Merit 71 other-nature 88 201 Index P palace(s) 9, 76, 82, 83, 179 of the dragons 72, 73, 119 of the gods 72, 73, 119, 129, 168 heavenly 78, 102 Māra’s 103 pāramitā.Seeperfection parents 5, 94, 108, 136, 162 path(s) 18, 27, 28, 31, 37, 39, 76, 77, 94, 115, 117, 133, 141, 151, 162, 166, 169, 177 bodhisattva 5, 61, 115, 174 of buddhahood 6, 81, 88, 115, 133, 134, 138, 141 correct 137, 147, 154 eightfold 115, 137 entire 27, 35 great, unsurpassable 140, 150, 151 heretic 82 heterodox, small 69, 73, 89, 90, 92, 94, 95, 103, 109, 147 of the Mahayana 47, 90 one, of the One Vehicle 6, 29, 30, 51 unacceptable, wrong 133, 134, 154 patience (see alsoforbearance; kṣānti) 20 perfection of. Seeperfection, of for- bearance, patience peace, peaceful 13, 14, 15, 18, 29, 69, 125, 137, 139, 150, 153, 161 Pearl Crest Bodhisattva 71 penetration(s) 138 ﬁve 137, 141, 175 numinous 81, 100, 107, 114, 118, 119, 121, 130, 131, 149, 152, 161, 162, 168, 169, 171, 175 six 84, 100, 114 perfection(s) 6, 14, 19, 20, 44, 101, 107, 136, 162 of charity, giving 20, 84, 104 of discipline, morality 20, 24, 84, 104 of exertion, perseverance 20, 84, 104 of forbearance, patience 20, 84, 104 of meditation 20, 84, 104 six 50, 114, 129, 173 of wisdom 20, 44, 81, 84, 104, 136 Perfection of Wisdom 59 perseverance (see alsoexertion; vīrya) 20 perfection of. Seeperfection, of exer- tion, perseverance phantasm(s), phantasmagorical 83, 88, 89, 93, 109, 138, 144, 159 phenomena 26, 27, 28, 35, 43, 45 seven mental 45 poison(s), poisonous 83, 102, 139, 159 three 123 power(s) 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 35, 49, 72, 77, 82, 83, 95, 121, 122, 126, 138, 139, 151, 152, 154, 158, 160, 178 ﬁve 92, 94, 115 numinous, of numinous penetration 72, 74, 79, 101, 103, 106, 108, 118, 127, 130, 149, 150, 151, 157, 161, 168, 169, 173, 175, 177, 178 of skillful means 69, 104, 122, 141, 174 supernatural, supernormal 18, 47, 92 ten 28, 70, 73, 74, 84, 100, 115, 136 of transformation 161, 168 practice(s) 20, 27, 29, 50, 51, 75, 77, 86, 88, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 104, 113, 118, 122, 140, 149, 153, 155, 160, 163, 164, 169, 175 bodhisattva 5, 113–115, 157, 161, 168, 175 generation of 77, 99, 162 of holiness 25, 28 pure, of purity 24, 113, 168 of the Vinaya 92, 153, 159 of wisdom 69, 162 prajñā(see alsowisdom) 17, 20, 69, 76 202 Index prajñā-pāramitā.Seeperfection, of wisdom Prajñāpāramitā. SeePerfection of Wisdom Prakrit 63 Prasenajit, King 9 Prātimokṣa 23 pratyekabuddha(s) 18, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 43, 44, 47, 88, 115, 121, 128, 129, 134, 149, 161, 175 vehicle 18, 19, 29 precepts 13, 76, 77, 102, 104, 137, 154, 166 pure 133, 155 prediction, of buddhahood 5, 11, 13, 21, 97, 98, 169, 175 prince(s) 82, 83, 175 principle(s) 17, 43, 44, 72 process(es) 63, 73, 117, 145, 165, 174 mental 70, 73, 91, 98, 109 Profound Wisdom 146 property (see alsowealth) 13, 21 psychophysical elements, forces (see alsoskandha) 24, 43 Pūraṇa Kāśyapa 89 Pure Emancipation 144 pure land(s) 76, 77, 78, 95, 129, 151, 155, 167, 169 Pure Land school 61 purity 24, 26, 27, 44, 78, 81, 93, 99, 105, 125, 143, 168 of buddha country(ies), land(s) 75, 78, 79 of dharmas 115, 124 of the Dharma, Dharma eye 79, 118, 175 perfection of 44 practice of 24 with remainder 26, 27 Pūrṇa, Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra 90 Puṣya 144 Q quality(ies) 27, 59, 63, 77, 118, 160, 163 of self 83, 174 Questions of the Brahmā (Deva) Viśeṣa - cinti Sutra. See Shiyaku Bonten shomon kyō R Radiance Characteristic 70 Radiance Ornament 70 Radiance Ornament Youth 99 Radiant Illumination country 