vimalakirti_sutra
Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

vimalakirti_sutra [2018/02/26 18:13] (current)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +THE SUTRA OF QUEEN ŚRĪMĀLĀ ​
 +OF THE LION’S ROAR 
 +THE VIMALAKĪRTI SUTRA 
 +dBET PDF Version ​
 +© 2009 
 +This digital version of the original publication is distributed according to the 
 +Creative Commons “Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0” license agree- ​
 +ment and the provisions stated on the website at http://​www.numatacenter.com/​. ​
 +This PDF file may be printed and distributed according to the terms of use estab- ​
 +lished on the website. The file itself is distributed with certain security provisions ​
 +in place that disallow modification. However, if any Buddhist group or scholar of 
 +Buddhism has legitimate reason to modify and/or adapt the contents of any such 
 +file (such as for inclusion of the contents in a publically available online database ​
 +of Buddhist sources), please contact us for permission and unrestricted files.
 +THE SUTRA OF QUEEN ŚRĪMĀLĀ ​
 +OF THE LION’S ROAR 
 +Translated from the Chinese ​
 +(Taishō Volume 12, Number 353) 
 +by 
 +Diana Y. Paul 
 +THE VIMALAKĪRTI SUTRA 
 +Translated from the Chinese ​
 +(Taishō Volume 14, Number 475) 
 +by 
 +John R. McRae 
 +Numata Center ​
 +for Buddhist Translation and Research ​
 +2004 
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka 20-I, 26-I
 +© 2004 by Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai and 
 +Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research ​
 +All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored ​
 +in a retrieval system, or transcribed in any form or by any means 
 +—electronic,​ mechanical, photocopying,​ recording, or otherwise— ​
 +without the prior written permission of the publisher. ​
 +First Printing, 2004 
 +ISBN: 1-886439-31-1 ​
 +Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2004113588 ​
 +Published by 
 +Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research ​
 +2620 Warring Street ​
 +Berkeley, California 94704 
 +Printed in the United States of America
 +
 +A Message on the Publication ​
 +of the English Tripiṭaka ​
 +The Buddhist canon is said to contain eighty-four thousand different teachings. ​
 +I believe that this is because the Buddha’s basic approach was to prescribe a 
 +different treatment for every spiritual ailment, much as a doctor prescribes a 
 +different medicine for every medical ailment. Thus his teachings were always ​
 +appropriate for the particular suffering individual and for the time at which the 
 +teaching was given, and over the ages not one of his prescriptions has failed to 
 +relieve the suffering to which it was addressed. ​
 +Ever since the Buddha’s Great Demise over twenty-five hundred years ago, 
 +his message of wisdom and compassion has spread throughout the world. Yet 
 +no one has ever attempted to translate the entire Buddhist canon into English ​
 +throughout the history of Japan. It is my greatest wish to see this done and to 
 +make the translations available to the many English-speaking people who have 
 +never had the opportunity to learn about the Buddha’s teachings. ​
 +Of course, it would be impossible to translate all of the Buddha’s eighty-four ​
 +thousand teachings in a few years. I have, therefore, had one hundred thirty-nine ​
 +of the scriptural texts in the prodigious Taishō edition of the Chinese Buddhist ​
 +canon selected for inclusion in the First Series of this translation project. ​
 +It is in the nature of this undertaking that the results are bound to be criti- ​
 +cized. Nonetheless,​ I am convinced that unless someone takes it upon himself ​
 +or herself to initiate this project, it will never be done. At the same time, I hope 
 +that an improved, revised edition will appear in the future. ​
 +It is most gratifying that, thanks to the efforts of more than a hundred Bud- 
 +dhist scholars from the East and the West, this monumental project has finally ​
 +gotten off the ground. May the rays of the Wisdom of the Compassionate One 
 +reach each and every person in the world. ​
 +NUMATAYehan ​
 +Founder of the English ​
 +August 7, 1991 Tripiṭaka Project
 +vii 
 +Editorial Foreword ​
 +In January 1982, Dr. NUMATAYehan,​ the founder of the Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai ​
 +(Society for the Promotion of Buddhism), decided to begin the monumental ​
 +task of translating the complete Taishō edition of the Chinese Tripiṭaka (Bud- 
 +dhist canon) into the English language. Under his leadership, a special prepara- ​
 +tory committee was organized in April 1982. By July of the same year, the Trans- ​
 +lation Committee of the English Tripiṭaka was officially convened. ​
 +The initial Committee consisted of the following members: (late) HANAYAMA ​
 +Shōyū (Chairperson),​ (late) BANDŌShōjun,​ ISHIGAMI Zennō, (late) KAMATA ​
 +Shigeo, KANAOKAShūyū,​ MAYEDASengaku,​ NARAYasuaki,​ (late) SAYEKI ​
 +Shinkō, (late) SHIOIRIRyōtatsu,​ TAMARUNoriyoshi,​ (late) TAMURAKwansei, ​
 +URYŪZURyūshin,​ and YUYAMAAkira. Assistant members of the Committee ​
 +were as follows: KANAZAWAAtsushi,​ WATANABEShōgo,​ Rolf Giebel of New 
 +Zealand, and Rudy Smet of Belgium. ​
 +After holding planning meetings on a monthly basis, the Committee selected ​
 +one hundred thirty-nine texts for the First Series of translations,​ an estimated ​
 +one hundred printed volumes in all. The texts selected are not necessarily lim- 
 +ited to those originally written in India but also include works written or com- 
 +posed in China and Japan. While the publication of the First Series proceeds, ​
 +the texts for the Second Series will be selected from among the remaining works; ​
 +this process will continue until all the texts, in Japanese as well as in Chinese, ​
 +have been published. ​
 +Frankly speaking, it will take perhaps one hundred years or more to accom- ​
 +plish the English translation of the complete Chinese and Japanese texts, for 
 +they consist of thousands of works. Nevertheless,​ as Dr. NUMATAwished,​ it is 
 +the sincere hope of the Committee that this project will continue unto comple- ​
 +tion, even after all its present members have passed away. 
 +It must be mentioned here that the final object of this project is not aca- 
 +demic fulfillment but the transmission of the teaching of the 
 +Buddha to the whole world in order to create harmony and peace among 
 +humankind. To that end, the translators have been asked to minimize the use of
 +Editorial Foreword ​
 +viii 
 +explanatory notes of the kind that are indispensable in academic texts, so that the 
 +attention of general readers will not be unduly distracted from the primary text. 
 +Also, a glossary of selected terms is appended to aid in understanding the text. 
 +To my great regret, however, Dr. NUMATApassed away on May 5, 1994, at 
 +the age of ninety-seven,​ entrusting his son, Mr. NUMATAToshihide,​ with the con- 
 +tinuation and completion of the Translation Project. The Committee also lost its 
 +able and devoted Chairperson,​ Professor HANAYAMAShōyū,​ on June 16, 1995, 
 +at the age of sixty-three. After these severe blows, the Committee elected me, 
 +then Vice President of Musashino Women’s College, to be the Chair in October ​
 +1995. The Committee has renewed its determination to carry out the noble inten- ​
 +tion of Dr. NUMATA, under the leadership of Mr. NUMATAToshihide. ​
 +The present members of the Committee are MAYEDASengaku (Chairper- ​
 +son), ISHIGAMIZennō,​ ICHISHIMAShōshin,​ KANAOKAShūyū,​ NARAYasuaki, ​
 +TAMARUNoriyoshi,​ URYŪZURyūshin,​ YUYAMAAkira,​ Kenneth K. Tanaka, ​
 +WATANABEShōgo,​ and assistant member YONEZAWAYoshiyasu. ​
 +The Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research was established ​
 +in November 1984, in Berkeley, California, U.S.A., to assist in the publication ​
 +of the BDK English Tripiṭaka First Series. In December 1991, the Publication ​
 +Committee was organized at the Numata Center, with Professor Philip Yam- 
 +polsky as the Chairperson. To our sorrow, Professor Yampolsky passed away 
 +in July 1996. In February 1997, Dr. Kenneth K. Inada became Chair and served ​
 +in that capacity until August 1999. The current Chair, Dr. Francis H. Cook, has 
 +been continuing the work since October 1999. All of the remaining texts will 
 +be published under the supervision of this Committee, in close cooperation with 
 +the Editorial Committee in Tokyo. ​
 +MAYEDASengaku ​
 +Chairperson ​
 +Editorial Committee of 
 +the BDK English Tripiṭaka
 +Publisher’s Foreword ​
 +The Publication Committee shares with the Editorial Committee the responsi- ​
 +bility of realizing the vision of Dr. Yehan Numata, founder of Bukkyō Dendō ​
 +Kyōkai, the Society for the Promotion of Buddhism. This vision is no less than 
 +to make the Buddha’s teaching better known throughout the world, through the 
 +translation and publication in English of the entire collection of Buddhist texts 
 +compiled in the Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō,​published in Tokyo in the early part 
 +of the twentieth century. This huge task is expected to be carried out by several ​
 +generations of translators and may take as long as a hundred years to complete. ​
 +Ultimately, the entire canon will be available to anyone who can read English ​
 +and who wishes to learn more about the teaching of the Buddha. ​
 +The present generation of staff members of the Publication Committee ​
 +includes Marianne Dresser; Brian Nagata, president of the Numata Center for 
 +Buddhist Translation and Research, Berkeley, California; Eisho Nasu; and Rev- 
 +erend Kiyoshi Yamashita. The Publication Committee is headquartered at the 
 +Numata Center and, working in close cooperation with the Editorial Commit- ​
 +tee, is responsible for the usual tasks associated with preparing translations for 
 +publication. ​
 +In October 1999, I became the third chairperson of the Publication Com- 
 +mittee, on the retirement of its very capable former chair, Dr. Kenneth K. Inada. ​
 +The Committee is devoted to the advancement of the Buddha’s teaching through ​
 +the publication of excellent translations of the thousands of texts that make up 
 +the Buddhist canon. ​
 +Francis H. Cook 
 +Chairperson ​
 +Publication Committee ​
 +ix
 +xi 
 +Contents ​
 +A Message on the Publication of the English Tripiṭaka ​
 +NUMATAYehan v 
 +Editorial Foreword MAYEDASengaku vii 
 +Publisher’s Foreword Francis H. Cook ix 
 +The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +Contents 3 
 +Translator’s Introduction Diana Y. Paul 5 
 +Text of the Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 7 
 +Bibliography 53 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +Contents 57 
 +Translator’s Introduction John R. McRae 59 
 +Text of the Vimalakīrti Sutra 67 
 +Bibliography 181 
 +Glossary 183 
 +Index 189 
 +A List of the Volumes of the BDK English Tripiṭaka (First Series) 211
 +THE SUTRA OF QUEEN ŚRĪMĀLĀ ​
 +OF THE LION’S ROAR
 +
 +Contents ​
 +Translator’s Introduction 5 
 +The Teaching of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 7 
 +
 +
 +
 +THE VIMALAKĪRTI SUTRA
 +57 
 +Contents ​
 +Translator’s Introduction 59 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +Fascicle One 
 +Chapter I. Buddha Land 69 
 +Chapter II. Skillful Means 81 
 +Chapter III. Disciples 85 
 +Chapter IV. Bodhisattvas 97 
 +Fascicle Two 
 +Chapter V. Mañjuśrī’s Condolence Visit 107 
 +Chapter VI . Inconceivable 117 
 +Chapter VII. Viewing Sentient Beings 123 
 +Chapter VIII. The Path of Buddhahood 133 
 +Chapter IX. The Dharma Gate of Nonduality 143 
 +Fascicle Three 
 +Chapter X. The Buddha Accumulation of Fragrances 149 
 +Chapter XI. Practices of the Bodhisattva 157 
 +Chapter XII. Vision of Akṣobhya Buddha 165 
 +Chapter XIII. Dharma Offering 171 
 +Chapter XIV. Bestowal 177 
 +Bibliography 181
 +Translator’s Introduction ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra(Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra) is renowned in contemporary ​
 +world Buddhism for its breathtaking exposition of the Mahayana doctrine of 
 +nonduality, and justifiably so. The text imparts its penetrating insight by first ​
 +elaborating the manifold nuances of this doctrine in finely honed formal lan- 
 +guage, next by demonstrating the ideal in exquisite philosophical repartée, and 
 +then by dramatizing its lofty understanding in the climax of Vimalakīrti’s “thun- ​
 +derous silence.” Doctrinally,​ the Vimalakīrti Sutraelaborates ideas deriving ​
 +from the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajñāpāramitā) literature and stated more for- 
 +mally in the treatises of the Mādhyamika school. Spiritually,​ the demonstrative ​
 +quality of Vimalakīrti’s silence, and the vivid interactions between him and his 
 +interlocutors,​ imply a deep connection with the later development of the Chi- 
 +nese Chan (Japanese: Zen) school as well. 
 +The intellectual charm of the doctrine of nonduality is only heightened by 
 +its being situated in such a spectacular religious world. This is no coldly ana- 
 +lytical treatise, no harshly systematic rehearsal of religious dogma, but a lively ​
 +and inventive depiction of religious dialogue that palpably sparkles with humor, ​
 +insight—and frequent irruptions of the miraculous. This last quality might be 
 +ignored by modernist readers, but its effects are too important to allow the ten- 
 +dency to go unchallenged. A fantastic congregation,​ including incredible arrays ​
 +of gods, celestial bodhisattvas,​ and other beings, is assembled within Vimalakīrti’s ​
 +tiny chamber, where they sit on magnificent thrones of unimaginable size—all ​
 +without jumbling up against each other, and entirely without contorting the 
 +dimensions of the ordinary world. The level of impossibility escalates even 
 +more when this congregation is then host to an entirely separate world-system, ​
 +complete with its own mountains and continents, rivers and oceans, which 
 +Vimalakīrti grasps as easily as a potter throwing a lump of clay. And to match 
 +this incredible assembly there are miracles aplenty, beginning with heavenly ​
 +flowers raining from above and instantaneous gender reversals, leading up to 
 +59
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +the spectacular vision of a galaxy far, far away, where the reigning buddha ​
 +teaches by means of fragrance rather than words. To top all of this off, a one- 
 +bowl-serves-all take-out meal from that world of fragrance is used to feed— ​
 +and instruct—Vimalakīrti’s guests. (I wonder about the possible efficacy of a 
 +chocolate Dharma, but that divine substance is nowhere mentioned!) Though ​
 +moderate in length the scripture is certainly magnificent in the scale of its vision! ​
 +At the heart of it all, of course, is the figure of Vimalakīrti. Throughout the 
 +course of the scripture he is identified as a great bodhi sattva who formerly lived 
 +in the “pure land” of the Buddha Akṣobhya, but who has chosen to be reborn ​
 +in this world in order to teach the recalcitrant sentient beings here. His current ​
 +identity as householder is but a pose he has assumed, just as his current illness ​
 +is but a skillful means he has adopted: both are simply devices by which to teach 
 +sentient beings. The householder identity is manifestly impossible: he is celi- 
 +bate but has children, goes to brothels but is chaste, is rich but without desire, ​
 +etc. The immense improbability of Vimalakīrti’s person is undoubtedly part of 
 +this religious appeal. ​
 +Chinese readers were fascinated with the figure of Vimalakīrti,​ and it is 
 +usually said that he represented a type of religious ideal with which unordained ​
 +literati could identify. Here was a rich and educated layman who could outper- ​
 +form everyone around him—except,​ of course, the buddhas themselves—in ​
 +every conceivable form of endeavor. He enjoyed every imaginable privilege, ​
 +yet used his energies solely for the benefit of the community around him, a type 
 +of service that resonated with Confucian social ideals. No doubt the popularity ​
 +of the scripture in East Asia has something to do with this congruence with 
 +indigenous social ideals and the fascination Chinese Buddhists and interested ​
 +intellectuals had in a figure of such diverse and remarkable talents. We should ​
 +not overlook the active role local clienteles played in determining the selection ​
 +of Buddhist texts that were presented for them in Chinese translation—the res- 
 +idents of East Asia were not passive recipients of Buddhist missionary activity, ​
 +but very proactive consumers. ​
 +In contrast to the relative obscurity of this text in India and Tibet, where 
 +there is no record of even a single commentary nor even of any art historical ​
 +imagery based on it, from at least the third century of the common era the 
 +Vimalakīrti Sutrabecame one of the favorites of the East Asian tradition. There 
 +are over fifteen hundred depictions of Vimalakīrti and Mañjuśrī in dialogue ​
 +60
 +Translator’s Introduction ​
 +known from East Asian painting and sculpture traditions, as well as a series of 
 +influential commentaries,​ and innumerable occasional references to the text and 
 +its ideas in both religious and secular writings. This is but one example of the 
 +manner in which East Asian Buddhism draws on the universalistic themes devel- ​
 +oped in the Indian homeland of the religion, even as the overall configurations ​
 +of the Mahayana in South and East Asia are so profoundly different. ​
 +It would be wrong, though, to exaggerate the importance of the Vimalakīrti ​
 +Sutrain China, Korea, or Japan. Although it seems to have been used continu- ​
 +ously throughout the East Asian Buddhist tradition, both temporally and geo- 
 +graphically,​ there are obvious limitations in the manner of its use. First, even 
 +though the text—like many other Mahayana Buddhist scriptures—recommends ​
 +its own recitation, there is precious little evidence that it was ever very popu- 
 +lar as a devotional text, one to be recited for religious benefit. The Lotus Sutra 
 +(Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra) and the Pure Land sutras (Sukhāvatīvyūha-sūtra, ​
 +Amitāyurdhyāna-sūtra) are good examples of sutras used in this manner, of 
 +course, and even the massive Flower Garland Sutra(Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra) ​
 +was used in the same way. Second, the Vimalakīrti Sutranever became the basis 
 +for a doctrinal tradition of its own, unlike the other scriptures just mentioned, ​
 +which were used as scriptural bases of the Tiantai (Korean: Ch’ŏnt’ae;​ Japan- ​
 +ese: Tendai), Pure Land, and Huayan (Hwaŏm; Kegon) schools. It is not merely ​
 +that no independent “Vimalakīrti school” ever developed; the text is frequently ​
 +mentioned as one of a number of important Mahayana texts but it tends to be 
 +listed in the middle of the pack, as it were. It was used occasionally for healing ​
 +purposes in medieval China and Japan, though not as often as other scriptures. ​
 +No matter what the time period, readers (both those who read for content ​
 +and those who recite for religious value) tend to perceive their texts in idio- 
 +syncratic ways. One wonders if the medieval Chinese really noticed, for exam- 
 +ple, that the goal of all of Vimalakīrti’s efforts was not to create other enlight- ​
 +ened laypeople like himself but to inspire his listeners to become monastics and 
 +embark on the bodhisattva path. Although accomplished bodhisattvas might 
 +choose to be reborn as laypeople, or as beings of virtually any identity, the text 
 +indicates on numerous occasions that the best response to hearing and under- ​
 +standing its doctrine of inconceivable liberation was to leave home to become ​
 +a monk and undertake training in the grandiose vocation of the bodhisattva. ​
 +Vimalakīrti’s job description,​ in fact, even included the inspiration of some of 
 +61
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +his following to dedicate themselves to the goal of achieving “Hinayana” enlight- ​
 +enment. Although the Mahayana goal of anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi(complete, ​
 +perfect enlightenment) was clearly the highest religious ideal presented, for 
 +beings of lesser capacity to select lesser targets was not a failing but an appro- ​
 +priate collateral benefit. Not only does the Vimalakīrti Sutranot share in the 
 +“One Vehicle” teaching of the Lotus Sutra,in which all Buddhist practitioners ​
 +are destined for perfect buddhahood, there is also no explicit hint of any rec- 
 +ommendation that one should dedicate lifetimes of training to achieving the sta- 
 +tus of an enlightened layperson. ​
 +Modern readers are very interested in the scene in which a goddess upstages ​
 +the stodgy śrāvakaor “Hinayana” monk Śāriputra. In a dramatization of the 
 +Vimalakīrti story that I saw in San Francisco in the summer of 2000, in which 
 +life-size puppets were used to represent the dramatis personae, the highlight of 
 +the performance came when the goddess transforms the bodies of herself and 
 +Śāriputra into their contrasting genders (depicted by a quick change of the pup- 
 +pets’ heads!). From our perspective,​ this is an important statement of a tradi- ​
 +tional Buddhist attitude on the status of women, and thus a meaningful religious ​
 +statement. However, although I have only begun to browse through the Chinese ​
 +commentarial literature on the Vimalakīrti Sutra,it seems that medieval Chinese ​
 +interest in this scene was rather different from ours. Whereas for modern peo- 
 +ple this is primarily a statement about gender, for medieval Chinese (and, I sus- 
 +pect, other East Asian) readers it was primarily a statement about emptiness. ​
 +Translating the Vimalakīrti Sutrahas been a joy, in no small part because ​
 +of the inherent interest of the text itself, including not only its specific doctri- ​
 +nal formulations but just as importantly its dramatic flair and sense of humor. ​
 +As well, though, the immense pleasure of preparing this English rendition comes 
 +through the great resources that are now available. ​
 +The present translation is an English rendition of the Chinese translation by 
 +Kumārajīva (350–409 or 413), or rather by the team of Kumārajīva,​ which 
 +included such famously gifted students as Seng zhao (373–414) and Daosheng ​
 +(360?​–434). My goal has indeed been to “represent” the Kumārajīva version of 
 +the Vimalakīrti Sutra, to create an English version that provides access to the 
 +text as it might have been understood by fifth-century Chinese readers. One impli- ​
 +cation of this decision is that I have rendered the terminology as it occurs in Chi- 
 +nese, without attempting to represent what may have been the underlyingIndic ​
 +62
 +Translator’s Introduction ​
 +(either Sanskrit or Prakrit) terminology,​ except of course where Chinese char- 
 +acters are used to transliterate the Indic sounds. For example, where kleśamight ​
 +better be rendered “defilement,​” the Chinese equivalent of fannaois given here 
 +as “afflictions,​” because that is what the characters mean. And where the fourth ​
 +skandha, saṃskāra,​is best rendered “conditioning forces” or “impulses” based 
 +on the Sanskrit, the Chinese counterpart xingis given as “processes.” ​
 +Although I obviously do not have direct access to the mind of medieval ​
 +Chinese readers, I have made frequent use of the Zhu  Wei mo jie jing(Taishō ​
 +Shinshū DaizōkyōVol. 38, No. 1775, 327a–420a),​ the joint commentary to the 
 +Vimalakīrti Sutraleft by Kumārajīva,​ Sengzhao, and Daosheng, and I have tried 
 +to render the sutra in the way that it was understood by these primary figures ​
 +of the translation team. To be able to consult this commentary, which assem- ​
 +bles the comments of the chief translator and his primary assistants in the very 
 +translation project involved, was for me a remarkable experience. ​
 +Practically speaking, I was unable to consult the joint commentary for every 
 +line, but I did check its contents when the Chinese phrasing of the sutra itself ​
 +seemed questionable in some way. Only rarely if at all did the commentators ​
 +answer my questions directly, and sometimes (especially toward the end of the 
 +text, when the density of their comments decreases) they offered no clue what- 
 +soever. However, in a refreshingly large number of cases some feature of their 
 +remarks allowed me to make a choice between reasonable alternatives,​ to cre- 
 +ate a suitable English analog to their understanding. I have also frequently con- 
 +sulted the two other extant Chinese translations of the Vimalakīrti Sutra, the 
 +first (Taishō No. 474) by Zhi Qian (fl. 220–252); and the other (Taishō No. 476) 
 +by the famous seventh-century pilgrim Xuanzang (596?​–664);​ on rare occa- 
 +sions I have also consulted the commentary on this later translation by Xuan- 
 +zang’s disciple Ji (often referred to as Kuiji, 632–682), the Shuo Wu guo cheng 
 +jingshu(Taishō No. 1782). In the terms used within the sutra itself, I have fre- 
 +quently sighed in exclamation at the unprecedented quality of this arrangement. ​
 +Another aspect of how enjoyable this translation project was is the fact that 
 +all the extant relevant Chinese texts are now available in well-proofed elec- 
 +tronic versions. As a result, my standard practice has been to type the English ​
 +translation into a word processing file on the computer screen, alongside text 
 +editor windows containing the Zhi Qian, Kumārajīva,​ and Xuanzang transla- ​
 +tions and the joint commentary of Kumārajīva,​ Sengzhao, and Daosheng. A 
 +63
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +simple search utility has allowed me to look for parallel usages in other Bud- 
 +dhist canonical sources when desired. This is the first time I have been able to 
 +do translation work in such a manner, and I must express my profound grati- ​
 +tude to the Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (CBETA, www. 
 +cbeta.org) for making this possible. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutrahas already been published four times in English ​
 +translation,​ and I made some use of these resources in preparing the present ​
 +English text. Of these four versions, only two are of the Kumārajīva text, and 
 +unfortunately neither is of sufficient quality to justify its extensive use here. 
 +Charles Luk’s older rendering is too freely interpretive to be of help, and in 
 +addition he frequently becomes confused regarding the grammatical construc- ​
 +tion of the original. Burton Watson’s recent translation is better grammatically ​
 +but his intentional lack of attention to Buddhist technical terms undermines his 
 +effort, eliminating a great deal of its intrinsic religious interest. Robert Thur- 
 +man’s translation of the Tibetan version of the Vimalakīrti Sutrais a very cred- 
 +itable rendition of that text but there are enough differences between it and 
 +Kumārajīva’s Chinese version to make extensive use inappropriate here. I have 
 +therefore relied primarily on Étienne Lamotte’s translation from the Tibetan, ​
 +even though it sometimes regularizes the text (i.e., adverts to standard Indian ​
 +Buddhist usages) in ways that the Thurman rendition does not. To be precise, I 
 +have used the English translation of Lamotte’s work done by Sara Boin (Lon- 
 +don: Pali Text Society, 1976), which sometimes renders scriptural passages ​
 +more in line with Lamotte’s reconstructed Sanskrit than his translation of the 
 +Tibetan. (The preceding characterizations are based in part on Jan Nattier’s “The ​
 +Teaching of Vimalakīrti[Vimalakīrti nirdeśa]: A Review of Four English Trans- ​
 +lations,” Buddhist Literature 2 [2000]: 234–58.) For understanding the Chinese ​
 +grammar of the Kumārajīva version I have consulted the “Yuima-gyō,​”a use- 
 +ful modern Japanese translation by Jikidō Takasaki, in his and Kōshō Kawa- 
 +mura’s Yuima-gyō, Shiyaku Bonten shomon kyō, Shuryōgon zammai kyō 
 +[Vimalakīrti Sutra, Questions of the Brahmā (Deva) Viśeṣacinti Sutra, and 
 +Śūraṃgama-samādhi Sutra], Monju kyōten[Mañjuśrī Scriptures] no. 2 (Tokyo: ​
 +Daizō shuppan, 1993), in spite of its emphasis on readings drawn from Lam- 
 +otte and the Tibetan translation. Recently, a Sanskrit manuscript of the Vimalakīrti ​
 +Sutrahas been discovered, and I have acquired transcriptions of selected pas- 
 +sages through the kind assistance of Yoshiyasu Yonezawa of Taishō University. ​
 +64
 +Translator’s Introduction ​
 +Chapter numbers and titles are as in the Taishō edition; section numbers ​
 +imitate those in Lamotte, varying only where Kumārajīva’s text differs from 
 +the Tibetan version followed by Lamotte. ​
 +65
 +THE SUTRA PREACHED BY VIMALAKĪRTI ​
 +Also called “The Inconceivable Emancipation” ​
 +Translated by 
 +Tripiṭaka Master Kumārajīva ​
 +of the Yao Qin [Dynasty]
 +537a7 
 +69 
 +Fascicle One 
 +Chapter I 
 +Buddha Land 
 +1. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was in the garden of Āmrapālī ​
 +near Vaiśālī, in the company of a great congregation of eight thousand bhikṣus. ​
 +2. There were thirty-two thousand bodhisattvas,​ recognized by the con- 
 +gregation. ​
 +3. The [bodhisattvas present] had all accomplished the original prac- 
 +tices of great wisdom; were established by the numinous charisma of the 
 +buddhas; maintained the correct Dharma for the defense of the Dharma city; 
 +made their names heard throughout the ten directions through their ability ​
 +at the lion’s roar; befriended and pacified people without being requested; ​
 +exalted the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) and were thus able 
 +to keep them from being cut off; subjugated the vengeful Māras and con- 
 +trolled those of the heterodox paths; were entirely purified and had forever ​
 +transcended the impediments (i.e., afflictions);​ maintained their minds always ​
 +in peace and unhindered emancipation;​ were unfailing in their mindfulness, ​
 +concentration,​ dhāraṇī(i.e.,​ memorization of the Dharma), and eloquence; ​
 +were replete in charity (dāna), morality (śīla), forbearance (kṣānti),​ exertion ​
 +(vīrya), meditation (dhyāna), wisdom (prajñā), and the power of skillful ​
 +means; had attained the forbearance of the nonarising of dharmas and the 
 +nonattainment [of all things]; were able to accord with [the truth] in turning ​
 +the irreversible wheel [of the Dharma]; understood well the characteristics ​
 +of the dharmas and understood the capacities (lit., “roots”) of sentient beings; ​
 +had attained fearlessness in sheltering the great congregations;​ cultivated ​
 +their minds with merit and wisdom; were paramount in the adornment of
 +537b 
 +their bodies with the [thirty-two primary] characteristics and [eighty sub- 
 +sidiary] marks; had dispensed with worldly adornments; were known above 
 +and beyond even Mount Sumeru; were firmly resolute in faith like vajra(i.e., ​
 +diamond); illuminated the Dharma jewel everywhere and rained down the 
 +sweet dew [of the Dharma]; were paramount in the subtleties of the host of 
 +[spoken] sounds; profoundly entered into conditioned generation to eliminate ​
 +the false views; were without any residual influence of the two extremes of 
 +being and nonbeing; preached the Dharma without fear like the lion’s roar; 
 +preached with reverberations like thunder; were without measure and beyond ​
 +measurement;​ were like ocean captains who had collected the many Dharma ​
 +jewels; comprehended the profound and wondrous meanings of the Dharmas; ​
 +understood well the past tendencies and [current] mental processes of sen- 
 +tient beings; approached the unparalleled autonomous wisdom of the Buddha, ​
 +the ten powers, [the four] fearlessnesses,​ and all the eighteen exclusive [attrib- ​
 +utes of the Buddha]; had closed all the doorways of the evil destinations but 
 +were born in the five destinations in order to manifest their bodies there; were 
 +great medicine kings who were good at healing the various illnesses; pro- 
 +vided medicine according to the illness and caused it to be taken; were accom- ​
 +plished in all the immeasurable merits; had ornamented and purified all the 
 +imeasurable buddha lands; unfailingly used what they saw and heard for the 
 +benefit [of others]; and never squandered away their endeavors. Thus were 
 +they entirely replete in all merits. ​
 +4. Their names were Equivalent Contemplation Bodhisattva,​ Inequiva- ​
 +lent Contemplation Bodhisattva,​ Equivalent-Inequivalent Contemplation ​
 +Bodhisattva,​ Autonomy of Meditation King Bodhi sattva, Autonomous ​
 +Dharma King Bodhisattva,​ Dharma Characteristic Bodhisattva,​ Radiance ​
 +Characteristic Bodhisattva,​ Radiance Ornament Bodhisattva,​ Great Orna- 
 +ment Bodhisattva,​ Accum ulation of Jewels Bodhisattva,​ Accumulation of 
 +Eloquence Bodhisattva,​ Jewel Hand Bodhisattva,​ Jewel Seal Hand Bodhi- ​
 +sattva, Constantly Raised Hand Bodhisattva,​ Constantly Lowered Hand 
 +Bodhisattva,​ Constantly Lamenting Bodhisattva,​ Roots of Joy Bodhisattva, ​
 +Joy King Bodhisattva,​ Eloquent Sound Bodhisattva,​ Store of Space Bodhi- ​
 +sattva, Holding the Jewel Torch Bodhisattva,​ Jewel Courage Bodhisattva, ​
 +Jewel Vision Bodhisattva,​ Indra’s Net Bodhisattva,​ Illumination Net Bodhi- ​
 +sattva, Unconditional Contemplation Bodhisattva,​ Accumulation of Wisdom ​
 +70 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +537c 
 +71 
 +Chapter I 
 +Bodhisattva,​ Excellent Jewel Bodhisattva,​ Heavenly King Bodhisattva, ​
 +Destroyer of Māra Bodhisattva,​ Lightning-like Virtue Bodhisattva, ​
 +Autonomous King Bodhisattva,​ Ornament of the Characteristics of Merit 
 +Bodhisattva,​ Lion’s Roar Bodhisattva,​ Sound of Thunder Bodhisattva,​ Sound 
 +Striking the Mountains Bodhisattva,​ Fragrant Elephant Bodhisattva,​ White 
 +Fragrant Elephant Bodhisattva,​ Constant Exertion Bodhisattva,​ Unresting ​
 +Bodhisattva,​ Wondrous Birth Bodhisattva,​ Flower Ornament Bodhisattva, ​
 +Contemplates the Sounds of the World (Avalokiteśvara) Bodhisattva,​ Attains ​
 +Great Strength Bodhisattva,​ Brahmā’s Net Bodhisattva,​ Jewel Staff Bodhi- ​
 +sattva, Undefeated Bodhisattva,​ Ornamented Earth Bodhisattva,​ Golden ​
 +Crest Bodhisattva,​ Pearl Crest Bodhisattva,​ Maitreya Bodhisattva,​ Mañjuśrī ​
 +Dharma Prince Bodhisattva—there were thirty-two thousand such as these. ​
 +5. There were also ten thousand Brahmā heavenly kings, Śikhin and 
 +others, who descended from the other worlds of four continents to proceed ​
 +to where the Buddha was in order to hear the Dharma. There were also twelve ​
 +thousand heavenly emperors (i.e., Indras), who also came from the other 
 +worlds of four continents to sit in this assembly, and the other awesomely ​
 +powerful gods (devas), dragons (nāgas), yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, ​
 +kiṃnaras, and mahoragas, who all came to sit in the assembly. The bhikṣus ​
 +(monks), bhikṣuṇīs (nuns), upāsakas (laymen), and upāsikās (laywomen) ​
 +[also] came together to sit in the assembly. ​
 +6. At that time the Buddha explained the Dharma for the congregation ​
 +of immeasurable hundreds of thousands surrounding and revering him. He 
 +was like [Mount] Sumeru, the king of mountains, rising high above the ocean. ​
 +Peacefully seated on the many-jeweled lion seat, he towered over the great 
 +congregation of all those who had come there. ​
 +7. At that time there was an elder’s son in the city of Vaiśālī named Jewel 
 +Accumulation. He and five hundred other elders’ sons proceeded to where 
 +the Buddha was, holding canopies made of the seven treasures. Reverenc- ​
 +ing [the Buddha’s] feet with their heads, they all simultaneously offered their 
 +canopies to the Buddha. ​
 +8. The Buddha’s numinous charisma made the jewel-laden canopies all 
 +turn into a single canopy, which covered the entire trimegachiliocosm,​ yet 
 +allowing all the characteristics of the breadth and length of this world to 
 +appear within it. Also, all the tri mega chilio cosm’s Mount Sumerus, Snowy
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +72 
 +Mountains, Mucilinda Mountains, Mahāmucilinda Mountains, Fragrant ​
 +Mountains, Jewel Mountains, Golden Mountains, Black Mountains, Iron 
 +Ring Mountains, and Great Iron Ring Mountains; the oceans, rivers, streams, ​
 +and springs; the suns, moons, and stars; the palaces of the gods, the palaces ​
 +of the dragons, and the palaces of the honored gods—all these appeared ​
 +within that jewel-laden canopy. Also, the buddhas of the ten directions, as 
 +well as the buddhas’ preaching of the Dharma, also appeared in that jewel- ​
 +laden canopy. ​
 +9. At that time the entire great congregation observed the numinous ​
 +power of the Buddha and exclaimed in praise of its unprecedented [quality]. ​
 +They held their palms together and reverenced the Buddha, gazing up at his 
 +revered countenance without interruption. ​
 +10. At this the elder’s son Jewel Accumulation proclaimed in verse 
 +before the Buddha: ​
 +1. Your eyes are pure, 
 +And as large as blue lotuses; ​
 +Your mind is pure, having mastered the concentrations. ​
 +Long have you accumulated pure action—you are immeasurably ​
 +praiseworthy; ​
 +You have guided the congregation with serenity, and therefore ​
 +we bow our heads to you. 
 +2. We see the Great Sage use numinous transformations ​
 +To manifest the immeasurable lands throughout the ten directions, ​
 +Within which the buddhas preach the Dharma, ​
 +And we thus can see and hear them all! 
 +3. The Dharma power of the Dharma King surpasses all other beings, ​
 +And you always give the wealth of Dharma to all. 
 +Well do you discriminate the characteristics of the dharmas and 
 +remain unmoved within the cardinal principle. ​
 +You have already achieved autonomy with regard to the dharmas, ​
 +and therefore we bow our heads to you as Dharma King. 
 +4. You explain that the dharmas are neither extant nor non-extant, ​
 +Although the dharmas are generated from causes and conditions;
 +That they are without self, without creation, without experiencer, ​
 +Although good and evil karma is also not extinguished. ​
 +5. Initially, under the bodhitree you forcefully subjugated Māra, ​
 +Attaining extinction, like sweet dew, and achieving enlightenment. ​
 +Without any intention in mind and without experiencing any 
 +process, ​
 +You thoroughly vanquished the heterodox paths. ​
 +6. With three turnings of the wheel of the Dharma in the chiliocosm, ​
 +The wheel is fundamentally always pure. 
 +The achievement of enlightenment by gods and humans attests ​
 +to this, 
 +And the Three Jewels are thus manifest in the world. ​
 +7. With this wondrous Dharma you save sentient beings, ​
 +Who after experiencing it never regress from permanent serenity. ​
 +As the Great Medicine King who saves us from old age, illness, ​
 +and death, ​
 +You should be worshiped as a Dharma sea whose virtues are 
 +boundless. ​
 +8. Immovable before abuse and praise, like [Mount] Sumeru, ​
 +You are equally compassionate to those who are good or not. 
 +Your mental processes are universally same, like space— ​
 +Who could hear of the Jewel Among Humans without becoming ​
 +devoted [to you]? 
 +9. Now we offer the World-honored One this subtle canopy ​
 +Within which is manifested to us the trimegachiliocosm, ​
 +Including the palaces in which the gods and dragons abide, ​
 +As well as the gan dharvas and yakṣas. ​
 +10. We see all that transpires in the world, ​
 +As He of the Ten Powers compassionately manifests these 
 +transformations. ​
 +The congregation has observed this rare event and all exclaimed ​
 +in praise of the Buddha, ​
 +Chapter I 
 +73
 +538a 
 +And now we bow our heads to the Honored One of the triple ​
 +world. ​
 +11. [You,] the Great Sage and Dharma King, are the refuge of the 
 +congregation, ​
 +Who purify their minds in contemplating [you,] the Buddha, ​
 +all of them in ecstasy. ​
 +They each see the World-honored One in front of himself, ​
 +Through the [eighteen] exclusive attributes of [the Buddha’s] ​
 +numinous power. ​
 +12. The Buddha explains the Dharma with one sound, ​
 +And sentient beings each attain understanding according ​
 +to their capacity. ​
 +Each one says the World-honored One is speaking his own 
 +language, ​
 +Through the exclusive attribute of [the Buddha’s] numinous ​
 +power. ​
 +13. The Buddha preaches the Dharma with one sound, ​
 +And sentient beings each understand accordingly. ​
 +Everyone accepts and practices it, and receives its benefit, ​
 +Through the exclusive attribute of [the Buddha’s] ​
 +numinous power. ​
 +14. The Buddha preaches the Dharma with one sound, ​
 +But some are afraid and some joyous. ​
 +Some generate revulsion [to the world of suffering] or eliminate ​
 +their doubts, ​
 +Through the exclusive attribute of [the Buddha’s] numinous power. ​
 +15. We bow our heads to Him of the Ten Powers and Great Exertion. ​
 +We bow our heads to Him Who Has Achieved Fearlessness. ​
 +We bow our heads to Him Residing in the Exclusive Attributes. ​
 +We bow our heads to the Great Guide of All. 