105 Rāhula 93, 94 rakṣasas 177 reality 98, 145, 147, 152 realization 25, 26, 87, 111, 117, 128, 163 realm(s) 31, 33, 37, 43, 44, 46, 48, 81, 117, 123, 162 arhat 24 bodhisattva 24 buddha, Buddha, Tathāgata 33, 35, 46 of desire 117, 152 eight difﬁcult 77 of form 117, 133, 152 formless, of formlessness 117, 123, 133 nirvana 24, 25, 27, 29 pratyekabuddha(s) 24, 31 of sensation, sensory 47, 83 three 117 rebirth(s) (see alsobirth and death) 6, 14, 28, 29, 90, 104, 158 refuge(s) 24, 27, 29, 30, 39, 41, 44, 46, 74, 86, 163, 174 limited, partial 29, 30 one 41, 44, 50 supreme, ultimate 29, 30, 44 three (see alsoThree Jewels) 30 religious 9, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 139 renunciation (see alsohome, leaving, renouncing) 23, 24, 76 203 Index repose 85, 104, 105 retrogress, retrogressing 98, 100 root(s) 69, 75, 134 good, of goodness, virtuous 102, 155, 161, 162, 163, 167 virtuous 90, 112, 113, 114 Roots of Joy 70 Ruci 175 S Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra. See Lotus Sutra sage(s), sagely (see alsoarhat) 88, 89, 94, 95, 97, 104, 107, 113, 125, 173, 174 sahāworld 150, 151, 155, 168, 169 Śakra(s) (see alsoKauśika) 49, 50, 51, 157 Śakra Devānām Indra (see alsoIndra) 171, 172 Śākya 101 Śākyamuni 78, 92, 129, 151, 153, 154 salvation, salviﬁc 76, 100, 112, 134, 162 samādhi 84, 89, 92, 114, 153 of Vimalakīrti 90, 149, 168 Samantaprabha. SeeUniversal Light Saṃjayin Vairaṭīputra 89 samsara (see alsobirth and death) 21, 75, 86, 91, 94, 108, 109, 112, 113, 126, 127, 134, 143, 144, 161, 162, 163, 165, 174 samyaksaṃbuddha160 sangha 21, 29, 173 Sangha (see alsoBuddha, Dharma, and Sangha) 30, 89, 117, 146 Sanskrit 5, 7, 63, 64, 160 Śāriputra 62, 78, 79, 85, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 127–31, 149, 152, 157–58, 166–67, 169, 179 scholar(s), retired 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 94, 95, 96, 99, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109, 110, 118, 119, 136, 152 science 20 scripture(s) (see alsosutra) 51, 60, 61, 139, 169, 171, 172, 177, 179 seed(s), seedling 10, 23, 28, 229, 212, 123, 134, 135 self, selfhood 44, 45, 73, 83, 86, 90, 91, 93, 108, 110, 111, 125, 135, 143, 145, 147, 163, 165, 174 self-mastery 10 self-nature 88 Sengzhao 62, 63 sensation(s), sense(s) (see alsosix sense consciousnesses, senses) 11, 45, 47, 87, 114, 117, 118, 119, 123 sense organs 43, 135 sense pleasures, sensuality 25, 140 sensory 79, 83 capacities 83, 98, 102, 165 data 86, 112 troubles 89, 135, 136 sentient being(s) (see alsobeing; living being) 60, 74, 75–77, 78, 82, 85, 86, 89, 90, 93, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 110, 111, 112, 114, 120, 122, 123–24, 125, 128, 131, 133, 134, 138, 139, 140, 151, 153, 154, 155, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 171, 172, 175, 177 capacity(ies) of 69 categories of 75, 138 emancipation, liberation of 78, 96, 112, 155, 160 faculties of 87, 90, 114 illness(es) of 108, 109, 112, 164 mental processes, thoughts of 70, 98, 105, 109, 114 minds of 81, 93, 114 salvation of 73, 76, 100, 104, 112, 114, 126, 134, 154, 161, 162, 174 serene, serenity 72, 73, 75, 86, 99, 110, 115, 136, 145, 159 204 Index Serene Capacity 146 Shuo Wuguocheng jingshu 63 signless, signlessness (see alsoempti- ness, signlessness, and wishlessness) 114, 146, 163 Śikhin 71 śīla(see alsodiscipline; morality) 20, 69, 76 śīla-pāramitā.Seeperfection, of disci- pline, morality silence, of Vimalakīrti 59 sincere, sincerity 14, 76, 77, 99, 104, 125, 136, 166 six entrances 134 six mindfulnesses 104 six pāramitās, perfections. Seeperfec- tion(s), six six penetrations 84, 