 +16. We bow our heads to Him Who Can Eradicate the Fetters. ​
 +We bow our heads to Him Who Has Arrived at the Other Shore. ​
 +74 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +75 
 +Chapter I 
 +We bow our heads to Him Who Can Save [Beings in All] 
 +the Worlds. ​
 +We bow our heads to Him Who Has Eternally Transcended ​
 +the Realm of Samsara. ​
 +17. You understand the past and future characteristics of sentient ​
 +beings, ​
 +And well have you attained emancipation with regard to the 
 +dharmas. ​
 +Unattached to the world, like the lotus flower [growing out 
 +of the mud], 
 +You always enter well into the practice of empty serenity ​
 +(i.e., nirvana). ​
 +18. You have attained the characteristics of the dharmas without ​
 +hindrance, ​
 +And we bow our heads to Him Who Relies On Nothing, ​
 +Like Space. ​
 +11. When the elder’s son Jewel Accumulation finished speaking this 
 +verse, he addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, these five hundred ​
 +elders’ sons have all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak- ​
 +saṃbodhi(complete,​ perfect enlightenment). We wish to hear of the purity ​
 +of the countries of the Buddha. Would the World-honored One please explain ​
 +for the bodhisattvas the practices by which a land is purified?​” ​
 +The Buddha said, “Excellent,​ Jewel Accumulation! You are able to 
 +inquire on behalf of the bodhisattvas regarding the practices by which the 
 +Tathāgata purified his land. Listen clearly, listen clearly, and consider this 
 +well. I will explain it for you.” At this Jewel Accumulation and the five hun- 
 +dred elders’ sons listened as instructed. ​
 +12. The Buddha said, “Jewel Accumulation,​ the categories of sentient ​
 +beings are the bodhisattvas’ buddha lands. Why is this? Bodhisattvas acquire ​
 +the buddha lands according to the sentient beings they convert. They acquire ​
 +the buddha lands according to the sentient beings they discipline. They acquire ​
 +the buddha lands according to what country sentient beings need to enter 
 +into buddha wisdom. They acquire the buddha lands according to what coun- 
 +try sentient beings need to generate the roots [for becoming] bodhisattvas.
 +538b 
 +Why is this? Because bodhisattvas’ acquisition of the pure countries is entirely ​
 +for the benefit of sentient beings. It is like a man who wants to build a palace ​
 +on empty land who is [able to build it] according to his wish without hindrance. ​
 +He would never be able to build it in space. Bodhisattvas are like this. In order 
 +to accomplish the [salvation of] sentient beings, they vow to acquire the buddha ​
 +countries. The vow to acquire a buddha land is not done in empty space! ​
 +13. “Jewel Accumulation,​ you should understand that sincerity is the 
 +bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva attains buddhahood, it is sen- 
 +tient beings who do not flatter [and lie] that come be born in his country. ​
 +“A profound mind is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva ​
 +attains buddhahood, it is sentient beings who are complete in merit that come 
 +to be born in his country. ​
 +“The mind of bodhi(bodhicitta,​i.e.,​ the intention to achieve perfect enlight- ​
 +enment) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddha - 
 +hood, sentient beings of the Mahayana come to be born in his country. ​
 +“Charity (dāna) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—all sentient beings capa- 
 +ble of renunciation come to be born in his country. ​
 +“Morality (śīla,​lit.,​ “maintaining the precepts”) is the bodhisattva’s pure 
 +land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who have 
 +fulfilled their vows to practice the path of the ten types of good come to be 
 +born in his country. ​
 +“Forbearance (kṣānti) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhi- ​
 +sattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who have ornamented themselves ​
 +with the thirty-two marks [of a buddha] come to be born in his country. ​
 +“Exertion (vīrya) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva ​
 +achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who have energetically cultivated all 
 +the [types of] merit come to be born in his country. ​
 +“Meditation (dhyāna) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhi- ​
 +sattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who control their minds and 
 +keep them undisturbed come to be born in his country. ​
 +“Wisdom (prajñā) is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva ​
 +achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who [have achieved] correct concen- ​
 +tration come to be born in his country. ​
 +“The four unlimited states of mind (i.e., the brāhma-vihāras) are the bodhi- ​
 +sattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentientbeings ​
 +76 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +77 
 +Chapter I 
 +who have developed sympathy, compassion, joy, and equanimity come to 
 +be born in his pure land. 
 +“The four means of attraction are the bodhisattva’s pure land—when ​
 +the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who have been attracted ​
 +through his emancipation come to be born in his country. ​
 +“Skillful means are the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva ​
 +achieves buddhahood, sentient beings whose skillful means are without hin- 
 +drance regarding all the the dharmas come to be born in his country. ​
 +“The thirty-seven factors of enlightenment are the bodhisattva’s pure land— ​
 +when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, sentient beings who [have accom- ​
 +plished the] foundations of mindfulness,​ correct exertions, numinous capabil- ​
 +ities, faculties, powers, and the noble path come to be born in his country. ​
 +“The attitude of rededication [of merit] is the bodhisattva’s pure land— ​
 +when the bodhisattva achieves buddhahood, he attains a country that is com- 
 +plete in all [forms of] merit. ​
 +“Explaining how to eliminate the eight difficult realms [where the Buddha ​
 +and Dharma are unknown] is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhi- ​
 +sattva achieves buddhahood, his country is without the three evil destina- ​
 +tions and eight difficult realms. ​
 +“Maintaining one’s own practice of the precepts without reviling the 
 +deficiencies of others is the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva ​
 +achieves buddhahood, his country is without the names (i.e., without even 
 +the words) ‘violation’ and ‘prohibition.’ ​
 +“The ten goods are the bodhisattva’s pure land—when the bodhisattva ​
 +achieves buddhahood, sentient beings whose lifespans are not interrupted, ​
 +who are very wealthy, who are chaste, whose words are truthful, who always ​
 +use gentle language, who do not isolate themselves from their subordinates ​
 +and who are good at resolving disputes, whose words are always beneficial, ​
 +who are not jealous, who are not prone to anger, and who have correct views— ​
 +[all these types of sentient beings] come to be born in his country. ​
 +14. “Thus, Jewel Accumulation,​ according to his sincerity does the bodhi- ​
 +sattva generate his practice. According to his generation of practice does he 
 +attain the profound mind. According to his profound mind does he discipline ​
 +his intention. According to the disciplining of his intention does he practice ​
 +in conformity with the teaching. According to his practice in conformanceto ​
 +the teaching is he able to rededicate [merit].
 +538c 
 +“According to his rededication does he have skillful means. According ​
 +to his skillful means does he make sentient beings accomplish [liberation]. ​
 +According to his accomplishment [of the liberation] of sentient beings is his 
 +buddha land pure. According to the purity of the buddha land is his expla- ​
 +nation of the Dharma pure. According to the purity of his explanation of the 
 +Dharma is his wisdom pure. According to the purity of his wisdom is his 
 +mind pure. According to the purity of his mind are all his merits pure. 
 +“Therefore,​ Jewel Accumulation,​ if a bodhisattva wishes to attain a pure 
 +land he should purify his mind. According to the purity of his mind is his 
 +buddha land pure!” ​
 +15. At that time Śāriputra was influenced by the Buddha’s numinous ​
 +charisma to have this thought: “If the bodhisattva’s buddha land is pure 
 +according to the purity of the bodhisattva’s mind, then when our World-hon- ​
 +ored One was a bodhisattva his mind must have been pure. Nevertheless, ​
 +this buddha land is so impure!” ​
 +The Buddha knew what he was thinking and asked him, “What do you 
 +think? Although the blind do not see them, can the sun and moon be any- 
 +thing but pure?​” ​
 +[Śāriputra] answered, “No, World-honored One! This is the fault of the 
 +blind, not that of the sun and moon.” ​
 +[The Buddha said], “Śāriputra,​ it is through the transgressions of sen- 
 +tient beings that they do not see the purity of the Tathāgata’s (i.e., my) buddha ​
 +land. This is not the Tathāgata’s fault! Śāri putra, this land of mine is pure, 
 +but you do not see it.” ​
 +16. At that time Conch Crest Brahmā King said to Śāriputra,​ “Do not 
 +think thus, saying that this buddha land is not pure. Why? I have witnessed ​
 +the purity of Śākyamuni’s buddha land. It is like the heavenly palace of Īśvara.” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “As I observe this land, it is hills and hollows, brambles ​
 +and gravel, and rocks and mountains—all filled with defilements.” ​
 +Conch Crest Brahmā King said, “Sir, your mind has (i.e., perceives) ​
 +high and low because you are not relying on buddha wisdom. Hence you 
 +perceive this land as impure. Śāriputra,​ the bodhisattva is universally same 
 +[in attitude] regarding all sentient beings. The purity of his profound mind 
 +relies on buddha wisdom and therefore is able to perceive the purity of this 
 +buddha land.” ​
 +78 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +539a 
 +79 
 +Chapter I 
 +17. At this the Buddha pointed to the earth with his toe, and instantly ​
 +the trimegachiliocosm was as if ornamented with a hundred thousand jew- 
 +els. It was like the Jewel Ornamentation land, with all its immeasurable mer- 
 +its, of Jewel Ornament Buddha. ​
 +The entire great assembly exclaimed at this unprecedented event, and 
 +they all saw themselves sitting on many-jeweled lotus flowers. ​
 +18. The Buddha told Śāriputra,​ “You should now observe the purity of 
 +this buddha land.” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “So it is, World-honored One. Originally I did not see it; 
 +originally I did not hear it. Now the purity of the Buddha’s country is entirely ​
 +apparent.” ​
 +The Buddha said to Śāriputra,​ “My buddha country is always pure, like 
 +this. It is only so as to save inferior persons here that I manifest it as a defiled ​
 +and impure land. It is like the many-jeweled eating utensils used in common ​
 +by the gods, the food in which is of different colors depending on their mer- 
 +its. Just so, Śāriputra,​ if a person’s mind is pure he sees the merits and orna- 
 +ments of this land.” ​
 +19. When the Buddha manifested the purity of this country, the five hun- 
 +dred elders’ sons led by Jewel Accumulation all achieved forbearance of the 
 +nonarising of dharmas. Eighty-four thousand people all generated the inten- ​
 +tion to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +20. The Buddha then withdrew his numinous powers, and the world 
 +returned to its former [appearance]. ​
 +The thirty-two thousand gods and humans who sought the śrāvakavehi- ​
 +cle understood that conditioned dharmas were all entirely impermanent and, 
 +distantly transcending sensory defile ment, they attained purity of the Dharma ​
 +eye. 
 +Eight thousand bhikṣus [achieved] nonexperiencing of the dharmas, ​
 +their minds liberated by the elimination of the flaws.
 +81 
 +Chapter II 
 +Skillful Means 
 +1. At that time there was within the great city of Vaiśālī an elder named 
 +Vimalakīrti. He had already made offerings to immeasurable buddhas, deeply ​
 +planting the foundation of goodness. He had attained forbearance of the 
 +nonarising [of dharmas], and his eloquence was unhindered. He disported ​
 +in the numinous penetrations and had achieved all the dhāraṇīs. He had 
 +attained fearlessness and had subjugated the troubling vengeance of the 
 +Māras. Entering into [all the] gates of profound Dharma, he was excellent ​
 +at the perfection of wisdom. Having penetrated skillful means, his great vows 
 +had been accomplished. Understanding the tendencies of the minds of sen- 
 +tient beings, he was also able to discriminate between those of sharp and dull 
 +faculties. Long [a practitioner of] the path of buddhahood, his mind was 
 +already pure, and he was definitively [dedicated to] the Mahayana. He con- 
 +sidered well the activities of the realms of existence, and, residing in the 
 +deportment of the Buddha, his mind was great as the ocean. The buddhas ​
 +praised him [as their] disciple, and the Indras, Brahmās, and world lords (i.e., ​
 +heavenly kings) revered him. 
 +2. Wanting to save people, [Vimalakīrti] used his excellent skillful means 
 +to reside in Vaiśālī, where with wealth immeasurable he attracted the poor, 
 +with the purity of his morality he attracted the miscreants, with the moder- ​
 +ation of his forbearance he attracted the angry, with great exertion he attracted ​
 +the indolent, with singleminded concentration he attracted the perturbed, and 
 +with definitive wisdom he attracted the foolish. ​
 +3. Although he was a white-robed [layman], he maintained the pure 
 +Vinaya conduct of a śramaṇa;​although he resided in the home, he was not 
 +attached to the triple world. He manifested the existence of wife and sons, 
 +but always cultivated chastity. He revealed the existence of subordinates,​ but 
 +always enjoyed transcendence. Although his clothing was richly decorated,
 +539b 
 +82 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +it was with the marks and features [of a Tathāgata] that he adorned his body. 
 +Although he drank and ate, the joy of concentration was his [favorite] flavor. ​
 +If he went to gambling houses or theaters it was only to save people. He 
 +hosted those of the heretic paths without breaking his correct faith. Although ​
 +he illuminated the profane classics he always took pleasure in the Buddha- ​
 +Dharma. He was revered by all as the one most worthy of offerings. ​
 +4. In supporting the correct Dharma he attracted both old and young. In 
 +all of his business dealings, although he made worldly profits he never took 
 +joy in them. In wandering the crossroads, he dispensed benefit to sentient ​
 +beings. In entering into government administration,​ he safeguarded every- ​
 +one. In entering into the lecture halls, he led people by means of the Mahayana. ​
 +In entering the schools, he inspired the children. In entering the brothels, he 
 +revealed the transgressions [that arise from] desire. In entering the wine 
 +shops, he was able to maintain (lit., “establish”) his [good] intention. ​
 +5. When he was with the elders, as the most honored of the eminent he 
 +explained the excellent Dharma for them. When he was among retired schol- ​
 +ars as the most honored of the retired scholars he eradicated their attachments. ​
 +When he was among kṣatriyas,​ as the most honored among kṣatriyas he taught ​
 +them forbearance. When he was among brahmans, as the most honored among 
 +brahmans he eliminated their arrogance. When he was among the ministers, ​
 +as the most honored among ministers he taught them the correct Dharma. ​
 +When he was among princes, as the most honored among princes he 
 +instructed them with loyalty and filiality. ​
 +When he was among palace officials, as the most honored among palace ​
 +officials he converted the palace women. ​
 +6. When he was among the common people, as the most honored among 
 +the common people he had them generate the power of blessings. ​
 +When he was among Brahmā gods, as the most honored of the Brahmā ​
 +gods he taught with superior wisdom. ​
 +When he was among Indras, as the most honored among Indras he man- 
 +ifested impermanence. ​
 +When he was among world-protector [gods], as the most honored among 
 +world-protectors he protected sentient beings. ​
 +The Elder Vimalakīrti used immeasurable skillful means such as these 
 +to benefit sentient beings.
 +83 
 +Chapter II 
 +7. Using skillful means he manifested becoming ill himself. Because he 
 +was ill, the king, ministers, elders, retired scholars, brahmans, the princes ​
 +and the other palace retainers, and innumerable thousands of people all came 
 +to inquire about his illness. ​
 +8. To those who came, Vimalakīrti used the occasion of his illness to 
 +make extensive explanations of the Dharma. ​
 +“Sirs, the body is impermanent,​ without strength, without power, with- 
 +out solidity. Given the way it rapidly disintegrates,​ it cannot be trusted (i.e., ​
 +relied upon). Alternately suffering and vexatious, it accumulates a host of 
 +illnesses. Sirs, the wise do not rely on such a body. 
 +9. “This body is like a bit of foam that cannot be grasped. This body is 
 +like bubbles that do not last very long. This body is like a mirage, generated ​
 +from thirst. This body is like a banana tree, with nothing solid within. This 
 +body is like a phantasm arising from confused [views]. This body is like a 
 +dream, an illusory view. This body is like a shadow, manifested through ​
 +karmic conditions. This body is like an echo, dependent on causes and con- 
 +ditions. This body is like a cloud, which changes and disappears in an instant. ​
 +This body is like lightning, unstable from one moment to another. ​
 +10. “This body is without master, like the earth. This body is without ​
 +self, like fire. This body is without lifespan, like the wind. This body is with- 
 +out person, like water. ​
 +11. “This body is insubstantial,​ being housed in the four elements. This 
 +body is empty, transcending self and the qualities of self. This body is igno- 
 +rant, like plants and rocks. This body is inactive, being turned by the power 
 +of the wind. This body is impure, replete with defilements. This body is 
 +untrustworthy,​ since even though one washes, clothes, and feeds it it will nec- 
 +essarily disintegrate. This body is a disaster, vexed by a hundred and one ill- 
 +nesses. This body is like a well on a hill, pressed by age. This body is unre- 
 +liable, dying in spite of being needed. This body is like a poisonous snake, a 
 +vengeful bandit, an empty aggregation. It is the composite of the skandhas, ​
 +sensory realms, and sensory capacities. ​
 +“Sirs, this [body] being so calamitous and repugnant, you should wish 
 +for the body of the Buddha. Why? 
 +12. “The body of the Buddha is the body of the Dharma. It is generated ​
 +through immeasurable wisdom and merit. It is generated through morality, ​
 +539c
 +meditation, wisdom, emancipation,​ and the knowledge and vision of eman- 
 +cipation. It is generated through sympathy, compassion, joy, and equanim- ​
 +ity (i.e., the four unlimiteds). It is generated through the perfections of char- 
 +ity, morality, forbearance and adaptability,​ energetic exertion, meditation, ​
 +emancipation,​ samādhi, and learned wisdom. It is generated from skillful ​
 +means; it has been generated from the six penetrations;​ it is generated from 
 +the three illuminations;​ it is generated from the thirty-seven factors of enlight- ​
 +enment; it has been generated from concentration and contemplation;​ it is 
 +generated from the ten powers, the four fearlessnesses,​ and the eighteen ​
 +exclusive attributes; it is generated from the eradication of all the dharmas ​
 +that are not good and accumulation of all the good dharmas; it is generated ​
 +from the truth; it is generated from the absence of negligence. ​
 +“The Tathāgata’s body is generated from immeasurable pure dharmas ​
 +such as these. Sirs, if you wish to attain the body of the Buddha and eradi- ​
 +cate all the illnesses of sentient beings, you should generate the intention to 
 +achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi!” ​
 +13. Thus did the Elder Vimalakīrti explain the Dharma for those who 
 +inquired about his illness, causing innumerable thousands of people to all 
 +generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +84
 +Chapter III 
 +Disciples ​
 +1. At that time the Elder Vimalakīrti thought to himself, “I am lying sick in 
 +bed. How can the World-honored One, He of Great Sympathy, not take pity 
 +on me?​” ​
 +2. Knowing what [Vimalakīrti] was thinking, the Buddha immediately ​
 +told Śāriputra,​ “Go visit Vimalakīrti and inquire about his illness.” ​
 +Śāriputra addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in 
 +the past, when I was sitting in repose beneath a tree. At the time Vimalakīrti ​
 +came and said to me, 
 +3. “‘O Śāriputra,​ you need not take this sitting [in meditation] to be sit- 
 +ting in repose. Sitting in repose is to not manifest body and mind in the triple ​
 +world—this is sitting in repose. To generate the concentration of extinction ​
 +while manifesting the deportments—this is sitting in repose. Not to relin- ​
 +quish the Dharma of enlightenment and yet manifest the affairs of [ordinary] ​
 +sentient beings—this is sitting in repose. To have the mind neither abide 
 +internally nor locate itself externally—this is sitting in repose. To be unmoved ​
 +by the [sixty-two mistaken] views yet cultivate the thirty-seven factors of 
 +enlightenment—this is sitting in repose. Not to eradicate the afflictions yet 
 +enter into nirvana—this is sitting in repose. ​
 +“‘Those who are able to sit in this fashion [will receive] the Buddha’s ​
 +seal of approval.’ ​
 +4. “At the time, World-honored One, I simply listened to this explana- ​
 +tion in silence and was unable to respond. Therefore, I cannot accept your 
 +instruction to go inquire about his illness.” ​
 +5. The Buddha told Mahāmaudgalyāyana,​ “You go inquire about 
 +Vimalakīrti’s illness.” ​
 +Maudgalyāyana addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not 
 +accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember ​
 +85
 +once in the past, I had entered the great city of Vaiśālī and was explaining ​
 +the Dharma to the retired scholars of a certain neighborhood. At the time 
 +Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 
 +6. “‘O Mahāmaudgalyāyana,​ when you explain the Dharma to white- ​
 +robed retired scholars, you should not explain it as you are now doing. In 
 +explaining the Dharma, you should explain according to the Dharma. ​
 +“‘The Dharma is without sentient beings because it transcends the defile- ​
 +ments of sentient beings; the Dharma is without self because it transcends ​
 +the defilements of self; the Dharma is without lifespan because it transcends ​
 +birth and death (samsara); and the Dharma is without person because it erad- 
 +icates the threshold between previous and subsequent [moments]. ​
 +“‘The Dharma is permanently serene because it extinguishes the char- 
 +acteristics;​ the Dharma transcends characteristics because it is without con- 
 +ditions; the Dharma is without names because it eradicates words; the Dharma ​
 +is without explanation because it transcends discursive thought and reason- ​
 +ing; the Dharma is without the characteristics of form because it is like space; ​
 +the Dharma is without hypotheses because it is ultimately empty; the Dharma ​
 +is without the sense of personal possession because it transcends personal ​
 +possession; the Dharma is without discrimination because it transcends the 
 +consciousnesses;​ and the Dharma is incomparable because there is nothing ​
 +to match it; the Dharma is divorced from causation because it is not located ​
 +in conditionality. ​
 +“‘The Dharma is identical to Dharma-nature because it inheres in the 
 +dharmas; the Dharma accords with suchness because it is without anything ​
 +that accords with it; the Dharma abides in the actual because it is unmoved ​
 +by the extremes; the Dharma is motionless because it is not dependent on 
 +the six types of sensory data; and the Dharma is without past and future ​
 +because it is constantly nonabiding. ​
 +“‘The Dharma concurs with emptiness, accords with the absence of char- 
 +acteristics,​ and responds to inactivity. The Dharma transcends good and ugly, 
 +the Dharma is without gain and loss, the Dharma is without generation and 
 +extinction, and the Dharma is without refuge. The Dharma surpasses eye, 
 +ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. The Dharma is without high and low, the 
 +Dharma abides constantly without moving, and the Dharma transcends all 
 +practices of contemplation. ​
 +86 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +540a
 +Chapter III 
 +87 
 +7. “‘O Mahāmaudgalyāyana,​ with characteristics such as these, how can 
 +the Dharma be explained? Explaining the Dharma should be without explain- ​
 +ing and without indicating. Listening to the Dharma should be without lis- 
 +tening and without attaining. ​
 +“‘It is like a magician explaining the Dharma to conjured people. ​
 +8. “‘One should have such a mindset in explaining the Dharma; one 
 +should comprehend that the faculties of sentient beings [include both] sharp 
 +and dull. You would do well to be without hindrance in your knowledge and 
 +vision. Use the mind of great compassion and praise the Mahayana. Remem- ​
 +ber to recompense the kindness of the Buddha and do not cut off the Three 
 +Jewels. Thus should you explain the Dharma.’ ​
 +9. “When Vimalakīrti explained this Dharma, eight hundred retired schol- ​
 +ars generated the intention to achieve anuttarā sam yak saṃbodhi.I lack this 
 +eloquence. Therefore I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about 
 +his illness.” ​
 +10. The Buddha told Mahākāśyapa,​ “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s ​
 +illness.” ​
 +Kāśyapa addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in 
 +the past, when I was begging in a poor neighborhood,​ Vimalakīrti came and 
 +said to me, 
 +11. “‘O Mahākāśyapa,​ you have the mind of sympathy and com passion ​
 +but are unable [to apply it] universally. You have abandoned the wealthy to 
 +beg from the poor. 
 +“‘Kāśyapa,​ while abiding in the Dharma of universal sameness, you 
 +should proceed in sequence in your begging. ​
 +“‘It is because of not eating that you should practice begging. ​
 +“‘It is because of the destruction of one’s physical integrity that you 
 +should take that lump of food. It is because of not receiving that you should ​
 +receive that food. 
 +“‘You should enter a village with the idea that it is an empty aggregation. ​
 +12. “‘The forms you see are equivalent to [what] the blind [see]; the 
 +sounds you hear are equivalent to echoes; the fragrances you smell are equiv- ​
 +alent to the wind; the flavors you eat should not be discriminated;​ your tac- 
 +tile sensations are like the realizations of wisdom; and you should understand ​
 +540b
 +that the dharmas are like phantasms. That which is without self-nature and 
 +without other-nature originally was not burning and will not become extin- ​
 +guished now. 
 +13. “‘Kāśyapa,​ if you are able to enter the eight emancipations without ​
 +renouncing the eight perversions,​ using the characteristic of perversion to 
 +enter into the correct Dharma, and using a single meal to give to all, mak- 
 +ing offerings to the buddhas and the assembly of worthies and sages—only ​
 +then should you eat. 
 +“‘To eat in this fashion is neither to have the afflictions nor to transcend ​
 +the afflictions,​ it is neither to enter into concentration nor to arise from con- 
 +centration, it is neither to abide in the world nor to abide in nirvana. ​
 +“‘Where there is charity, there are neither great nor small blessings, nei- 
 +ther benefit nor harm. This is the correct entry into the path of buddhahood, ​
 +without relying on the śrāvaka[vehicle]. ​
 +“‘Kāśyapa,​ if you can eat according to this [understanding] then you 
 +will not render void the charity of those who feed you.’ ​
 +14. “At the time, World-honored One, the explanation I heard was 
 +unprecedented to me, and I immediately generated a profound sense of rev- 
 +erence for all bodhisattvas. I also thought, ‘This householder’s eloquence ​
 +and wisdom being as they are, how could anyone who hears him not gener- ​
 +ate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi?​ From now on I will 
 +never exhort anyone to undertake the practices of śrāvakaor pratyekabuddha.’ ​
 +Therefore I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” ​
 +15. The Buddha told Subhūti, “You go inquire about Vimala kīrti’s ill- 
 +ness.” ​
 +Subhūti addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in 
 +the past, I entered into his home to beg. At the time Vimalakīrti filled my 
 +bowl full of food and said to me, 
 +16. “‘O Subhūti, if you are able to be universally same about eating, ​
 +then the dharmas are also universally same; if the dharmas are universally ​
 +same, you should also be universally same about eating. If you can practice ​
 +begging like this, you may accept the food. 
 +“‘If, Subhūti, you refrain from eradicating licentiousness,​ anger, and 
 +stupidity, yet are not equipped with them; if you do not destroy the body, yet 
 +88 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +540c 
 +89 
 +Chapter III 
 +accord with the single characteristic;​ if you do not extinguish stupidity and 
 +affection, yet generate wisdom and emancipation;​ if you use the character- ​
 +istics of the five transgressions to attain emancipation,​ without either eman- 
 +cipation or bondage; if you do not perceive the four noble truths, yet do not 
 +fail to perceive the truths; neither attaining the results [of becoming a stream- ​
 +enterer (srotāpanna),​ and so on,] nor not attaining the results; neither being 
 +an ordinary [unenlightened] person nor transcending the state (lit., “dharma”) ​
 +of ordinary person; neither being a sage nor not being a sage; accomplish- ​
 +ing all the dharmas yet transcending the characteristics of the dharmas— ​
 +then you can accept this food. 
 +17. “‘Subhūti,​ you should only accept this food if you can neither see 
 +the Buddha nor hear the Dharma, nor the six teachers of heterodox paths— ​
 +Pūraṇa Kāśyapa, Maskarin Gośālīputra,​ Saṃ jayin Vairaṭīputra,​ Ajita Keśa 
 +
 +kam bala, Kakuda Kātyāyana,​ and Nirgrantha Jñātiputra,​ who were your 
 +teachers, following whom you left home, [so that] at the defeat of those teach- ​
 +ers you were also defeated—then you can accept this food. 
 +18. “‘If, Subhūti, you can enter into the heterodox views and not reach 
 +the other shore; abide in the eight difficulties and not attain the absence of 
 +difficulty;​ identify with the afflictions and transcend the pure dharmas; attain ​
 +the samādhi of noncontention;​ if all sentient beings generate this concen- ​
 +tration; if the donors do not name you their field of blessings; if those mak- 
 +ing offerings to you fall into the three evil destinations;​ if you join hands 
 +with the host of Māras and make them your co-workers; if you do not dif- 
 +ferentiate yourself from the host of Māras and the sensory troubles; if you 
 +bear resentment toward all sentient beings; if you revile the Buddha, deni- 
 +grate the Dharma, and do not enter the Sangha; and if you never attain extinc- ​
 +tion—if you are like this then you can accept the food.’ ​
 +19. “When I heard these words, World-honored One, I was bewildered ​
 +and did not understand what he had said. I did not know how to answer, so 
 +I put down the bowl and tried to leave his house. Vimalakīrti then said, 
 +“‘O Subhūti, do not be afraid to take your bowl. What is the meaning ​
 +of this? If a [phantasmagorical] person whom the Tathāgata has created ​
 +through the transformation [of conjury] is criticized for this, should he be 
 +afraid?’ I said, ‘No.’ Vimalakīrti said, ‘All the dharmas have the character- ​
 +istic of being like phantasmagorical transformations. You should not have
 +541a 
 +90 
 +any fear now. Why? All verbal explanations do not transcend this charac- ​
 +teristic. The wise are not attached to letters, and therefore they have no fear. 
 +Why? The nature of letters transcends [their characteristics];​ there are no let- 
 +ters. This is emancipation,​ and the characteristic of emancipation is the dhar- 
 +mas.’ ​
 +20. “When Vimalakīrti explained this Dharma, two hundred gods attained ​
 +purification of their Dharma eyes. Therefore I cannot accept [your instruc- ​
 +tion] to go inquire about his illness.” ​
 +21. The Buddha told Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra,​ “You go inquire about 
 +Vimalakīrti’s illness.” ​
 +Pūrṇa addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in 
 +the past, when I was beneath a tree in the forest explaining the Dharma to 
 +novice bhikṣus. At the time Vimala kīrti came and said to me, 
 +22. “‘O Pūrṇa, you should only explain the Dharma after first entering ​
 +into concentration and contemplating the minds of these people—do not put 
 +defiled food in a jeweled vessel. You should understand what these bhikṣus ​
 +are thinking—do not put lapis lazuli together with crystal. ​
 +“‘You are unable to understand the fundamental sources of sentient ​
 +beings—do not inspire them with the Hinayana Dharma. Other and self are 
 +without flaw, so do not harm them. If someone wants to travel the great path 
 +(i.e., practice the Maha yana), do not show them a small pathway. The ocean 
 +cannot be contained within the hoofprint of an ox; the radiance of the sun 
 +cannot be equaled by that of a firefly. ​
 +“‘Pūrṇa,​ these bhikṣus have long since generated the aspiration for the 
 +Mahayana but in the midst [of many rebirths] they have forgotten this inten- ​
 +tion. 
 +“‘Why would you teach them with the Hinayana Dharma? When I con- 
 +sider the Hinayana, its wisdom is as minute as a blind man’s, [and with it 
 +you are] unable to discriminate the sharp and dull faculties of all sentient ​
 +beings.’ ​
 +23. “Then Vimalakīrti entered into samādhiand made the bhikṣus aware 
 +of their previous lives. They had planted virtuous roots under five hundred ​
 +buddhas and had rededicated them to their [eventual achievement of] anuttarā ​
 +samyaksaṃbodhi. [Learning this], they immediately experienced a suddenly ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +91 
 +Chapter III 
 +expansive reacquisition of that original inspiration. At this the bhikṣus bowed 
 +their heads in reverence to Vimalakīrti’s feet. Then Vimalakīrti explained ​
 +the Dharma for them, and they never again retrogressed from [their progress ​
 +to] anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +24. “I thought, ‘ Śrāvakas do not consider the faculties of people and 
 +therefore should not explain the Dharma.’ ​
 +“Therefore,​ I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his ill- 
 +ness.” ​
 +25. The Buddha told Mahākātyāyana,​ “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s ​
 +illness.” ​
 +Kātyāyana addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in 
 +the past, when the Buddha briefly explained the essentials of the Dharma to 
 +some bhikṣus, and immediately afterward I expanded upon your meaning, ​
 +discussing the meanings of impermanence,​ suffering, emptiness, no-self, and 
 +extinction. At the time Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 
 +26. “‘O Kātyāyana,​ do not explain the Dharma of the true characteris- ​
 +tic using the mental processes of generation and extinction (i.e., samsara). ​
 +i) “‘Kātyāyana,​ the dharmas are ultimately neither generated nor extin- ​
 +guished: this is the meaning of impermanence. ​
 +ii) “‘The five skandhas are empty throughout, with no arising: this is the 
 +meaning of suffering. ​
 +iii) “‘The dharmas ultimately do not exist: this is the meaning of empti- ​
 +ness. 
 +iv) “‘There is no self in the self, yet no duality: this is the meaning of 
 +no-self. ​
 +v) “‘The dharmas were originally not burning and will not become extin- ​
 +guished now: this is the meaning of extinction.’ ​
 +27. “When [Vimalakīrti] explained this Dharma, the bhikṣus’ minds 
 +attained emancipation. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go 
 +inquire about his illness.” ​
 +28. The Buddha told Aniruddha, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s ​
 +illness.” ​
 +Aniruddha addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why?
 +541b 
 +92 
 +29. “I remember once in the past I was walking quietly in a certain loca- 
 +tion. At the time a Brahmā king named Adorned Purity, in the company of 
 +ten thousand Brahmās generating pure radiance, proceeded to where I was. 
 +He bowed to my feet in reverence and asked me, ‘How much, Aniruddha, ​
 +can you see with your divine eye?​’ ​
 +“I answered, ‘Sir, I see the trimegachiliocosm of Śākyamuni’s buddha ​
 +land as if I were looking at a mango in the palm of my hand.’ ​
 +30. “Then Vimalakīrti came and said to me, ‘O Aniruddha, is the see- 
 +ing of the divine eye a constructed characteristic,​ or is it an unconstructed ​
 +characteristic?​ If it is a constructed characteristic,​ then it is equivalent to the 
 +five supernormal powers of the heterodox paths. If it is an unconstructed ​
 +characteristic then it is unconditioned and should be without seeing (i.e., ​
 +“views”).’ World-honored One, at the time I remained silent. ​
 +31. “Hearing his words, the Brahmās attained something unprecedented, ​
 +immediately reverenced [Vimalakīrti],​ and asked him, ‘Who in this world 
 +has the true divine eye?’ Vimalakīrti said, ‘There is the Buddha, the World- ​
 +honored One, who has attained the true divine eye. Always in samādhi, he 
 +sees all the buddha lands without any characteristic of duality.’ ​
 +32. “At this Adorned Purity Brahmā King and his attending five hun- 
 +dred Brahmā kings all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak- ​
 +saṃbodhi. They bowed to Vimalakīrti’s feet, then instantly disappeared. ​
 +Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” ​
 +33. The Buddha told Upāli, “You go inquire about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” ​
 +Upāli addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? 
 +“I remember once in the past, there were two bhikṣus who had violated ​
 +the practice of the Vinaya but from their shame did not dare ask you about 
 +it. They came to ask me: ‘O Upāli, we have violated the Vinaya and are sin- 
 +cerely ashamed, not daring to ask the Buddha about it. We want you to explain ​
 +our doubts and the [need for] repentance, so that we may be relieved of the 
 +transgressions.’ I immediately explained [the matter] to them according to 
 +the Dharma. ​
 +34. “At the time Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 
 +“‘O Upāli, do not increase these two bhikṣus’ transgressions. You should ​
 +just remove [the transgressions] and not disturb their minds. Why? 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +93 
 +Chapter III 
 +“‘The nature of those transgressions does not reside within, it does not 
 +reside without, and it does not reside in the middle. ​
 +“‘As the Buddha has explained, when their minds are defiled, sentient ​
 +beings are defiled. When their minds are purified, sentient beings are purified. ​
 +The mind likewise does not reside within, does not reside without, and does 
 +not reside in the middle. Just so is the mind, and just so are transgression and 
 +defilement. The dharmas are also likewise, in not transcending suchness. ​
 +“‘Just so, Upāli, when one attains emancipation using the characteris- ​
 +tics of the mind, is it (i.e., the mind) defiled or not?’ I said, ‘It is not.’ ​
 +“Vimalakīrti said, ‘The characteristics of the minds of all sentient beings ​
 +are likewise, in being without defilement. ​
 +35. “‘O Upāli, to have false concepts is defilement;​ to be without false 
 +concepts is purity. ​
 +“‘Confusion is defilement,​ and the absence of confusion is purity. ​
 +“‘To grasp the self is defilement,​ and not to grasp the self is purity. ​
 +“‘Upāli,​ all the dharmas are generated and extinguished,​ without abid- 
 +ing. Like phantasms or lightning bolts, the dharmas do not depend on each 
 +other. They do not abide even for a single instant. The dharmas are all false 
 +views, like a dream, like a mirage, like the moon [reflected] in water, like an 
 +image in a mirror—[all] generated from false conceptualization. Those who 
 +understand this are called “upholders of the Vinaya.” Those who understand ​
 +this are said to “understand well.”’ ​
 +36. “At this the two bhikṣus said, ‘Such superior wisdom! Upāli cannot ​
 +match this! There could be no better explanation of upholding the Vinaya!’ ​
 +“I then answered, ‘Excluding the Tathāgata, there has never been a śrā- ​
 +vakaor bodhisattva able to command the eloquence for such a felicitous ​
 +explanation—such is the brilliance of his wisdom!’ ​
 +37. “At the time, the doubts and [need for] repentance of the two bhikṣus ​
 +were eliminated. They generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak- ​
 +saṃbodhi, speaking this vow: ‘Let all sentient beings attain this [level of] 
 +eloquence!’ Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about 
 +his illness.” ​
 +38. The Buddha told Rāhula, “You go inquire about Vimala kīrti’s illness.” ​
 +Rāhula addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? 
 +541c
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +“I remember once in the past, the elders’ sons of Vaiśālī came to where 
 +I was, bowed their heads to me in reverence, and asked, ‘O Rāhula, you are 
 +the son of the Buddha, who forsook the position of universal ruler (cakra- ​
 +vartin) and left home for the path (i.e., enlightenment). What benefits are 
 +there to leaving home?​’ ​
 +“I then explained to them, according to the Dharma, the benefits of the 
 +merits of leaving home. At that point Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 
 +39. “‘O Rāhula, you should not explain the benefits of the merits of leav- 
 +ing home. Why? To be without benefit and without merits—this is leaving ​
 +home. One may explain that there are benefits and merits in the conditioned ​
 +dharmas, but leaving home is an unconditioned dharmaand there are no 
 +benefits and merits in unconditioned dharmas. ​
 +“‘Rāhula,​ to leave home is to be without that and this, and without inter- ​
 +mediate. It is to transcend the sixty-two views and be located in nirvana. ​
 +“‘[Leaving home] is accepted by the wise and practiced by the sagely. It 
 +subjugates the host of Māras and [allows one to] transcend the five destina- ​
 +tions, purify the five eyes, attain the five powers, and establish the five fac- 
 +ulties. It is to be without vexation over “that,” to transcend the host of het- 
 +erogeneous evils, and to demolish the heterodox paths. It is to transcend ​
 +provisional names and emerge from the muck [of samsara]. It is to be with- 
 +out attachments,​ without any sense of personal possession. It is to be without ​
 +experience, without turmoil. It is to harbor joy within and defend the inten- ​
 +tions of others. It is to accord with meditation and transcend the host of trans- ​
 +gressions. If one can be like this, then this is true leaving home.’ ​
 +40. “At this Vimalakīrti said to those elders’ sons, ‘You would do well 
 +to leave home together in the correct Dharma. Why? It is difficult to encounter ​
 +a time when a buddha is in the world.’ ​
 +“The elders’ sons said, ‘O retired scholar, we have heard that the Buddha ​
 +has said one may not leave home without first receiving permission from 
 +one’s parents.’ ​
 +“Vimalakīrti said, ‘So it is. You should immediately generate the inten- ​
 +tion to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi,​and this is to “leave home.” This 
 +is sufficient.’ ​
 +41. “Then thirty-two elders’ sons all generated the intention to achieve ​
 +94
 +542a 
 +anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to 
 +go inquire about his illness.” ​
 +42. The Buddha told Ānanda, “You go inquire about Vimala kīrti’s ill- 
 +ness.” ​
 +Ānanda addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in 
 +the past, the World-honored One had a slight illness requiring cow’s milk 
 +[as medicine]. I took my bowl and proceeded to the gateway of a great brah- 
 +man home. 
 +43. “While I was standing there Vimalakīrti came and said to me, ‘O 
 +Ānanda, why are you standing here with your bowl so early in the morning?​’ ​
 +“I said, ‘O retired scholar, the World-honored One has a slight illness ​
 +requiring cow’s milk, and so I have come here.’ ​
 +“Vimalakīrti said, ‘Stop, stop, Ānanda! Do not speak thus. The Tathā- ​
 +gata’s body is the essence of vajra. [In it] the evils are already eradicated ​
 +and the host of goods universally assembled. What illness could it have, what 
 +vexation could there be? 
 +44. “‘Go silently, Ānanda—do not revile the Tathāgata, and do not let 
 +anyone else hear such coarse talk. Do not allow the gods of awesome power 
 +and virtue and the bodhisattvas who have come from pure lands in other 
 +directions to hear these words. ​
 +“‘Ānanda,​ even a small degree of blessings (i.e., merit) allows the wheel- ​
 +turning sage king (cakravartin) to be without illness—how could the immeas- ​
 +urable blessings of the Tathāgata fail to exceed his in every regard?​! ​
 +“‘Go, Ānanda—do not make us experience this shame. If brahmans in 
 +the heterodox paths hear this, they will think, “Who is this teacher, who is 
 +unable to save himself from illness but would save others of their ills?” Sir, 
 +go in secret haste and do not let anyone hear this. 
 +45. “‘You should understand, Ānanda, the bodies of the Tathāgatas are 
 +bodies of the Dharma, not bodies of longing. The Buddha is the World-hon- ​
 +ored One, who has transcended the triple world. The Buddha’s body is with- 
 +out flaws, the flaws having been extinguished. The Buddha’s body is uncon- ​
 +ditioned and does not fit the [conventional] analytic categories. A body such 
 +as this—how could it be ill, how could it be vexed?​’ ​
 +Chapter III 
 +95
 +96 
 +46. “At the time, World-honored One, I was really ashamed that I might 
 +have mistakenly heard what the Buddha had said in spite of being so close. ​
 +“‘I then heard a voice from space saying, ‘Ānanda, it is as the retired ​
 +scholar has said. It is just that the Buddha has appeared in this evil age of 
 +the five corruptions and manifests this Dharma to emancipate sentient beings. ​
 +Go, Ānanda. Take the milk without shame.’ ​
 +47. “World-honored One, the eloquence of Vimalakīrti’s wisdom is like 
 +this. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his ill- 
 +ness.” ​
 +48. In similar fashion all of the Buddha’s five hundred great disciples ​
 +each explained their original encounters and related what Vimalakīrti had 
 +said, and each said he was unable to accept [the Buddha’s instruction] to go 
 +inquire about [Vimalakīrti’s] illness. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +97 
 +542b 
 +Chapter IV 
 +Bodhisattvas ​
 +1. At this point the Buddha addressed Maitreya Bodhisattva,​ “You go inquire ​
 +about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” ​
 +Maitreya addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not accept ​
 +your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I remember once in 
 +the past when I was explaining the practice of the stage of irreversibility for 
 +the heavenly king of the Tuṣita Heaven and his subordinates. At the time 
 +Vimalakīrti came and said to me, 
 +2. “‘Maitreya,​ the World-honored One has bestowed on your noble per- 
 +son the prediction that you will achieve anuttarā samyak saṃbodhiin a sin- 
 +gle lifetime. What lifetime will you use to experience this prediction, past, 
 +future, or present? If a past life, then the past life is already extinguished. If 
 +a future life, then the future life has not arrived. If the present life, then the 
 +present life is nonabiding. It is as the Buddha has explained, “O bhikṣus, you 
 +are in this immediate present born, aged, and extinguished.” ​
 +“‘If you experience this prediction with birthlessness,​ then the birthless ​
 +is the primary status [of Hinayanist enlightenment]. Yet within that primary ​
 +status there is no receiving the prediction, and also no attainment of anut- 
 +tarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +3. “‘How, Maitreya, did you receive the prediction of [buddhahood in] 
 +a single lifetime? Did you receive the prediction from the generation of such- 
 +ness, or did you receive the prediction from the extinction of suchness? ​
 +“‘If you received the prediction by the generation of suchness, then 
 +[understand that] suchness is without generation. If you received the pre- 
 +diction by the extinction of suchness, then [understand that] suchness is with- 
 +out extinction. ​
 +“‘All sentient beings are entirely suchlike, and all dharmas are also 
 +entirely suchlike. The assembly of sages and wise ones are also suchlike.
 +542c 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +Even you, Maitreya, are suchlike. If you received the prediction [of future ​
 +buddhahood],​ all sentient beings should also receive it. Why? Suchness is 
 +nondual and nondifferentiated. If Maitreya attains anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi, ​
 +then all sentient beings should also all attain it. Why? All sentient beings are 
 +the characteristic of bodhi. If Maitreya attains extinction, then all sentient ​
 +beings should also all [attain] extinction. Why? The buddhas understand that 
 +all sentient beings are ultimately extinguished,​ which is the characteristic of 
 +nirvana, and cannot again be extinguished. ​
 +“‘Therefore,​ Maitreya, do not inspire the gods with this teaching. ​
 +4. “‘Truly,​ there is no one who generates the intention to achieve anut- 
 +tarā samyaksaṃbodhi,​and there is no one who retro gresses. Maitreya, you 
 +should have these gods forsake this discriminative view of bodhi. Why? 
 +“‘Bodhicannot be attained with the body, and it cannot be attained with 
 +the mind. 
 +“‘Extinction is bodhi, because of the extinction of the characteristics. ​
 +“‘Non-contemplation is bodhi, because it transcends the conditions. ​
 +“‘Non-practice is bodhi,​because it is without recollection. ​
 +“‘Eradication is bodhi,​because of renouncing the views. Transcendence ​
 +is bodhi,​because of the transcendence of false concepts. ​
 +“‘Hindrances are bodhi,​because of the hindrance of the vows. 
 +“‘Non-entry is bodhi, because of the absence of lustful attachment. ​
 +Accordance is bodhi, because of accordance with suchness. ​
 +“‘Abiding is bodhi,​because of abiding [in the] Dharma-nature. ​
 +“‘Approach is bodhi,​because of the approach to the reality-limit. ​
 +“‘Nonduality is bodhi,​because of the transcendence of mind and dhar- 
 +mas. 
 +“‘Universal sameness is bodhi,​because of universal sameness with space. ​
 +“‘The unconditioned is bodhi, because of the absence of generation, ​
 +abiding, and extinction. ​
 +“‘Understanding is bodhi,​because of the comprehension of the mental ​
 +processes of sentient beings. ​
 +“‘Non-assemblage is bodhi, because of the non-assemblage of the 
 +entrances (āyatanas, i.e., sensory capacities). ​
 +“‘Non-aggregation is bodhi,​because of the transcendence of the latent ​
 +influences of the afflictions. ​
 +98
 +Chapter IV 
 +“‘The non-locative is bodhi,​because of formlessness. ​
 +“‘Provisional names are bodhi,​because names are empty. ​
 +“‘The [activities of the] conversion of suchness are bodhi, because of 
 +the nonexistence of grasping and forsaking. ​
 +“‘The non-turbulent is bodhi,​because of permanent composure. ​
 +“‘Good serenity is bodhi,​because of the purity of the natures. ​
 +“‘Non-grasping is bodhi, because of the transcendence of objectified ​
 +mentation. ​
 +“‘Nondifferentiation is bodhi,​because of the universal sameness of the 
 +dharmas. ​
 +“‘Non-comparison is bodhi, because of the impossibility of analogy. ​
 +“‘The subtle is bodhi, because of the difficulty of understanding the 
 +dharmas.’ ​
 +5. “World-honored One, when Vimalakīrti explained this Dhar ma,​two ​
 +hundred gods achieved the forbearance of the non arising of dharmas. There- ​
 +fore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” ​
 +6. The Buddha told Radiance Ornament Youth, “You go inquire about 
 +Vimalakīrti’s illness.” ​
 +Radiance Ornament Youth addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, 
 +I dare not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? I 
 +remember once in the past, when I was coming out of the great city of Vaiśālī ​
 +just as Vimalakīrti was entering the city. I immediately bowed and asked, ​
 +‘Retired scholar, from where are you coming?​’ ​
 +“He answered me, ‘I have come from the place of enlightenment.’ ​
 +“I asked, ‘Where is the place of enlightenment?​’ ​
 +“He answered, ​
 +7. “‘Sincerity is the place of enlightenment,​ because of the absence of 
 +falsity. The generation of practice is the place of enlightenment,​ because it 
 +is able to discriminate things. Profound mind is the place of enlightenment, ​
 +because of the increase in merit. The mind of bodhi(bodhicitta) is the place 
 +of enlightenment,​ because of the absence of error. ​
 +8. “‘Charity is the place of enlightenment,​ because of not seeking after 
 +retribution (i.e., reward). Morality is the place of enlightenment,​ because of 
 +the fulfillment of vows. Forbearance is the place of enlightenment,​ because ​
 +of the absence of any mental hindrance regarding sentient beings. Exertion ​
 +99
 +543a 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +is the place of enlightenment,​ because of not retrogressing. Meditation is the 
 +place of enlightenment,​ because of the pliable disciplining of the mind. Wis- 
 +dom is the place of enlightenment,​ because of the manifest perception of the 
 +dharmas. ​
 +9. “‘Sympathy is the place of enlightenment,​ because of the universal ​
 +sameness of sentient beings. Compassion is the place of enlightenment, ​
 +because of the forbearance of suffering. Joy is the place of enlightenment, ​
 +because of taking pleasure in the Dharma. Equanimity is the place of enlight- ​
 +enment, because of the eradication of repugnance and affection. ​
 +10. “‘The numinous penetrations are the place of enlightenment,​ because ​
 +of the achievement of the six penetrations (i.e., supernatural abilities). Eman- 
 +cipation is the place of enlightenment,​ because of the ability to forsake. Skill- ​
 +ful means are the place of enlightenment,​ because of the salvation of sen- 
 +tient beings. The four means of attraction are the place of enlightenment, ​
 +because of the attraction (i.e., conversion) of sentient beings. Erudition is 
 +the place of enlightenment,​ because of practice according to one’s knowl- ​
 +edge. Mental control is the place of enlightenment,​ because of the correct ​
 +contemplation of the dharmas. The thirty-seven factors of enlightenment are 
 +the place of enlightenment,​ because of forsaking the conditioned dharmas. ​
 +The truth is the place of enlightenment,​ because of not misleading the world. ​
 +“‘Conditioned generation is the place of enlightenment,​ because igno- 
 +rance and so forth through old age and death, are all unexhausted. The afflic- ​
 +tions are bodhi, because of understanding according to actuality. ​
 +11. “‘Sentient beings are the place of enlightenment,​ because of under- ​
 +standing no-self. ​
 +“‘All dharmas are the place of enlightenment,​ because of understand- ​
 +ing the emptiness of the dharmas. Subjugation of the Māras is the place of 
 +enlightenment,​ because of not being swayed. The triple world is the place 
 +of enlightenment,​ because of the absence of destinations. The lion’s roar is 
 +the place of enlightenment,​ because of the absence of fear. The [ten] pow- 
 +ers, [four] fearlessnesses,​ and [eighteen] exclusive attributes are the place 
 +of enlightenment,​ because of the absence of transgressions. The three illu- 
 +minations are the place of enlightenment,​ because of the absence of remain- ​
 +ing hindrances. To understand all the dharmas in a single moment of thought ​
 +is the place of enlightenment,​ because of the accomplishment of omniscience. ​
 +100
 +Chapter IV 
 +12. “‘Thus, my good man, should the bodhisattva teach sentient beings ​
 +according to the perfections. In all that is done, [down to every] lifting or 
 +placing of one’s foot, you should understand that all these come from the 
 +place of enlightenment and abide in the Buddha-Dharma.’ ​
 +13. “When [Vimalakīrti] explained the Dharma five hundred gods and 
 +humans all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his illness.” ​
 +14. The Buddha told Maintains the World Bodhisattva,​ “You go inquire ​
 +about Vimalakīrti’s illness.” ​
 +Maintains the World addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare 
 +not accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? 
 +“I remember once in the past when I was residing in a meditation cham- 
 +ber, Māra the Evil One, attended by twelve thousand goddesses and in a man- 
 +ner like Indra with his drum, music, and song, proceeded to where I was. He 
 +and his subordinates bowed their heads to my feet, held their palms together ​
 +reverentially,​ and stood to one side. 
 +“Thinking it was Indra, I said to him, ‘Welcome, Kauśika! Although ​
 +[you enjoy] blessings you should not be self-indulgent. You should con- 
 +template the impermanence of the five desires and seek for the foundation ​
 +of goodness, cultivating the perduring dharmas with regard to your body, 
 +life, and wealth.’ ​
 +“He then said to me, ‘O good sir, [please] receive these twelve thousand ​
 +goddesses to clean and wash [for you].’ ​
 +“I said, ‘Kauśika,​ as a śramaṇaand son of Śākya I have no need for 
 +improper things such as this. This would not be appropriate for me.’ ​
 +15. “Before I had even finished saying this Vimalakīrti came and said 
 +to me, ‘This is not Indra. This is Māra, who has come only to ridicule you.’ ​
 +“He then said to Māra, ‘You can give these women to me. If it were I, 
 +I would accept them.’ ​
 +“Māra then thought in shock, ‘Vimalakīrti should not be troubling me!’ ​
 +He wanted to become invisible and leave but he could not disappear. Even 
 +using all his numinous power he was not able to leave. ​
 +“He then heard a voice from space, saying, ‘Evil One, if you give him 
 +the women you will be able to go.’ ​
 +“Because of his fear, and with eyes casting nervously about, [Māra] gave 
 +Vimalakīrti the women. ​
 +101
 +102 
 +16. “Then Vimalakīrti said to the women, ‘Māra has given you to me. 
 +You should now all generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃ- ​
 +bodhi.’ ​
 +“He then explained the Dharma to them in various ways and caused ​
 +them to generate the intention for enlightenment. ​
 +“He then said, ‘Now that you have generated the intention for enlight- ​
 +enment, you may amuse yourselves in the joy of the Dharma, never again 
 +taking pleasure in the five desires.’ ​
 +“The goddesses asked, ‘What is the joy of the Dharma?​’ ​
 +“He answered, ‘Joy is to always trust the Buddha. Joy is to desire to 
 +hear the Dharma. Joy is to make offerings to the assembly. Joy is to tran- 
 +scend the five desires. Joy is to contemplate the five skandhas as vengeful ​
 +bandits. Joy is to contemplate the four elements as poisonous snakes. Joy is 
 +to contemplate the interior sensory capacities as being like empty aggrega- ​
 +tions. Joy is to maintain one’s intention for enlightenment in all situations. ​
 +Joy is to benefit sentient beings. Joy is to revere teachers. Joy is the exten- ​
 +sive practice of charity. Joy is the firm maintenance of the precepts. Joy is 
 +forbearance and pliability. Joy is the vigorous accumulation of good roots. ​
 +Joy is the lack of disturbance in meditation. Joy is to transcend the defile- ​
 +ments in wisdom. Joy is to disseminate bodhicitta.Joy is the subjugation of 
 +the host of Māras. Joy is the eradication of the afflictions. Joy is purification ​
 +of the countries of the buddhas. Joy is the accomplishment of the [thirty-two ​
 +primary] characteristics and [eighty subsidiary] marks, based on the culti- ​
 +vation of the merits. Joy is ornamentation of the place of enlightenment. Joy 
 +is to hear the profound Dharma without fear. Joy is the three emancipations ​
 +and not to take the pleasure [of ultimate enlightenment] at an inappropriate ​
 +time. Joy is to associate with fellow trainees. Joy is for one’s mind to be 
 +without hindrance in the midst of those [who are] not one’s fellow trainees. ​
 +Joy is to defend against evil friends. Joy is to associate closely with good 
 +friends. Joy is to be happy and pure in mind. Joy is to cultivate the immeas- ​
 +urable factors of enlightenment. ​
 +“‘These are the bodhisattva’s joy in the Dharma.’ ​
 +17. “At this Māra the Evil One announced to the women, ‘I want to 
 +return with you to the heavenly palace.’ ​
 +“The women said, ‘You already gave us to this retired scholar. We are 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +543b
 +543c 
 +103 
 +extremely joyful in the joy of the Dharma, and will never again take pleasure ​
 +in the five desires.’ ​
 +“Māra said, ‘If the retired scholar is able to forsake these women, and 
 +everything that exists is given to him, then he is a bodhisattva.’ ​
 +“Vimalakīrti said, ‘I have already forsaken them. You may take them 
 +away, but you must make all sentient beings attain ful fill ment of their vows 
 +in the Dharma.’ ​
 +“At this the women asked Vimalakīrti,​ ‘How should we reside in Māra’s ​
 +palace?​’ ​
 +18. “Vimalakīrti said, ‘Sisters, there is a Dharma called “inexhaustible ​
 +lamp.” You should study it. The inexhaustible lamp is like a lamp that ignites ​
 +a hundred thousand lamps, illuminating all darkness with an illumination ​
 +that is never exhausted. Thus, sisters, if a single bodhisattva guides a hun- 
 +dred thousand sentient beings, causing them to generate the intention to 
 +achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi,​ that bodhisattva’s intention to achieve ​
 +enlightenment will also never be extinguished. ​
 +“‘With each teaching of the Dharma all the good dharmas are naturally ​
 +increased. This is what is called the “inexhaustible lamp.” Although you reside ​
 +in Māra’s palace, with this inexhaustible lamp you can cause innumerable gods 
 +and goddesses to generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +Thereby you will repay the Buddha’s kindness and also greatly benefit all sen- 
 +tient beings.’ ​
 +19. “At that time the goddesses bowed their heads to Vimala kīrti’s feet 
 +in worship and suddenly disappeared to return to Māra’s palace. ​
 +“World-honored One, Vimalakīrti’s autonomy, numinous power, wis- 
 +dom, and eloquence are like this. Therefore, I cannot accept [your instruc- ​
 +tion] to go inquire about his illness.” ​
 +20. The Buddha told the elder’s son Good Virtue,​“You go inquire about 
 +Vimalakīrti’s illness.” ​
 +Good Virtue addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, I dare not 
 +accept your instruction to go inquire about his illness. Why? 
 +“I remember once in the past when I was holding a great charity assem- ​
 +bly in my father’s house. We made offerings to all the śramaṇas,​ brahmans, ​
 +those of the heterodox paths, the poor, low-class, orphans, and beggars. It 
 +lasted fully seven days. At the time Vimala kīrti came into the assembly and 
 +Chapter IV
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +said to me, ‘Elder’s son, you should not hold a great charity assembly like 
 +this. You should have an assembly of the charity of the Dharma. What use 
 +is a charity assembly of material wealth?​’ ​
 +“I said, ‘Retired scholar, what is an assembly of the charity of Dharma?​’ ​
 +“He answered, ​
 +21. “‘An assembly of the charity of the Dharma is to make offerings to 
 +all sentient beings simultaneously,​ without before and after. This is called ​
 +an assembly of the charity of the Dharma. ​
 +“‘If you ask how I say this, I say that one uses bodhito generate sym- 
 +pathy. One generates great compassion in order to save sentient beings. One 
 +generates joy by maintaining the correct Dharma. One practices equanimity ​
 +by mastering wisdom. ​
 +22. “‘One generatesdāna-pāramitā(the perfection of charity) by mas- 
 +tering desire. One generates śīla-pāramitā(the perfection of morality) by 
 +attracting those who transgress the precepts. One generates kṣanti-pāramitā ​
 +(the perfection of forbearance) by the Dharma of no-self. One generates ​
 +vīrya-pāramitā(the perfection of exertion) by transcending the characteris- ​
 +tics of body and mind. One generates dhyāna-pāramitā(the perfection of 
 +meditation) with the characteristic of bodhi.One generates prajñā-pāramitā ​
 +(the perfection of wisdom) with omniscience. ​
 +23. “‘One teaches sentient beings and generates emptiness. Without for- 
 +saking the conditioned dharmas, one generates that which is without charac- ​
 +teristics. One manifests the experience of [re]birth and generates the uncreated. ​
 +24. “‘One defends the correct Dharma and generates the power of skill- ​
 +ful means. One generates the four means of attraction by saving sentient ​
 +beings. One generates the elimination of conceit by reverencing all. One gen- 
 +erates the three perduring dharmas with regard to body, life, and wealth. One 
 +generates contemplation of the dharmas within the six mindfulnesses. One 
 +generates sincerity with regard to the six types of considerate esteem. One 
 +generates pure livelihood with correct practice of the good dharmas. One 
 +becomes close to the wise and sagely with purification of the mind in joy. 
 +One generates a disciplined mind by not having aversion for bad people. One 
 +generates the profound mind with the dharmaof leaving home. One gener- ​
 +ates erudition by practicing according to the explanation. One generates the 
 +locus of empty repose with the dharmaof noncontention. In approaching ​
 +104
 +544a 
 +Chapter IV 
 +buddha wisdom one generates sitting in repose. In releasing the bonds of 
 +sentient beings one generates the stages of cultivation. ​
 +25. “‘By becoming replete in the [thirty-two primary] characteristics ​
 +and [eighty subsidiary] marks and by purifying a buddha land one generates ​
 +meritorious karma. Understanding the thoughts of all sentient beings and 
 +how one should explain the Dharma to them, one generates the karma of 
 +wisdom. Understanding all the dharmas, one neither grasps nor forsakes. ​
 +Entering the gate of the single characteristic,​ one generates the karma of 
 +sagacity. Eradicating all the afflictions,​ all the hindrances, and all the non- 
 +good dharmas, one generates all good karma. ​
 +26. “‘By attaining omniscience and all the good dharmas, one univer- ​
 +sally generates the dharmas that assist one’s buddhahood. Thus, good man, 
 +is the assembly of the charity of the Dharma. If a bodhisattva resides in this 
 +assembly of the charity of the Dharma he will be a great donor. He will also 
 +be a field of blessings for the entire world.’ ​
 +“World-honored One, when Vimalakīrti explained this Dharma, two 
 +hundred people in the congregation of brahmans all generated the intention ​
 +to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +27. “At the time my own mind attained a purity which I exclaimed to 
 +be unprecedented,​ and I bowed my head to Vimala kīrti’s feet in worship. ​
 +Unfastening my necklace, a hundred thousand [coins] in value, I gave it to 
 +him but he did not accept it. I said, ‘Please, retired scholar, you must accept ​
 +this and give it to whomever you please.’ Vimalakīrti then accepted the neck- 
 +lace and divided it into two parts. Taking one part, he gave it to the lowliest ​
 +beggars in the assembly. Taking the other part, he offered it to the Tathāgata ​
 +Difficult to Overcome. The entire assembly saw the Radiant Illumination ​
 +country and Difficult to Overcome Tathāgata. They also saw the necklace ​
 +on that Buddha change into a four-pillared jewel-laden platform, with mutu- 
 +ally noninterfering ornamentation on the four sides. ​
 +28. “Having manifested these numinous transformations,​ Vimala kīrti ​
 +then said, ‘If a donor with an attitude of universal sameness gives to the 
 +lowliest beggars, this is to be like the characteristic of the Tathāgata’s field ​
 +of blessings, with no distinction,​ and to be equivalent to great compassion ​
 +without seeking any reward. This is called “to be replete in the charity of the 
 +Dharma.”’ ​
 +105
 +106 
 +29. “The lowliest beggars in the city witnessed this numinous power 
 +and heard his explanation,​ and they all generated the intention to achieve ​
 +anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +“Therefore,​ I cannot accept [your instruction] to go inquire about his 
 +illness.” ​
 +30. In similar fashion all of the bodhisattvas explained their original ​
 +encounters and related what Vimalakīrti had said, and each said he was unable ​
 +to accept [the Buddha’s instruction] to go inquire about his illness. ​
 +End of Fascicle One 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +107 
 +544b 
 +Fascicle Two 
 +Chapter V 
 +Mañjuśrī’s Condolence Visit 
 +1. At this point the Buddha addressed Mañjuśrī,​ “You go inquire about 
 +Vimalakīrti’s illness.” ​
 +Mañjuśrī addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, that superior one 
 +is difficult to respond to. 
 +“He has profoundly attained the true characteristic,​ and he is good at 
 +explaining the essentials of the Dharma. ​
 +“His eloquence is unhampered, and his wisdom is unhindered. ​
 +“He completely understands all the deportments of the bodhisattvas,​ and 
 +he has entered into all the secret storehouses of the buddhas. ​
 +“He has subjugated the host of Māras, and disports himself in the numi- 
 +nous penetrations. He has already attained perfection in his wisdom and skill- ​
 +ful means. ​
 +“Nevertheless,​ I will accept your sagely purport and proceed to inquire ​
 +about his illness.” ​
 +2. Thereupon the bodhisattvas,​ great disciples, Indras, Brahmās, and the 
 +four heavenly kings in the assembly all thought, “Now these two great bodhi- ​
 +sattvas Mañjuśrī and Vimalakīrti will have a discussion. They will certainly ​
 +explain a wondrous Dharma.” ​
 +At the time eight thousand bodhisattvas,​ five hundred śrā vakas, and a 
 +hundred thousand gods all wanted to follow along. ​
 +Mañjuśrī and the congregation of bodhisattvas and great disciples, ​
 +with the gods reverentially surrounding them, then entered the great city of 
 +Vaiśālī.
 +544c 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +3. At that time the Elder Vimalakīrti thought, “Now Mañjuśrī and a great 
 +congregation is coming.” ​
 +Then with his numinous power he emptied out his room, removing what 
 +was there as well as his servants. He left only a single couch, upon which he 
 +reclined in his illness. ​
 +4. Mañjuśrī entered the house, and he saw the room was empty, with 
 +[Vimalakīrti] lying alone on a single couch. ​
 +Then Vimalakīrti said, “Welcome, Mañjuśrī. You have come with the 
 +characteristic of not coming; you see with the characteristic of not seeing.” ​
 +Mañjuśrī said, “So it is, retired scholar. If one has come, there is no more 
 +coming. If one has gone, there is no more going. Why? To come is to come 
 +from nowhere; to go is to proceed nowhere. That which can be seen is then 
 +invisible. ​
 +5. “But enough of this matter. Retired scholar, can this illness be for- 
 +born? In its treatment is it diminished, so as not to increase? The World-hon- ​
 +ored One has made immeasurable courteous in quiries about you. 
 +6. “Retired scholar, what is the cause from which this illness arises? Has 
 +it been affecting you long? How will it be extinguished?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “From stupidity there is affection, and hence the gen- 
 +eration of my illness (or: the illness of self). Since all sentient beings are ill, 
 +therefore I am ill. If the illness of all sentient beings were extinguished,​ then 
 +my illness would be extinguished. Why? Bodhisattvas enter samsara on behalf ​
 +of sentient beings. Because there is samsara, there is illness. If sentient beings ​
 +were able to transcend illness, then bodhisattvas would not also be ill. 
 +7. “It is like an elder whose only son becomes ill, and the parents become ​
 +ill as well. If the son recovers from the illness, the parents also recover. Bodhi- ​
 +sattvas are like this. They have affection for sentient beings as if for their 
 +own children. When sentient beings are ill the bodhisattvas are ill also, and 
 +when sentient beings recover from their illness the bodhisattvas recover also.” ​
 +He also said, “From what cause does this illness arise? The illness of 
 +bodhisattvas arises from great compassion.” ​
 +8. Mañjuśrī said, “Retired scholar, why is this room empty, with no ser- 
 +vants?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “The countries of the buddhas are also all empty.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] asked, “With what was it emptied?​” ​
 +108
 +Chapter V 
 +[Vimalakīrti] answered, “It was emptied with emptiness.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] asked further, “How can emptiness use emptiness?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] answered, “It is empty through nondiscriminating empti- ​
 +ness.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Can emptiness be discriminated?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] answered, “Discrimination is also empty.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Where should emptiness be sought?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] answered, “It should be sought within the sixty-two [het- 
 +erodox] views.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Where should the sixty-two views be sought?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] answered, “They should be sought within the emancipa- ​
 +tion of the buddhas.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Where should the emancipation of the bud- 
 +dhas be sought?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] answered, “It should be sought within the mental processes ​
 +of all sentient beings. ​
 +“Also, regarding your question about why there are no servants—all the 
 +host of Māras and [followers of] the heterodox paths are all my servants. ​
 +Why? The host of Māras take pleasure in samsara, and the bodhisattvas do 
 +not forsake samsara. Those of the heterodox paths take pleasure in the views, ​
 +and bodhisattvas are unmoved by the views.” ​
 +9. Mañjuśrī said, “Retired scholar, what characteristics does your illness ​
 +have?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “My illness is without form, invisible.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Is this an illness of body or of mind?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] said, “It is not of the body, since the body transcends char- 
 +acteristics. Nor is it of the mind, since the mind is like a phantasm.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] asked further, “Of the four elements of earth, water, fire, and 
 +air, to which element does this illness belong?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] answered, “This illness is not of the earth element, but nei- 
 +ther does it transcend the earth element. The water, fire, and wind elements are 
 +likewise. However, the illnesses of sentient beings arise from the four elements, ​
 +and because they are ill I am ill.” ​
 +10. At that time Mañjuśrī asked Vimalakīrti,​ “How should bodhisattvas ​
 +comfort bodhisattvas who are ill?​” ​
 +109
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +Vimalakīrti said, “Explain that the body is impermanent but do not teach 
 +that one should have aversion for one’s body. Explain that the body suffers ​
 +but do not teach that one should take pleasure in nirvana. Explain that the 
 +body is without self but teach that one should guide sentient beings [any- 
 +way]. Explain that the body is emptily serene but do not teach that it is ulti- 
 +mately extinguished. ​
 +“Explain that one should regret one’s former transgressions but do not 
 +teach that they enter into the past. Comfort the illness of others with one’s ​
 +own illness. One should recognize the innumerable kalpas of suffering of 
 +one’s past lives. One should be mindful of benefiting all sentient beings and 
 +remember one’s cultivation of blessings, be mindful of one’s pure livelihood ​
 +without generating vexation but always generating exertion. Be the physi- ​
 +cian king, healing the host of illnesses. Thus should bodhisattvas comfort ​
 +bodhisattvas who are ill, making them happy.” ​
 +11. Mañjuśrī said, “Retired scholar, how should the bodhisattva who is 
 +ill control his mind?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “The bodhisattva who is ill should think as follows: ​
 +“‘This present illness of mine comes entirely from the false concepts, ​
 +confusions, and afflictions of previous lives. There is no actual dharmathat ​
 +experiences illness.’ ​
 +“Why? ‘Body’ is a provisional name for a conglomeration of the four 
 +elements, and the four elements have no master. ​
 +“The body also has no self. Furthermore,​ the arising of this illness is 
 +entirely due to attachment to self. Therefore, one should not generate attach- ​
 +ment regarding the self. You should understand that this is the foundation of 
 +illness and so eliminate the conception of ‘self’ and the conception of ‘sen- ​
 +tient being.’ ​
 +“You should give rise to the conception of dharmas, thinking as follows: ​
 +‘It is only through the combination of a host of dharmas that this body is 
 +created. Its arising is only the arising of dharmas, and its extinction is only 
 +the extinction of dharmas.’ Also, ‘these dharmas do not know themselves. ​
 +When they arise, they do not say “I have arisen.” When they are extinguished, ​
 +they do not say “I have become extinguished.”’ ​
 +12. “The bodhisattva who is ill should undertake the conception (or: 
 +visualization) of the extinguished dharmas. He should think as follows, ‘This ​
 +110 
 +545a
 +111 
 +conception of the dharmas is also a confused [view]. Such a confused [view] ​
 +is a great calamity, and I should transcend it.’ What should be transcended? ​
 +One should transcend the self and [the sense of] personal possession. What 
 +is it to transcend the self and [the sense of] personal possession? It is to tran- 
 +scend the two dharmas. What is it to transcend the two dharmas? It is to be 
 +mindful neither of interior nor exterior dharmas and to practice universal ​
 +sameness. What is universal sameness? It is for self to be same and for nir- 
 +vana to be same. Why? Both self and nirvana are empty. Why are they empty? ​
 +They are merely names, and therefore empty. Thus these two dharmas are 
 +without defini ​  tive nature. When one attains universal sameness there is no 
 +remaining illness. There is only the illness of emptiness, and the illness of 
 +emptiness is also empty. ​
 +13. “Bodhisattvas who are ill should use nonexperience to experience ​
 +the experiences. They acquire realization without becoming complete in the 
 +dharmas of buddhahood and without extinguishing experience. Given the 
 +suffering of their bodies, they think of sentient beings in the evil destinations ​
 +and generate great compassion, [thinking] ‘I have already controlled [my 
 +suffering] and I should also control [the suffering] of all sentient beings.’ ​
 +14. “Just eliminate the illness; do not eliminate dharmas. [Bodhi sattvas] ​
 +teach [sentient beings] so that they eliminate the basis of their illness. ​
 +“What is the basis of their illness? It is the presence of objectified men- 
 +tation. It is through objectified mentation that the basis of illness is consti- ​
 +tuted. ​
 +“What is objectified mentation? It is the triple world. What is it to elim- 
 +inate objectified mentation? It is done with nonattainment. ​
 +“If there is no attainment, there is no objectified mentation. What is 
 +nonattainment?​ It is the transcendence of dualistic views. ​
 +“What are dualistic views? They are the internalistic view and exter- ​
 +nalistic view. These are without attainment (i.e., not apprehensible). ​
 +“Mañjuśrī,​ this is how bodhisattvas who are ill control their minds. This 
 +is how they eliminate old age, illness, death, and suffering. This is the bodhi- ​
 +sattva’s bodhi. If it were not like this, then my cultivation would be a fool- 
 +ish waste. It is like one who is victorious over his enemies being called a 
 +hero: this is the term for the bodhisattva who has simultaneously eliminated ​
 +old age, illness, and death. ​
 +Chapter V
 +545b 
 +112 
 +15. “Bodhisattvas who are ill should think as follows: ‘If this illness of 
 +mine is neither real nor existent, then the illnesses of sentient beings are also 
 +neither real nor existent.’ ​
 +“When performing this contemplation,​ [such bodhisattvas] may gener- ​
 +ate an affectionate view of great compassion with regard to (i.e., sentimen- ​
 +tal compassion toward) sentient beings, but this should be forsaken. Why? 
 +“Bodhisattvas eliminate the vexations of sensory data and generate great 
 +compassion. If they have an affectionate view of compassion, they would 
 +thereby generate aversion toward samsara. If they are able to transcend this 
 +they will not have any [such] aversion, and no matter where they are subse- ​
 +quently reborn they will not be limited by any affectionate view. They will 
 +be born without bonds and be able to explain the Dharma to sentient beings ​
 +and emancipate them from their bonds. ​
 +“It is as the Buddha has explained: ‘It is impossible for someone with 
 +bonds to emancipate others from their bonds. It is only possible for some- 
 +one without bonds to emancipate others from their bonds.’ Therefore, bodhi- ​
 +sattvas should not generate bonds. ​
 +16. “What are bonds, and what is emancipation? ​
 +“A desirous attachment to the flavor of meditation is the bond of bodhi- ​
 +sattvas; and birth through skillful means is the emancipation of bodhisattvas. ​
 +“Further, to be without skillful means is to have one’s wisdom in bondage, ​
 +while to have skillful means is to have one’s wisdom emancipated. ​
 +“To be without wisdom is to have one’s skillful means in bondage, while 
 +to have wisdom is to have one’s skillful means eman cipated. ​
 +17. “What is it to be without skillful means and one’s wisdom in bondage? ​
 +It is for bodhisattvas to use affection to ornament the buddha lands and accom- ​
 +plish [the salvation of] sentient beings, to control oneself within [the three 
 +emancipations of] emptiness, signlessness,​ and wishlessness. This is called ​
 +being without skillful means and one’s wisdom in bondage. ​
 +“What is it to have skillful means with one’s wisdom emancipated?​ It 
 +is not to use affection to ornament the buddha lands and accomplish [the lib- 
 +eration of] sentient beings, and to control oneself so as to be without aver- 
 +sion within [the three emancipations of] emptiness, signlessness,​ and wish- 
 +lessness. This is called having skillful means with one’s wisdom emancipated. ​
 +“What is it to be without wisdom and have one’s skillful means in 
 +bondage? It is for bodhisattvas to plant a host of virtuous roots while abiding ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +113 
 +in the afflictions of desire, anger, and false views. This is called being without ​
 +wisdom with one’s skillful means in bondage. ​
 +“What is it to have wisdom with one’s skillful means emancipated?​ It 
 +is to transcend the afflictions of desire, anger, and false views and plant a 
 +host of virtuous roots, rededicating [the merit to one’s achievement of] anut- 
 +tarā samyaksaṃbodhi.This is called having wisdom with one’s skillful means 
 +emancipated. ​
 +18. “Mañjuśrī,​ bodhisattvas who are ill should contemplate the dhar- 
 +mas like this: 
 +“Also, to contemplate the body as impermanent,​ suffering, empty, and 
 +no-self is called wisdom. ​
 +“Although the body is ill, it always exists in samsara. To benefit all with- 
 +out tiring—this is called skillful means. ​
 +“Also, in contemplating the body, [one should realize] that the body does 
 +not transcend illness and illness does not transcend the body, and that this 
 +illness and this body are neither new nor old—this is called wisdom. For 
 +one’s body to be ill but never die is called skillful means. ​
 +19. “Mañjuśrī,​ thus should bodhisattvas who are ill control the mind. 