100, 114 six sense consciousnesses, senses, sen- sory capacities, types of sensory data 20, 45, 86, 165 six stations 23 six teachers of heterodox paths 89 skandha(s) (see alsoforces; psycho - physical elements, forces) 63, 83, 123, 162 ﬁve (see alsoconception; conciousness; feeling; form; process) 43, 91, 102 saṃskāra63 skillful means 7, 17, 24, 25, 27, 30, 35, 49, 60, 77, 78, 81–82, 83, 84, 100, 107, 112–113, 122, 125, 133, 136, 138, 161, 164 power of 69, 104, 122, 141, 174 Snowy Mountains 71–72 Sound of Thunder 71 Sound Striking the Mountains 71 South Asia 61 space 10, 15, 73, 75, 76, 86, 96, 98, 101, 115, 124, 135, 144, 145, 146, 152, 159, 160, 165, 173 speech (see alsobody, speech, and mind) 10, 13, 20, 128, 146, 148, 153, 154 spirits 128, 152 demonic 119, 120, 168, 174, 177 śramaṇa(s) 81, 101, 103 śrāvaka(s) (see alsodisciple) 18, 62, 88, 91, 93, 107, 115, 121, 128, 134, 135, 136, 144, 149, 152, 153, 155, 158, 160, 161, 167, 168, 173, 175 Dharma (see alsoHinayana) 113, 128, 129, 130 vehicle 29, 79, 88 Śrāvastī 9, 49 Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanāda-sūtra. SeeSutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar Śrīmālā, Queen 5–6, 9–10, 13–14, 15, 17–18, 22, 23–30, 31–32, 33, 35–36, 37, 38, 41, 43–44, 45–46, 47–48, 49–51 srotāpanna.Seestream-enterer stage(s) 25, 26, 28, 29 of cultivation 105 of deﬁlement 25, 26, 31 of faith 47 fearless, undaunted 10, 28 ﬁnal 24 of ignorance 25, 26, 27–28, 31 of irreversibility, nonretrogression 97, 173 of nirvana 29 stars (see alsoconstellations) 72, 168 storehouse(s) (see alsotreasury[ies]) 169, 173 four jewel 6, 19, 129 secret 107, 129 Store of Space 70 Store of Virtue 147 stream-enterer 89, 123 stupidity 88, 89, 108, 128, 133, 134, 154, 167 Subhūti 83, 89 205 Index suchness 86, 93, 97, 98, 99, 165 suffering(s) 11, 13, 22, 27, 31, 35, 36, 37, 39, 44, 45, 83, 91, 100, 110, 111, 113, 117, 121, 139, 155, 174 of birth and death, samsara, worldly 29, 163, 174 extinction(s) of 27, 35, 36, 37, 41, 43, 44, 117 revulsion toward 45, 74 source(s) of 27, 31, 35, 39 Sukhāvatīvyūha-sūtra 61 Sumeru Lamp King 118, 119 sun(s) 72, 78, 90, 120, 129, 138, 139, 167, 168 Superior Excellence 146 Superior Moon 147 Superior One (see alsoVimalakīrti) 128, 129 sutra(s) (see alsoscripture) 50, 51, 61, 63, 133, 155, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179 Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 5–6, 7–51 sympathy (see alsofour unlimiteds) 77, 84, 100, 104, 124–25, 139. 141 great 85, 129, 160, 161, 163, 173 mind of 87, 136 T Taishō edition, text 63, 65 Taishō University 64 Takasaki, Jikidō 53, 64, 181 talatrees 49 Tathāgata(s) 9, 11, 14, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 47, 48, 50, 51, 78, 82, 89, 93, 95, 124, 138, 150, 151, 152, 153, 160, 165, 169, 171, 172, 175, 178 blessings of 95, 105, 152 Dharma body, body(ies) of 10, 21, 29, 35, 36, 44, 84, 95, 166, 172 enlightenment-wisdom of 26, 27, 28 land 75, 78 merit(s) of 9, 11, 21, 49, 126, 160 nirvana of 24, 172 realm of 33 sagacity, wisdom of 17, 37, 152 seed of 134, 135 tathāgatagarbha(see alsowomb, of the Buddha) 5, 33, 35, 36, 37, 45–46, 50 teacher(s) 5, 89, 95, 102, 140, 162, 172, 178 six, of heterodox paths 89 teaching(s) 5, 7, 18, 22, 50, 51, 77, 98, 103, 125, 129, 131, 134, 137, 139, 151, 160, 163, 164 of the emancipation of the exhaustible and inexhaustible 161, 164 false, heterodox 49, 171 of the four attractions 161 of inconceivable emancipation 119, 121, 122 Mahayana 6, 155, 163 “One Vehicle” 62 Tendai. SeeTiantai ten ordination vows. Seevow(s), ten ordination text(s) 5, 6, 7, 50, 51, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 Mahayana 5, 6, 61 “The Teaching of Vimalakīrti[Vimala - kīrtinirdeśa]: A Review of Four English Translations” 64, 181 thirty-two primary characteristics 70, 76, 102, 105, 115, 134, 137, 150, 159, 162 three great vows. Seevow(s), three great three illuminations. Seeillumination(s), three Three Jewels (see alsoBuddha, Dharma, and Sangha; refuges, three) 69, 73, 87, 136, 146 Thunder God 145 206 Index Thurman, Robert 64, 181 Tiantai school 61 Tibet, Tibetan 5, 60, 64, 65 transcendence 81, 98, 99, 111, 114, 128, 141, 163, 174 transcendental 18, 23, 31, 44, 46 transformation(s) 6, 25, 73, 89, 150, 151, 152, 161 numinous 72, 105, 168 phantasmagorical 89, 138, 144 transgression(s) 24, 28, 78, 82, 89, 92, 93, 94, 100, 110, 133, 135, 144, 154, 178 Trayastriṃśa Heaven 119 treasure(s) 134 seven 71, 137, 172, 173 treasury(ies) (see alsostorehouse) 140, 169 treatise(s) 20, 59 trimegachiliocosm 71, 73, 79, 92, 120, 121, 152, 160, 164, 172 Tripiṭaka 7, 67 True Dharma 5, 6, 9, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 44, 46, 49, 50 truth(s) 9, 15, 17, 31, 32, 44, 46, 69, 84, 89, 100, 138 contrary 43, 51 of the extinction of suffering 41, 43, 44 eye of 22, 46 noble. See four noble truths; noble truths supreme 30, 39, 41 underlying 37, 50 wisdom of 22, 46 Tuṣita Heaven 97, 168 U Unblinking 143 Unconditional Contemplation 70 unconditioned 35, 44, 45, 92, 98, 118, 135, 146, 154, 159, 161, 163, 164, 166 dharma(s) 94, 135, 161 noble truths 35, 36 Undefeated 71 Unhindered Mind 146 Universal Light 11 Universally Manifests the Form Body 136 universally same, universal sameness 73, 78, 87, 88, 98, 99, 100, 105, 111, 144, 145, 147, 160 Universal Maintenance 145 universal ruler (see also cakravartin) 94, 121 Unresting 71 Upāli 92, 93 upāsaka. Seelayman, laymen upāsikā. Seelaywoman, laywomen upāya.Seeskillful means V Vaiśālī 69, 71, 81, 86, 94, 99, 107, 119, 152 vajra 70, 95, 144 vehicle(s) (see alsoGreat Vehicle; One Vehicle) 24, 30, 122, 136 buddha 29 disciple, śrāvaka 18, 19, 29, 79, 88 pratyekabuddha 18, 19, 29 three 29, 30, 36, 44, 128 two 22, 23, 43 verse 9, 72, 75, 136 four-phrase 169 vexation(s) 94, 95, 110, 112, 150, 154, 166 view(s) 5, 43, 92, 98, 109, 111, 112, 135, 175 confused, mistaken 83, 111, 123, 124 contrary 37, 43, 44, 46 correct 43, 44, 77 discriminative, dualistic 98, 111 false, illusory 25, 70, 83, 93, 113 heterodox 89, 109, 114, 139, 154, 173, 174 sixty-two 85, 94, 109, 134 207 Index Vimalakīrti 59–60, 61, 62, 81–84, 85–96, 97–106, 107–115, 117–122, 123–27, 128–29, 131, 133–41, 143, 148, 149–56, 157–58, 161, 165–66, 167, 168, 169, 179 and Ānanda 95–96, 158 and Aniruddha 91–92 and Good Virtue 103–106 illness of 60, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101, 103, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110 and Mahākāśyapa 87–88, 122 and Mahākātyāyana 91 and Mahāmaudgalyāyana 85–87 and Maintains the World 101–103 and Maitreya 97–99 and Mañjuśrī 60, 107–115, 118–119, 123–27, 133–36, 148, 150, 156, 157 and Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra 90–91 and Radiance Ornament Youth 99–101 and Rāhula 93–95 samādhiof 90, 149, 168 and Śāriputra 85, 117–118, 119–121, 131, 149, 152, 166–67 silence of 59 and Subhūti 88–90 and Universally Manifests the Form Body 136 and Upāli 92–93 Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra.SeeVimalakīrti Sutra Vimalakīrti Sutra59–65, 67–179 Vimalakīrti Sutra, Questions of the Brahmā (Deva) Viśeṣacinti Sutra, and Śū raṃ gama-samādhi Sutra. See Yuima-gyō, Shiyaku Bonten shomon kyō, Shuryōgon Zammai kyō Vinaya 23–24, 81, 92, 93, 153, 154, 159 