 +They should not abide within [the controlled mind], and they should also not 
 +abide in the uncontrolled mind. Why? To abide in the uncontrolled mind is 
 +the Dharma of fools. To abide in the controlled mind is the Dharma of śrā- ​
 +vakas. Therefore, bodhisattvas should not abide in either the controlled or 
 +uncontrolled mind. To transcend these two Dharmas is the practice of bodhi- ​
 +sattvas. To be within samsara and not undertake polluted practices, to abide 
 +in nirvana and never become extinguished:​ this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +20. i) “It is neither the practice of ordinary [unenlightened persons] nor 
 +the practice of the wise and sagely: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +ii) “It is neither a defiled practice nor a pure practice: this is the practice ​
 +of bodhisattvas. ​
 +iii) “Although in the past one [performed] the practices of Māra, in the 
 +present one subjugates the host of Māras: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +iv) “To seek omniscience but not to seek it at the improper time: this is 
 +the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +v) “Although one contemplates the dharmas as nongenerated,​ not to 
 +enter the primary status [of buddhahood]:​ this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +Chapter V 
 +545c
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +vi) “Although one contemplates the twelve [factors of] conditioned gen- 
 +eration, to enter the heterodox views: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +vii) “Although one attracts all sentient beings, to be without the attach- ​
 +ment of affection: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +viii) “Although one takes pleasure in transcendence,​ not to rely on the 
 +elimination of body and mind: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +ix) “Although one practices [throughout] the triple world, not to destroy ​
 +the Dharma-nature:​ this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +x) “Although practicing [the emancipation of ] emptiness, to plant the 
 +host of virtuous roots: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xi) “Although practicing [the emancipation of] signlessness,​ to save sen- 
 +tient beings: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xii) “Although practicing [the emancipation of] wishlessness,​ to mani- 
 +fest the experience of a body: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xiii) “Although practicing nonactivation,​ to activate all good practices: ​
 +this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xiv) “Although practicing the six pāramitās (perfections),​ to universally ​
 +understand the minds and mental attributes of sentient beings: this is the 
 +practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xv) “Although practicing the six penetrations,​ not to exhaust the flaws: ​
 +this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xvi) “Although practicing the four unlimited states of mind, not to desire ​
 +birth in the Brahmā world: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xvii) “Although practicing concentration,​ meditation, emancipation,​ and 
 +samādhi,​not to be born [in a corresponding heaven] according to one’s con- 
 +centration: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xviii) “Although practicing the four foundations of mindfulness,​ never 
 +to transcend the body, sensation, mind, and dharmas: this is the practice of 
 +bodhisattvas. ​
 +xix) “Although practicing the four right efforts, not to forsake exertion ​
 +of body and mind: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xx) “Although practicing the four supernormal abilities, to attain auton- ​
 +omy in numinous penetration:​ this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xxi) “Although practicing [in the context of] the five faculties, to dis- 
 +criminate the sharp and dull faculties of all sentient beings: this is the prac- 
 +tice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +114
 +546a 
 +Chapter V 
 +xxii) “Although practicing the five powers, to delight in seeking the ten 
 +powers of a buddha: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xxiii) “Although practicing the seven factors of enlightenment,​ to dis- 
 +criminate buddha wisdom: this is the practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xxiv) “Although practicing the eightfold noble path, to take pleasure in 
 +practicing the unlimited path[s] to buddhahood: this is the practice of bodhi- ​
 +sattvas. ​
 +xxv) “Although practicing concentration and contemplation,​ the auxil- ​
 +iary factors of the path, yet ultimately never to fall into extinction: this is the 
 +practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xxvi) “Although practicing [with an awareness of] the nongeneration ​
 +and nonextinction of the dharmas, to ornament one’s body with the [thirty- ​
 +two primary] characteristics and [eighty subsidiary] marks: this is the prac- 
 +tice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xxvii) “Although manifesting the deportment of a śrāvakaor pratyeka- ​
 +buddha, not to forsake the Buddha-Dharma:​ this is the practice of bodhi- ​
 +sattvas. ​
 +xxviii) “Although being in accord with the ultimate characteristic of the 
 +purity of the dharmas, to manifest one’s body where needed: this is the prac- 
 +tice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xxix) “Although contemplating the buddhas’ countries as permanently ​
 +serene like space, yet to manifest the various pure buddha lands: this is the 
 +practice of bodhisattvas. ​
 +xxx) “Although attaining the enlightenment of buddhahood, turning the 
 +wheel of the Dharma, and entering nirvana, yet not to forsake the bodhisattva ​
 +path: this is the practice of bodhisattvas.” ​
 +When [Vimalakīrti] explained [the Dharma] in these words, eight thou- 
 +sand gods within the great assembly led by Mañjuśrī all generated the inten- ​
 +tion to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +115
 +Chapter VI 
 +Inconceivable ​
 +1. At this point Śāriputra saw that there were no seats in the room. He thought, ​
 +“Where will this congregation of bodhisattvas and great disciples sit?​” ​
 +The Elder Vimalakīrti knew what he was thinking and said to Śāri putra, ​
 +“Which is it, sir—did you come for the Dharma or come seeking a seat?​” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “I came for the Dharma, not for a seat.” ​
 +2. Vimalakīrti said, “O Śāriputra,​ those who seek the Dharma should ​
 +begrudge neither body nor life. How much more so a seat! 
 +“To seek the Dharma is not a seeking in the context of form, sensation, ​
 +concept, processes, and consciousness,​ nor a seeking in the context of the 
 +realms (dhātus) and entrances (āyatanas). ​
 +“[To seek the Dharma] is not a seeking in the context of [the three realms ​
 +of] desire, form, and formlessness. ​
 +3. “O Śāriputra,​ in seeking the Dharma one should not be attached to 
 +the Buddha in seeking, nor be attached to the Dharma in seeking, nor be 
 +attached to the congregation [of the Sangha] in seeking. In seeking the Dharma, ​
 +one should seek without recognizing suffering, one should seek without cut- 
 +ting off the accumulation [of suffering], one should seek without contriving ​
 +the complete realization and cultivation of the path. Why? The Dharma is 
 +without contrived theories. If one says ‘I will recognize suffering, cut off the 
 +accumulation [of suffering], and realize the extinction [of suffering] and cul- 
 +tivate the path,’ this would be a contrived theory and not to seek the Dharma. ​
 +“O Śāriputra,​ the Dharma is named extinction: if one practices genera- ​
 +tion and extinction this is to seek generation and extinction, not to seek the 
 +Dharma. ​
 +“The Dharma is named the undefiled: if the dharmas, up to and includ- ​
 +ing nirvana, are defiled, then this is defiled attachment and not to seek the 
 +Dharma. ​
 +117
 +546b 
 +118 
 +“The Dharma is without any locus of its practice: if one practices in the 
 +Dharma, this is a locus of practice and not to seek the Dharma. ​
 +“The Dharma is without grasping and forsaking: if one grasps and for- 
 +sakes the Dharma, then this is grasping and forsaking and not to seek the 
 +Dharma. ​
 +4. “The Dharma is without locus: if one is attached to locus, this is to 
 +be attached to locus and not to seek the Dharma. ​
 +“The Dharma is named ‘without characteristics’:​ if one’s understand- ​
 +ing accords with characteristics,​ this is to seek characteristics and not to seek 
 +the Dharma. ​
 +“One cannot abide in the Dharma: if one abides in the Dharma, this is 
 +to abide in the Dharma and not to seek the Dharma. ​
 +“One cannot see, hear, sense, or know the Dharma: if one practices see- 
 +ing, hearing, sensing, and knowing, this is seeing, hearing, sensing, and know- 
 +ing and not to seek the Dharma. ​
 +5. The Dharma is named the unconditioned:​ if one practices [within] the 
 +conditioned,​ this is to seek the conditioned and not to seek the Dharma. ​
 +“Therefore,​ Śāriputra,​ if one seeks the Dharma one should be without ​
 +seeking regarding all the dharmas.” ​
 +When he spoke these words, five hundred gods attained purity of the 
 +Dharma eye with regard to the dharmas. ​
 +6. At this time the Elder Vimalakīrti asked Mañjuśrī,​ “Sir, in your wan- 
 +derings throughout the immeasurable ten million koṭis of incalculable num- 
 +bers of [buddha] countries, which buddha land has lion seats made with the 
 +best and most wondrous qualities?​” ​
 +Mañjuśrī said, “Retired scholar, in the east, as many countries away as 
 +there are grains of sand in thirty-six Ganges Rivers, there is a world-system ​
 +called Characteristic of Sumeru. Its buddha is called Sumeru Lamp King, 
 +who is manifest [in that world] at present. That buddha’s body is eighty-four ​
 +thousand yojanas tall. His lion seat is eighty-four thousand yojanas high and 
 +paramount in ornamentation.” ​
 +7. At this the Elder Vimalakīrti manifested the power of numinous pen- 
 +etration, and immediately that Buddha dispatched thirty-two thousand lion 
 +seats, tall, wide, and pure in ornamentation,​ which arrived in Vimalakīrti’s ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +119 
 +room. This was something the bodhisattvas,​ great disciples, Indras, Brah- 
 +mās, and four heavenly kings had never seen before. ​
 +The breadth of the room entirely accommodated the thirty-two thousand ​
 +lion seats with no obstruction. Nor was there any deformation of the city of 
 +Vaiśālī, Jambudvīpa,​ or all the worlds of four continents. All appeared just 
 +as before. ​
 +8. At this time Vimalakīrti said to Mañjuśrī,​ “Take a lion seat and sit 
 +there along with the bodhisattvas and superior ones. You should adjust [the 
 +size of] your body to match the image of the seat.” ​
 +Those bodhisattvas who had attained the numinous penetrations imme- 
 +diately transformed themselves to become forty-two thousand yojanas [tall] ​
 +and sat on the lion seats. But none of the beginner bodhisattvas and great 
 +disciples were able to ascend [the seats]. ​
 +At that time Vimalakīrti said to Śāriputra,​ “Take a lion seat.” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “Retired scholar, this seat is [so] huge I am unable to 
 +ascend it.” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “O Śāriputra,​ after you have worshiped Sumeru Lamp 
 +King Tathāgata you will be able to sit there.” ​
 +Then the beginner bodhisattvas and great disciples worshiped Sumeru ​
 +Lamp King Tathāgata and were immediately able to sit on the lion seats. ​
 +9. Śāriputra said, “Retired scholar, this is unprecedented! Such a small 
 +room has accommodated these huge seats, and there is no hindrance in the 
 +city of Vaiśālī, nor is there any distortion in the villages and towns of Jam- 
 +budvīpa, nor in all the worlds of four continents, nor in the palaces of the 
 +gods, dragon kings, and demonic spirits.” ​
 +10. Vimalakīrti said, “O Śāriputra,​ the buddhas and bodhisattvas have 
 +an emancipation called ‘inconceivable.’ For a bodhisattva residing in this 
 +emancipation,​ the vastness of [Mount] Sumeru can be placed within a mus- 
 +tard seed without [either of them] increasing or decreasing in size. Sumeru, ​
 +king of mountains, will remain in appearance as before, and the gods of the 
 +[heavens of the four heavenly kings and the Trayastriṃśa [Heaven] will not 
 +sense or know their own entry [into the mustard seed]. Only those one is try- 
 +ing to save will see Sumeru enter into the mustard seed. This is called abid- 
 +ing in the teaching of inconceivable emancipation. ​
 +Chapter VI
 +546c 
 +120 
 +11. “Also, [a bodhisattva] may cause the waters of the four great oceans ​
 +to enter into a single pore. 
 +“[The bodhisattva does so] without discomforting the fish, turtles, tor- 
 +toises, crocodiles, and [other] aquatic life forms, and the fundamental char- 
 +acteristics of those great oceans [remain] as before. The dragons, demonic ​
 +spirits, and asuras do not realize that they have entered [into the single pore]. ​
 +At this, the sentient beings [just mentioned] are not discomforted. ​
 +12. “Furthermore,​ Śāriputra,​ a bodhisattva residing in inconceivable ​
 +emancipation who eradicates grasping of the great tri mega chiliocosm does 
 +so just like a potter grasping a wheel in his right palm: were he to throw it 
 +past world-systems as numerous as the grains of sand in the Ganges River, ​
 +the sentient beings within [that great trimegachiliocosm] would be unaware ​
 +of where they had gone. Also, when it returns to its original location, none 
 +of them would have any conception of having gone and returned, and the 
 +fundamental characteristics of this world-system would be as before. ​
 +13. “Furthermore,​ Śāriputra,​ if there are sentient beings who can be 
 +saved through their desire for longevity, a bodhisattva will extend seven days 
 +into an entire kalpaand cause those sentient beings to consider it a kalpa.If ​
 +there are sentient beings who can be saved through their desire for brevity ​
 +of lifespan, a bodhisattva will compress an entire kalpainto seven days and 
 +cause those sentient beings to consider it [only] seven days. 
 +14. “Furthermore,​ Śāriputra,​ a bodhisattva who resides in inconceivable ​
 +emancipation can assemble the ornaments of all the buddha lands in a sin- 
 +gle country to manifest them to sentient beings. ​
 +“Furthermore,​ a bodhisattva can take the sentient beings of a buddha ​
 +land in the right palm and fly to all ten directions, showing them everything, ​
 +without moving from the original location. ​
 +“Furthermore,​ Śāriputra,​ a bodhisattva can make visible in a single pore 
 +all the articles offered to the buddhas by [all] the sentient beings throughout ​
 +the ten directions. Also, he can make visible all the suns, moons, and con- 
 +stellations of the countries of the ten directions. ​
 +“Furthermore,​ Śāriputra,​ a bodhisattva can without physical harm inhale ​
 +through the mouth all the winds of the worlds in the ten directions, and the 
 +trees outside [the bodhisattva] will not be damaged [by the winds]. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +121 
 +15. “Also, during the kalpa-ending conflagration of the world-systems ​
 +of the ten directions, he can take all the fires within his abdomen, and though ​
 +the fires will be as before he will not be harmed. ​
 +“Also, passing beyond buddha world-systems in the lower direction ​
 +more numerous than the sands of the Ganges River, he can take a single ​
 +buddha land and lift it up in the upper direction, passing beyond world-sys- ​
 +tems more numerous than the sands of the Ganges River. Like holding a nee- 
 +dle or a thorn, he is not inconvenienced [at all by doing so]. 
 +16. “Also, Śāriputra,​ a bodhisattva who resides in inconceivable eman- 
 +cipation is able to use the numinous penetrations to manifest the body of a 
 +buddha, or to manifest the body of a pratyekabuddha,​or to manifest the body 
 +of a śrāvaka,​or to manifest the body of an Indra, or to manifest the body of 
 +a Brahmā king, or to manifest the body of a world lord (i.e., heavenly king), ​
 +or to manifest the body of a universal ruler. ​
 +17. “Also, [a bodhisattva can take] all the sounds in the world-systems ​
 +of the ten directions, high, medium, and low, and can change them into the 
 +sounds (i.e., voices) of the Buddha, playing the sounds of impermanence,​ suf- 
 +fering, emptiness, and no-self, with all the various Dharmas explained by the 
 +buddhas of the ten directions within those sounds, to be heard everywhere. ​
 +18. “ Śāriputra,​ I have now briefly explained the power of the bodhi- ​
 +sattva’s inconceivable emancipation. If I were to explain it extensively a 
 +kalpawould be exhausted without completing it!” ​
 +19. Then Mahākāśyapa,​ hearing the teaching of the bodhisattva’s incon- ​
 +ceivable emancipation,​ exclaimed that it was unprecedented and said to 
 +Śāriputra,​ “It is as if someone displayed to a blind person all the colors and 
 +forms he cannot see. In the same fashion, when all the śrāvakas hear this 
 +teaching of the inconceivable emancipation,​ they are not able to comprehend ​
 +it. When the wise hear it, who among them would not generate the intention ​
 +to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi? ​
 +“How is it that we have long cut off our capacity [for understanding]? ​
 +With regard to this Mahayana we are like destroyed seeds. When all the śrā- ​
 +vakas hear this teaching of the inconceivable emancipation,​ they should all 
 +scream out a cry to shake the tri megachiliocosm. All the bodhisattvas should ​
 +accept this Dharma with great joy. 
 +Chapter VI 
 +547a
 +122 
 +“If there are bodhisattvas who devoutly understand this teaching of 
 +inconceivable emancipation,​ all the congregations of Māras will be unable ​
 +to do anything to them.” When Mahākāśyapa spoke these words, thirty-two ​
 +thousand gods all generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃ- ​
 +bodhi. ​
 +20. At that time Vimalakīrti said to Mahākāśyapa,​ “Sir, the majority of 
 +those acting as Māra kings in the incalculable asaṃ khyeyas of world-sys- ​
 +tems are bodhisattvas residing in the inconceivable emancipation. They man- 
 +ifest themselves as Māra kings through the power of skillful means, to teach 
 +sentient beings. ​
 +“Also, Kāśyapa, as to the immeasurable bodhisattvas of the ten direc- ​
 +tions, there may be people who beg them for a hand, foot, ear, nose, head, 
 +eye, marrow, brain matter, blood, flesh, skin, bone, village, town, wife and 
 +sons, slave, elephant, horse, vehicle, gold, silver, lapis lazuli, sapphire, agate, ​
 +coral, emerald, pearl, conch shell, clothing, or food. 
 +“Beggars such as these are usually bodhisattvas residing in the incon- ​
 +ceivable emancipation,​ who use the power of skillful means to go test [the 
 +bodhisattvas] and make them resolute. Why? Bodhisattvas who reside in the 
 +inconceivable emancipation possess the power of awesome virtue and there- ​
 +fore manifest the practice of pressuring, showing sentient beings difficulties ​
 +such as these. Ordinary people are inferior and lack energy, and they are 
 +unable to pressure bodhisattvas in this way. It is like the kick of a dragon or 
 +elephant, which is not something a donkey could withstand. ​
 +“This is called the ‘gate of wisdom and skillful means of bodhisattvas ​
 +residing in the inconceivable emancipation.’” ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +123 
 +547b 
 +Chapter VII 
 +Viewing Sentient Beings ​
 +1. At this point Mañjuśrī asked Vimalakīrti,​ “How should the bodhisattva ​
 +view sentient beings?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, 
 +i) “As if he were a magician seeing a conjured person, so should a bodhi- ​
 +sattva view sentient beings. ​
 +ii) “Like a wise person seeing the moon in water, ​
 +iii) like seeing the image of a face in a mirror, ​
 +iv) like a mirage when it is hot, 
 +v) like the echo of a shout, ​
 +vi) like clouds in the sky, 
 +vii) like water collecting into foam, 
 +viii) like bubbles upon water, ​
 +ix) like the firmness of the banana tree, 
 +x) like the prolonged abiding of lightning, ​
 +xi) like a fifth element, ​
 +xii) like a sixth skandha, ​
 +xiii) like a seventh sense, ​
 +xiv) like a thirteenth entrance (āyatana), ​
 +xv) like a nineteenth realm (dhātu)—so should a bodhisattva view sen- 
 +tient beings. ​
 +xvi) “Like form in the formless realm, ​
 +xvii) like a seedling emerging from burned grain, ​
 +xviii) like a stream-enterer’s mistaken view of the body, 
 +xix) like a non-returner’s (anāgāmin) entrance into a womb, 
 +xx) like an arhat’s three poisons, ​
 +xxi) like a bodhisattva who has achieved forbearance breaking the pro- 
 +hibition against anger,
 +124 
 +xxii) like a buddha’s latent influences of the afflictions, ​
 +xxiii) like a blind man seeing forms, ​
 +xxiv) like the inhalation and exhalation of someone who has entered the 
 +concentration of extinction, ​
 +xxv) like the tracks of birds in the sky, like the child of a barren woman, ​
 +xxvi) like a conjured person generating the afflictions,​ like waking up 
 +in a dream, ​
 +xxvii) like one who has entered nirvana being reborn, like fire without ​
 +smoke—so should a bodhisattva view sentient beings.” ​
 +2. Mañjuśrī said, “If a bodhisattva views sentient beings in this fashion, ​
 +how should he practice sympathy?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “The bodhisattva who views [sentient beings] in this 
 +fashion should think to himself, ‘I should explain the Dharma for sentient ​
 +beings in this fashion, and this will constitute true sympathy. ​
 +“‘I should practice the sympathy of extinction, because of the absence ​
 +of anything generated; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of no-heat, because of the absence ​
 +of the afflictions; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of sameness, because of the same- 
 +ness of the three periods of time; 
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of nondisputation,​ because of the 
 +absence of generation; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of nonduality, because of the non- 
 +conjunction of interior and exterior; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of nondestruction,​ because of the ulti- 
 +mate exhaustion [of the characteristics of sympathy]; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of resoluteness,​ because of inde- 
 +structibility;​ practice the sympathy of purity, because of the essential purity ​
 +of the dharmas; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of no extremes, because of its being 
 +like space; practice the sympathy of an arhat, because of the destruction of 
 +the “bandits” of the fetters; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of a bodhisattva,​ because of the pacifi- ​
 +cation of sentient beings; practice the sympathy of a Tathāgata, because of 
 +attainment of the characteristic of “thusness”; ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +547c 
 +125 
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of a buddha, because of the enlight- ​
 +enment of sentient beings; practice the sympathy of the naturally [accom- ​
 +plished sage], because of the imperceptibility of causes; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of bodhi,​because of the sameness of 
 +the single taste; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of inequivalence,​ because of the erad- 
 +ication of the affections; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of great compassion, because of guid- 
 +ing [sentient beings] by means of the Mahayana; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of nonrevulsion,​ because of the con- 
 +templation of emptiness and no-self; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of the charity of Dharma, because of 
 +the absence of regrets; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of morality, because of converting ​
 +the transgressors;​ practice the sympathy of forbearance,​ because of protect- ​
 +ing others and self; 
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of exertion, because of carrying the 
 +burden for sentient beings; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of concentration,​ because of not expe- 
 +riencing the flavors [of desire]; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of wisdom, because of the absence ​
 +of any time of non-understanding; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of skillful means, because of the man- 
 +ifestation of all [teaching methods]; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of non-hiding, because of the purity ​
 +of sincerity; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of the profound mind, because of the 
 +absence of heterogeneous practices; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of the non-crazed, because of not 
 +using false conventions; ​
 +“‘[I should] practice the sympathy of peace and joy, because of causing ​
 +[beings] to attain the joy of buddhahood—thus is the sympathy of the bodhi- ​
 +sattva.’” ​
 +3. Mañjuśrī asked further, “What is compassion?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] answered, “The merits achieved by the bodhisattva are 
 +entirely shared with all sentient beings.” ​
 +Chapter VII
 +126 
 +[Question:] “What is joy?​” ​
 +Answer: “If there is benefit, then one rejoices without regret.” ​
 +[Question:] “What is forsaking?​” ​
 +Answer: “The blessings generated are without expectation.” ​
 +4. Mañjuśrī also asked, “For the bodhisattva who fears samsara, what 
 +should be his reliance?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “A bodhisattva who fears samsara should rely on the 
 +power of the Tathāgata’s merit.” ​
 +Mañjuśrī also asked, “The bodhisattva who wishes to rely on the power 
 +of the Tathāgata’s merit—in what should he abide?​” ​
 +Answer: “The bodhisattva who wishes to rely on the power of the Tathā- ​
 +gata’s merit should abide in saving all sentient beings.” ​
 +5. [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “If one wishes to save sentient beings, what 
 +should be eradicated?​” ​
 +Answer: “If one wishes to save sentient beings, the afflictions should ​
 +be eradicated.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] also asked, “If one wishes to eradicate the afflictions,​ what 
 +should one practice?​” ​
 +Answer: “One should practice correct mindfulness.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] also asked, “How does one practice correct mindfulness?​” ​
 +Answer: “One should practice nongeneration and nonextinction.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What dharmas are nongenerated and what dhar- 
 +mas are nonextinguished?​” ​
 +Answer: “The not-good are [to be] nongenerated,​ and the good dhar- 
 +mas are [to be] nonextinguished.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of good and bad 
 +[dharmas]?​” ​
 +Answer: “The body is their fundamental basis.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of the body?​” ​
 +Answer: “Desire is its fundamental basis.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of desire?​” ​
 +Answer: “False discrimination is its fundamental basis.” ​
 +6. [Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of false dis- 
 +crimination?​” ​
 +Answer: “Confused conception is its fundamental basis.” ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +548a 
 +127 
 +[Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of confused con- 
 +ception?​” ​
 +Answer: “The nonabiding is its fundamental basis.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] also asked, “What is the fundamental basis of nonabiding?​” ​
 +Answer: “Nonabiding is without any fundamental [basis]. Mañjuśrī,​ all 
 +dharmas are established on the fundamental [basis] of nonabiding.” ​
 +7. At the time, there was a goddess in Vimalakīrti’s room who, upon 
 +seeing the great men listening to the Dharma being explained, made herself ​
 +visible and scattered heavenly flowers over the bodhisattvas and great dis- 
 +ciples. When the flowers reached the bodhisattvas they all immediately fell 
 +off, but when they reached the great disciples they adhered and did not fall 
 +off. Even using all their numinous powers, the disciples were unable to 
 +remove the flowers. ​
 +8. At that time, the goddess asked Śāriputra,​ “Why would you remove ​
 +the flowers?​” ​
 +[Śāriputra] answered, “These flowers are contrary to the Dharma, so I 
 +would remove them.” ​
 +The goddess said, “Do not say that these flowers are contrary to the 
 +Dharma! Why? These flowers are without discrimination. Sir, it is you who 
 +are generating discriminative thoughts. If one who has left home in the 
 +Buddha-Dharma has discrimination,​ this is contrary to the Dharma; if such 
 +a one is without discrimination,​ this is in accord with the Dharma. ​
 +“Look at the bodhisattvas,​ to whom the flowers do not adhere—this is 
 +because they have eradicated all discriminative thoughts. ​
 +“For example, when a person is afraid, non-human [beings] are able to 
 +control him. Thus, since the disciples fear samsara, then forms, sounds, ​
 +smells, tastes, and tangibles control you. None of the five desires can affect ​
 +those who have transcended fear. 
 +“It is only because the latent influences [of your afflictions] are not yet 
 +exhausted that the flowers stick to your bodies. ​
 +“For those in whom the latent influences are exhausted, the flowers do 
 +not stick.” ​
 +9. Śāriputra said, “Have you stayed in this room long?​” ​
 +Answer: “I have stayed in this room as long as you have been emanci- ​
 +pated.” ​
 +Chapter VII
 +128 
 +Śāriputra said, “How long have you stayed here?​” ​
 +The goddess said, “How long has it been since your emancipation?​” ​
 +Śāriputra was silent and did not answer. ​
 +The goddess said, “What is your great wisdom that you remain silent?​” ​
 +Answer: “Emancipation is not to be spoken of, and so I did not know 
 +what to say.” ​
 +The goddess said, “Speech and words are entirely the characteristics of 
 +emancipation. Why? 
 +“Emancipation is neither internal, nor external, nor intermediate. Words 
 +are also neither internal, nor external, nor intermediate. Therefore, Śāripu- ​
 +tra, the explanation of emancipation does not transcend words. Why? 
 +“All dharmas have the characteristic of emancipation.” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “Is it not also that emancipation is the transcendence of 
 +licentiousness,​ anger, and stupidity?​” ​
 +The goddess said, “On behalf of the self-conceited,​ the Buddha explained ​
 +that emancipation is the transcendence of licentiousness,​ anger, and stupid- ​
 +ity. If one is not self-conceited,​ the Buddha explains that licentiousness,​ anger, ​
 +and stupidity are emancipation.” ​
 +10. Śāriputra said, “Excellent,​ excellent! O goddess, what attainment do 
 +you have, and through what realization do you have eloquence such as this?​” ​
 +The goddess said, “It is because I am without attainment and without real- 
 +ization that my eloquence is like this. Why? If one had attainment and real- 
 +ization, this would be to be self-conceited with regard to the Buddha-Dharma.” ​
 +11. Śāriputra asked the goddess, “Which of the three vehicles do you 
 +seek?​” ​
 +The goddess said, “Since I convert sentient beings with the śrā vaka 
 +Dharma I am a śrāvaka. Since I convert sentient beings with the Dharma of 
 +causality I am a pratyekabuddha. Since I convert sentient beings with the 
 +Dharma of great compassion, I am a Mahayanist. ​
 +12. “Śāriputra,​ just as a person who has entered a campakaforest can 
 +smell only campakaand no other smells, thus it is if you enter this room— ​
 +you can smell only the fragrance of the Buddha’s merit and do not delight ​
 +in smelling the fragrance of the merit of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas. ​
 +“Śāriputra,​ those Indras, Brahmās, four heavenly kings, and the gods, 
 +dragons, and spirits who enter this room all hear this Superior One (i.e., ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +548b 
 +129 
 +Vimalakīrti) explain the correct Dharma, and they all leave delighting [only] ​
 +in the fragrance of the Buddha’s merit and generating the intention [to achieve ​
 +anuttarā samyak saṃbodhi]. ​
 +“Śāriputra,​ I have stayed in this room twelve years. From the beginning ​
 +I have not heard the Dharma of śrāvakaand pratyekabuddha;​ I have only 
 +heard the buddhas’ inconceivable Dharma of the bodhisattvas’ great sym- 
 +pathy and great compassion. ​
 +13. “Śāriputra,​ this room constantly manifests eight unprecedentedly ​
 +rare dharmas. What are these eight? ​
 +i) “This room is always illuminated with golden light, with no variation ​
 +day or night. It is not bright due to the illumination of sun and moon. This 
 +is the first unprecedentedly rare dharma. ​
 +ii) “Those who enter this room are not afflicted by the defile ments. This 
 +is the second unprecedentedly rare dharma. ​
 +iii) “This room always has Indras, Brahmās, the four heavenly kings, ​
 +and bodhisattvas from other regions who arrive and gather without inter- ​
 +ruption. This is the third unprecedentedly rare dharma. ​
 +iv) “In this room there is constant explanation of the six perfections and 
 +the nonretrogressive Dharma. This is the fourth unprecedentedly rare dharma. ​
 +v) “This room always produces the gods’ supreme string music, which 
 +generates the sound of the teaching of the immeasurable Dharma. This is the 
 +fifth unprecedentedly rare dharma. ​
 +vi) “This room has four great storehouses filled with the many jewels, ​
 +which are given to the destitute and used to save the poor without limit. This 
 +is the sixth unprecedentedly rare dharma. ​
 +vii) “To this room Śākyamuni Buddha, Amitābha Buddha, Akṣobhya ​
 +Buddha, Jewel Virtue Buddha, Jewel Mirage Buddha, Jewel Moon Buddha, ​
 +Jewel Ornament Buddha, Difficult to Overcome Buddha, Lion’s Echo Buddha, ​
 +and Achievement of All Benefits Buddha, and the immeasurable buddhas ​
 +of the ten directions such as these all come when the Superior One is mind- 
 +ful of them; and they extensively explain to him the buddhas’ secret Dharma ​
 +storehouse and, having explained it, then return [to their own worlds]. This 
 +is the seventh unprecedentedly rare dharma. ​
 +viii) “In this room appear all the ornamented palaces of the gods and 
 +the pure lands of the buddhas. This is the eighth unprecedentedly rare dharma. ​
 +Chapter VII
 +548c 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +“Śāriputra,​ this room always manifests the eight unprecedentedly rare 
 +dharmas. Who could see these inconceivable things and still take pleasure ​
 +in the śrāvakaDharma?​” ​
 +14. Śāriputra said, “Why do you not transform your female body?​” ​
 +The goddess said, “For the past twelve years I have sought the charac- ​
 +teristic of being female and have comprehended it to be unattainable (i.e., ​
 +imperceptible). Why should I transform it? It is as if a magician has created ​
 +a conjured female. If someone asked her, ‘Why do you not transform your 
 +female body?’ would that person’s question be proper or not?​” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “It would not. An indeterminate characteristic that has 
 +been conjured—why should it be transformed?​” ​
 +The goddess said, “All dharmas are also like this, in being without deter- ​
 +minate characteristics. So why do you ask, ‘Why do you not transform your 
 +female body?​’” ​
 +15. Then the goddess used the power of numinous penetration and 
 +changed Śāriputra’s body to be like that of a goddess, and she transformed ​
 +her own body to be like Śāriputra. She then asked, “Why do you not trans- ​
 +form this female body?​” ​
 +Śāriputra,​ in the goddess’s form, answered, “I do not know how you 
 +transformed me now into this female body.” ​
 +The goddess said, “Śāriputra,​ if you were able to transform this female ​
 +body, then all females would also be able to transform themselves. Just as 
 +Śāriputra is not female but is manifesting a female body, so are all females ​
 +likewise. Although they manifest female bodies, they are not female. ​
 +“Therefore,​ the Buddha has explained that all dharmas are neither male 
 +nor female.” ​
 +At this point the goddess withdrew her numinous power, and Śāri - 
 +putra’s body returned to as it was before. ​
 +The goddess asked Śāriputra,​ “Now where does the characteristic of 
 +form of the female body occur?​” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “The characteristic of form of the female body is with- 
 +out occurrence and without non-occurrence.” ​
 +The goddess said, “All the dharmas are also likewise, in being without ​
 +occurrence and without non-occurrence. This ‘without occurrence and with- 
 +out non-occurrence’ is as the buddhas have explained.” ​
 +130
 +Chapter VII 
 +16. Śāriputra asked the goddess, “When you die here, where will you 
 +be reborn?​” ​
 +The goddess said, “Wherever the Buddha’s [activity of] conversion is 
 +born (i.e., generated), likewise will I be born.” ​
 +[Śāriputra] said, “Where the Buddha’s [activity of] conversion is gen- 
 +erated is not [a place] of death and birth.” ​
 +The goddess said, “Sentient beings are likewise without death and birth.” ​
 +Śāriputra asked the goddess, “How long will it be until you attain anut- 
 +tarā samyaksaṃbodhi?​” ​
 +The goddess said, “When you are reborn as an [unenlightened] ordinary ​
 +person, I will achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi.” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “For me to be an ordinary person—this will never hap- 
 +pen!” ​
 +The goddess said, “My attaining of anuttarā samyak saṃ bodhi—this too 
 +will never happen. Why? Bodhiis without any locus of abiding. Therefore ​
 +there is no one who attains it.” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “The buddhas who attain anuttarā samyak saṃbodhi, ​
 +including those who have attained it and those who will attain it, are as numer- ​
 +ous as the sands of the Ganges River. What about all of them?​” ​
 +The goddess said, “It is entirely through conventional words and num- 
 +bers that one talks of the existence of the three periods of time. It is not that 
 +there is past, future, and present in bodhi!” ​
 +The goddess said, “Śāriputra,​ have you attained arhatship?​” ​
 +[Śāriputra] said, “There is no attainment, and so have I attained it.” ​
 +The goddess said, “The buddhas and bodhisattvas are also like this. 
 +There is no attainment, and so have they attained [anuttarā samyaksaṃ- ​
 +bodhi].” ​
 +17. At this time Vimalakīrti said to Śāriputra,​ “The goddess has already ​
 +served ninety-two koṭis of buddhas. She is able to disport in the numinous ​
 +penetrations of the bodhisattva,​ her vows are complete, she has attained for- 
 +bearance of the nonarising of dharmas, and she abides in nonretrogression. ​
 +By virtue of her original vows she is able to manifest the teaching of sen- 
 +tient beings as she wishes.” ​
 +131
 +549a 
 +Chapter VIII 
 +The Path of Buddhahood ​
 +1. Mañjuśrī then asked Vimalakīrti,​ “How should the bodhisattva penetrate ​
 +the path of buddhahood?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “If a bodhisattva traverses the unacceptable paths, this 
 +is to penetrate the path of buddhahood.” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] also asked, “How does the bodhisattva traverse the unac- 
 +ceptable paths?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] answered, “The bodhisattva practices the five [deeds of] 
 +interminable [retribution] without becoming distraught. ​
 +“He goes to the hells without the defilements of transgression;​ goes 
 +among the animals without the errors of ignorance, conceit, and so on. 
 +“He goes among the hungry ghosts replete in merit; traverses the paths 
 +of the form and formless realms without considering himself superior. ​
 +“He manifests acting out of desire but transcends the defiled attachments; ​
 +manifests acting out of anger at sentient beings but is without aversion. ​
 +“He manifests acting out of stupidity but uses wisdom to control his 
 +mind. 
 +“He manifests acting out of lust but forsakes both internal and external ​
 +and does not begrudge his own life; manifests the practicing of moral infrac- ​
 +tions but peacefully resides in the pure precepts, even unto harboring great fear 
 +about even minor transgressions;​ manifests acting out of anger but is always ​
 +sympathetically forbearant; manifests acting out of laziness, yet vigorously ​
 +cultivates merit; manifests acting out of a disturbed mind, yet is always mind- 
 +fully concentrated;​ manifests acting out of stupidity, yet penetrates both mun- 
 +dane and supramundane wisdom. ​
 +“He manifests the practicing of flattery and deception, yet uses good skill- ​
 +ful means to accord with the meanings found in the sutras; manifests acting ​
 +out of conceit, yet is like a bridge for sentient beings. ​
 +133
 +549b 
 +134 
 +“He manifests acting out of the afflictions,​ yet is always pure in mind; 
 +manifests becoming a Māra, yet accords with the wisdom of the Buddha and 
 +follows no other teaching; manifests becoming a śrāvaka, yet for sentient ​
 +beings explains Dharmas they have not heard before; manifests becoming a 
 +pratyekabuddha,​yet accomplishes great compassion to teach sentient beings; ​
 +manifests becoming destitute, yet has the unlimited merit of the ‘hand of 
 +treasures’;​ manifests becoming maimed through criminal punishment, yet 
 +adorns himself with all the [thirty-two primary] characteristics and [eighty ​
 +subsidiary] marks; manifests becoming low-born, yet is [actually] born within ​
 +the Buddha’s lineage and replete in its various merits; manifests becoming ​
 +feeble and ugly, yet attains the body of a Nārāyaṇa,​ which all sentient beings ​
 +enjoy seeing. ​
 +“He manifests becoming old and sick, yet always eradicates the roots 
 +of illness and transcends the fear of death. ​
 +“He manifests having the material requisites, yet always views [the world 
 +as] impermanent and is truly without desire; manifests having wife, concu- ​
 +bines, and mistresses, yet always distantly transcends the muddy filth of the 
 +five desires; manifests dumbness (i.e., muteness), yet accomplishes eloquence ​
 +and unfailing dhāraṇīs. ​
 +“He manifests becoming a ‘false ford’ (i.e., a heretic), yet uses the cor- 
 +rect ford to ‘cross over’ sentient beings [to salvation]. ​
 +“He manifests entering all the destinies, yet eradicates their causes and 
 +conditions; and manifests nirvana, yet does not eradicate samsara. ​
 +“Mañjuśrī,​ if a bodhisattva can traverse the unacceptable paths in this 
 +way, this is to penetrate the path of buddhahood.” ​
 +2. At this Vimalakīrti asked Mañjuśrī,​ “What is the seed of the Tathā- ​
 +gata?​” ​
 +Mañjuśrī said, “The possession of a body constitutes this seed. Igno- 
 +rance and affection constitute this seed. Lust, anger, and stupidity constitute ​
 +this seed. The four confusions constitute this seed. The five hindrances con- 
 +stitute this seed. The six entrances (āyatanas) constitute this seed. The seven 
 +loci of consciousness constitute this seed. The eight heterodox dharmas and 
 +nine loci of affliction constitute this seed. The ten evil actions constitute this 
 +seed. In essence, the sixty-two mistaken views and all the afflictions consti- ​
 +tute this seed.” ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +135 
 +3. [Vimalakīrti] said, “Why is this?​” ​
 +[Mañjuśrī] answered, “Anyone who sees the unconditioned and enters ​
 +the primary status [of Hinayana enlightenment] will be unable to generate ​
 +the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak saṃbodhi. ​
 +“It is just as lotus flowers do not grow on dry land on the high plateau— ​
 +these flowers grow in the muddy filth of the lowly marshes. Thus one who 
 +sees the unconditioned dharmas and enters the primary status will never be 
 +able to generate the dharmas of a buddha. It is only within the mud of the 
 +afflictions that sentient beings give rise to the dharmas of a buddha. ​
 +“Or again, it is like planting a seed in space, where it would never grow— ​
 +only in nightsoil-enriched earth can it flourish. In this way, one who enters ​
 +the unconditioned primary status will not be able to generate the dharmas ​
 +of a buddha. ​
 +“It is only when one generates a view of self as great as Mount Sumeru ​
 +that one is able to generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃ- ​
 +bodhiand generate the dharmas of a buddha. ​
 +“Therefore,​ you should understand that all the afflictions constitute the 
 +seed of the Tathāgata. It is like not being able to attain the priceless jewel- ​
 +pearl without entering the ocean. Therefore, if one does not enter the great 
 +sea of the afflictions,​ one will not be able to attain the jewel of omniscience.” ​
 +4. At this time Mahākāśyapa exclaimed, “Excellent,​ excellent, Mañjuśrī! ​
 +It is well that you have spoken thus; truly, it is as you have said! The field ​
 +of the sensory troubles constitutes the seed of the Tathāgata. ​
 +“We [disciples] are now unable to bear generating the intention to achieve ​
 +anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. It will only be after [we have committed] the 
 +transgressions [leading to] the five interminable [hells] that we will be able 
 +to generate that intention and generate the dharmas of a buddha. [As we are] 
 +now we will never be able to generate it. 
 +5. “It is like a man whose sense organs are destroyed being unable to 
 +benefit from the five desires. Likewise, śrāvakas who have eradicated the 
 +fetters are unable to benefit from the dharmas of a buddha and will never 
 +vow [to achieve buddhahood]. ​
 +6. “Therefore,​ Mañjuśrī,​ ordinary people can respond to the dharmas of 
 +a buddha, but śrāvakas cannot. Why? When an ordinary person hears the 
 +Buddha-Dharma he is able to generate the intention to achieve unsurpassable ​
 +Chapter VIII
 +549c 
 +136 
 +enlightenment and not eradicate the Three Jewels. Even if śrāvakas spend 
 +their whole lives hearing about the dharmas of a buddha, [including the ten] 
 +powers, [the four] fearlessnesses,​ [and the other] unique [dharmas of a 
 +buddha], they will never be able to generate the intention to achieve unsur- ​
 +passable enlightenment!” ​
 +7. At that time there was a bodhisattva in the assembly named Univer- ​
 +sally Manifests the Form Body. He asked Vimalakīrti, ​
 +“O retired scholar, who are your parents, wife and sons, relatives, sub- 
 +ordinates, servants, and friends? Where are your slaves, servants, elephants, ​
 +horses, and vehicles?​” ​
 +At this, Vimalakīrti replied in verse: ​
 +1. The perfection of wisdom is the bodhisattva’s mother; ​
 +Skillful means is his father. ​
 +All the assembly of guides ​
 +Without exception are the causes of his birth. ​
 +2. Joy in the Dharma is his wife, 
 +And the mind of sympathy and compassion his daughters. ​
 +The mind of goodness and sincerity is his sons, 
 +And ultimate emptiness and serenity his home. 
 +3. His congregation of disciples is the sensory troubles, ​
 +Which he converts as he wishes. ​
 +The factors of enlightenment are his good friends, ​
 +On whom he depends to achieve correct enlightenment. ​
 +4. The dharmas of the perfections are his companions, ​
 +And the four types of attraction his dancing girls, ​
 +Who sing the words of Dharma ​
 +And thereby create their music. ​
 +5. In the garden of dhāraṇī ​
 +And the grove of the flawless Dharma, ​
 +Is the pure and wonderful flower of the intention for enlightenment ​
 +And the fruit of wisdom and emancipation. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +137 
 +6. The pool of the eight emancipations ​
 +Is filled with the peaceful waters of concentration. ​
 +Scattering the flowers of the seven purities, ​
 +Here bathe the undefiled persons. ​
 +7. His elephants and horses are the five penetrations that race, 
 +And the Mahayana is his chariot. ​
 +Control is through singlemindedness, ​
 +So he wanders the roads of the eightfold correct [paths]. ​
 +8. With the [thirty-two primary] characteristics replete to 
 +ornament his form, 
 +And the host of [eighty subsidiary] marks to decorate his bodies, ​
 +Shame is his upper garment, ​
 +And the profound mind his flowered necklace ​
 +9. His wealth is the seven treasures [of the Dharma], ​
 +Which he bestows in teaching so that [beings] will flourish. ​
 +He practices according to [the Buddha’s] explanation ​
 +And rededicates [the ensuing merit] for great benefit. ​
 +10. The four dhyānas are his seat, 
 +From which his pure livelihood is generated. ​
 +Erudition increases his wisdom ​
 +And becomes the sound of his own enlightenment. ​
 +11. His food is the sweet dew of the Dharma, ​
 +And his drink the flavor of emancipation. ​
 +With the pure mind does he bathe, ​
 +Using the categories of the precepts as his incense powder. ​
 +12. Demolishing the bandits of the afflictions, ​
 +He is courageous and invincible. ​
 +Subjugating the four types of Māras, ​
 +The banner of his victory is erected at the place of enlightenment. ​
 +13. Although he understands there is no generation and no extinction, ​
 +He is born so as to manifest [the Dharma] to others. ​
 +Chapter VIII
 +550a 
 +138 
 +He manifests all the countries, ​
 +With none invisible, as [plain as] the sun. 
 +14. He makes offerings to the immeasurable koṭis ​
 +Of Tathāgatas throughout the ten directions, ​
 +Without having any thought of discriminating ​
 +Between the buddhas and himself. ​
 +15. Although he understands that the buddha lands 
 +And sentient beings are empty, ​
 +He always practices purifying his land, 
 +Teaching the hosts of beings. ​
 +16. The various categories of sentient beings— ​
 +Their forms, sounds, and deportments— ​
 +The bodhisattva with the power of fearlessness ​
 +Can simultaneously manifest them all. 
 +17. Recognizing the affairs of the host of Māras, ​
 +And while seeming to go along with their activities, ​
 +He uses wisdom and good skillful means, ​
 +So that he can manifest anything he wishes. ​
 +18. He may manifest old age, illness, and death 
 +To accomplish [the liberation of] the hosts of beings. ​
 +Comprehending that [all things] are like phantasma gorical ​
 +transformations, ​
 +His penetration is without hindrance. ​
 +19. He may manifest the kalpa-ending conflagration, ​
 +In which heaven and earth are entirely incinerated. ​
 +To the hosts of people who have the conception of permanence, ​
 +He illuminates [the truth] so that they understand impermanence. ​
 +20. Innumerable koṭis of sentient beings ​
 +All come to request the bodhisattva’s [assistance]. ​
 +He simultaneously goes to their homes 
 +And converts them so that they turn toward the path of 
 +buddhahood. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +139 
 +21. The magical arts prohibited in the scriptures, ​
 +The various skills and arts— ​
 +He manifests the performance of all these things ​
 +To benefit the hosts of beings. ​
 +22. In all the religious teachings of this world 
 +Does he leave home [to dedicate himself], ​
 +Thereby to release people from their delusions, ​
 +So they will not fall into heterodox views. ​
 +23. He may become the god of the sun or moon, 
 +A Brahmā king, or a world lord, 
 +And at times he may become earth or water, ​
 +Or again wind or fire. ​
 +24. When there are epidemics in the middle of a kalpa 
 +He manifests himself as medicinal plants. ​
 +If someone takes [these herbs], ​
 +They eradicate illness and eliminate the host of poisons. ​
 +25. When there are famines in the middle of a kalpa 
 +He manifests himself as food and drink, ​
 +First saving the hungry and thirsty, ​
 +And then speaking of the Dharma to people. ​
 +26. When armed soldiers appear in the middle of a kalpa 
 +He generates sympathy for them. 
 +He converts the sentient beings, ​
 +Causing them to abide in noncontention. ​
 +27. If there are great armies ​
 +Facing each other with equal strength, ​
 +The bodhisattva manifests his awesome power, ​
 +And, subjugating them, imposes peace. ​
 +28. In all the countries, ​
 +Wherever there are hells 
 +Does he go to save [the beings there] ​
 +From their sufferings. ​
 +Chapter VIII
 +550b 
 +140 
 +29. In all the countries, ​
 +Wherever animals devour one another, ​
 +He always manifests being born there 
 +To provide benefit for them there. ​
 +30. He manifests experiencing the five desires ​
 +And also manifests the practice of dhyāna, ​
 +Making Māra distressed ​
 +At being unable to take control. ​
 +31. For a lotus flower to be born in the midst of fire 
 +Can certainly be called rare! 
 +To practice dhyānawithin the desires— ​
 +This is just as rare. 
 +32. He may manifest himself as a prostitute, ​
 +Enticing those who enjoy sensuality. ​
 +First enticing them with desire, ​
 +And later causing them to enter the wisdom of the Buddha. ​
 +33. He may become a village master, ​
 +Or become a merchant guide, ​
 +National teacher, great minister— ​
 +In order to benefit sentient beings. ​
 +34. For the destitute ​
 +He manifests inexhaustible treasuries, ​
 +Thereby exhorting and guiding them, 
 +Causing them to generate the intention to achieve enlightenment. ​
 +35. For those who are selfish and conceited, ​
 +He manifests himself as a great warrior, ​
 +Decimating the pretensions [of sentient beings], ​
 +And causing them to abide in the unsurpassable path. 
 +36. The hosts of the fear-stricken ​
 +He shields and comforts, ​
 +First giving them fearlessness ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +141 
 +And then causing them to generate the intention to achieve ​
 +enlightenment. ​
 +37. He may manifest the transcendence of licentious desire ​
 +And become a transcendent of the five penetrations, ​
 +Guiding the hosts of beings ​
 +And making them abide in morality, forbearance,​ and sympathy. ​
 +38. Seeing those who should be served, ​
 +He manifests himself as a servant. ​
 +Taking joy in the affirmation of one’s intention, ​
 +[Those to be honored] generate the intention to achieve ​
 +enlightenment. ​
 +39. In accordance with the needs of others, ​
 +He causes them to enter into the path of buddhahood. ​
 +Using the power of good skillful means 
 +He provides sufficiency to all. 
 +40. Thus are the paths immeasurable ​
 +Which he traverses without restriction. ​
 +His wisdom is without limit 
 +In saving the innumerable hosts [of beings]. ​
 +41. Even if we had all the buddhas ​
 +Throughout immeasurable koṭis of kalpas ​
 +Praise his merits, ​
 +They would not be able to do so completely. ​
 +42. Whoever hears the Dharma such as this 
 +And does not generate the intention to achieve bodhi— ​
 +Excluding those who do not even seem human— ​
 +Are ignorant fools. ​
 +Chapter VIII
 +550c 
 +Chapter IX 
 +The Dharma Gate of Nonduality ​
 +1. At that time Vimalakīrti said to the congregation of bodhisattvas,​ “Sirs, ​
 +how does the bodhisattva enter the Dharma gate of nonduality? Each of you 
 +explain this as you wish.” ​
 +Within the assembly was a bodhisattva named Autonomous Dharma, ​
 +who said, “Sirs, generation and extinction (i.e., samsara) constitute a dual- 
 +ity. Since the dharmas were fundamentally not generated, now they are with- 
 +out extinction. To attain this [understanding is to achieve] forbearance of the 
 +nonarising of dharmas. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +2. Maintenance of Virtue Bodhisattva said, “The self and the self’s attrib- ​
 +utes constitute a duality. It is because of the existence of the self that the 
 +self’s attributes occur. If the self does not exist, then there are no attributes ​
 +of self. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +3. Unblinking Bodhisattva said, “Experience and nonexperience con- 
 +stitute a duality. If dharmas are not experienced,​ they cannot be attained (i.e., ​
 +are imperceptible). Because of unattainability,​ there is no grasping, no for- 
 +saking, no production, and no activity. This is to enter the Dharma gate of 
 +nonduality.” ​
 +4. Crown of Virtue Bodhisattva said, “Defilement and purity constitute ​
 +a duality. If one sees the real nature of defilement,​ then there is no charac- ​
 +teristic of purity, and one accords with the extinction of characteristics. This 
 +is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +5. Excellent Constellation Bodhisattva said, “Motion and mindfulness ​
 +constitute a duality. If there is motionlessness,​ there is no-mindfulness. If 
 +there is no-mindfulness,​ there is no discrimination. To penetrate this is to 
 +enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +6. Excellent Eye Bodhisattva said, “The single characteristic and the 
 +non-characteristic constitute a duality. If one understands that the single ​
 +143
 +551a 
 +144 
 +characteristic is the non-characteristic,​ and does not grasp the non-charac- ​
 +teristic but enters into universal sameness, this is to enter the Dharma gate 
 +of nonduality.” ​
 +7. Wonderful Arm Bodhisattva said, “The aspirations of bodhisattvas ​
 +and the aspirations of śrāvakas constitute a duality. If one contemplates that 
 +the characteristics of mind (i.e., mental aspirations) are empty, like phan- 
 +tasmagorical transformations,​ there is no aspiration of bodhisattvas and no 
 +aspiration of śrāvakas. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +8. Puṣya Bodhisattva said, “What is good and what is not good consti- ​
 +tute a duality. If one does not generate the good and what is not good, enter- ​
 +ing into and penetrating the limit of the non-characteristics,​ this is to enter 
 +the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +9. Lion Bodhisattva said, “Transgression and blessing constitute a dual- 
 +ity. If one penetrates the nature of transgression,​ then it is not different from 
 +blessings. Using the vajrawisdom to defin itively comprehend this charac- ​
 +teristic, and to be neither in bondage nor emancipated,​ is to enter the Dharma ​
 +gate of nonduality.” ​
 +10. Lion Mind Bodhisattva said, “To have flaws and to be flaw less con- 
 +stitute a duality. If one can attain the equivalence of the dharmas, then one 
 +will not generate the conception of flaws and flaw lessness. Being unattached ​
 +to characteristics,​ but also not abiding in the absence of characteristics,​ is to 
 +enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +11. Pure Emancipation Bodhisattva said, “The constructed and the uncon- ​
 +structed constitute a duality. If one transcends all categories, then the mind 
 +is like space. If one’s wisdom is pure and without hindrance, this is to enter 
 +the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +12. Nārāyaṇa Bodhisattva said, “The mundane and supramundane con- 
 +stitute a duality. The emptiness that is the nature of the mundane is the supra- ​
 +mundane. Within these to neither enter nor exit, neither overflow nor dis- 
 +perse, is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +13. Excellent Mind Bodhisattva said, “Samsara and nirvana constitute ​
 +a duality. If one sees the nature of samsara, there is no samsara. To be with- 
 +out bondage and without emancipation,​ neither generating nor extinguished— ​
 +to understand in this way is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +14. Manifest Perception Bodhisattva said, “Exhaustible and inexhaustible ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +145 
 +constitute a duality. Whether the dharmas are ultimately exhaustible or inex- 
 +haustible, they are all [marked by] the characteristic of inexhaustibility. The 
 +characteristic of inexhaustibility is emptiness. Emptiness is without the char- 
 +acteristics of exhaustible and inexhaustible. To enter thus is to enter the 
 +Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +15. Universal Maintenance Bodhisattva said, “Self and no-self consti- ​
 +tute a duality. Since even the self is unattainable,​ how could no-self be attain- ​
 +able? Those who see the real nature of the self will never again generate ​
 +duality. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +16. Thunder God Bodhisattva said, “Wisdom and ignorance constitute ​
 +a duality. The real nature of ignorance is wisdom. Furthermore,​ wisdom can- 
 +not grasp and transcend all the categories [of reality]. To be universally same 
 +and nondual with respect to this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +17. Joyful Vision Bodhisattva said, “Form and the emptiness of form 
 +constitute a duality. Form is emptiness—it is not that form extinguishes ​
 +emptiness but that the nature of form is of itself empty. Likewise are feel- 
 +ing, conception, process, and consciousness. Consciousness and emptiness ​
 +are two. Consciousness is emptiness—it is not that consciousness extin- ​
 +guishes emptiness but that the nature of consciousness is of itself empty. To 
 +[abide] within and penetrate this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +18. Characteristic of Wisdom Bodhisattva said, “The differentiation of 
 +the four types [of elements] (i.e., earth, water, fire, and air) and the differ- ​
 +entiation of the type of space constitute a duality. The nature of the four types 
 +[of elements] is the nature of emptiness. Given that the former and latter ​
 +[types of elements] are empty, the intermediate is also empty. To understand ​
 +the natures of the types [of elements] in this way is to enter the Dharma gate 
 +of nonduality.” ​
 +19. Wonderful Mind Bodhisattva said, “The eye and forms constitute a 
 +duality. If one understands that the nature of the eye is neither licentious, nor 
 +angry, nor stupid with regard to forms, this is called serene extinction. Like- 
 +wise, the ear and sounds, the nose and smells, the tongue and tastes, the body 
 +and tangibles, and the mind and dharmas constitute dualities. If one under- ​
 +stands that the nature of the mind is neither licentious, nor angry, nor stupid ​
 +with regard to dharmas, this is called serene extinction. To abide peacefully ​
 +within this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +Chapter IX 
 +551b
 +146 
 +20. Inexhaustible Mind Bodhisattva said, “Charity and the rededication ​
 +[of the merit of charity] to omniscience constitute a duality. The nature of 
 +charity is the nature of the rededication to omniscience. Likewise, morality, ​
 +forbearance,​ exertion, meditation, and wisdom constitute dualities with the 
 +rededication to omniscience. The nature of wisdom is the nature of the re - 
 +dedication to omniscience. To enter the single characteristic with respect to 
 +this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +21. Profound Wisdom Bodhisattva said, “[The three emancipations of] 
 +emptiness, signlessness,​ and wishlessness constitute dualities. The empty is 
 +the signless, and the signless is the wishless. If [one achieves] the empty, the 
 +signless, and the wishless, then there is no mind, thought, or consciousness. ​
 +In this single gate of emancipation are the three gates of emancipation. This 
 +is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +22. Serene Capacity Bodhisattva said, “Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha ​
 +constitute dualities. The Buddha is the Dharma, and the Dharma is the Sangha. ​
 +These Three Jewels all [have] the characteristic of the unconditioned and are 
 +equivalent to space, and all dharmas are also likewise. To be able to prac- 
 +tice accordingly is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +23. Unhindered Mind Bodhisattva said, “The body and the extinction ​
 +of the body constitute a duality. The body is identical to the extinction of the 
 +body. Why? Those who see the real characteristic of the body do not gener- ​
 +ate seeing the body and seeing the extinction of the body. Body and the extinc- ​
 +tion of the body are without duality and cannot be differentiated (lit., “with- ​
 +out discrimination”). To neither be surprised or afraid with respect to this is 
 +to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +24. Superior Excellence Bodhisattva said, “The good [actions] of body, 
 +speech, and mind constitute dualities. These three [types of] action all have 
 +the characteristic of the nonconstructed. The body’s characteristic of the non- 
 +constructed is the same as speech’s characteristic of the nonconstructed. ​
 +Speech’s characteristic of the nonconstructed is the same as the mind’s char- 
 +acteristic of the nonconstructed. The characteristic of the nonconstructed of 
 +these three [types of] action is the same as the characteristic of the noncon- ​
 +structed of all dharmas. To be able to be in accord with this wisdom of the 
 +nonconstructed is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +25. Field of Blessings Bodhisattva said, “Meritorious action, transgressive ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +551c 
 +147 
 +action, and immobility constitute dualities. The real nature of these three 
 +[types of] action is emptiness. Emptiness is without meritorious action, trans- ​
 +gressive action, and immobility. Not to generate these three [types of] action ​
 +is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +26. Flower Ornament Bodhisattva said, “The generation of dualities ​
 +from the self constitutes a duality. To see the real characteristic of the self is 
 +to not generate dualistic dharmas. If one does not abide in dualistic dhar- 
 +mas, then there is no consciousness. To be without consciousness is to enter 
 +the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +27. Store of Virtue Bodhisattva said, “The characteristics of the attain- ​
 +able (i.e., the perceptible) constitute dualities. If there is unattainability,​ then 
 +there is no grasping and forsaking. If there is no grasping and no forsaking, ​
 +this is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +28. Superior Moon Bodhisattva said, “Darkness and illumination con- 
 +stitute a duality. If there is no darkness and no illumination,​ then there is no 
 +duality. Why? If one enters into the concentration of extinction, there is no 
 +darkness and no illumination. The characteristics of all the dharmas are also 
 +like this. To enter this with universal sameness is to enter the Dharma gate 
 +of nonduality.” ​
 +29. Jewel Seal Hand Bodhisattva said, “To delight in nirvana and not to 
 +delight in the world constitute a duality. If one does not delight in nirvana ​
 +and does not have aversion for the world, then there is no duality. Why? If 
 +there is bondage, then there is emancipation. If there is fundamentally no 
 +bondage, who would seek emancipation?​ Without bondage or emancipation, ​
 +then there is no delighting or aversion. This is to enter the Dharma gate of 
 +nonduality.” ​
 +30. Crown of Pearls King Bodhisattva said, “The correct path and the 
 +heterodox paths constitute a duality. Those who abide in the correct path do 
 +not discriminate between the heterodox and the correct. To transcend this 
 +duality is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +31. Delights in the Real Bodhisattva said, “The real and the unreal con- 
 +stitute a duality. To really see is not to see reality, and how much more so 
 +the not-real? Why? That which the physical eye cannot see can be seen by 
 +the wisdom eye, but this wisdom eye is without seeing and without not-see- ​
 +ing. This is to enter the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +Chapter IX
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +32. After the various bodhisattvas had thus each made their explana- ​
 +tions, [Vimalakīrti] asked Mañjuśrī,​ “How does the bodhisattva enter the 
 +Dharma gate of nonduality?​” ​
 +Mañjuśrī said, “As I understand it, it is to be without words and with- 
 +out explanation with regard to all the dharmas—without manifestation,​ with- 
 +out consciousness,​ and transcending all questions and answers. This is to 
 +enter the Dharma gate of non duality.” ​
 +33. Mañjuśrī then asked Vimalakīrti,​ “We have each made our own expla- ​
 +nations. Sir, you should explain how the bodhisattva enters the Dharma gate 
 +of nonduality.” ​
 +At this point Vimalakīrti was silent, saying nothing. ​
 +Mañjuśrī exclaimed, “Excellent,​ excellent! Not to even have words or 
 +speech is the true entrance into the Dharma gate of nonduality.” ​
 +When this “Discourse on Entering the Dharma Gate of Nonduality” was 
 +explained, five thousand bodhisattvas within the congregation all entered the 
 +Dharma gate of nonduality and attained forbearance of the nonarising of 
 +dharmas. ​
 +End of Fascicle Two 
 +148
 +552a 
 +149 
 +Fascicle Three 
 +Chapter X 
 +The Buddha Accumulation ​
 +of Fragrances ​
 +1. At this point Śāriputra thought to himself, “It is almost noon. What will 
 +all these bodhisattvas eat?​” ​
 +Then Vimalakīrti,​ knowing his thoughts, said, “The Buddha has explained ​
 +the eight emancipations. You, sir, have accepted them as your practice. How 
 +can you mix up the desire for food and [that of] listening to the Dharma? If 
 +you wish to eat, then just wait a moment. I will provide you with an unprece- ​
 +dented meal.” ​
 +2. Then Vimalakīrti entered into samādhiand,​ using his powers of numi- 
 +nous penetration,​ manifested to the great congregations that in the upper 
 +direction, past buddha lands as numerous as the sands of forty-two Ganges ​
 +Rivers, there was a country called Host of Fragrances, with a buddha named 
 +Accumulation of Fragrances, who currently exists in that world. In compar- ​
 +ison with the world-systems of the other buddhas thoughout the ten direc- ​
 +tions, the fragrances [experienced by] the humans and gods of that country ​
 +are supreme. In that land, the names “śrāvaka”and “pratyeka ​   buddha”do ​
 +not exist—there is only the great congregation of pure bodhisattvas,​ for whom 
 +the Buddha explains the Dharma. In that world all the buildings are made of 
 +fragrance. In doing walking meditation on that fragrant earth, the gardens ​
 +are all fragrant. The fragrance of the food there circulates throughout the 
 +immeasurable worlds in the ten directions. ​
 +At the time, that Buddha and the bodhisattvas [in that country] were just 
 +sitting together to eat. The gods in attendance [in Vimalakīrti’s assembly]
 +552b 
 +150 
 +all exclaimed at the ornament of fragrance, and they all generated the inten- ​
 +tion to achieve anuttarā samyak saṃbodhi,​making offerings to that buddha ​
 +and the bodhisattvas. ​
 +Everyone in the great congregations [in Vimalakīrti’s room] saw this. 
 +3. At that time, Vimalakīrti asked the congregation of bodhisattvas,​ “Sirs, ​
 +who is able to go get food from that buddha?​” ​
 +Through the influence of Mañjuśrī’s awesome numinous power, they 
 +all remained silent. ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “Sir, are you not ashamed for this great congregation?​” ​
 +Mañjuśrī said, “As the Buddha has said, one should not belittle those 
 +of no learning.” ​
 +4. At this Vimalakīrti,​ without rising from his seat, created by transfor- ​
 +mation a bodhisattva whose [thirty-two primary] characteristics and [eighty ​
 +subsidiary] marks were radiantly bright, whose glorious presence was par- 
 +ticularly excellent, surpassing all in the assembly. [Vimalakīrti] announced ​
 +to him, “Go to the world in the upper direction where, separated from here 
 +by buddha lands as numerous as the sands of forty-two Ganges Rivers, there 
 +is a country named Host of Fragrances. The buddha [of that country], named 
 +Accumulation of Fragrances, is just sitting down to eat with the bodhisattvas. ​
 +Go there, and say as I tell you: ‘Vimalakīrti bows his head to the feet of the 
 +World-honored One, and with great respect he inquires immeasurable times 
 +as to whether you might have some slight illness, some slight vexation, and 
 +whether your energies are at peace. He wishes to obtain the leftovers of the 
 +World-honored One’s meal, which would be given to accomplish the Buddha’s ​
 +work in the sahāworld. ​
 +“‘It will cause those who delight in inferior dharmas to disseminate the 
 +great path, and it will also cause the Tathāgata’s (i.e., Buddha Accumulation ​
 +of Fragrances) reputation to be universally known.’” ​
 +5. Then the conjured bodhisattva ascended to the upper direction in front 
 +of the assembly. The entire congregation saw him arrive at that Host of Fra- 
 +grances world and worship at that Buddha’s feet. They also heard him say, 
 +“Vimalakīrti bows his head to the feet of the World-honored One, and 
 +with great respect he inquires immeasurable times as to whether you might 
 +have some slight illness, some slight vexation, and whether your energies ​
 +are at peace. He wishes to obtain the leftovers of the World-honored One’s ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +151 
 +meal, which would be given to accomplish the Buddha’s work in the sahā 
 +world. ​
 +“It will cause those who delight in inferior dharmas to disseminate the 
 +great path, and it will also cause the Tathāgata’s reputation to be universally ​
 +known.” ​
 +6. When the great beings there saw the conjured bodhisattva,​ they 
 +exclaimed that it was unprecedented. “Where has this superior person come 
 +from? Where is the sahāworld? What does he mean, ‘those who delight in 
 +inferior dharmas’?​” ​
 +So did they question the Buddha [Accumulation of Fragrances],​ and 
 +that buddha said, “In the lower direction, separated from here by buddha ​
 +lands as numerous as the sands of forty-two Ganges Rivers, is a world named 
 +sahā. The buddha there is named Śākyamuni,​ who exists at present in an evil 
 +age of the five corruptions. He extensively disseminates the teaching of the 
 +path in order to enlighten those who delight in inferior dharmas. One of his 
 +bodhisattvas is named Vimala kīrti, who resides in the inconceivable eman- 
 +cipation and explains the Dharma for the bodhisattvas [of the sahāworld]. ​
 +Therefore, he has sent this conjured [bodhisattva] here to praise my name 
 +and extol this land, so that those bodhisattvas will increase their merit.” ​
 +7. The bodhisattvas there said, “How was he able to create this conjured ​
 +[bodhisattva]?​ How great are his powers of merit, fearlessness,​ and the bases 
 +of numinous [power]?​” ​
 +That Buddha said, “[Vimalakīrti’s powers are] extremely great. He sends 
 +transformations to all the ten directions, where they carry out the Buddha’s ​
 +work and benefit sentient beings.” ​
 +8. Then Accumulation of Fragrances Tathāgata gave his bowl with its 
 +host of fragrances and filled with fragrant food to the conjured bodhisattva. ​
 +The nine million bodhisattvas there then all spoke in unison, “We wish 
 +to proceed to the sahāworld to make offerings to Śākyamuni Buddha. We 
 +also wish to see Vimalakīrti and the other bodhisattva congregations.” ​
 +The Buddha said, “You may go. 
 +“However, withdraw the fragrance of your bodies, so as not to cause the 
 +sentient beings there to generate thoughts of deluded attachment. Also, you 
 +should forsake your original forms, so as not to cause those seeking to become ​
 +bodhisattvas in that country to be ashamed of themselves. In addition, you 
 +Chapter X
 +552c 
 +152 
 +must not harbor feelings of belittlement or thoughts of the hindrances [pre- 
 +sent in that world]. Why? The countries of the ten directions are all like space 
 +(i.e., devoid of fixed reality). Furthermore,​ [you should realize] that the bud- 
 +dhas do not completely manifest their pure lands solely in order to convert ​
 +those who delight in inferior dharmas.” ​
 +9. Then, by means of the Buddha’s awesome numinous [penetrations] ​
 +and Vimalakīrti’s power, the conjured bodhisattva took the bowl and food 
 +and, accompanied by those nine million bodhisattvas,​ suddenly disappeared ​
 +from that world. In an instant, they arrived at Vimalakīrti’s house. ​
 +10. Vimalakīrti then created by transformation nine million lion seats, ​
 +excellently ornamented as before, and the bodhisattvas all sat upon them. 
 +The conjured bodhisattva gave the bowl full of fragrant food to 
 +Vimalakīrti. ​
 +The fragrance of the food wafted through Vaiśālī and the [whole] ​
 +trimegachiliocosm. ​
 +When the brahmans and retired scholars of Vaiśālī smelled this fra- 
 +grance, their bodies and minds were joyful, and they exclaimed at the unprece- ​
 +dented [event]. At this, Moon Canopy, the leader of the elders, followed by 
 +eighty-four thousand people, came and entered Vimalakīrti’s house. ​
 +Seeing that the room contained so many lion seats, which were so tall 
 +and broad, with excellent ornamentation,​ in great joy they all worshiped the 
 +congregation of bodhisattvas and great disciples, then stood to one side. The 
 +earth spirits, sky spirits, and gods of the desire and form realms, smelling ​
 +this fragrance, also entered Vimalakīrti’s house. ​
 +11. Then Vimalakīrti said to Śāriputra and the other great śrāvakas, “Sirs, ​
 +you may eat the Tathāgata’s food of the flavor of sweet dew, which is per- 
 +fumed with the limitless intention of great compassion, and which will not 
 +be diminished by its consumption.” ​
 +12. Another śrāvakawondered,​ “There is not much of this food, yet 
 +everyone in the great assembly is supposed to eat!” ​
 +The conjured bodhisattva said, “Do not measure the limitless blessings ​
 +and sagacity of the Tathāgata with the small merit and small wisdom of a 
 +śrāvaka! Even were the four seas to dry up, this food would not be exhausted. ​
 +Even if everyone ate as much as [Mount] Sumeru for an entire kalpa, we 
 +would never be able to exhaust it. Why? That which is left over from the 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +153 
 +meal of someone who fully possesses the merits of morality, meditation, wis- 
 +dom, sagacity, emancipation,​ and the vision and hearing of emancipation ​
 +can never be exhausted.” ​
 +13. At this, the bowl of food satisfied all within the assembly, yet was 
 +unchanged and undepleted. The bodhisattvas,​ śrāvakas, gods, and humans ​
 +who ate this food became physically peaceful and happy, as if they were all 
 +bodhisattvas who take pleasure in ornamenting their [buddha] countries. ​
 +Also, their pores all exuded wondrous fragrances, just like the fragrances of 
 +the trees of the Host of Fragrances country. ​
 +14. Vimalakīrti then asked the bodhisattvas from the Host of Fragrances ​
 +[world], “How does Accumulation of Fragrances Tathāgata explain the 
 +Dharma?​” ​
 +Those bodhisattvas said, “In our land the Tathāgata explains [the Dharma] ​
 +without words. He simply uses the host of fragrances to make the gods and 
 +humans enter into the practice of the Vinaya. The bodhisattvas each sit beneath ​
 +fragrant trees, smelling such wondrous fragrances, from which they attain ​
 +the ‘samādhiof the repository of all virtues.’ Those who attain this samādhi ​
 +all become replete in the merits of the bodhisattva.” ​
 +15. Those bodhisattvas asked Vimalakīrti,​ “Now, how does the World- ​
 +honored One Śākyamuni explain the Dharma here?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “The sentient beings of this land are obdurate and 
 +difficult to convert, and so the Buddha disciplines them by means of stern 
 +language. ​
 +“He says, ‘These are the hells, these are the animals, and these are the 
 +hungry ghosts. These are the places of difficulty,​ and these are the places ​
 +where the foolish are born. 
 +“‘These are licentious practices of the body, and these are the retribu- ​
 +tions for licentious practices of the body. These are licentious practices of 
 +the mouth, and these are the retributions for licentious practices of the mouth. ​
 +These are licentious practices of the mind, and these are the retributions for 
 +licentious practices of the mind. 
 +“‘This is to kill sentient beings, and this is the retribution for killing sen- 
 +tient beings. This is to take what is not given, and this is the retribution for 
 +taking what is not given. This is licentiousness,​ and this is the retribution for 
 +licentiousness. This is false speech, and this is the retribution for false speech. ​
 +Chapter X 
 +553a
 +154 
 +This is slander, and this is the retribution for slander. This is defamation, and 
 +this is the retribution for defamation. This is meaningless speech, and this 
 +is the retribution for meaningless speech. ​
 +“‘These are desire and jealousy, and this is the retribution for desire and 
 +jealousy. These are anger and vexation, and this is the retribution for anger 
 +and vexation. These are heterodox views, and this is the retribution for het- 
 +erodox views. This is parsimony, and this is the retribution for parsimony. ​
 +This is immorality (lit., “breaking the precepts”),​ and this is the retribution ​
 +for immorality. This is anger, and this is the retribution for anger. This is 
 +laziness, and this is the retribution for laziness. This is perturbation,​ and this 
 +is the retribution for perturbation. This is stupidity, and this is the retribu- ​
 +tion for stupidity. ​
 +“‘This is to be bound by the precepts, this is to maintain the precepts, ​
 +and this is to transgress the precepts. This is what you should do, and this is 
 +what you should not do. These are hindrances, and these are not hindrances. ​
 +These are transgressions,​ and these are not transgressions (lit., “transcend ​
 +transgression”). This is pure, and this is defiled. This is to have flaws, and 
 +this is to be flawless. This is the wrong path, and this is the correct path. This 
 +is the conditioned,​ and this is the unconditioned. This is worldly, and this is 
 +nirvana.’ ​
 +“Since the minds of people so difficult to convert are like monkeys, one 
 +must use several types of Dharma to control their minds, so that they can be 
 +disciplined. It is like elephants and horses who are stubborn and uncontrol- ​
 +lable, who can only be disciplined by making them suffer to the bone. Because ​
 +the sentient beings [of this world] are obdurate like this, [Śākyamuni] uses 
 +all sorts of painfully strict language to get [sentient beings] to enter into the 
 +Vinaya.” ​
 +16. When those bodhisattvas heard this explanation,​ they all said, “How ​
 +unprecedented! Thus the World-honored One Śākyamuni Buddha conceals ​
 +his immeasurable autonomous powers and uses that which is enjoyed by the 
 +poverty-stricken to save sentient beings. The bodhisattvas here are also able 
 +to labor and be humble, and it is with immeasurable great compassion that 
 +they have been born in this buddha land.” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “The bodhisattvas of this land are resolute in their com- 
 +passion for the sentient beings here. Truly, it is as you have said. Thus in a 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +155 
 +single lifetime they benefit more sentient beings than you do in that country ​
 +(i.e., the Host of Fragrances world) in a hundred thousand kalpas of prac- 
 +tice. Why? 
 +17. “This sahāworld has ten excellent dharmas (i.e., features) that are 
 +lacking in the other pure lands. What are these ten? 
 +i) “The poor are attracted by charity, ​
 +ii) “the transgressors are attracted by pure precepts, ​
 +iii) “the angry are attracted by forbearance, ​
 +iv) “the lazy are attracted by exertion, ​
 +v) “the perturbed are attracted by meditation, ​
 +vi) “the foolish are attracted by wisdom, ​
 +vii) “those who experience the eight difficulties are saved by explana- ​
 +tion of how to eliminate difficulties, ​
 +viii) “those who take pleasure in the Hinayana are saved by the teach- ​
 +ing of the Mahayana, ​
 +ix) “those without merit may be saved by the various good roots, and 
 +x) “[the liberation of] sentient beings is constantly being accomplished ​
 +by means of the four attractions. ​
 +“These are the ten.” ​
 +18. Those bodhisattvas said, “How many dharmas do bodhisattvas have 
 +to accomplish in their flawless practice in this world to be born in a pure land?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “Bodhisattvas accomplish eight dharmas in their flaw- ​
 +less practice in this world so as to be born in a pure land. What are the eight? ​
 +i) “They benefit sentient beings without seeking recompense, ​
 +ii) “they experience various sufferings in place of all sentient beings, ​
 +iii) “they donate all the merit from their actions to others, ​
 +iv) “in humility and non-interference they are even-minded toward all 
 +sentient beings, ​
 +v) “they view [other] bodhisattvas as if they were buddhas, ​
 +vi) “they hear and do not doubt sutras they have not heard before, ​
 +vii) “they do not become refractory toward śrāvakas, and 
 +viii) “they are not jealous of the offerings [received by] others and do 
 +not become haughty over benefit to themselves. ​
 +“In these [eight dharmas] they discipline their minds, always reflecting ​
 +on their own errors and not proclaiming the short comings of others, yet 
 +Chapter X 
 +553b
 +156 
 +always singlemindedly seeking the various merits. These are the eight dhar- 
 +mas.” ​
 +When Vimalakīrti and Mañjuśrī explained this Dharma to the great con- 
 +gregation, a hundred thousand gods and humans all generated the intention ​
 +to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi,​and ten thousand bodhisattvas attained ​
 +the forbearance of the non arising of dharmas. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +157 
 +Chapter XI 
 +Practices of the Bodhisattva ​
 +1. Meanwhile, the Buddha had been explaining the Dharma in the garden of 
 +Āmrapālī. The land there suddenly expanded and became ornamented, and 
 +the entire assembly became gold in color. ​
 +Ānanda asked the Buddha, “World-honored One, due to what causes ​
 +and conditions are there these propitious responses? This place has suddenly ​
 +expanded and became ornamented, and the entire assembly has become gold 
 +in color!” ​
 +The Buddha told Ānanda, “This is because Vimalakīrti and Mañ juśrī, ​
 +together with the great congregations that surround and revere them, will 
 +decide they want to come here. It is in anticipation of this that these propi- ​
 +tious responses have occurred.” ​
 +2. Just then Vimalakīrti said to Mañjuśrī,​ “We should go together to see 
 +the Buddha, to revere him and make offerings along with the bodhisattvas.” ​
 +Mañjuśrī said, “Excellent! Let us go. This is just the right time.” ​
 +Vimalakīrti,​ using his numinous power, lifted the great congregations ​
 +together with the lion seats in his right hand and proceeded to where the 
 +Buddha was. When he arrived there he placed them on the ground. He bowed 
 +his head to the Buddha’s feet, then circumambulated him seven times. Hold- 
 +ing his palms together single mindedly, he then stood to one side. 