virtue(s) 17, 18, 31, 73, 95, 122, 153 vīrya(see alsoexertion; perseverance) 20, 69, 76 vīrya-pāramitā. Seeperfection, of exer- tion, perseverance vow(s) 14, 15, 76, 93, 98, 99, 103, 131 bodhisattva 15, 17 great 17, 81 original 131, 163 ten ordination 13–14, 50 three great 15 W water (see alsofour elements; great waters) 83, 93, 109, 123, 137, 139, 145, 159, 168 Watson, Burton 64, 181 wealth, wealthy (see alsobody, life, and wealth; property) 6, 72, 77, 81, 87, 104, 137 White Fragrant Elephant 71 wind(s) (see alsofour elements) 83, 87, 109, 120, 139 wisdom(s) (see alsoprajñā) 10, 20, 27, 28, 31, 33, 37, 46, 47, 76, 83, 84, 87, 89, 93, 100, 102, 104, 105, 112, 113, 122, 125, 133, 136, 137, 138, 141, 144, 145, 146, 153, 155, 160, 162, 163, 165, 166, 172, 174 of arhats 26, 43 of bodhisattvas 69, 78 160 buddha, of the Buddha, Tathāgata 10, 17, 22, 26, 27, 28, 39, 70, 75, 78, 105, 115, 134, 140, 160 of disciples, śrāvakas 31, 152 of emptiness 31, 37 enlightenment- 26, 27, 28 eye 147 four 25, 31 great 69, 128 Hinayana 90 perfection of. Seeperfection, of wisdom of pratyekabuddhas 26, 31, 43 of Śrīmālā 5, 15, 17 208 Index superior, supramundane, supreme 31, 82, 93, 133 vajra 144 of Vimalakīrti 81, 82, 88, 93, 96, 103, 107 wishless, wishlessness (see alsoempti- ness, signlessness, and wishlessness) 114, 146, 163 woman, women (see alsofemale; gender; good men and women, sons and daughters) 5, 6, 49, 82, 101, 102, 103, 125, 167, 168, 172 status, view of 5, 62 womb 32, 46, 123 of the Buddha (see alsotathāgata- garbha) 5 Wonderful Arm 144 Wonderful Mind 145 Wondrous Birth 71 Wondrous Joy world 167–69 world(s) (see alsoGreat Ornamentation world; Host of Fragrances world; Wondrous Joy world) 9, 10, 18, 19, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 44, 59, 60, 71, 73, 74, 75, 79, 88, 92, 94, 100, 105, 118, 120, 129, 134, 139, 147, 149, 150, 152, 154, 155, 161, 164, 168, 172, 173 Brahmā 114 of four continents, fourfold 71, 119, 172, 173 sahā 150, 151, 155, 168, 169 triple 74, 81, 85, 95, 100, 111, 114, 165 World-honored One (see alsoBuddha) 73, 74, 75, 78, 79, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101, 103, 105, 107, 108, 150, 153, 154, 157, 158, 159, 161, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172, 173, 175, 178, 179 world lord(s), world protectors (see also heavenly, king) 81, 82, 121, 139 worldly 45, 70, 82, 154, 162, 163 world-system(s) 59, 118, 120, 121, 122, 149 X Xuanzang 63 Y yakṣas (see alsospirits, demonic) 71, 73, 174 Yao Qin dynasty 67 Yonezawa, Yoshiyasu 64 Yuima-gyō, Shiyaku Bonten shomon kyō, Shuryōgon Zammai kyō 64, 181 Z Zen. SeeChan Zhi Qian 63 Zhu Weimojie jing63 209 BDK English Tripiṭaka (First Series) Abbreviations Ch.: Chinese Skt.: Sanskrit Jp.: Japanese Eng.: Published title Ch. Changahanjing (長阿含經) 1 Skt. Dīrghāgama Ch. Zhongahanjing (中阿含經) 26 Skt. Madhyamāgama Ch. Dachengbenshengxindiguanjing (大乘本生心地觀經) 159 Ch. Fosuoxingzan (佛所行讃) 192 Skt. Buddhacarita Ch. Zabaocangjing (雜寶藏經) 203 Eng. The Storehouse of Sundry Valuables Ch. Fajupiyujing (法句譬喩經) 211 Eng. The Scriptural Text: Verses of the Doctrine, with Parables Ch. Xiaopinbanruoboluomijing (小品般若波羅蜜經) 227 Skt. Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra Ch. Jingangbanruoboluomijing (金剛般若波羅蜜經) 235 Skt. Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra Ch. Daluojingangbukongzhenshisanmoyejing 243 (大樂金剛不空眞實三麼耶經) Skt. Adhyardhaśatikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra Ch. Renwangbanruoboluomijing (仁王般若波羅蜜經) 245 Skt. Kāruṇikārājā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra (?) 