 +The bodhisattvas all left their seats and bowed their heads to the Buddha’s ​
 +feet, then circumambulated him seven times, and stood to one side. The great 
 +disciples, Śakras, Brahmās, four heavenly kings, and so on, also all left their 
 +seats to bow their heads to the Buddha’s feet, and then stood to one side. 
 +Then the World-honored One, according to custom, requested that the 
 +bodhisattvas all sit once again. They all followed these instructions,​ and the 
 +congregation sat and became settled. ​
 +3. The Buddha said to Śāriputra,​ “Have you seen what this bodhisattva, ​
 +this great being, has done with his autonomous numinous power?”
 +553c 
 +158 
 +[Śāriputra said,] “Yes, I have seen.” ​
 +[The Buddha said,] “What do you think about it?​” ​
 +[Śāriputra said,] “World-honored One, I look upon what has been done 
 +as inconceivable. It is something that my mind cannot figure out and which 
 +my powers cannot even estimate.” ​
 +4. Then Ānanda addressed the Buddha, “World-honored One, the fragrance ​
 +I smell now is one I have never experienced before. What fragrance is it?​” ​
 +The Buddha told Ānanda, “This is the fragrance from the pores of those 
 +bodhisattvas.” ​
 +Then Śāriputra said to Ānanda, “Our pores are also emitting this fra- 
 +grance.” ​
 +Ānanda said, “Where does it come from?​” ​
 +[Śāriputra] said, “This elder, Vimalakīrti,​ brought the leftover meal from 
 +the buddha of the Host of Fragrances country to his house [for us to] eat, and 
 +so all our pores are fragrant like this.” ​
 +5. Ānanda asked Vimalakīrti,​ “How long will this fragrance last?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “Until the food is digested.” ​
 +[Ānanda] said, “When will the food be digested?​” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti] said, “The energy of this food will be digested after seven 
 +days. 
 +6. “Also, Ānanda: ​
 +i) “If a śrāvakawho has not yet entered the primary status [of Hinayana ​
 +enlightenment] eats this food, it will only be digested after he enters the pri- 
 +mary status. ​
 +ii) “If someone who has already entered the primary status eats this food, 
 +it will only be digested after his mind is emancipated. ​
 +iii) “If someone who has not generated the intention [to follow the] 
 +Mahayana eats this food, it will only be digested after he has generated that 
 +intention. ​
 +iv) “If someone who has already generated the [Mahayana] intention ​
 +eats this food, it will only be digested after he has attained forbearance of 
 +the birthlessness of dharmas. ​
 +v) “If someone who has already attained forbearance of the nonarising ​
 +of dharmas eats this food, it will only be digested after he has reached his 
 +penultimate rebirth. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +vi) “It is as if there were a medicine called ‘superior flavor’ that is digested ​
 +only after all the poisons in the body of the person who takes it have been 
 +eliminated. ​
 +7. “Like this, this food eliminates all the poisons of the afflictions and 
 +then is digested.” ​
 +Ānanda addressed the Buddha, “This is unprecedented! World-honored ​
 +One, can fragrant food perform the Buddha’s work like this?​” ​
 +The Buddha said, “Just so, just so, Ānanda. ​
 +8. “There are buddha lands where the illumination of the Buddha per- 
 +forms the Buddha’s work, or where the bodhisattvas perform the Buddha’s ​
 +work, or where conjured persons created by the Buddha perform the Buddha’s ​
 +work, or where the bodhi tree performs the Buddha’s work, or where the 
 +Buddha’s clothing and bedding perform the Buddha’s work, or where food 
 +performs the Buddha’s work, or where groves and pavilions perform the 
 +Buddha’s work, or where the thirty-two characteristics and eighty subsidiary ​
 +marks perform the Buddha’s work, or where the Buddha’s body performs the 
 +Buddha’s work, or where space performs the Buddha’s work. Sentient beings ​
 +respond to these conditions and are able to enter into the practice of the Vinaya. ​
 +9. “There are [other buddha lands] where dreams, phantasms, shadows, ​
 +echos, images in mirrors, the moon [reflected in] water, mirages during times 
 +of heat, and other metaphors perform the Buddha’s work; or where sounds, ​
 +words, and letters perform the Buddha’s work; or where a pure buddha land 
 +is serene and silent, where the wordless, the explanationless,​ the manifesta- ​
 +tionless, the consciousnessless,​ the unconstructed,​ and the unconditioned ​
 +perform the Buddha’s work. 
 +10. “Thus, Ānanda, given the buddhas’ deployment of the deportments ​
 +and their various actions, there is nothing that is not the Buddha’s work. 
 +“Ānanda, there may occur these eighty-four thousand gateways of afflic- ​
 +tion of the four Māras, which trouble sentient beings. ​
 +11. “The buddhas use these dharmas to perform the Buddha’s work— ​
 +this is called ‘to enter into the Dharma gates of all the buddhas.’ ​
 +“When bodhisattvas enter these gates, even if they see all the pure and 
 +excellent buddha lands they do not become happy, do not desire them, and 
 +do not become elated; even if they see all the impure buddha lands, they do 
 +not become sad, do not become hindered, and do not become melancholy. ​
 +159 
 +Chapter XI 
 +554a
 +160 
 +They merely generate pure minds with regard to the buddhas, being joyful ​
 +and respectful toward the unprecedented [teachings they encounter]. ​
 +“The merits of the buddhas, the Tathāgatas,​ are universally same, and 
 +it is in order to convert sentient beings that they manifest different buddha ​
 +lands. ​
 +12. “Ānanda, when you observe the buddhas’ countries, the lands are 
 +numerous but space is not (i.e., there is only one “space”). Likewise, when 
 +you observe the form bodies of the buddhas, they are numerous but their 
 +unhindered wisdom is not. 
 +13. “Ānanda, regarding the buddhas’ form bodies; their awesome char- 
 +acteristics and qualities; their morality, meditation, wisdom, emancipation, ​
 +knowledge and vision of emancipation;​ their powers, fearlessnesses,​ [and 
 +other] exclusive attributes [of the buddhas]; their great sympathy, great com- 
 +passion, and the practices of the deportments;​ their lifespan, explanation of 
 +the Dharma, and teaching; and their purification of buddha countries where 
 +they accomplish [the emancipation of] sentient beings— ​
 +“all [the buddhas] are identically replete in all these Buddha-Dharmas. ​
 +Therefore, they are called samyaksaṃbuddha,​they are called tathāgata,​they ​
 +are called buddha. ​
 +“Ānanda, if I were to explain the meanings of these three [Sanskrit] ​
 +phrases extensively,​ you would not be able to experience them completely ​
 +even if you had the lifespan of a kalpa! Even if all the sentient beings in the 
 +trimegachiliocosm were, like Ānanda, paramount in erudition, and retained ​
 +them mindfully with dhāraṇī,​ and even if they had lifespans of a kalpa,​they ​
 +would not be able to experience them completely! Thus it is, Ānanda, that 
 +the anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhiof the buddhas is limitless, and their wisdom ​
 +and eloquence is inconceivable!” ​
 +14. Ānanda addressed the Buddha, “From now on I will not be able to 
 +consider myself erudite.” ​
 +The Buddha told Ānanda, “Do not become discouraged. Why? I have 
 +explained that you are the most erudite among the śrāvakas. I did not say 
 +[among the] bodhisattvas. But stop, Ānanda! The wise should not [attempt ​
 +to] evaluate the bodhisattvas. How could the total depth of the ocean be cal- 
 +culated? All the merits of the bodhisattvas’ meditation, wisdom, dhāraṇī, ​
 +and eloquence are immeasurable. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +554b 
 +161 
 +“Ānanda, you [śrāvakas] have forsaken the practices of the bodhisattva. ​
 +The power of numinous penetration that Vimalakīrti has manifested on this 
 +one occasion would be impossible for śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas to do 
 +by their powers of transformation even in a hundred thousand kalpas.” ​
 +15. At that time the bodhisattvas who had come from the Host of Fra- 
 +grances world held their palms together and addressed the Buddha, “World- ​
 +honored One, when we first saw this land we generated the concept of its 
 +inferiority. Now we are ashamed of ourselves and have abandoned this atti- 
 +tude. Why? The skillful means of the buddhas are inconceivable. In order to 
 +save sentient beings, they manifest different buddha countries in accordance ​
 +with the responses of [sentient beings]. ​
 +“Please, O World-honored One, bestow upon us a bit of your Dharma ​
 +as we return to the other world, so that we might remember you.” ​
 +16. The Buddha told the bodhisattvas,​ “You should learn the teaching ​
 +of the emancipation of the exhaustible and inexhaustible. What is the 
 +exhaustible? ​
 +“It is the conditioned dharmas. What is the inexhaustible?​ It is the uncon- ​
 +ditioned dharmas. If you are bodhisattvas,​ you should neither exhaust the 
 +conditioned nor abide in the unconditioned. ​
 +17. “What is it not to exhaust the conditioned?​ It is neither to transcend ​
 +great sympathy nor to forsake great compassion, to profoundly generate the 
 +aspiration to achieve omniscience and never forget it even momentarily. It 
 +is to teach sentient beings without ever becoming tired, to be constantly mind- 
 +ful of following the teaching of the four attractions. It is to defend the cor- 
 +rect Dharma without fear for one’s own life, to plant good roots without ​
 +becoming fatigued. It is for one’s intent to always be on peaceful abiding ​
 +and one’s skillful means rededicated [to anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi]. It is to 
 +seek the Dharma without tiring and explain the Dharma without parsimony, ​
 +and to energetically make offerings to the buddhas. ​
 +“By doing so one will enter samsara without fear, be without sad ness or 
 +joy regarding the various honors and disgraces, not be little the unlearned and 
 +revere the learned as if they are buddhas, cause those who have fallen into 
 +the afflictions to generate correct mindfulness,​ distantly transcend pleasure ​
 +and not consider it valuable, not be attached to one’s own pleasure yet cel- 
 +ebrate the pleasure of others, have the concept that being in the dhyānas is 
 +Chapter XI
 +162 
 +like being in the hells, and have the concept that being in samsara is like 
 +being in a garden or pavilion. ​
 +“One will have the concept that seeing one coming to make a request is 
 +like [seeing] an excellent teacher, have the concept that to forsake one’s var- 
 +ious possessions is to be replete in omniscience,​ have the concept that to see 
 +transgressors is to generate salvific protection, have the concept of the 
 +pāramitās (perfections) being one’s parents, and have the concept of the 
 +[thirty-seven] factors of enlightenment being one’s subordinates. One’s gen- 
 +eration of practices and [planting of] good roots will be limitless. One will 
 +create one’s own buddha land with the various ornamentations of the pure 
 +countries [of different buddhas]. ​
 +“Practicing limitless charity, one will become replete in the [thirty-two ​
 +primary] characteristics and [eighty subsidiary] marks. Eliminating all evil, 
 +one will purify one’s body, speech, and mind. Being born and dying for count- ​
 +less kalpas, one will remain courageous [throughout]. Hearing of the immeas- ​
 +urable merits and intention of the buddhas, one will never become tired. With 
 +the sword of wisdom one will destroy the ‘bandits’ of the afflictions,​ and 
 +one will emerge from the skandhas, realms (dhātus), and entrances (āyatanas). ​
 +“One will bear the burden of sentient beings and always make them 
 +become emancipated. With great exertion one will subjugate the armies of 
 +Māra. One will always seek the practice of wisdom of the real characteris- ​
 +tic of no-mindfulness. One will know satisfaction through minimal desire ​
 +regarding the worldly dharmas. One will seek the supramundane dharmas ​
 +without tiring. Yet one will be able to accord with the profane, without either ​
 +forsaking the worldly dharmas or breaking the deportments. One will gen- 
 +erate the sagacity of numinous penetration and entice sentient beings [to sal- 
 +vation]. One will not forget what one has heard through the dhāraṇīof mem- 
 +ory. One will discriminate well [between] those of the various capacities and 
 +eliminate the doubts of sentient beings. One will expound upon the Dharma ​
 +without hindrance, taking pleasure in one’s eloquence. One will be pure in 
 +carrying out the ten types of good and experience the blessing of gods and 
 +humans. One will cultivate the four unlimiteds and open up the path to the 
 +Brahmā heavens. One will exhort and request [others to] explain the Dharma ​
 +and be accordingly joyous in praising its excellence. ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +Chapter XI 
 +163 
 +554c 
 +“Attaining the Buddha’s voice, one will be good in [acts of] body, speech, ​
 +and mind. Attaining the deportments of the Buddha, one will profoundly cul- 
 +tivate the good qualities, with one’s practice becoming increasingly excellent. ​
 +With the Mahayana teaching, one will become a bodhisattva monk. Without ​
 +mental laxity, one will not fail in the host of goods. Practicing a Dharma such 
 +as this, one is called ‘a bodhisattva who does not exhaust the conditioned.’ ​
 +18. “What is a bodhisattva who does not abide in the unconditioned? ​
 +“It is to cultivate [the emancipation of the] empty without taking the 
 +empty as one’s realization. It is to cultivate [the emancipations of] signless- ​
 +ness and wishlessness without taking the signless and the wishless as one’s ​
 +realization. It is to cultivate non   ​activation without taking nonactivation as 
 +one’s realization. It is to contemplate impermanence without having aver- 
 +sion for the roots of goodness. It is to contemplate worldly suffering with- 
 +out considering samsara evil. It is to contemplate no-self while teaching peo- 
 +ple without tiring. It is to contemplate extinction without undergoing ​
 +permanent extinction. It is to contemplate transcendence while cultivating ​
 +the good with mind and body. 
 +“It is to contemplate the absence of any refuge while going for refuge ​
 +in the dharmas of goodness. It is to contemplate the birthless, yet to bear the 
 +burden for all [sentient beings] using the dharmas of birth. It is to contem- ​
 +plate the flawless, yet not eliminate the flaws. It is to contemplate the absence ​
 +of any practice, yet to teach sentient beings using the dharmas of practice. ​
 +It is to contemplate emptiness and nonexistence,​ yet not to forsake great com- 
 +passion. It is to contemplate the position of the correct Dharma, yet not to 
 +follow the Hinayana. ​
 +“It is to contemplate the empty falsity of the dharmas, which are with- 
 +out solidity, without selfhood, without subject, and without characteristic. It 
 +is not to consider merit, meditation, and wisdom to be in vain when one’s ​
 +original vow has not been fulfilled. Practicing a Dharma such as this, one is 
 +called ‘a bodhisattva who does not abide in the unconditioned.’ ​
 +19. “Furthermore,​ in order to be complete in merit one should not abide 
 +in the unconditioned;​ and in order to be complete in wisdom one should not 
 +exhaust the conditioned. ​
 +“In order to [achieve] great sympathy and compassion, one should not 
 +abide in the unconditioned;​ in order to fulfill one’s original vow, one should
 +not exhaust the conditioned. In order to accumulate the medicines of the 
 +Dharma, one should not abide in the unconditioned;​ in order to bestow med- 
 +icines according [to the needs of sentient beings], one should not exhaust the 
 +conditioned. In order to understand the illnesses of sentient beings, one should ​
 +not abide in the unconditioned;​ in order to extinguish the illnesses of sen- 
 +tient beings, one should not exhaust the conditioned. O good sirs, a bodhi- ​
 +sattva who cultivates this Dharma does not either exhaust the conditioned ​
 +or abide in the unconditioned. This is called ‘the teaching of the emancipa- ​
 +tion of the exhaustible and inexhaustible.’ You should learn this.” ​
 +20. When those bodhisattvas heard the explanation of this Dharma they 
 +were all extremely happy, and they scattered hosts of wondrous flowers of 
 +several colors and fragrances throughout the trimegachiliocosm,​ making ​
 +offerings to the Buddha, this teaching, and the bodhisattvas [of this world]. ​
 +They bowed their heads to the Buddha’s feet and exclaimed at this unprece- ​
 +dented [teaching], saying, “Śākyamuni Buddha is able to perform the skill- ​
 +ful means of this excellent practice in this [world].” Saying this, they sud- 
 +denly disappeared,​ returning to that other country. ​
 +164 
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +555a 
 +165 
 +Chapter XII 
 +Vision of Akṣobhya Buddha ​
 +1. At this point the World-honored One asked Vimalakīrti,​ “When you wish 
 +to see the Tathāgata, in what ways do you view the Tathāgata?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “As if contemplating the real characteristic of my own 
 +body—so do I view the Buddha. ​
 +“When I view the Tathāgata, he does not come in the past, does not go 
 +in the future, and does not abide in the present. ​
 +“I neither view him as form, nor view him as the suchness of form, nor 
 +view him as the nature of form. I neither view him as feeling, conception, ​
 +process, or consciousness;​ nor view him as the suchness of consciousness; ​
 +nor view him as the nature of consciousness. ​
 +“He does not arise from the four great elements and is identical to space. ​
 +He has no accumulation of the six sensory capacities, and his eyes, ears, 
 +nose, tongue, body, and mind have already passed beyond and are not within ​
 +the triple world. ​
 +“Having transcended the three defilements,​ he is in accord with the 
 +three emancipations. Complete in the three illuminations,​ he is equivalent ​
 +to ignorance. ​
 +“He is neither the single characteristic nor different characteristics. He 
 +is neither a self-characteristic nor an other-characteristic. He is neither with- 
 +out characteristics,​ nor does he grasp characteristics. ​
 +“He is not of this shore, nor of the other shore, nor of the current [of 
 +samsara] in between, yet he converts sentient beings. I view him in extinc- ​
 +tion, yet he is not permanently in extinction. He is neither this nor that, and 
 +he neither uses this nor uses that. 
 +“He cannot be understood with wisdom, nor can he be known by con- 
 +sciousness. He is without darkness (i.e., ignorance), without brightness (i.e., ​
 +understanding),​ without name, and without characteristic. He is without
 +166 
 +strength, without weakness, and neither pure nor defiled. He does not occupy ​
 +a region, nor does he transcend the regions. ​
 +“He is neither conditioned nor unconditioned. He is without manifest- ​
 +ing and without explaining. ​
 +“He is neither charitable nor stingy, neither observant nor transgressive ​
 +[of the precepts], neither forbearant nor angry, neither energetic nor lazy, 
 +neither composed nor perturbed, and neither wise nor foolish. He is neither ​
 +sincere nor dissembling,​ neither coming nor going, neither exiting nor enter- ​
 +ing. All the paths of words are eliminated. ​
 +“He is neither a field of blessings nor not a field of blessings. He is nei- 
 +ther one worthy of offerings (i.e., arhat) nor not one worthy of offerings. ​
 +“He neither grasps nor forsakes; he neither has characteristics nor is 
 +without characteristics. ​
 +“He is identical to the true limit and equivalent to the Dharma-nature. ​
 +“He is indescribable,​ incalculable;​ he transcends appellations and meas- 
 +ures. He is neither great nor small. ​
 +“He is neither vision, nor hearing, nor perceiving, nor knowing; he tran- 
 +scends the host of fetters. He is equivalent to the various types of wisdom ​
 +and identical to sentient beings. He is without discrimination with regard to 
 +the dharmas. ​
 +“He is entirely without failing, without impurity, without vexation, with- 
 +out intentionality (lit., “unconstructed”),​ without activation, without gener- ​
 +ation, and without extinction; without fear, without sorrow, without joy, with- 
 +out dislike, and without attachment; without past, without future, and without ​
 +present. He cannot be discriminated or manifested using any verbal expla- ​
 +nations at all. 
 +“World-honored One, such is the body of the Tathāgata, and thus do I 
 +perform its contemplation. To use this contemplation is called the correct ​
 +contemplation. If [one uses some] other contemplation,​ this is called the 
 +incorrect contemplation.” ​
 +2. Śāriputra then asked Vimalakīrti,​ “Where did you die to become born 
 +here?​” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “Are there death and birth in the dharmas as you appre- ​
 +hend (lit., “attain”) them?​” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “There are no death and birth [in the dharmas].” ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +555b 
 +167 
 +[Vimalakīrti said,] “If the dharmas are without the characteristics of 
 +death and birth, why do you ask ‘Where did you die to become born here?​’ ​
 +What do you mean? It is as if a magician conjures up a man and a woman— ​
 +do they die and become born?​” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “They do not die and become born.” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti said,] “But can you not have heard the Buddha explain that 
 +the dharmas are like conjured characteristics?​” ​
 +[Śāriputra said,] “So I have.” ​
 +[Vimalakīrti said,] “If all the dharmas are like conjured characteristics, ​
 +why do you ask ‘Where did you die to become born here?’ Śāriputra,​ death 
 +is the characteristic of the destruction of false dharmas, and birth is the char- 
 +acteristic of continuity of false dharmas. Although bodhisattvas die, they do 
 +not exhaust their roots of goodness, and although they are born they do not 
 +nurture the various evils.” ​
 +3. Then the Buddha told Śāriputra,​ “There is a country called Wondrous ​
 +Joy (Abhirati), where the Buddha is entitled Akṣobhya (Immovable). ​
 +Vimalakīrti died in that country prior to being born here.” ​
 +Śāriputra said, “This is unprecedented! World-honored One, this per- 
 +son is able to forsake a pure land and come take pleasure in this place of 
 +great anger and harm.” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said to Śāriputra,​ “What do you think? When the sun’s light 
 +appears, is it conjoined with darkness?​” ​
 +[Śāriputra] answered, “No. When the sun’s light appears, the darkness ​
 +disappears.” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “Why does the sun come to Jambudvīpa?​” ​
 +[Śāriputra] answered, “To illuminate it and eliminate the darkness.” ​
 +Vimalakīrti said, “Bodhisattvas are like this. Even though they are born 
 +in impure buddha lands in order to convert sentient beings, they are not there- ​
 +fore conjoined with the darkness of stupidity. They merely extinguish the 
 +darkness of the afflictions of sentient beings.” ​
 +4. At this time the great congregation eagerly wished to see the Won- 
 +drous Joy world, Akṣobhya Tathāgata, and his congregations of bodhisattvas ​
 +and śrāvakas. ​
 +Knowing what the entire assembly was thinking, [the Buddha] told 
 +Vimalakīrti,​ “Good man, on behalf of this assembly, manifest Won drous Joy 
 +Chapter XII
 +168 
 +world, Akṣobhya Tathāgata, and his congregations of bodhisattvas and śrā- ​
 +vakas. The congregations all wish to see them.” ​
 +Vimalakīrti then thought to himself, “Without getting up from my seat 
 +I should lift the Wondrous Joy world, including its Iron Ring Mountains; ​
 +streams, rivers, oceans, springs; [Mount] Sumeru and the other mountains; ​
 +the sun, moon, and stars; the palaces of the gods, dragons, demonic spirits, ​
 +and Brahmā gods; its congregations of bodhisattvas and śrāvakas; the cities, ​
 +towns, villages, men and women, adults and childen; and even Akṣobhya ​
 +Tathāgata with the bodhitree and its wondrous lotus flowers, which are able 
 +to perform the Buddha’s work throughout the ten directions. There are three 
 +jeweled stairways from Jambudvīpa to the Tuṣita Heaven, and the gods 
 +descend these jeweled stairways. They all worship Akṣobhya Tathāgata and 
 +listen to his Dharma. The people of Jambudvīpa also climb those stairways, ​
 +ascending to Tuṣita to see the gods there. ​
 +“The Wondrous Joy world is composed of such immeasurable merits, ​
 +from the Akaniṣṭha Heaven above to the water limit (i.e., the disk of water) ​
 +below. I will grasp it in my right hand, as a potter does a wheel, bringing it 
 +into this world like carrying a flower garland, to show all the congregations.” ​
 +5. Thinking this thought, [Vimalakīrti] entered samādhiand manifested ​
 +the power of numinous transformation. With his right hand he grasped the 
 +Wondrous Joy world and placed it in this land. 
 +6. Those congregations of bodhisattvas and śrāvakas [in that Wondrous ​
 +Joy world], as well as the other gods and humans who had attained numi- 
 +nous penetration,​ all said, “O World-honored One, who is taking us away? 
 +Please save us!” ​
 +Akṣobhya Buddha said, “This is not my doing. This is being done through ​
 +the numinous power of Vimalakīrti. ​
 +The others, who had not attained numinous penetration,​ were unaware ​
 +of where they were going. ​
 +Although the Wondrous Joy world entered this land, it did not expand ​
 +or contract. At this the [sahā] world was not constricted,​ but unchanged from 
 +before. ​
 +7. At this point Śākyamuni Buddha told the great congregations,​ “You ​
 +may view the Wondrous Joy world, Akṣobhya Tathāgata, and the ornamen- ​
 +tations of that country, and the pure practices of the bodhisattvas and purity ​
 +of the disciples.” ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +555c
 +556a 
 +169 
 +They all said, “Yes, we see them.” ​
 +The Buddha said, “Bodhisattvas who wish to attain pure buddha lands 
 +such as this should learn the path that has been practiced by Akṣobhya Tathā- ​
 +gata.” ​
 +When this Wondrous Joy world was manifested, fourteen nayutas of 
 +people in the sahāworld generated the intention to achieve anuttarā samyak- ​
 +saṃbodhi,​all wishing to be born in the Wondrous Joy buddha land. Śākya- ​
 +muni Buddha predicted for them, saying, “You will be born in that country.” ​
 +Then the benefits in response of having the Wondrous Joy world in this 
 +country were finished, and it returned to its original place, as seen by the 
 +entire congregation. ​
 +8. The Buddha told Śāriputra,​ “Did you see this Wondrous Joy world 
 +and Akṣobhya Buddha?​” ​
 +[Śāriputra said,] “Yes, I saw them. World-honored One, I wish that every 
 +sentient being could attain a pure land like that of Akṣobhya Buddha and 
 +obtain the power of numinous penetration like Vimalakīrti. ​
 +“World-honored One, we have quickly attained good benefit, seeing these 
 +people and making offerings directly to them. Those sentient beings who hear 
 +this sutra, either now [while you are] present or after the Buddha’s nirvana, ​
 +will also attain good benefit. How much more so if, after hearing it, they 
 +devoutly understand, accept, recite, explain, and practice according to it! 
 +9. “Those who get hold of this sutra will attain the [entire] storehouse ​
 +(i.e., treasury) of the Dharma jewel. ​
 +“If one reads, recites, explains its meaning, or practices according to its 
 +explanation,​ one will be protected and remembered by the buddhas. To make 
 +offerings to such a person—understand that this is to make offerings to the 
 +Buddha. To copy and maintain these fascicles of scripture—understand that 
 +the Tathāgata is present in that room. Those who hear this sutra and are able 
 +to become joyful accordingly will achieve omniscience. If one is able to 
 +devoutly understand this sutra, even just a single four-phrase verse (gāthā), ​
 +and explain it to others—understand that such people will immediately receive ​
 +a prediction of [their future achievement of] anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi.” ​
 +Chapter XII
 +171 
 +Chapter XIII 
 +Dharma Offering ​
 +1. At this time Śakra Devānām Indra, who was in the great congregation, ​
 +announced to the Buddha, “World-honored One, although I have listened to 
 +a hundred thousand sutras by yourself and Mañjuśrī,​ I had never heard this 
 +scripture of the definitive true characteristic of the inconceivable,​ autonomous, ​
 +numinous penetration. ​
 +2. “According to my understanding of the meaning explained by you, 
 +if there are sentient beings who hear this sutra and who devoutly understand, ​
 +accept and maintain, and read and recite it, they will definitely attain this 
 +Dharma, and will not doubt it. How much more so if they cultivate accord- ​
 +ing to its explanation! Such people will immediately close off the host of 
 +evil destinations and open the gateways of good. They will always be pro- 
 +tected and remembered by the buddhas. They will subjugate the heterodox ​
 +teachings and demolish the vengeful Māras. They will cultivate bodhiand ​
 +reside peacefully in the place of enlightenment. They will walk in the very 
 +footsteps the Tathāgata has trod. 
 +3. “World-honored One, if there are those who accept and maintain, read 
 +and recite, and cultivate [this sutra] as it has explained, I and my subordi- ​
 +nates will make offerings and serve them. 
 +“As to the villages, towns, mountain forests, and wildernesses where 
 +this sutra is found, I and my subordinates will go to those locations in order 
 +to listen to the Dharma. I will cause those who do not yet believe to believe, ​
 +and those who already believe will be protected.” ​
 +4. The Buddha said, “Excellent,​ excellent! Heavenly emperor, it is as 
 +you have spoken. I am happy for you! 
 +“This sutra extensively explains the inconceivable anuttarā samyak- ​
 +saṃbodhiof the buddhas of the past, present, and future. Therefore, heav- 
 +enly emperor, if good men and women accept and maintain, read and recite,
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +and make offerings to this sutra, that is tantamount to making offerings to 
 +the buddhas of the past, present, and future. ​
 +5. “Heavenly emperor, even if the entire trimegachiliocosm were filled ​
 +with Tathāgatas as numerous as the sugar cane, bamboo, reeds, rice, hemp, 
 +and forests, and if a good man or woman were to revere, honor, praise, make 
 +offerings, and provide all their needs for a kalpaor even less than a kalpa, ​
 +until after the nirvana of those Tathāgatas; ​
 +“After [the nirvana of those Tathāgatas],​ if he or she erected a stupa of 
 +the seven treasures above the relics of every one of those Tathāgatas’ bod- 
 +ies, as long and wide as a single fourfold world and as tall as the Brahmā ​
 +heaven, [with each stupa constituting] a field ornamented with all [manner ​
 +of] flowers, incense, garlands, banners, and musicians, paramount in most 
 +subtle wonder; and 
 +“If [that good man or woman] made offerings to [these stupas] for a 
 +kalpaor less than a kalpa— ​
 +“What do you think, heavenly emperor? Would the blessings planted ​
 +by that person be great or not?​” ​
 +Śakra Devānām Indra said, “They would be great, World-honored One! 
 +One could not fully explain their merit, even in a hundred thousand koṭis of 
 +kalpas.” ​
 +6. The Buddha told the heavenly emperor, “You should understand, the 
 +good man or woman who hears this scripture of the inconceivable emanci- ​
 +pation and who devoutly understands,​ accepts, recites, and practices it will 
 +have blessings even greater than the former person. ​
 +“Why? The enlightenment of all the buddhas is born from this. The char- 
 +acteristic of bodhi is immeasurable,​ and based on this the blessings are 
 +immeasurable.” ​
 +7. The Buddha told the heavenly emperor, “At a time immeasurable ​
 +asaṃkhyeyas of kalpas in the past, there was a buddha named Medicine King 
 +(Bhaiṣajyarāja),​ a Tathāgata, Arhat, Fully Enlightened One, One Endowed ​
 +with Wisdom and Conduct, Well-gone One, Knower of the World, Supreme ​
 +Master of Discipline, Teacher of Gods and Humans, Buddha, and World- ​
 +honored One. His world was called Great Ornamentation. His kalpawas ​
 +called Ornamentation. ​
 +“That buddha’s lifespan was twenty small kalpas. ​
 +172 
 +556b
 +Chapter XIII 
 +173 
 +“He had a śrāvakasangha of thirty-six koṭis of nayutas [of members], ​
 +and a bodhisattva sangha of twelve koṭis. ​
 +“Heavenly emperor, at the time there was a wheel-turning sage king 
 +named Jeweled Canopy, who was endowed with the seven treasures [of the 
 +cakravartin] and ruled the fourfold world. The king had one thousand sons, 
 +who were handsome, courageous, and able to subjugate their enemies. ​
 +8. “At the time Jeweled Canopy and his subordinates made offerings to 
 +Medicine King Tathāgata, providing all that he needed for a full five kalpas. ​
 +After five kalpas he told his thousand sons, ‘You should also make offerings ​
 +to the Buddha with a profound mind, like me.’ Then the thousand sons, 
 +accepting their father’s order, made offerings to Medicine King Tathāgata, ​
 +and they provided for his needs for another full five kalpas. ​
 +9. “One of those sons, named Moon Canopy, sat alone, thinking ‘Might ​
 +there be some offering that would exceed even this?​’ ​
 +“Through the Buddha’s numinous power, a god’s voice was heard from 
 +space, ‘Good man, the offering of the Dharma surpasses all other offerings.’ ​
 +“[Moon Canopy] then asked, ‘What is an offering of the Dharma?​’ ​
 +“The god said, ‘You may go ask Medicine King Tathāgata. He will give 
 +you an extensive explanation of offerings of the Dharma.’ Prince Moon 
 +Canopy immediately proceeded to Medicine King Tathāgata and bowed to 
 +his feet, then stood to one side and addressed the Buddha, ‘World-honored ​
 +One, of all the offerings, offerings of the Dharma are superior. What are 
 +offerings of the Dharma?​’ ​
 +10. Buddha [Medicine King] said, “Good man, offerings of the Dharma ​
 +are those made to the profound sutras explained by the buddhas. ​
 +“In all the worlds, these are difficult to believe in, difficult to accept. ​
 +They are subtle and difficult to see, pure and without defile ment. They can- 
 +not be attained with only discriminative thinking. ​
 +“They are contained in the storehouse of the Dharma of the bodhisattvas. ​
 +They are sealed by the seal of dhāraṇī.They take one to [the stage of] non- 
 +retrogression and to the accomplishment of the six perfections. ​
 +“They discriminate the meanings well, and they accord with the dharma ​
 +of bodhi.They are supreme among the host of sutras and induct one into great 
 +sympathy and compassion. They transcend the affairs of the hosts of Māras ​
 +and the various heterodox views. They accord with the dharmaof causes and 
 +conditions.
 +174 
 +11. “They are without self, without person, without sentient being, with- 
 +out lifespan. They [teach the three emancipations of] emptiness, signless- ​
 +ness, wishlessness and nonactivation. ​
 +“They are able to make sentient beings take their seat in the place of 
 +enlightenment and turn the wheel of the Dharma. ​
 +“They are praised by all the gods, dragons, [demonic] spirits (yakṣas), ​
 +gandharvas, and so on. 
 +“They are able to make sentient beings enter the store[house] of the 
 +Buddha-Dharma. ​
 +“They accommodate all the [types of] wisdom of the worthies and sages. ​
 +They explain the path practiced by the host of bodhisattvas. They rely on the 
 +meanings of the true characteristic of the dharmas. They illuminate the dhar- 
 +mas of impermanence,​ suffering, emptiness, no-self, and extinction. ​
 +“They are able to save all sentient beings who commit infractions. They 
 +can render afraid the Māras, heretics, and those attached to desire. ​
 +“They are praised by all the buddhas, worthies, and sages. They reject ​
 +the suffering of samsara and reveal the joy of nirvana. They are explained ​
 +by all the buddhas of the ten directions and three periods of time. 
 +“One who hears such sutras, and devoutly understands,​ accepts and 
 +maintains, and reads and recites them, will with the power of skillful means 
 +explain them clearly and with discriminative understanding for sentient ​
 +beings. This is because that person will be maintaining and protecting the 
 +Dharma. This is called the ‘offering of the Dharma.’ ​
 +12. “Furthermore,​ when one practices as is explained in the Dharma, one 
 +will be in accord with the twelve [factors of] causes and conditions, transcend ​
 +the heterodox views, and attain forbearance of the birthlessness of dharmas. ​
 +There is definitively no self and no sentient beings, and within the retributive ​
 +results of the causes and conditions there [will be in such persons] no dis- 
 +agreement, no contention, and the transcendence of all the qualities of self. 
 +“They will rely on meanings, not on words. They will rely on wisdom, ​
 +not on knowledge. They will rely on sutras of comprehensive meaning and 
 +not rely on sutras of incomplete meaning. They will rely on the Dharma and 
 +not rely on a person. They will be in accord with the characteristics of the 
 +Dharma, without anywhere that is entered, without any refuge. Ignorance ​
 +will be thoroughly extinguished,​ and hence the processes will be thoroughly ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +556c
 +175 
 +extinguished. Thus birth will be thoroughly extinguished,​ and hence old age 
 +and death will be thoroughly extinguished. ​
 +“If one performs such a contemplation,​ the twelve [factors of] causes ​
 +and conditions will be without the characteristic of being exhausted. One 
 +will not generate views again. This is called the ‘offering of the supreme ​
 +Dharma.’” ​
 +13. The Buddha told the heavenly emperor, “When Prince Moon Canopy ​
 +heard this Dharma from Medicine King Buddha, he attained the forbearance ​
 +of compliance. Taking off his jeweled robe and bodily ornaments, he offered ​
 +them to the Buddha, saying ‘World-honored One, after your nirvana I will 
 +practice the offering of the Dharma and defend the correct Dharma. Please ​
 +use your numinous charisma compassionately,​ so that I will be able to sub- 
 +jugate the vengeful Māras and cultivate the practices of the bodhisattva.’” ​
 +Knowing the profound thoughts in [the prince’s] mind, [Medicine King] 
 +Buddha made the prediction, “At the very end, you will defend the Dharma ​
 +city.” ​
 +14. [The Buddha told the] heavenly emperor, “Prince Moon Canopy ​
 +then saw the purity of the Dharma. Hearing the Buddha bestow a prediction ​
 +[of future buddhahood] on him, he developed faith and left home. After cul- 
 +tivating the good Dharma with exertion for not very long, he attained the 
 +five numinous penetrations and became a bodhisattva. He attained dhāraṇī ​
 +and unending eloquence. After the nirvana of that buddha, using the power 
 +of the numinous penetrations,​ dhāraṇī,​ and eloquence that he had attained, ​
 +he disseminated the wheel of the Dharma that Medicine King Buddha had 
 +turned for a full ten short kalpas. Through his diligent practice and exertion ​
 +in defending the Dharma, in that lifetime Moon Canopy bhikṣuconverted a 
 +million koṭis of people, who became irreversible in their [quest for] anuttarā ​
 +samyak saṃbodhi.Fourteen nayutas of people generated the profound inspi- ​
 +ration to become śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas. Immeasurable sentient ​
 +beings gained birth in the heavens. ​
 +“Heavenly emperor, was not the Prince Jeweled Canopy of that time an 
 +unusual person! As of now he has attained buddhahood and is entitled Jewel 
 +Mirage Tathāgata. Those thousand princes became the thousand buddhas of 
 +the bhadrakalpa.The first achieved buddhahood as Krakucchandra,​ and the 
 +last will be the Tathāgata named Ruci. Moon Canopy bhikṣuwas I myself. ​
 +Chapter XIII 
 +557a
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +15. “Thus, heavenly emperor, you should understand this essential point: ​
 +the offering of the Dharma excels all other offerings. It is supreme, incom- ​
 +parable. Therefore, heavenly emperor, you should use the offering of the 
 +Dharma to make offerings to the buddhas.” ​
 +176
 +177 
 +Chapter XIV 
 +Bestowal ​
 +1. At this point the Buddha told Maitreya Bodhisattva,​ “Maitreya,​ I now 
 +bestow on you this Dharma of anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi,​ which I have accu- 
 +mulated over immeasurable koṭis of asaṃ khyeyas of kalpas. Sutras of this 
 +type should, during the final period after my nirvana, be circulated exten- ​
 +sively throughout Jambudvīpa by you and others with your numinous power, ​
 +so [the Dharma] is not cut off. 
 +“Why? In the future time, there will be good men and women, as well 
 +as gods, dragons, demonic spirits, gandharvas, rakṣasas, and so on, who will 
 +generate the intention to achieve anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhiand take pleas- ​
 +ure in the great Dharma. If they are unable to hear sutras such as this, they 
 +will lose its good benefit. When people such as this hear these sutras, they 
 +must with great faith and joy realize their rarity and accept them with humil- ​
 +ity, explaining them extensively according to the benefits that sentient beings ​
 +will receive from them. 
 +2. “Maitreya,​ you should understand that bodhisattvas [may] have two 
 +[inferior] characteristics. What are these two? The first is the fondness for 
 +miscellaneous phrases and literary embellishment. The second is their lack 
 +of fear of penetrating deeply into the actualities of profound meanings. ​
 +“You should understand that it is novice bodhisattvas who are fond of 
 +miscellaneous phrases and literary embellishment. Those who lack the fear 
 +of entering into profound scriptures that are without defilement and without ​
 +attachment, and who upon hearing them become pure in mind and accept and 
 +maintain, read and recite, and practice them as explained—you should under- ​
 +stand that these [bodhisattvas] have been cultivating the path for a long time. 
 +3. “Maitreya,​ there are two other dharmas (i.e., characteristics) regard- ​
 +ing how those who are called novices are unable to be definite about the 
 +extremely profound Dharma. What are these two?
 +557b 
 +178 
 +i) “The first is that when they hear profound sutras for the first time, they 
 +become fearful, generate doubts, and are unable to follow [those sutras]. ​
 +Reviling them and lacking faith in them, they say ‘I have not heard this before. ​
 +Where did it come from?​’ ​
 +ii) “The second is that, when there are those who defend, maintain, and 
 +explain profound sutras such as these, [the novices] are unable to associate ​
 +with [those teachers], make offerings to them, and revere them. Or, at times 
 +they talk about [the teachers’] transgressions and errors. ​
 +“You should understand that those who have these two dharmas are 
 +novice bodhisattvas. They only harm themselves, and they are unable to con- 
 +trol their minds within the profound Dharma. ​
 +4. “Maitreya,​ there are two other dharmas concerning bodhisattvas who 
 +devoutly understand the profound Dharma, but who still harm themselves ​
 +and are unable to attain forbearance of the non arising of dharmas. What are 
 +these two? 
 +i) “The first is to belittle novice bodhisattvas and not instruct them. 
 +ii) “The second is to understand the profound Dharma, but with a dis- 
 +crimination that grasps at characteristics. ​
 +“These are the two dharmas.” ​
 +5. When Maitreya heard this explanation he addressed the Buddha, ​
 +“World-honored One, this is unprecedented! It is as you have explained. ​
 +“I will distantly transcend such evils and maintain the Dharma of anut- 
 +tarā samyaksaṃbodhithat the Tathāgata has accumulated over innumerable ​
 +asaṃkhyeyas of kalpas. ​
 +“If in the future there are good men and women who seek the Mahayana, ​
 +I will make certain that they get hold of such sutras. Using their power of 
 +mindfulness,​ I will cause them to receive and maintain, read and recite, and 
 +extensively explain them for others. ​
 +“World-honored One, if in the latter age there are those able to receive, ​
 +maintain, read, recite, and explain them for others, one should understand ​
 +that these will all be established by Maitreya’s numinous power.” ​
 +The Buddha said, “Excellent,​ excellent, Maitreya! It is as you have 
 +explained. I am happy for you!” ​
 +6. At this all the bodhisattvas held their palms together and addressed the 
 +Buddha, “We too, after the Buddha’s nirvana, will extensively disseminate ​
 +The Vimalakīrti Sutra
 +the Dharma of anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi throughout the countries of the ten 
 +directions. We will also guide those who explain the Dharma and cause them 
 +to obtain this sutra.” ​
 +7. Then the four heavenly kings addressed the Buddha, “World-honored ​
 +One, in every place, whether city, village, mountain forest, or wilderness, ​
 +where there are those who read and recite and explain these fascicles of scrip- ​
 +ture, we will lead our palace retainers in proceeding to those places, to lis- 
 +ten to the Dharma and protect those people. For an area of a hundredyojanas ​
 +we will make it convenient [to hear their explanations] without seeking.” ​
 +8. At this point the Buddha said to Ānanda, “Accept and maintain this 
 +sutra, and disseminate it extensively.” ​
 +Ānanda said, “Assuredly. I have already accepted and maintained its 
 +essentials. World-honored One, what is the name of this sutra?​” ​
 +The Buddha said, 
 +“Ānanda, this sutra is named the ‘Discourse of Vimalakīrti.’ It is also 
 +called the ‘Dharma Gate of the Inconceivable Emancipation.’ As such you 
 +should accept and maintain it.” ​
 +When the Buddha finished explaining this sutra, the Elder Vimala kīrti, ​
 +Mañjuśrī,​ Śāriputra,​ Ānanda, and all the great congregations of gods, humans, ​
 +and asuras, hearing what the Buddha had explained, rejoiced greatly. ​
 +End of Fascicle Three 
 +179 
 +Chapter XIV
 +Bibliography ​
 +Boin, Sara, trans. The Teaching of Vimalakīrti (Vimalakīrtinirdeśa). London: Pali Text 
 +Society, 1976. English translation of Étienne Lamotte’s French translation,​ listed ​
 +below. ​
 +Lamotte, Étienne, trans. L’enseignement de Vimalakīrti.Louvain:​ Bibliothèque du Muséon, ​
 +1962. 
 +Luk, Charles (Lu Ku’an Yü), trans. The Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra.Berkeley,​ CA: Sham - 
 +bhala, 1972. 
 +Nattier, Jan. “The Teaching of Vimalakīrti [Vimalakīrti nirdeśa]: A Review of Four Eng- 
 +lish Translations,​” Buddhist Literature2 (2000): 234–58. ​
 +Takasaki, Jikidō, and Kōshō Kawamura, trans. “Yuima-gyō,​”Yuima-gyō,​ Shiyaku Bon- 
 +ten shomon kyō, Shuryōgon zammai kyō[Vimalakīrti Sutra, Questions of the Brahmā ​
 +(Deva) Viśeṣacinti Sutra, and Śūraṃgama-samādhi Sutra], Monju kyōten[Mañjuśrī ​
 +Scriptures] no. 2. Tokyo: Daizō shuppan, 1993. 
 +Thurman, Robert A. F., trans. The Holy Teaching of Vimalakīrti:​ A Mahāyāna Scripture. ​
 +University Park, PA and London: Pennsylvania University Press, 1976. 
 +Watson, Burton, trans. The Vimalakīrti Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press, ​
 +1997. 
 +181
 +Glossary ​
 +anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi:​Complete,​ perfect enlightenment. See also bodhi. ​
 +arhat (“one who is worthy” of offerings): A saint who has completely eradicated the pas- 
 +sions and attained liberation from the cycle of birth and death (samsara); arhatship ​
 +is the highest of the four stages of spiritual attainment in the Hinayana. See also 
 +Hinayana; samsara. ​
 +asura:A class of supernatural beings; a demigod. ​
 +bodhi:​Enlightenment;​ the state of the highest perfection of wisdom; the state of undefiled ​
 +purity and eternal bliss. ​
 +bodhicitta:​Lit.,​ “mind (citta) of enlightenment (bodhi),” the aspiration or intention to 
 +attain enlightenment undertaken by a bodhisattva in order to help other sentient ​
 +beings to liberation. See also bodhisattva. ​
 +bodhisattva (“enlightenment being”): One who has engendered the profound aspiration ​
 +to achieve enlightenment (bodhicitta) on behalf of all sentient beings, through the 
 +practice of the perfections (pāramitās). The spiritual ideal of the Mahayana. See 
 +also bodhicitta;​Mahayana;​ perfections. ​
 +bodhitree: The tree under which a buddha attains enlightenment. ​
 +buddhahood: The state of becoming or being a buddha; the goal of the bodhisattva path. 
 +buddha land: A cosmic world or realm in which a particular buddha dwells. Also called ​
 +buddha country. ​
 +buddha-nature:​ The potentiality of becoming a buddha; the essential nature of a buddha ​
 +inherent in all sentient beings. ​
 +deva:A class of supernatural beings; a god or divine being. ​
 +dhāraṇī:​Generally,​ a powerful verbal incantation or mantra; also, “to hold,” as a con- 
 +tainer for good spiritual qualities. In earliest Mahayana texts the term refers to a 
 +mnemonic device for the recollection of Buddhist doctrine. ​
 +183
 +Glossary ​
 +dharma:Any phenomenon, thing, or element; the elements that make up the per- 
 +ceived phenomenal world. ​
 +Dharma: The truth, law; the teachings of the Buddha. ​
 +Dharma body (dharmakāya):​ The manifestation of the Buddha as ultimate reality or 
 +suchness. See also suchness. ​
 +Dharma-nature:​ The essential nature of all that exists, same as true suchness and the 
 +Dharma body. See also Dharma body; suchness. ​
 +dhyāna:​Meditation;​ a state of meditative concentration and absorption. ​
 +emptiness (śūnyatā):​ The absence of substantiality or inherent existence of the self 
 +and all phenomena (dharmas); all dharmas arise only through the dependent ​
 +origination of causes and conditions (pra tītya samutpāda). Direct insight into 
 +emptiness is the attainment of prajñā(transcendental wisdom). See also dharma; ​
 +prajñā. ​
 +enlightenment. See bodhi. ​
 +entrances (āyatanas):​ The six sense organs of eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and 
 +mind and their six corresponding objects—form,​ sound, smell, taste, tangible ​
 +objects, and mental objects, totaling twelve. See also realms; sense organs; ​
 +senses. ​
 +evil destiny/​destination:​ Refers to rebirth in one of the three lower realms of sam- 
 +saric existence, the realms of animals, hungry ghosts (pretas), or hell. See also 
 +samsara. ​
 +four continents: According to Buddhist cosmology, the four large land masses in the 
 +ocean around Mount Sumeru, each in one of the cardinal directions, which com- 
 +prise the world of human beings. See also Mount Sumeru. ​
 +four correct postures: The four basic physical postures of walking, standing, sitting, ​
 +and lying down; a Buddhist practitioner strives to maintain mindfulness in all 
 +of these postures. See also mindfulness. ​
 +four elements: The four physical elements that constitute material things (dharmas)— ​
 +earth, fire, water, and wind. 
 +four heavenly kings: The guardian gods of the four cardinal directions, rulers of the 
 +four continents. See also four continents. ​
 +four noble truths: The basic doctrine of Buddhism: 1) the truth of suffering, 2) the 
 +truth of the cause of suffering, 3) the truth of the cessation of suffering, and 4) 
 +the truth of the path that leads to nirvana. See also nirvana. ​
 +184
 +Glossary ​
 +four unlimiteds (brāhma-vihāras):​ Four mental states or qualities to be cultivated by 
 +bodhisattvas—sympathy (maitrī), compassion (karuṇā),​ joy (muditā), and equa- 
 +nimity (upekṣā). Also called four unlimited states of mind. 
 +gandharva:A heavenly musician. ​
 +garuḍa:A mythological being in the form of a giant bird. 
 +Hinayana (“Small Vehicle”):​ A term applied by Mahayana Buddhists to various early 
 +schools of Buddhism whose primary soteriological aim is individual salvation. ​
 +Hinayana followers are grouped into the two categories of śrāvakas and pratyeka- ​
 +buddhas and there are four stages of spiritual attainment, culminating in arhat- ​
 +ship. See also arhat; Mahayana; non-returner;​ once-returner;​ pratyekabuddha; ​
 +śrāvaka;​stream-enterer. ​
 +kalpa:An eon, an immensely long period of time. 
 +kiṃnara:A class of mythological beings, half bird and half human, that make celes- ​
 +tial music. ​
 +lion’s roar: A metaphor for great eloquence in teaching the Dharma. ​
 +Mahayana: (“Great Vehicle”):​ A form of Buddhism that developed in India around ​
 +100 B.C.E. and which exalts as its religious ideal the bodhisattva,​ great beings ​
 +who aspire to enlightenment on behalf of all sentient beings. See also bodhi- ​
 +sattva. ​
 +mahoraga:A class of snake-like mythological beings. ​
 +Maitreya: The future Buddha, currently still a bodhisattva. See also bodhisattva. ​
 +Mañjuśrī:​ The bodhisattva who represents wisdom. See also bodhisattva. ​
 +Māra: The Evil One, the personification of the realm of desire; a symbol of the afflic- ​
 +tions that hinder progress on the path to Buddhahood. ​
 +mindfulness:​ A fundamental Buddhist practice of maintaining awareness and clear 
 +observation during all one’s activities, physical or mental, in order to bring the 
 +mind under control and to a state of rest and provide a stable basis for more pro- 
 +found knowledge and insight. ​
 +Mount Sumeru: In Buddhist cosmology, the highest mountain rising from the center ​
 +of the world, surrounded by an ocean in which the four continents that comprise ​
 +the world of human beings are situated. See also four continents. ​
 +nirvana: Liberation from samsara, a state in which all passions are extinguished and 
 +the highest wisdom attained; bodhi, enlightenment. See also bodhi;​samsara. ​
 +185
 +Glossary ​
 +non-returner (anāgāmin):​ The third of the four stages of spiritual attainment in the 
 +Hinayana; one who has attained this stage is no longer subject to rebirth in the 
 +realm of desire. See also Hinayana; triple world. ​
 +once-returner (sakṛdāgāmin):​ The second of the four stages of spiritual attainment ​
 +in the Hinayana; one who has attained this state is subject to rebirth only once 
 +in each of the three realms of the triple world before attaining nirvana. See also 
 +Hinayana; nirvana; triple world. ​
 +One Vehicle (ekayāna): The Buddha vehicle, the Mahayana teaching that leads to 
 +complete enlightenment and attainment of buddhahood, contrasted with the 
 +teachings of the two Hinayana vehicles. The One Vehicle includes and tran- 
 +scends all three vehicles of the śrāvaka, pratyeka buddha,and bodhisattva paths. ​
 +See also vehicle. ​
 +pāramitā.See perfections. ​
 +perfections (pāramitās):​ Six qualities to be perfected by bodhisattvas on their way 
 +to complete enlightenment—1) charity or giving (dāna), 2) discipline or moral- ​
 +ity (śīla), 3) forbearance or patience (kṣānti),​ 4) exertion or perseverance (vīrya), ​
 +5) meditation (dhyāna), and 6) wisdom (prajñā). See also bodhisattva. ​
 +prajñā:​Transcendental,​ liberative wisdom; one of the perfections. See also perfec- ​
 +tions. ​
 +Prātimokṣa:​A part of the Vinaya which contains the disciplinary rules for monas- ​
 +tics. See also Vinaya. ​
 +pratyekabuddha(“solitary enlightened one”): One of the two kinds of Hinayana sages, ​
 +along with śrāvakas, who seek to reach the stage of arhat and attain nirvana. A 
 +pratyekabuddhaattains liberation through direct observation and understand- ​
 +ing of the principle of dependent origination without the guidance of a teacher, ​
 +and does not teach others. See also arhat; Hinayana; nirvana; śrāvaka. ​
 +psychophysical elements, forces (skandhas): The five elements of form, feeling, con- 
 +ception, mental process, and consciousness which comprise the personality and 
 +give rise to the mistaken view of a permanent, inherent self. 
 +rakṣasa:A type of demon. ​
 +realms (dhātus): The realms of sensory experience brought about by the interaction ​
 +of the six sense organs with their corresponding objects, and their resulting con- 
 +sciousnesses,​ totaling eighteen. See also entrances; sense organs; senses. ​
 +Śākyamuni:​ The historical Buddha, who lived in India in the fifth century B.C.E. and 
 +whose life and teachings form the basis for Buddhism. ​
 +186
 +Glossary ​
 +samādhi:A mental state of concentration,​ focusing the mind on one point; also a 
 +transcendent mental state attained by the repeated practice of concentration. ​
 +samsara: The cycle of existence, the continuous round of birth and death through ​
 +which beings transmigrate;​ the world of suffering, contrasted with the bliss of 
 +nirvana. See also nirvana. ​
 +samyaksaṃbuddha:​One who has attained complete, perfect enlightenment (anut- ​
 +tarā samyaksaṃbodhi). See also anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi. ​
 +Śāriputra:​ A principal disciple of the Buddha. In several Mahayana sutras such as 
 +the Vimalakīrti Sutrathe figure of Śāriputra serves as an example of the infe- 
 +rior learning and understanding of the Hinayana śrāvakapath. ​
 +sense organs: The six sense organs of the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind. 
 +See also entrances; realms; senses. ​
 +senses: The sense perceptions that correspond to the six sense organs—visual,​ audi- 
 +tory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, and mental perceptions. See also entrances; ​
 +realms; sense organs. ​
 +skillful means (upāya): The various methods and means used by buddhas and bodhi- ​
 +sattvas to guide and teach sentient beings, adapted to their different capacities. ​
 +śramaṇa:​Mendicant,​ monk; another name for a Buddhist monk, originally applied ​
 +to those who maintained an ascetic practice. ​
 +śrāvaka(“auditor”):​ Originally, a disciple of the Buddha, one of those who heard him 
 +expound the teachings directly; later, the term came to refer to one of the two 
 +kinds of Hinayana followers, along with pratyekabuddhas,​ to distinguish them 
 +from followers of the Mahayana. See also Hinayana; Mahayana; pratyekabuddha. ​
 +stream-enterer (srota-āpanna):​ The first of the four stages of spiritual attainment in 
 +the Hinayana; one who has entered the stream of the Dharma by destroying var- 
 +ious wrong views. See also Hinayana. ​
 +suchness: Ultimate reality; the state of things as they really are. Insight into the such- 
 +ness of all phenomena, i.e., as empty of inherent self-existence,​ arising only 
 +through dependent origination,​ is perfect wisdom (prajñā). See also emptiness; ​
 +prajñā. ​
 +sutra: A Buddhist scripture, a discourse of the Buddha. Capitalized,​ the term refers ​
 +to one of the three divisions of the Tripiṭaka. See also Tripiṭaka. ​
 +Tathāgata: An epithet for a buddha, meaning one who has gone to (gata) and come 
 +from (āgata) suchness (tathā), i.e., the embodiment of the truth of suchness. See 
 +also suchness. ​
 +187
 +Glossary ​
 +tathāgatagarbha:​ Lit., the “womb (garbha) of the Tathāgata,​” the inherent capacity ​
 +for buddhahood within all sentient beings. See also buddhahood; Tathāgata. ​
 +Three Jewels: Buddha, Dharma (the teachings), and Sangha (the monastic commu- ​
 +nity), also called the three refuges. ​
 +Tripiṭaka:​ The three divisions or “baskets” (piṭakas) of the Buddhist canon: the Sutras, ​
 +discourses and teachings of the Buddha; the Vinaya, codes of monastic disci- ​
 +pline; and the Abhidharma, scholastic treatises on the Buddhist teachings. ​
 +triple world: The three realms of samsaric existence: the realm of desire (kāma dhātu), ​
 +i.e., the world of ordinary consciousness accompanied by desires; the realm of 
 +form (rūpadhātu),​ in which desires have been eliminated but the physical body 
 +remains; and the formless realm (ārūpya dhātu), in which the physical body no 
 +longer exists. See also samsara. ​
 +universal ruler (cakravartin):​ The ideal king, as conceived of in Indian philosophy. ​
 +Also called wheel-turning sage king. 
 +vehicle (yāna): The various Buddhist paths of practice. The Hinayana comprises the 
 +two vehicles of the śrāvakaand pratyekabuddha,​ contrasted with the bodhi- ​
 +sattva vehicle of the Mahayana. See also Hinayana; Mahayana; One Vehicle; ​
 +pratyekabuddha;​ śrāvaka. ​
 +Vinaya: Precepts and rules of conduct for monastics; along with the Abhi dharma and 
 +the Sutras, one of the three divisions of the Tripiṭaka. See also Tripiṭaka. ​
 +yakṣa:A type of demon. ​
 +188
 +Index 
 +189 
 +
 +Abhirati. SeeWondrous Joy world 
 +Accumulation of Eloquence ​ 70 
 +Accumulation of Fragrances ​ 149, 150, 
 +151, 153 
 +Accumulation of Jewels ​ 70 
 +Accumulation of Wisdom ​ 70 
 +Achievement of All Benefits ​ 129 
 +act(s), action(s), activity(ies) (see also 
 +deed)  20, 24, 25, 26, 28, 35, 36, 44, 
 +60, 81, 131, 152, 143, 155, 159 
 +completion of  25, 28 
 +of conversion ​ 131 
 +defiled, immoral ​ 14, 26 
 +four all-embracing ​ 13 
 +good  6, 22, 23, 146, 163 
 +meritorious ​ 6, 146, 147 
 +pure  26, 72 
 +ten evil  134 
 +three types of  146, 147 
 +transgressive ​ 146–147 ​
 +Adorned Purity ​ 92 
 +affection(s) ​ 89, 100, 108, 112, 114, 125, 
 +134 
 +affliction(s) ​ 63, 69, 85, 88, 89, 98, 100, 
 +102, 105, 110, 113, 124, 126, 127, 
 +134, 149, 151, 159, 161, 162, 167 
 +aggregation(s),​ empty (see alsonon - 
 +aggregation) ​ 83, 87, 102 
 +Ajita Keśakambala ​ 89 
 +Akaniṣṭha Heaven ​ 168 
 +Akṣobhya ​ 60, 129, 165, 167, 168, 169 
 +Amitābha ​ 129 
 +Amitāyurdhyāna-sūtra61 ​
 +Āmrapālī ​ 69, 157 
 +anāgāmin. Seenon-returner ​
 +Ānanda ​ 49, 50, 51, 95, 96, 157 
 +Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park  9 
 +anger  77, 88, 113, 123, 128, 133, 134, 
 +154, 167 
 +animals ​ 13, 133, 140 
 +Aniruddha ​ 91, 92 
 +anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi(see also 
 +enlightenment,​ complete) ​ 17, 29, 62, 
 +75, 79, 84, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 
 +95, 97, 98, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 
 +113, 115, 121, 122, 129, 131, 149, 
 +150, 156, 160, 161, 169, 171, 175, 
 +177, 178, 179 
 +arhat(s), arhatship (see alsosage, sagely) ​
 +24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 35, 37, 43, 44, 
 +47, 123, 124, 131, 166  ​
 +art(s) ​ 20, 60, 153 
 +aspiration(s) ​ 14, 15, 45, 50, 90, 144, 161 
 +assembly(ies) (see alsocongregation) ​ 14, 
 +49, 59, 71, 88, 97, 102, 103, 105, 107, 
 +150, 143, 149, 150, 153, 157, 167 
 +charity ​ 103, 104, 105 
 +great  51, 79, 115, 152 
 +of the three vehicles (see alsosangha) ​
 +29 
 +asuras ​ 51, 71, 120, 179 
 +attachment(s) ​ 82, 94, 98, 110, 112, 114, 
 +151, 166, 177 
 +defiled ​ 117, 133
 +Index 
 +attainment (see alsononattainment) ​ 6, 27, 
 +28, 97, 111, 124, 128, 131 
 +Attains Great Strength ​ 71 
 +Autonomous Dharma ​ 143 
 +Autonomous Dharma King  70 
 +Autonomous King  70 
 +autonomy ​ 26, 28, 47, 72, 103, 114 
 +Autonomy of Meditation King  70 
 +Avalokiteśvara ​ 71 
 +aversion ​ 104, 110, 112, 133, 147, 163 
 +āyatana. Seeentrance ​
 +Ayodhyā ​ 9 
 +
 +bandit(s) ​ 83, 102, 124, 151, 162 
 +beauty ​ 6, 11 
 +beggar(s), begging ​ 87, 88, 103, 105, 
 +106, 122 
 +being (see alsononbeing) ​ 70 
 +being(s) (see alsogreat being; living ​
 +being; sentient being) ​ 5, 11, 13, 59, 
 +61, 62, 72, 127, 151, 152, 153, 141 
 +benefit(s) ​ 13, 14, 17, 22, 44, 47, 60, 61, 
 +62, 70, 74, 76, 82, 88, 94, 102, 103, 
 +113, 126, 149, 151, 153, 140, 151, 
 +155, 169, 177 
 +Bhaiṣajyarāja. SeeMedicine King 
 +bhikṣu(s) (see alsomonk) ​ 69, 71, 79, 90, 
 +91, 92, 93, 97, 175 
 +bhikṣuṇī. Seenun ​
 +birth(s) ​ 25, 45, 112, 114, 150, 163, 167, 
 +175 
 +birth and death (see alsorebirth;​ samsara) ​
 +21, 28–29, 35, 45, 86, 131, 166, 167 
 +birthless, birthlessness ​ 97, 158, 163, 174 
 +Black Mountains ​ 72 
 +blessing(s) ​ 22, 50, 82, 88, 89, 95, 101, 
 +105, 110, 126, 144, 152, 162, 166, 172 
 +bodhi(see alsoenlightenment) ​ 98–99, ​
 +100, 104 
 +characteristic of  98, 104 
 +mind of (see alsobodhicitta) ​ 76, 99 
 +bodhicitta(see alsobodhi,​mind of; 
 +enlightenment,​ intention for)  5, 76, 
 +99, 102 
 +Bodhiruci ​ 5 
 +bodhisattva(s) ​ 5, 6, 14, 18, 26, 27, 59, 61, 
 +69, 75–76, 77, 78, 88, 93, 95, 97, 101, 
 +102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 
 +111, 112, 113, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 
 +123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 131, 133, 
 +134, 150, 152, 153, 143, 144, 148, 149, 
 +150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 
 +158, 159, 160, 161, 163, 164, 167, 168, 
 +169, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178 
 +beginner, novice ​ 119, 177, 178 
 +conjured ​ 150, 151, 152 
 +great  60, 107 
 +mahāsattvas ​ 46 
 +path  5, 60, 115 
 +powerful ​ 25, 26, 37, 47 
 +practice(s) ​ 5, 113–115, 157, 161, 168, 
 +175 
 +realms ​ 24 
 +stages ​ 26 
 +vows  15, 17 
 +bodhitree ​ 73 
 +body(ies) ​ 10, 20, 21, 22, 26, 43, 46, 62, 
 +70, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 95, 98, 104, 109, 
 +110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 117, 119, 121, 
 +123, 126, 127, 130, 134, 151, 145, 146, 
 +151, 152, 153, 159, 163, 175 
 +buddha, of the Buddha, Tathāgata ​ 10, 
 +21, 49, 83, 84, 95, 118, 121, 159, 
 +160, 166, 172 
 +Dharma ​ 21, 28, 29, 35–36, 44, 46, 50, 
 +83, 95 
 +female ​ 130 
 +form  160 
 +mind-made ​ 25, 26, 36 
 +of a Nārāyaṇa ​ 134 
 +of wisdom ​ 10 
 +190
 +Index 
 +body, life, and wealth ​ 15, 21, 22, 101, 104 
 +body, speech, and mind  20, 163 
 +Boin, Sara  64, 181 
 +bond(s), bondage ​ 89, 105, 112, 113, 144, 
 +147 
 +Brahmā(s) ​ 81, 92, 107, 119, 128, 129, 157 
 +gods  82, 168 
 +heaven(s) ​ 162, 172 
 +king(s) ​ 71, 92, 121, 153 
 +world  114 
 +brahman(s) ​ 82, 83, 95, 103, 105, 152 
 +Brahmā’s Net  71 
 +brāhma-vihāras. Seefour unlimiteds; ​
 +mind, four unlimited states of 
 +Buddha (see alsoŚākyamuni;​ Tathāgata; ​
 +World-honored One)  5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 
 +14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 44, 46, 
 +47, 49, 50, 51, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 
 +77, 78, 79, 81, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 
 +92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101, 102, 
 +103, 105, 106, 107, 112, 117, 118, 121, 
 +128, 130, 131, 134, 151, 146, 149, 150, 
 +151, 152, 153, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 
 +163, 164, 165, 167, 169, 171, 172, 173, 
 +175, 177, 178, 179 
 +body, Dharma body  44, 83, 84, 95 
 +eighteen exclusive attributes of  70, 74 
 +merit(s) ​ 10, 128, 129 
 +nirvana ​ 169, 178 
 +power(s) ​ 17, 72, 74, 79, 173 
 +skillful means of  24 
 +teaching(s) ​ 18, 51 
 +wisdom ​ 26, 70, 134, 140 
 +womb of. Seetathāgatagarbha ​
 +words  44, 46 
 +work  150, 151, 159, 168 
 +buddha(s) ​ 5, 6, 11, 17, 21, 23, 37, 46, 
 +48, 49, 50, 60, 69, 72, 76, 81, 88, 90, 
 +94, 98, 107, 109, 118, 119, 120, 121, 
 +124, 125, 129, 130, 131, 149, 150, 
 +152, 141, 149, 150, 151, 152, 155, 
 +158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 169, 171, 
 +172, 173, 174, 175, 176 
 +body(ies) ​ 118, 121, 160 
 +female ​ 6 
 +power(s) ​ 115 
 +merit(s) ​ 160, 162 
 +vehicle ​ 29 
 +wisdom ​ 75, 78, 105, 115 
 +Buddha-Dharma(s) ​ 21, 36, 37, 45, 82, 
 +101, 115, 127, 128, 149, 160, 174 
 +Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha (see also 
 +Three Jewels) ​ 69, 89, 146 
 +buddhahood ​ 5, 6, 21, 62, 76, 77, 97, 98, 
 +105, 111, 113, 115, 125, 149, 175 
 +path of  81, 88, 115, 133, 134, 152, 141 
 +buddha country(ies),​ land(s), realm(s) ​
 +11, 35, 69, 70, 75, 76, 78, 79, 92, 102, 
 +105, 108, 112, 115, 118, 120, 121, 
 +129, 152, 149, 150, 151, 153, 154, 
 +159, 160, 161, 162, 167, 169 
 +buddha-nature ​ 6 
 +Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra. See Flower ​
 +Garland Sutra 
 +Buddhism, Buddhist(s) ​ 6, 59, 60, 61, 62, 
 +64 
 +canonical sources, canon(s) ​ 5, 64 
 +literature, scriptures, text(s) ​ 5, 6, 60, 
 +61 
 +
 +cakravartin(see alsoking, wheel-turn- ​
 +ing; universal ruler) ​ 92, 95, 173 
 +campaka128 ​
 +Candirā ​ 9 
 +capacity(ies) ​ 62, 69, 74, 121, 162 
 +sensory. Seesensory, capacities ​
 +causality ​ 128 
 +cause(s) ​ 47, 108, 125, 150 
 +causes and conditions ​ 72, 83, 134, 157, 
 +173, 174 
 +twelve factors of  174, 175 
 +191
 +Index 
 +Chan  59 
 +characteristic(s) ​ 71, 75, 86, 87, 88, 89, 
 +90, 92, 93, 98, 104, 105, 108, 109, 
 +118, 120, 124, 128, 130, 143, 144, 
 +145, 146, 147, 160, 162, 163, 165, 
 +166, 167, 174, 175, 177, 178 
 +of bodhi 98, 104, 172 
 +of the dharmas ​ 69, 72, 75, 89, 115, 
 +147, 174 
 +of mind  93, 104, 144, 146 
 +self-, of the self  147, 165 
 +single ​ 89, 105, 143–144, 146, 165  ​
 +thirty-two primary (see alsothirty-two ​
 +primary characteristics,​ marks) ​ 70, 
 +102, 105, 115, 134, 151, 150, 159, 
 +162 
 +true  91, 107, 171, 174 
 +Characteristic of Sumeru ​ 118 
 +Characteristic of Wisdom ​ 145 
 +charisma, charismatic ​ 6, 69, 71, 78, 175 
 +charity (see alsodāna;​giving) ​ 69, 76, 
 +84, 88, 99, 102, 103, 104, 105, 125, 
 +146, 162 
 +child, children ​ 60, 82, 108, 124, 168 
 +chiliocosm (see alsotrimegachiliocosm) ​
 +73  ​
 +China  vii, 61 
 +Chinese ​ 5, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63 
 +language ​ 60, 62, 63, 64 
 +Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Asso- 
 +ciation (CBETA) ​ 64 
 +Ch’ŏnt’ae. SeeTiantai school ​
 +commentary(ies) ​ 6, 60, 61, 62, 63 
 +common people, person (see alsoordinary ​
 +people, person) ​ 14, 25, 43, 82 
 +compassion (see alsofour unlimiteds) ​ 5, 
 +77, 84, 87, 100, 112, 125, 136, 154 
 +great  19, 29, 87, 104, 105, 108, 111, 
 +112, 125, 128, 129, 134, 152, 154, 
 +160, 161, 163, 173 
 +concentration(s) ​ 27, 69, 72, 76, 81, 82, 
 +84, 88, 89, 90, 114, 115, 125, 137 
 +of extinction ​ 85, 124, 147 
 +concept(s), conception, conceptualization ​
 +10, 110, 111, 117, 120, 138, 144, 145, 
 +161, 162, 165 
 +confused ​ 126, 127 
 +erroneous, false  43, 93, 98, 110 
 +Conch Crest  78 
 +condition(s),​ conditioning forces (see 
 +alsocauses and conditions) ​ 24, 43, 
 +63, 83, 86, 98, 159 
 +four (see alsofour noble truths) ​ 31 
 +conditioned ​ 20, 26, 27, 35, 39, 41, 43, 
 +118, 154, 161, 163, 164, 166 
 +dharmas ​ 79, 94, 100, 104, 161 
 +generation ​ 70, 100, 114 
 +noble truth(s) ​ 35, 39, 44 
 +Confucian ​ 60 
 +congregation(s) (see alsoassembly) ​ 59, 
 +69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 105, 107, 117, 122, 
 +136, 143, 148, 150, 151, 152, 157, 
 +167, 168, 169 
 +great  69, 71, 72, 108, 149, 150, 156, 
 +157, 167, 168, 171, 179 
 +consciousness(es) ​ 43, 47, 86, 113, 134, 
 +145, 146, 147, 148, 159, 165 
 +six sense  45 