211 Title Taishō No. BDK English Tripiṭaka Ch. Banruoboluomiduoxingjing (般若波羅蜜多心經) 251 Skt. Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya-sūtra Ch. Miaofalianhuajing (妙法蓮華經) 262 Skt. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra Eng. The Lotus Sutra Ch. Wuliangyijing (無量義經) 276 Ch. Guanpuxianpusaxingfajing (觀普賢菩薩行法經) 277 Ch. Dafangguangfohuayanjing (大方廣佛華嚴經) 278 Skt. Avataṃsaka-sūtra Ch. Shengmanshizihouyichengdafangbianfangguangjing 353 (勝鬘師子吼一乘大方便方廣經) Skt. Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanāda-sūtra Eng. The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar Ch. Wuliangshoujing (無量壽經) 360 Skt. Sukhāvatīvyūha Eng. The Larger Sutra on Amitāyus(in The Three Pure Land Sutras, Revised Second Edition) Ch. Guanwuliangshoufojing (觀無量壽佛經) 365 Skt. Amitāyurdhyāna-sūtra Eng. The Sutra on Contemplation of Amitāyus (in The Three Pure Land Sutras,Revised Second Edition) Ch. Amituojing (阿彌陀經) 366 Skt. Sukhāvatīvyūha Eng. The Smaller Sutra on Amitāyus(in The Three Pure Land Sutras, Revised Second Edition\) Ch. Dabanniepanjing (大般涅槃經) 374 Skt. Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra Ch. Fochuiboniepanlüeshuojiaojiejing (佛垂般涅槃略説教誡經) 389 Ch. Dicangpusabenyuanjing (地藏菩薩本願經) 412 Skt. Kṣitigarbhapraṇidhāna-sūtra (?) Ch. Banzhousanmeijing (般舟三昧經) 418 Skt. Pratyutpannabuddhasammukhāvasthitasamādhi-sūtra Eng. The Pratyutpanna Samādhi Sutra 212 Title Taishō No. BDK English Tripiṭaka Ch. Yaoshiliuliguangrulaibenyuangongdejing 450 (藥師琉璃光如來本願功徳經) Skt. Bhaiṣajyaguruvaiḍūryaprabhāsapūrvapraṇidhānaviśeṣavistara Ch. Milexiashengchengfojing (彌勒下生成佛經) 454 Skt. Maitreyavyākaraṇa (?) Ch. Wenshushiliwenjing (文殊師利問經) 468 Skt. Mañjuśrīparipṛcchā (?) Ch. Weimojiesuoshuojing (維摩詰所説經) 475 Skt. Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra Eng. The Vimalakīrti Sutra Ch. Yueshangnüjing (月上女經) 480 Skt. Candrottarādārikāparipṛcchā Ch. Zuochansanmeijing (坐禪三昧經) 614 Ch. Damoduoluochanjing (達磨多羅禪經) 618 Ch. Yuedengsanmeijing (月燈三昧經) 639 Skt. Samādhirājacandrapradīpa-sūtra Ch. Shoulengyansanmeijing (首楞嚴三昧經) 642 Skt. Śūraṅgamasamādhi-sūtra Eng. The Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sutra Ch. Jinguangmingzuishengwangjing (金光明最勝王經) 665 Skt. Suvarṇaprabhāsa-sūtra Ch. Rulengqiejing (入楞伽經) 671 Skt. Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra Ch. Jieshenmijing (解深密經) 676 Skt. Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra Eng. The Scripture on the Explication of Underlying Meaning Ch. Yulanpenjing (盂蘭盆經) 685 Skt. Ullambana-sūtra (?) Ch. Sishierzhangjing (四十二章經) 784 Ch. Dafangguangyuanjuexiuduoluoliaoyijing (大方廣圓覺修多羅了義經) 842 213 Title Taishō No. BDK English Tripiṭaka Ch. Dabiluzhenachengfoshenbianjiachijing 848 (大毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經) Skt. Mahāvairocanābhisambodhivikurvitādhiṣṭhānavaipulyasūtrendra- rājanāmadharmaparyāya Ch. Jinggangdingyiqierulaizhenshishedachengxianzhengdajiao- wangjing (金剛頂一切如來眞實攝大乘現證大教王經) 865 Skt. Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgrahamahāyānābhisamayamahākalparāja Eng. The Adamantine Pinnacle Sutra(in Two Esoteric Sutras) Ch. Suxidijieluojing (蘇悉地羯囉經) 893 Skt. Susiddhikaramahātantrasādhanopāyika-paṭala Eng. The Susiddhikara Sutra(in Two Esoteric Sutras) Ch. Modengqiejing (摩登伽經) 1300 Skt. Mātaṅgī-sūtra (?) Ch. Mohesengqilü (摩訶僧祇律) 1425 Skt. Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya (?) Ch. Sifenlü (四分律) 1428 Skt. Dharmaguptaka-vinaya (?) Ch. Shanjianlüpiposha (善見律毘婆沙) 1462 Pāli Samantapāsādikā Ch. Fanwangjing (梵網經) 1484 Skt. Brahmajāla-sūtra (?) Ch. Youposaijiejing (優婆塞戒經) 1488 Skt. Upāsakaśīla-sūtra (?) Eng. The Sutra on Upāsaka Precepts Ch. Miaofalianhuajingyoubotishe (妙法蓮華經憂波提舍) 1519 Skt. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-upadeśa Ch. Shih-chu-pi-p‘o-sha-lun (十住毘婆沙論) 1521 Skt. Daśabhūmika-vibhāṣā (?) Ch. Fodijinglun (佛地經論) 1530 Skt. Buddhabhūmisūtra-śāstra (?) Eng. The Interpretation of the Buddha Land Ch. Apidamojushelun (阿毘達磨倶舍論) 1558 Skt. Abhidharmakośa-bhāṣya 214 Title Taishō No. BDK English Tripiṭaka Ch. Zhonglun (中論) 1564 Skt. Madhyamaka-śāstra Ch. Yüqieshidilun (瑜伽師地論) 1579 Skt. Yogācārabhūmi Ch. Chengweishilun (成唯識論) 1585 Eng. Demonstration of Consciousness Only (in Three Texts on Consciousness Only) Ch. Weishisanshilunsong (唯識三十論頌) 1586 Skt. Triṃśikā Eng. The Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only (in Three Texts on Consciousness Only) Ch. Weishihershilun (唯識二十論) 1590 Skt. Viṃśatikā Eng. The Treatise in Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only (in Three Texts on Consciousness Only) Ch. Shedachenglun (攝大乘論) 1593 Skt. Mahāyānasaṃgraha Eng. The Summary of the Great Vehicle(Revised Second Edition) Ch. Bianzhongbianlun (辯中邊論) 1600 Skt. Madhyāntavibhāga Ch. Dachengzhuangyanjinglun (大乘莊嚴經論) 1604 Skt. Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra Ch. Dachengchengyelun (大乘成業論) 1609 Skt. Karmasiddhiprakaraṇa Ch. Jiujingyichengbaoxinglun (究竟一乘寳性論) 1611 Skt. Ratnagotravibhāgamahāyānottaratantra-śāstra Ch. Yinmingruzhenglilun (因明入正理論) 1630 Skt. Nyāyapraveśa Ch. Dachengjipusaxuelun (大乘集菩薩學論) 1636 Skt. Śikṣāsamuccaya Ch. Jingangzhenlun (金剛針論) 1642 Skt. Vajrasūcī 215 Title Taishō No. BDK English Tripiṭaka Ch. Zhangsuozhilun (彰所知論) 1645 Eng. The Treatise on the Elucidation of the Knowable Ch. Putixingjing (菩提行經) 1662 Skt. Bodhicaryāvatāra Ch. Jingangdingyuqiezhongfaanouduoluosanmiaosanputixinlun 1665 (金剛頂瑜伽中發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心論) Ch. Dachengqixinlun (大乘起信論) 1666 Skt. Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda-śāstra (?) Ch. Shimoheyanlun (釋摩訶衍論) 1668 Ch. Naxianbiqiujing (那先比丘經) 1670 Pāli Milindapañhā Ch. Banruoboluomiduoxinjingyuzan (般若波羅蜜多心經幽賛) 1710 Eng. A Comprehensive Commentary on the Heart Sutra (Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya-sūtra) Ch. Miaofalianhuajingxuanyi (妙法蓮華經玄義) 1716 Ch. Guanwuliangshoufojingshu (觀無量壽佛經疏) 1753 Ch. Sanlunxuanyi (三論玄義) 1852 Ch. Dachengxuanlun (大乘玄論) 1853 Ch. Zhaolun (肇論) 1858 Ch. Huayanyichengjiaoyifenqizhang (華嚴一乘教義分齊章) 1866 Ch. Yuanrenlun (原人論) 1886 Ch. Mohezhiguan (摩訶止觀) 1911 Ch. Xiuxizhiguanzuochanfayao (修習止觀坐禪法要) 1915 Ch. Tiantaisijiaoyi (天台四教儀) 1931 Ch. Guoqingbailu (國清百録) 1934 Ch. Zhenzhoulinjihuizhaochanshiwulu (鎭州臨濟慧照禪師語録) 1985 Eng. The Recorded Sayings of Linji(in Three Chan Classics) Ch. Foguoyuanwuchanshibiyanlu (佛果圜悟禪師碧巖録) 2003 Eng. The Blue Cliff Record 216 Title Taishō No. BDK English Tripiṭaka Ch. Wumenguan (無門關) 2005 Eng. Wumen’s Gate(in Three Chan Classics) Ch. Liuzudashifabaotanjing (六祖大師法寶壇經) 2008 Eng. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch Ch. Xinxinming (信心銘) 2010 Eng. The Faith-Mind Maxim(in Three Chan Classics) Ch. Huangboshanduanjichanshichuanxinfayao 2012A (黄檗山斷際禪師傳心法要) Ch. Yongjiazhengdaoge (永嘉證道歌) 2014 Ch. Chixiubaizhangqinggui (勅修百丈清規) 2025 Ch. Yibuzonglunlun (異部宗輪論) 2031 Skt. Samayabhedoparacanacakra Eng. The Cycle of the Formation of the Schismatic Doctrines Ch. Ayuwangjing (阿育王經) 2043 Skt. Aśokāvadāna Eng. The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka Ch. Mamingpusachuan (馬鳴菩薩傳) 2046 Eng. The Life of Aśvaghoṣa Bodhisattva (in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) Ch. Longshupusachuan (龍樹菩薩傳) 2047 Eng. The Life of Nāgārjuna Bodhisattva (in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) Ch. Posoupandoufashichuan (婆藪槃豆法師傳) 2049 Eng. Biography of Dharma Master Vasubandhu (in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) Ch. Datangdaciensisancangfashichuan (大唐大慈恩寺三藏法師傳) 2053 Eng. A Biography of the Tripiṭaka Master of the Great Ci’en Monastery of the Great Tang Dynasty Ch. Gaosengchuan (高僧傳) 2059 Ch. Biqiunichuan (比丘尼傳) 2063 Eng. Biographies of Buddhist Nuns (in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) 217 Title Taishō No. BDK English Tripiṭaka Ch. Gaosengfaxianchuan (高僧法顯傳) 2085 Eng. The Journey of the Eminent Monk Faxian (in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) Ch. Datangxiyuji (大唐西域記) 2087 Eng. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions Ch. Youfangjichao: Tangdaheshangdongzhengchuan 2089-(7) (遊方記抄: 唐大和上東征傳) Ch. Hongmingji (弘明集) 2102 Ch. Fayuanzhulin (法苑珠林) 2122 Ch. Nanhaijiguineifachuan (南海寄歸内法傳) 2125 Eng. Buddhist Monastic Traditions of Southern Asia Ch. Fanyuzaming (梵語雑名) 2135 Jp. Shōmangyōgisho (勝鬘經義疏) 2185 Jp. Yuimakyōgisho (維摩經義疏) 2186 Jp. Hokkegisho (法華義疏) 2187 Jp. Hannyashingyōhiken (般若心經秘鍵) 2203 Jp. Daijōhossōkenjinshō (大乘法相研神章) 2309 Jp. Kan-jin-kaku-mu-shō (觀心覺夢鈔) 2312 Jp. Risshūkōyō (律宗綱要) 2348 Eng. The Essentials of the Vinaya Tradition Jp. Tendaihokkeshūgishū (天台法華宗義集) 2366 Eng. The Collected Teachings of the Tendai Lotus School Jp. Kenkairon (顯戒論) 2376 Jp. Sangegakushōshiki (山家學生式) 2377 Jp. Hizōhōyaku (秘藏寶鑰) 2426 Eng. The Precious Key to the Secret Treasury(in Shingon Texts) Jp. Benkenmitsunikyōron (辨顯密二教論) 2427 Eng. On the Differences between the Exoteric and Esoteric Teachings(in Shingon Texts) 218 Title Taishō No. BDK English Tripiṭaka Jp. Sokushinjōbutsugi (即身成佛義) 2428 Eng. The Meaning of Becoming a Buddha in This Very Body (in Shingon Texts) Jp. Shōjijissōgi (聲字實相義) 2429 Eng. The Meanings of Sound, Sign, and Reality(in Shingon Texts) Jp. Unjigi (吽字義) 2430 Eng. The Meanings of the Word Hūṃ(in Shingon Texts) Jp. Gorinkujimyōhimitsushaku (五輪九字明秘密釋) 2514 Eng. The Illuminating Secret Commentary on the Five Cakras and the Nine Syllables(in Shingon Texts) Jp. Mitsugoninhotsurosangemon (密嚴院發露懺悔文) 2527 Eng. The Mitsugonin Confession(in Shingon Texts) Jp. Kōzengokokuron (興禪護國論) 2543 Jp. Fukanzazengi (普勧坐禪儀) 2580 Jp. Shōbōgenzō (正法眼藏) 2582 Jp. Zazenyōjinki (坐禪用心記) 2586 Jp. Senchakuhongannenbutsushū (選擇本願念佛集) 2608 Eng. Senchaku Hongan Nembutsu Shū: A Collection of Passages on the Nembutsu Chosen in the Original Vow Jp. Kenjōdoshinjitsukyōgyōshōmonrui (顯淨土眞實教行証文類) 2646 Eng. Kyōgyōshinshō: On Teaching, Practice, Faith, and Enlightenment Jp. Tannishō (歎異抄) 2661 Eng. Tannishō: Passages Deploring Deviations of Faith Jp. Rennyoshōninofumi (蓮如上人御文) 2668 Eng. Rennyo Shōnin Ofumi: The Letters of Rennyo Jp. Ōjōyōshū (往生要集) 2682 Jp. Risshōankokuron (立正安國論) 2688 Eng. Risshōankokuron or The Treatise on the Establishment of the Orthodox Teaching and the Peace of the Nation (in Two Nichiren Texts) 219 Title Taishō No. BDK English Tripiṭaka Jp. Kaimokushō (開目抄) 2689 Eng. Kaimokushō or Liberation from Blindness Jp. Kanjinhonzonshō (觀心本尊抄) 2692 Eng. Kanjinhonzonshō or The Most Venerable One Revealed by Introspecting Our Minds for the First Time at the Beginning of the Fifth of the Five Five Hundred-year Ages (in Two Nichiren Texts) Ch. Fumuenzhongjing (父母恩重經) 2887 Eng. The Sutra on the Profundity of Filial Love (in Apocryphal Scriptures) Jp. Hasshūkōyō (八宗綱要) extracanonical Eng. The Essentials of the Eight Traditions Jp. Sangōshīki (三教指帰) extracanonical Jp. Mappōtōmyōki (末法燈明記) extracanonical Eng. The Candle of the Latter Dharma Jp. Jūshichijōkenpō (十七條憲法) extracanonical 220 Title Taishō No.