 +Constant Exertion ​ 71 
 +Constantly Lamenting ​ 70 
 +Constantly Lowered Hand  70 
 +Constantly Raised Hand  70 
 +constellations (see alsostars) ​ 120 
 +Contemplates the Sounds of the World. ​
 +SeeAvalokiteśvara ​
 +contemplation ​ 27, 84, 86, 100, 104, 112, 
 +115, 125, 166, 175 
 +conversion ​ 44, 99, 100, 131 
 +convert(s), converted, converting ​ 5, 22, 
 +49, 75, 82, 125, 128, 136, 138, 139, 
 +152, 153, 154, 160, 165, 169, 175 
 +192
 +Index 
 +Crown of Pearls King  147 
 +Crown of Virtue ​ 143 
 +
 +dāna(see alsocharity;​ giving) ​ 20, 69, 76 
 +dāna-pāramitā.Seeperfection,​ of charity, ​
 +giving ​
 +Daosheng ​ 62, 63 
 +darkness ​ 103, 147, 165, 167 
 +death (see alsobirth and death; old age, 
 +illness, and death) ​ 6, 21, 25, 45, 100, 
 +131, 134, 166, 167, 175 
 +deed(s) (see alsoact, action, activity) ​
 +five, of interminable retribution ​ 133 
 +good, virtuous ​ 11, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 22 
 +defilement(s) ​ 24, 25, 26, 27–28, 36, 46, 
 +47, 51, 63, 78, 79, 83, 86, 93, 102, 
 +129, 133, 143, 165, 173, 177 
 +active ​ 25, 26, 27 
 +latent ​ 25, 31 
 +of the mind  10, 27, 46 
 +stages of  25, 26, 31 
 +stores of  31, 35, 36, 37 
 +virulent ​ 27, 28, 36, 46 
 +Delights in the Real  147 
 +desire(s) ​ 20, 60, 82, 102, 104, 113, 114, 
 +120, 125, 126, 133, 134, 140, 141, 
 +149, 154, 159, 162, 174 
 +five  11, 101, 102, 103, 127, 134, 135, 
 +140 
 +for existence ​ 26 
 +realm  117, 152   
 +destination(s),​ destiny(ies) ​ 100, 134 
 +evil  11, 13, 70, 77, 89, 111, 171 
 +five  70, 94 
 +Destroyer of Māra  71 
 +deva.Seegod ​
 +dhāraṇī(s) ​ 69, 81, 134, 136, 160, 162, 
 +173, 175 
 +dharma(s) ​ 46, 72, 75, 77, 79, 86, 88, 89, 
 +90, 91, 93, 97, 98, 99, 100, 104, 105, 
 +110–111, 113, 114, 115, 118, 126, 
 +127, 128, 130, 135, 136, 143, 144, 
 +145, 146, 147, 148, 155, 159, 162, 
 +163, 166, 167, 173, 174, 179, 178 
 +birthlessness ​ 158, 174 
 +characteristic(s) of  69, 72, 75, 89, 147, 
 +174 
 +conditioned ​ 79, 94, 100, 104, 161  ​
 +eight  129–30, 134, 155–56 ​
 +false, inferior ​ 150, 151, 152, 167 
 +good  84, 103, 104, 105, 126, 163 
 +nonarising of  69, 79, 81, 99, 131, 143, 
 +148, 156, 158, 178 
 +pure, purity of  84, 89, 115, 124 
 +ten excellent ​ 155 
 +three perduring ​ 101, 104  ​
 +unconditioned ​ 94, 135, 161 
 +Dharma (see alsoBuddha-Dharma; ​
 +Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha; True 
 +Dharma) ​ 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 
 +21, 22, 23, 29, 30, 31, 36, 44, 46, 47, 
 +48, 49, 51, 60, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 
 +77, 78, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 
 +91, 92, 94, 96, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 
 +104, 105, 107, 112, 113, 115, 117–118, ​
 +121, 124, 127, 128, 129, 134, 136, 137, 
 +139, 141, 146, 149, 151, 153, 154, 156, 
 +157, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 168, 171, 
 +174, 175, 177, 178, 179 
 +body(ies) of (see alsoDharma body) 
 +83, 95 
 +charity of  104, 105, 125 
 +city  69, 175 
 +correct ​ 69, 82, 88, 94, 104, 129, 161, 
 +163, 175 
 +dew of  70, 137 
 +eye(s) ​ 79, 90 
 +gate(s) ​ 81, 143–48, 159 
 +Hinayana, śrāvaka90,​ 113, 128, 129, 
 +130 
 +jewel(s) ​ 70, 169 
 +193
 +Index 
 +Dharma (continued) ​
 +joy in, of  102, 103, 136 
 +mother ​ 6, 19 
 +offering(s) ​ 171, 173, 174, 175, 176 
 +storehouse ​ 129, 173 
 +wheel of  14, 69, 73, 115, 174, 175 
 +Dharma body  21, 28, 29, 35, 36, 44, 46, 
 +50 
 +Dharma Characteristic ​ 70 
 +dharmakāya. SeeDharma body 
 +Dharma King (see alsoBuddha) ​ 10, 28, 
 +49, 72, 74 
 +Dharma-nature ​ 86, 98, 114, 166 
 +Dharma Prince. SeeMañjuśrī ​
 +dhātu.Seerealm ​
 +dhyāna(s) (see alsomeditation) ​ 20, 69, 
 +76, 140, 161 
 +four  137 
 +dhyāna-pāramitā.Seeperfection,​ of 
 +meditation ​
 +Difficult to Overcome ​ 105, 129 
 +difficulty(ies) ​ 89, 99, 122, 153, 155 
 +eight  89, 155 
 +disciple(s) (see also śrāvaka) ​ 18, 19, 23, 
 +29, 31, 33, 46, 47, 50, 63, 81, 85, 127, 
 +135, 136, 168 
 +great  37, 96, 107, 117, 119, 127, 152, 
 +157 
 +vehicle (see alsoHinayana) ​ 18, 19 
 +discipline (see alsomorality;​ śīla) ​ 13, 20, 
 +23 
 +perfection of. Seeperfection,​ of disci- ​
 +pline, morality ​
 +discrimination ​ 86, 109, 126, 127, 143, 
 +146, 166, 178 
 +divine ​ 60 
 +eye  92 
 +music  14 
 +nāgas ​ 49 
 +doctrinal, doctrine(s) ​ 5, 59, 61, 62 
 +donor(s) ​ 89, 105 
 +doubt(s), doubting ​ 9, 35, 51, 74, 92, 93, 
 +155, 162, 171, 178 
 +dragon(s) (see alsonāga) ​ 71, 72, 73, 
 +119, 120, 122, 128, 168, 174, 177 
 +dualistic, duality(ies) ​ 91, 92, 111, 143, 
 +144, 145, 146, 147 
 +
 +earth (see alsofour elements; great earth) ​
 +23, 28, 79, 83, 109, 135, 138, 139, 
 +145, 149, 152 
 +East Asia, East Asian  60, 61, 62 
 +eighteen exclusive attributes ​ 70, 74, 84, 
 +100  ​
 +eighty subsidiary marks  70, 102, 105, 
 +115, 134, 137, 150, 159, 162 
 +ekayāna.SeeOne Vehicle ​
 +elder(s) ​ 13, 71, 72, 75, 79, 81, 82, 83, 
 +84, 94, 103, 104, 108, 152, 158 
 +eloquence (see alsolion’s roar)  5, 17, 
 +69, 81, 87, 88, 93, 96, 103, 107, 128, 
 +134, 160, 162, 175 
 +Eloquent Sound  70 
 +emancipation(s) (see alsoliberation) ​ 69, 
 +75, 77, 84, 89, 90, 91, 93, 100, 109, 
 +112, 114, 119, 128, 136, 137, 144, 
 +146, 147, 153, 160, 161, 163, 164 
 +eight  88, 137, 149 
 +inconceivable ​ 119, 120, 121, 122, 
 +151, 172, 179 
 +three (see alsoemptiness,​ signlessness, ​
 +and wishlessness) ​ 102, 112, 114, 
 +146, 165, 147 
 +emptiness ​ 37, 46, 62, 86, 91, 100, 104, 
 +109, 111, 114, 121, 125, 136, 144, 
 +145, 147, 163, 174 
 +meaning of  37, 50, 91 
 +wisdom of  31, 37 
 +emptiness, signlessness,​ and wishlessness ​
 +(see alsoemancipations,​ three) ​ 112, 
 +114, 146, 174 
 +194
 +Index 
 +enlightenment ​ 26, 44, 50, 73, 85, 94, 
 +115, 123, 136, 137, 140, 141, 172 
 +complete, perfect, ultimate, unsurpass- ​
 +able (see alsoanuttarā sam yak - 
 +saṃbodhi) ​ 17, 25, 29, 30, 31, 62, 
 +75, 76, 102, 135–36 ​
 +factors of  102, 115, 136 
 +Hinayana, Hinayanist ​ 62, 97, 135, 158 
 +intention for, thought of (see also 
 +bodhicitta) ​ 5, 102, 103, 136 
 +place of  99–101, 102, 137, 171, 174 
 +thirty-seven factors of  77, 84, 85, 100, 
 +162 
 +-wisdom ​ 26, 27, 28 
 +entrance(s) ​ 98, 117, 123, 134, 162 
 +equanimity (see alsofour unlimiteds) ​
 +77, 84, 100, 104 
 +Equivalent Contemplation ​ 70 
 +Equivalent-Inequivalent Contemplation ​
 +70 
 +eternalism (see alsonihilism) ​ 43 
 +evil(s) ​ 11, 46, 73, 94, 95, 102, 162, 163, 
 +167, 178 
 +actions, ten  134 
 +age of the five corruptions ​ 96, 151 
 +destinations,​ destinies ​ 11, 13, 70, 77, 
 +89, 111, 171 
 +Evil One(s) (see alsoMāra) ​ 22, 26, 28, 
 +101, 102 
 +Excellent Constellation ​ 143 
 +Excellent Eye  143 
 +Excellent Jewel  71 
 +Excellent Mind  144 
 +exertion(s) (see alsoperseverance;​ vīrya) ​
 +69, 74, 76, 77, 81, 83, 99, 110, 114, 
 +125, 146, 155, 162, 175 
 +perfection of. Seeperfection,​ of exer- 
 +tion, perseverance ​
 +existence ​ 26, 81, 131, 143 
 +desire for  25, 26 
 +realms of  81 
 +experience ​ 73, 94, 104, 111, 114, 143 
 +extinction (see alsogeneration and 
 +extinction; nirvana) ​ 23, 28, 31, 73, 
 +89, 91, 97, 98, 115, 117, 124, 137, 
 +143, 145, 146, 163, 165, 166, 174 
 +of the body  110, 146 
 +concentration of  85, 124, 147 
 +of the senses ​ 45 
 +of suffering (see alsofour noble truths) ​
 +27, 35, 36, 37, 41, 43, 44, 117 
 +eye(s) ​ 72, 86, 101, 122, 145, 147, 165 
 +of the arhat  47 
 +Dharma ​ 79, 90, 118 
 +divine ​ 92 
 +five  94 
 +of truth  22, 46 
 +wisdom ​ 147 
 +
 +faculty(ies) ​ 28, 77, 81, 87, 91  ​
 +dull  90, 114 
 +five  94, 114 
 +sharp  90, 114 
 +faith  9, 30, 47, 70, 82, 175, 177, 178 
 +fault(s) ​ 10, 26 
 +fear(s), fearful ​ 24, 28, 70, 90, 100, 101, 
 +102, 127, 133, 134, 140, 161, 166, 
 +177, 178 
 +fearless, fearlessness(es) ​ 27, 28, 69, 74, 
 +81, 138, 140, 151, 160 
 +four  30, 70, 84, 100, 136 
 +feeling (see also skandha) ​ 145, 165 
 +female (see alsogender; woman, women) ​
 +6, 130  ​
 +fetters (see alsoimpediment) ​ 74, 124, 
 +135, 166 
 +Field of Blessings ​ 146 
 +filiality ​ 82 
 +fire(s) (see alsofour elements) ​ 83, 109, 
 +121, 124, 139, 140, 145 
 +five desires. Seedesire(s),​ five 
 +195
 +Index 
 +flaw(s) ​ 79, 90, 95, 114, 144, 154, 163 
 +flawless, flawlessness ​ 136, 144, 154, 
 +155, 163 
 +flower(s) (see alsolotus flower) ​ 14, 127, 
 +135, 136, 137, 164, 168, 172 
 +heavenly ​ 14, 59, 127 
 +Flower Garland Sutra 61  ​
 +Flower Ornament ​ 71, 147 
 +food  79, 87, 88, 89, 90, 122, 137, 139, 
 +149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 158, 159 
 +forbearance (see alsokṣānti;​patience) ​
 +69, 76, 81, 82, 99, 100, 102, 123, 125, 
 +141, 146, 155, 175 
 +of the nonarising of dharmas ​ 69, 79, 
 +81, 99, 131, 143, 148, 156, 158, 
 +174, 178 
 +perfection of. Seeperfection,​ of for- 
 +bearance, patience ​
 +forces, conditioning (see alsopsycho - 
 +physical elements, forces; skandha) ​
 +24, 63 
 +form(s) (see also skandha) ​ 10, 15, 22, 
 +25, 26, 77, 79, 86, 87, 109, 117, 120, 
 +121, 123, 124, 127, 130, 137, 138, 
 +145, 151, 160, 165 
 +realm  133, 152 
 +formless, formlessness ​ 99, 117 
 +realm  123, 133 
 +four all-embracing acts. Seeact(s), four 
 +all-embracing ​
 +four attractions ​ 77, 100, 104, 136, 155, 
 +161 
 +four confusions ​ 134 
 +four continents ​ 71, 119 
 +four correct postures ​ 20 
 +four elements (see alsoearth; fire; water; ​
 +wind)  83, 102, 109, 110 
 +four groups of followers (see alsolay- ​
 +man; laywoman; monk; nun)  21, 50 
 +four heavenly kings  107, 119, 128, 129, 
 +157, 179 
 +four jewel storehouses ​ 6, 19 
 +four noble truths (see alsonoble truths) ​
 +31, 35, 39, 44, 89 
 +four responsibilities ​ 18 
 +four right efforts ​ 114 
 +four supernormal abilities ​ 114 
 +four unlimiteds (see alsocompassion; ​
 +equanimity; joy; mind, four unlimited ​
 +states of; sympathy) ​ 84, 162 
 +four wisdoms. Seewisdom(s),​ four 
 +fragrance(s),​ fragrant ​ 60, 87, 128, 129, 
 +149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 158, 159, 164 
 +Fragrant Elephant ​ 71 
 +Fragrant Mountains ​ 72 
 +
 +gandharvas ​ 51, 71, 73, 174, 177 
 +Ganges River(s) ​ 15, 17, 26, 27, 28, 36, 37, 
 +50, 118, 120, 121, 131, 149, 150, 151 
 +garuḍas ​ 71 
 +gāthā.Seeverse,​ four-phrase ​
 +gender (see alsofemale; woman, women) ​
 +6, 59, 62 
 +generation ​ 97, 98, 108, 124, 147 
 +conditioned ​ 70, 100, 114 
 +of practice(s) ​ 77, 99, 162 
 +generation and extinction ​ 86, 91, 98, 
 +117, 137, 143, 166 
 +giving (see alsoacts, four all-embracing; ​
 +charity; dāna) ​ 13, 20 
 +perfection of. Seeperfection(s),​ of 
 +charity, giving ​
 +god(s) ​ 11, 13, 18, 19, 25, 26, 51, 59, 71, 
 +72, 73, 79, 82, 90, 95, 98, 99, 101, 
 +103, 107, 115, 118, 119, 122, 128, 
 +129, 139, 149, 152, 153, 155, 162, 
 +168, 173, 174, 177, 179 
 +Brahmā ​ 82, 167 
 +goddess(es) ​ 62, 101, 102, 103, 127–28, ​
 +130–31 ​
 +Golden Crest  71  ​
 +196
 +Index 
 +Golden Mountains ​ 72 
 +good(s), goodness ​ 6, 73, 82, 84, 86, 95, 
 +99, 114, 126, 144, 163, 169, 171, 175, 
 +177 
 +actions, acts, deeds  6, 13, 18, 22, 23, 
 +146 
 +dharmas ​ 84, 103, 104, 105, 126, 163  ​
 +foundation of  81, 101 
 +karma  73, 105 
 +mind  46, 136 
 +roots  102, 155, 161, 162, 163, 167 
 +skillful means  133, 138, 141 
 +ten types of  76, 77, 162 
 +good friends ​ 18, 102, 136 
 +good men and women, sons and daugh- ​
 +ters  18, 19, 20, 21, 47–48, 50, 171, 
 +172, 177, 178 
 +Good Virtue ​ 103 
 +great being (see alsomahāsattva) ​ 14, 
 +151, 157 
 +great cloud  6, 18 
 +great earth  6, 18, 19 
 +Great Iron Ring Mountains (see alsoIron ​
 +Ring Mountains) ​ 72 
 +Great Ornament ​ 70 
 +Great Ornamentation world  172 
 +Great Sage (see alsoBuddha) ​ 72, 74 
 +Great Vehicle (see alsoMahayana) ​ 18, 19 
 +great waters ​ 6, 18, 120 
 +Guṇabhadra ​ 5, 7 
 +
 +happiness (see alsojoy) ​ 18, 24, 28, 30, 
 +44, 47 
 +heaven(s) ​ 9, 26, 114, 119, 138, 175 
 +Brahmā ​ 162, 172 
 +king of (see also Śakra) ​ 49, 50, 51 
 +thirty-three ​ 50 
 +heavenly emperor(s), kings (see alsofour ​
 +heavenly kings) ​ 71, 81, 97, 121, 171, 
 +172, 173, 175, 176 
 +Heavenly King  71 
 +hell(s) ​ 133, 139, 153, 162 
 +five interminable ​ 135 
 +heretic(s) ​ 82, 134, 174 
 +heterodox(ies) ​ 49, 147, 171 
 +paths  69, 73, 89, 92, 94, 95, 103, 109, 
 +147 
 +views  89, 109, 114, 139, 154, 173, 174 
 +Hinayana, Hinayanist ​ 62, 90, 97, 135, 
 +155, 158, 163 
 +hindrance(s) (see alsofetters) 75, 76, 77, 
 +87, 98, 99, 100, 102, 105, 119, 134, 
 +138, 144, 152, 154, 162 
 +Holding the Jewel Torch  70 
 +home, leaving, renouncing (see also 
 +renunciation) ​ 23, 24, 61, 89, 94, 104, 
 +127, 139, 175 
 +Host of Fragrances world  149, 150, 153, 
 +155, 158, 161 
 +householder (see alsolayman, laymen; ​
 +laypeople, layperson) ​ 60, 85 
 +Huayan school ​ 61 
 +human(s) ​ 11, 13, 14, 18, 19, 73, 79, 101, 
 +127, 144, 149, 153, 155, 162, 168, 179 
 +Hwaŏm. SeeTiantai school ​
 +
 +ignorance ​ 25, 28, 31, 32, 100, 133, 134, 
 +145, 165, 174 
 +stage of  25–26, 27, 28 
 +illness(es) (see alsoold age, illness, and 
 +death) ​ 11, 70, 95, 108, 109, 110, 11, 
 +112, 134, 139, 150 
 +of the body  83, 109, 113 
 +of sentient beings ​ 84, 108, 109, 111, 
 +112, 164 
 +of Vimalakīrti. SeeVimalakīrti,​ illness ​
 +of 
 +illumination(s) ​ 47, 103, 129, 147, 159 
 +three  84, 100, 165 
 +Illumination Net  70 
 +197
 +Index 
 +Immovable. SeeAkṣobhya ​
 +impediment(s) (see alsoaffliction) ​ 26, 69 
 +impermanence ​ 82, 91, 101, 121, 138, 
 +163, 174 
 +India, Indian ​ 5, 7, 60, 61, 64 
 +Indra(s) (see also Śakra Devānām Indra) ​
 +71, 81, 82, 101, 107, 119, 121, 128, 
 +129 
 +Indra’s Net  70 
 +Inequivalent Contemplation ​ 70 
 +Inexhaustible Mind  146 
 +influence(s) ​ 70, 150 
 +latent ​ 98, 124, 127 
 +infractions ​ 133, 174 
 +intention(s) ​ 20, 73, 77, 82, 90, 94, 135, 
 +141, 152, 158, 162 
 +to attain anuttarā sam yak saṃ bodhi 
 +75, 79, 84, 87, 88, 92, 93, 94–95, 98, 
 +101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 115, 121, 
 +122, 129, 135, 150, 156, 169, 177 
 +for enlightenment (see alsobodhi citta) ​
 +76, 102, 103, 135–36, 140, 141 
 +Iron Ring Mountains (see also Great Iron 
 +Ring Mountains) ​ 72, 168 
 +Īśvara ​ 78 
 +
 +Jambudvīpa ​  119, 167, 168, 177 
 +Japan  61 
 +Japanese language ​ 59, 61, 64 
 +jealous, jealousy ​ 13, 77, 154, 155 
 +Jeta Garden ​ 9, 49 
 +jewel(s), jeweled ​ 18, 19, 71, 72, 73, 79, 
 +90, 105, 129, 135, 168, 175 
 +Dharma (see alsoThree Jewels) ​ 70, 169 
 +storehouses,​ four  6, 19 
 +Jewel Accumulation ​ 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 
 +78, 79 
 +Jewel Courage ​ 70 
 +Jeweled Canopy ​ 173, 175 
 +Jewel Hand  70 
 +Jewel Mirage ​ 129, 175 
 +Jewel Moon  129 
 +Jewel Mountains ​ 72 
 +Jewel Ornament ​ 79, 129 
 +Jewel Ornamentation world  79 
 +Jewel Seal Hand  70, 147 
 +Jewel Staff  71 
 +Jewel Virtue ​ 129 
 +Jewel Vision ​ 70 
 +Ji  63 
 +joy, joyful, joyous (see alsofour unlimit- ​
 +eds; happiness) ​ 22, 46, 62, 74, 77, 
 +82, 84, 94, 100, 102, 103, 104, 121, 
 +125, 126, 141, 152, 160, 161, 162, 
 +166, 169, 174, 177 
 +in, of the Dharma ​ 102, 103, 136 
 +Joyful Vision ​ 145 
 +Joy King  70 
 +
 +Kakuda Kātyāyana ​ 89 
 +kalpa(s) ​ 50, 110, 120, 121, 139, 141, 
 +152, 155, 160, 161, 162, 172, 173, 
 +175, 177, 178 
 +bhadra- 175  ​
 +-ending conflagration ​ 121, 138 
 +karma, karmic ​ 47, 73, 83, 105 
 +Kāśyapa (see alsoMahākāśyapa) ​ 87, 88, 
 +122 
 +Kātyāyana (see alsoMahā kāt yā yana)  91 
 +Kauśika (see alsoŚakra) ​ 50, 51, 101 
 +Kawamura, Kōshō ​ 64, 181 
 +Kegon. SeeHuayan school ​
 +kiṃnaras ​ 71 
 +king(s) ​ 9, 22, 71, 83, 119, 173 
 +Brahmā ​ 71, 78, 92, 121, 139 
 +dragon (see also nāga) ​ 119 
 +of heaven (see alsoŚakra) ​ 49, 50, 51 
 +heavenly (see alsofour heavenly ​
 +kings) ​ 71, 81, 97, 121 
 +Māra  122 
 +198
 +Index 
 +medicine, physician ​ 70, 73, 110  ​
 +wheel-turning (see also cakravartin) ​
 +95, 173 
 +kingdom ​ 5, 9, 49 
 +knowledge ​ 25, 27, 28, 31, 37, 43, 44, 45, 
 +84, 87, 100, 160, 174 
 +Korea, Korean ​ 61 
 +Kosala ​ 9 
 +Krakucchandra ​ 175 
 +kṣānti(see alsoforbearance;​ patience) ​
 +20, 69, 76 
 +kṣānti-pāramitā.Seeperfection,​ of for- 
 +bearance, patience ​
 +kṣatriyas ​ 82 
 +Kuiji. SeeJi 
 +Kumārajīva ​ 62, 63, 64, 65, 67 
 +
 +Lake Anavatapta ​ 23 
 +Lamotte, Étienne ​ 64, 65, 181 
 +layman, laymen ​ 21, 60, 71, 81 
 +laypeople, layperson ​ 61, 62 
 +laywoman, laywomen ​ 5, 21, 71 
 +liberation (see alsoemancipation) ​ 25, 
 +26, 27, 28, 61 
 +of sentient beings ​ 78, 112, 138, 155 
 +licentious, licentiousness (see alsolust, ​
 +lustful) ​ 88, 128, 141, 145, 153 
 +lifespan(s) ​ 77, 83, 86, 120, 160, 172, 174 
 +light  10, 49, 129, 167 
 +lightning ​ 83, 93, 123 
 +Lightning-like Virtue ​ 71 
 +limit(s), limitation(s),​ limited ​ 17, 21, 29, 
 +30, 31, 35, 43, 45, 61, 98, 112, 129, 
 +141, 144, 166, 168 
 +Lion  144 
 +Lion Mind  144 
 +lion seat(s) ​ 71, 118, 119, 152, 157 
 +Lion’s Echo  129 
 +lion’s roar (see alsoeloquence) ​ 5, 28, 
 +30, 69, 70, 100 
 +Lion’s Roar  71 
 +livelihood ​ 104, 110, 137 
 +living being(s) (see alsobeing[s];​ sen- 
 +tient being) ​ 5, 6, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 
 +19, 20, 21, 22, 24,25, 28, 30, 43, 44, 
 +45, 46, 49 
 +longevity ​ 11, 26, 120 
 +Lord. SeeBuddha ​
 +lotus flower(s) ​ 72, 75, 79, 135, 140, 168 
 +Lotus Sutra61, 62 
 +Luk, Charles ​ 64, 181 
 +lust, lustful (see alsolicentious,​ licen- ​
 +tiousness) ​ 13, 98, 133, 134 
 +
 +Mādhyamika ​ 59 
 +Mahākāśyapa (see alsoKāśyapa) ​ 87, 
 +121, 122, 135 
 +Mahākātyāyana (see alsoKātyā yana)  91 
 +Mahāmaudgalyāyana (see alsoMaud gal - 
 +yāyana) ​ 85, 86, 87 
 +Mahāmucilinda Mountains ​ 72 
 +māhasattva(s) (see alsogreat being) ​ 14 
 +Mahayana, Mahayanist (see alsoGreat ​
 +Vehicle) ​ 5, 6, 11, 14, 18, 19, 22, 
 +23–24, 29, 30, 47, 49, 59, 61, 62, 76, 
 +81, 82, 87, 90, 121, 125, 137, 155, 
 +158, 163, 178 
 +mahoragas ​ 71 
 +Maintains the World  101 
 +Maintenance of Virtue ​ 143 
 +Maitreya ​ 71, 97, 98, 177, 178 
 +Mallikā, Queen  9 
 +Manifest Perception ​ 144 
 +Mañjuśrī ​ 60, 71, 107–110, 111, 113, 
 +115, 118, 119, 123, 124, 125–27, 133, 
 +134–35, 148, 150, 156, 157, 171, 179 
 +Mañjuśrī Scripture. See Monju kyōten ​
 +Māra(s) (see alsoEvil One)  22, 26, 73, 
 +100, 101, 102–103, 113, 122, 134, 
 +140, 162, 174 
 +199
 +Index 
 +Māra(s) (continued) ​
 +four  137, 159 
 +host(s) of  84, 94, 102, 107, 109, 113, 
 +138, 173 
 +vengeful ​ 69, 81, 171, 175 
 +mark(s) ​ 82 
 +eighty subsidiary ​ 70, 102, 105, 115, 
 +134, 137, 150, 159, 162 
 +thirty-two (see alsothirty-two marks, ​
 +primary characteristics) ​ 76 
 +Maskarin Gośālīputra ​ 89 
 +Maudgalyāyana (see alsoMahā maud - 
 +galyāyana) ​ 85 
 +meaning ​ 18, 20, 23, 25, 28, 31, 33, 35, 
 +47, 51, 89, 91, 133, 160, 169, 171, 
 +173, 174, 177 
 +of the Dharma ​ 47, 49, 70 
 +of emptiness ​ 37, 50, 91 
 +of the noble truths ​ 33, 35 
 +medicinal, medicine(s) ​ 70, 95, 139, 159, 
 +164 
 +Medicine King  73, 172, 173, 175 
 +meditation (see alsodhyāna) ​ 20, 27, 47, 
 +69, 76, 84, 85, 94, 100, 101, 102, 112, 
 +114, 146, 149, 153, 155, 160, 163 
 +perfection of. Seeperfection,​ of medi- 
 +tation ​
 +mental ​ 99, 100, 114, 144, 163 
 +phenomena, seven  45 
 +processes ​ 70, 73, 91, 98, 109 
 +mentation, objectified ​ 99, 111 
 +merit(s) ​ 6, 9, 11, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 26, 
 +27, 28, 31, 49, 50, 69, 70, 76, 77, 78, 
 +79, 83, 94, 95, 99, 113, 125, 126, 128, 
 +129, 133, 134, 137, 141, 146, 151, 
 +152, 153, 155, 156, 160, 163, 172 
 +cultivation of  19, 102, 133 
 +great  17, 47, 50 
 +immeasurable ​ 9, 14, 22, 50, 70, 79, 
 +162, 168 
 +true  10, 11 
 +meritorious ​ 27, 105 
 +action, acts  6, 146, 147 
 +metaphor(s) ​ 5, 6, 159 
 +mind(s) (see alsobody, speech, and mind) 
 +9, 25, 28, 35, 46, 47, 63, 69, 73, 78, 
 +79, 81, 85, 86, 90, 91, 92, 93, 98, 100, 
 +102, 109, 113, 114, 133, 137,144, 145, 
 +146, 152, 153, 154, 158, 163, 165, 175 
 +of bodhi(see also bodhicitta) ​ 76, 99 
 +characteristic(s) of  93, 104, 144 
 +of compassion ​ 87, 136 
 +controlled, control of, disciplined, ​
 +disciplining ​ 76, 100, 104, 110, 111, 
 +113, 133, 154, 155, 178 
 +defiled, defilements of  10, 27, 46, 47, 
 +93 
 +four unlimited states of (see alsofour ​
 +unlimiteds) ​ 76, 114 
 +-made bodies. Seebody(ies),​ mind- 
 +made 
 +profound ​ 76, 77, 78, 99, 104, 125, 
 +137, 173 
 +pure, purified, purity of  10, 46, 51, 72, 
 +74, 78, 79, 81, 93, 102, 104, 105, 
 +134, 137, 160, 177 
 +mindful, mindfully ​ 49, 110, 111, 129, 
 +133, 160, 161 
 +mindfulness(es) ​ 20, 69, 77, 143, 162, 178 
 +correct ​ 126, 161 
 +four foundations of  114 
 +six  104 
 +ministers ​ 82, 83, 140 
 +mirage(s) ​ 83, 93, 123, 159 
 +Mitrayaśas,​ King  49 
 +monism ​ 25 
 +Monju kyōten64, 181 
 +monk(s) (see alsobhikṣu) ​ 21, 61, 62, 70, 
 +163 
 +moon(s) ​ 43, 72, 78, 93, 120, 123, 129, 
 +139, 159, 168 
 +Moon Canopy ​ 152, 173, 175 
 +200
 +Index 
 +morality (see alsodiscipline;​ śīla) ​ 69, 76, 
 +81, 83, 84, 99, 125, 141, 146, 153, 160 
 +per fection of. Seeperfection,​ of disci- ​
 +pline, morality ​
 +Mount Sumeru(s) ​ 22, 70, 71, 73, 119, 
 +135, 152, 168 
 +Mucilinda Mountains ​ 72 
 +
 +nāga(s) (see alsodragon) ​ 49, 71 
 +name(s) ​ 9, 23, 77, 86, 94, 99, 110, 111, 
 +149, 165 
 +Nārāyaṇa ​ 134, 144 
 +Nattier, Jan  64, 181 
 +nihilism (see alsoeternalism) ​ 43 
 +Nirgrantha Jñātiputra ​ 89 
 +nirvana ​ 24, 27, 29, 35, 43, 85, 88, 94, 
 +98, 110, 111, 113, 115, 117, 124, 134, 
 +144, 147, 154, 174 
 +aspiration for  45 
 +Buddha’s, of the Tathāgata ​ 75, 169, 
 +172, 175, 177, 178 
 +final ​ 24, 27 
 +partial, with remainder ​ 27, 32, 35 
 +permanent, without remainder ​ 27, 35 
 +realm of  24, 25, 27, 29 
 +noble truths (see alsofour noble truths) ​
 +31–32, 33, 35, 39, 41, 43 
 +conditioned,​ limited ​ 35, 39 
 +unconditioned,​ unlimited ​ 31, 35, 36, 50 
 +nonactivation ​ 114, 163, 174 
 +nonarising ​ 36, 45 
 +of dharmas ​ 69, 79, 81, 99, 131, 143, 
 +148, 156, 158, 178 
 +nonattainment ​ 69, 111 
 +nonbeing (see alsobeing) ​ 70 
 +non-Buddhist ​ 5 
 +noncontention ​  89, 104, 139 
 +nondual, nonduality ​ 59, 98, 124, 143, 
 +144, 145 
 +nonexistence ​ 99, 163 
 +nonexperience ​ 111, 143 
 +nonretrogression,​ nonretrogressive ​ 129, 
 +131, 173 
 +non-returner ​ 123 
 +no-self ​ 91, 100, 104, 113, 121, 125, 145, 
 +163, 174 
 +novice(s) ​ 90, 177, 178 
 +numinous  ​
 +charisma ​ 69, 71, 78, 175 
 +penetration(s) ​ 81, 100, 107, 114, 118, 
 +119, 121, 130, 131, 149, 152, 161, 
 +162, 168, 169, 171, 175 
 +power(s) ​ 72, 74, 77, 79, 101, 103, 
 +106, 108, 127, 130, 150, 151, 157, 
 +168, 173, 177, 178 
 +transformation(s) ​ 72, 105, 168 
 +nun(s) ​ 21, 71 
 +
 +object(s) ​ 10, 20 
 +objectified mentation ​ 99, 111 
 +offering(s) ​ 11, 21, 81, 82, 88, 89, 102, 
 +103, 104, 138, 150, 151, 155, 157, 
 +161, 164, 166, 169, 171, 172, 173, 
 +174, 175, 176, 178 
 +old age, illness, and death  21, 73, 111, 138 
 +omniscience ​ 28, 44, 100, 104, 105, 113, 
 +135, 146, 161, 162, 169 
 +One Vehicle ​ 5, 7, 23, 29, 30, 50, 51, 62 
 +ordinary people, person (see alsocommon ​
 +people, person) ​ 89, 122, 131, 135 
 +ordination ​ 23, 24 
 +vows, ten  13–14, 50 
 +ornamentation ​ 102, 105, 118, 152, 162, 
 +168 
 +Ornamentation kalpa172 ​
 +Ornamented Earth  71 
 +Ornament of the Characteristics of Merit 
 +71  ​
 +other-nature ​ 88 
 +201
 +Index 
 +
 +palace(s) ​ 9, 76, 82, 83, 179 
 +of the dragons ​ 72, 73, 119 
 +of the gods  72, 73, 119, 129, 168 
 +heavenly ​ 78, 102 
 +Māra’s ​ 103 
 +pāramitā.Seeperfection ​
 +parents ​ 5, 94, 108, 136, 162 
 +path(s) ​ 18, 27, 28, 31, 37, 39, 76, 77, 94, 
 +115, 117, 133, 141, 151, 162, 166, 
 +169, 177 
 +bodhisattva ​ 5, 61, 115, 174 
 +of buddhahood ​ 6, 81, 88, 115, 133, 
 +134, 138, 141 
 +correct ​ 137, 147, 154 
 +eightfold ​ 115, 137 
 +entire ​ 27, 35 
 +great, unsurpassable ​ 140, 150, 151 
 +heretic ​ 82 
 +heterodox, small  69, 73, 89, 90, 92, 
 +94, 95, 103, 109, 147 
 +of the Mahayana ​ 47, 90 
 +one, of the One Vehicle ​ 6, 29, 30, 51 
 +unacceptable,​ wrong  133, 134, 154 
 +patience (see alsoforbearance;​ kṣānti) ​ 20 
 +perfection of. Seeperfection,​ of for- 
 +bearance, patience ​
 +peace, peaceful ​ 13, 14, 15, 18, 29, 69, 
 +125, 137, 139, 150, 153, 161 
 +Pearl Crest Bodhisattva ​ 71 
 +penetration(s) ​ 138 
 +five  137, 141, 175 
 +numinous ​ 81, 100, 107, 114, 118, 119, 
 +121, 130, 131, 149, 152, 161, 162, 
 +168, 169, 171, 175 
 +six  84, 100, 114 
 +perfection(s) ​ 6, 14, 19, 20, 44, 101, 107, 
 +136, 162 
 +of charity, giving ​ 20, 84, 104 
 +of discipline, morality ​ 20, 24, 84, 104 
 +of exertion, perseverance ​ 20, 84, 104 
 +of forbearance,​ patience ​ 20, 84, 104 
 +of meditation ​ 20, 84, 104 
 +six  50, 114, 129, 173 
 +of wisdom ​ 20, 44, 81, 84, 104, 136 
 +Perfection of Wisdom ​ 59 
 +perseverance (see alsoexertion;​ vīrya) ​ 20 
 +perfection of. Seeperfection,​ of exer- 
 +tion, perseverance ​
 +phantasm(s),​ phantasmagorical ​ 83, 88, 
 +89, 93, 109, 138, 144, 159 
 +phenomena ​ 26, 27, 28, 35, 43, 45 
 +seven mental ​ 45 
 +poison(s), poisonous ​ 83, 102, 139, 159 
 +three  123 
 +power(s) ​ 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 21, 22, 25, 
 +26, 27, 28, 35, 49, 72, 77, 82, 83, 95, 
 +121, 122, 126, 138, 139, 151, 152, 
 +154, 158, 160, 178 
 +five  92, 94, 115 
 +numinous, of numinous penetration ​
 +72, 74, 79, 101, 103, 106, 108, 118, 
 +127, 130, 149, 150, 151, 157, 161, 
 +168, 169, 173, 175, 177, 178 
 +of skillful means  69, 104, 122, 141, 174 
 +supernatural,​ supernormal ​ 18, 47, 92 
 +ten  28, 70, 73, 74, 84, 100, 115, 136 
 +of transformation ​ 161, 168 
 +practice(s) ​ 20, 27, 29, 50, 51, 75, 77, 86, 
 +88, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 104, 113, 
 +118, 122, 140, 149, 153, 155, 160, 
 +163, 164, 169, 175 
 +bodhisattva ​ 5, 113–115, 157, 161, 168, 
 +175 
 +generation of  77, 99, 162 
 +of holiness ​ 25, 28 
 +pure, of purity ​ 24, 113, 168 
 +of the Vinaya ​ 92, 153, 159 
 +of wisdom ​ 69, 162 
 +prajñā(see alsowisdom) ​ 17, 20, 69, 76 
 +202
 +Index 
 +prajñā-pāramitā.Seeperfection,​ of 
 +wisdom ​
 +Prajñāpāramitā. SeePerfection of Wisdom ​
 +Prakrit ​ 63 
 +Prasenajit, King  9 
 +Prātimokṣa 23 
 +pratyekabuddha(s) ​ 18, 19, 23, 24, 25, 
 +26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 43, 44, 
 +47, 88, 115, 121, 128, 129, 134, 149, 
 +161, 175 
 +vehicle ​ 18, 19, 29 
 +precepts ​ 13, 76, 77, 102, 104, 137, 154, 
 +166 
 +pure  133, 155 
 +prediction, of buddhahood ​ 5, 11, 13, 21, 
 +97, 98, 169, 175 
 +prince(s) ​ 82, 83, 175 
 +principle(s) ​ 17, 43, 44, 72  ​
 +process(es) ​ 63, 73, 117, 145, 165, 174 
 +mental ​ 70, 73, 91, 98, 109 
 +Profound Wisdom ​ 146 
 +property (see alsowealth) ​ 13, 21 
 +psychophysical elements, forces (see 
 +alsoskandha) ​ 24, 43 
 +Pūraṇa Kāśyapa ​ 89 
 +Pure Emancipation ​ 144 
 +pure land(s) ​ 76, 77, 78, 95, 129, 151, 
 +155, 167, 169 
 +Pure Land school ​ 61 
 +purity ​ 24, 26, 27, 44, 78, 81, 93, 99, 105, 
 +125, 143, 168 
 +of buddha country(ies),​ land(s) ​ 75, 78, 
 +79 
 +of dharmas ​ 115, 124 
 +of the Dharma, Dharma eye  79, 118, 
 +175 
 +perfection of  44 
 +practice of  24 
 +with remainder ​ 26, 27 
 +Pūrṇa, Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra ​ 90 
 +Puṣya ​ 144 
 +
 +quality(ies) ​ 27, 59, 63, 77, 118, 160, 163 
 +of self  83, 174 
 +Questions of the Brahmā (Deva) Viśeṣa - 
 +cinti Sutra. See Shiyaku Bonten ​
 +shomon kyō 
 +
 +Radiance Characteristic ​ 70 
 +Radiance Ornament ​ 70 
 +Radiance Ornament Youth  99 
 +Radiant Illumination country ​ 105 
 +Rāhula ​ 93, 94 
 +rakṣasas ​ 177 
 +reality ​ 98, 145, 147, 152 
 +realization ​ 25, 26, 87, 111, 117, 128, 163 
 +realm(s) ​ 31, 33, 37, 43, 44, 46, 48, 81, 
 +117, 123, 162 
 +arhat  24 
 +bodhisattva ​ 24 
 +buddha, Buddha, Tathāgata ​ 33, 35, 46 
 +of desire ​ 117, 152 
 +eight difficult ​ 77 
 +of form  117, 133, 152 
 +formless, of formlessness ​ 117, 123, 133 
 +nirvana ​ 24, 25, 27, 29 
 +pratyekabuddha(s) ​ 24, 31 
 +of sensation, sensory ​ 47, 83 
 +three  117 
 +rebirth(s) (see alsobirth and death) ​ 6, 
 +14, 28, 29, 90, 104, 158 
 +refuge(s) ​ 24, 27, 29, 30, 39, 41, 44, 46, 
 +74, 86, 163, 174 
 +limited, partial ​ 29, 30 
 +one  41, 44, 50 
 +supreme, ultimate ​ 29, 30, 44 
 +three (see alsoThree Jewels) ​ 30 
 +religious ​ 9, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 139 
 +renunciation (see alsohome, leaving, ​
 +renouncing) ​ 23, 24, 76 
 +203
 +Index 
 +repose ​ 85, 104, 105 
 +retrogress, retrogressing ​ 98, 100 
 +root(s) ​ 69, 75, 134 
 +good, of goodness, virtuous ​ 102, 155, 
 +161, 162, 163, 167 
 +virtuous ​ 90, 112, 113, 114 
 +Roots of Joy  70 
 +Ruci  175 
 +
 +Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra. See Lotus 
 +Sutra 
 +sage(s), sagely (see alsoarhat) ​ 88, 89, 94, 
 +95, 97, 104, 107, 113, 125, 173, 174 
 +sahāworld ​ 150, 151, 155, 168, 169 
 +Śakra(s) (see alsoKauśika) ​ 49, 50, 51, 
 +157 
 +Śakra Devānām Indra (see alsoIndra) ​
 +171, 172 
 +Śākya ​ 101 
 +Śākyamuni ​ 78, 92, 129, 151, 153, 154 
 +salvation, salvific ​ 76, 100, 112, 134, 162 
 +samādhi 84, 89, 92, 114, 153 
 +of Vimalakīrti ​ 90, 149, 168 
 +Samantaprabha. SeeUniversal Light 
 +Saṃjayin Vairaṭīputra ​ 89 
 +samsara (see alsobirth and death) ​ 21, 
 +75, 86, 91, 94, 108, 109, 112, 113, 
 +126, 127, 134, 143, 144, 161, 162, 
 +163, 165, 174 
 +samyaksaṃbuddha160 ​
 +sangha ​ 21, 29, 173 
 +Sangha (see alsoBuddha, Dharma, and 
 +Sangha) ​ 30, 89, 117, 146 
 +Sanskrit ​ 5, 7, 63, 64, 160 
 +Śāriputra ​ 62, 78, 79, 85, 117, 118, 119, 
 +120, 121, 127–31, 149, 152, 157–58, ​
 +166–67, 169, 179 
 +scholar(s), retired ​ 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 94, 
 +95, 96, 99, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 
 +109, 110, 118, 119, 136, 152 
 +science ​ 20 
 +scripture(s) (see alsosutra) ​ 51, 60, 61, 
 +139, 169, 171, 172, 177, 179 
 +seed(s), seedling ​ 10, 23, 28, 229, 212, 
 +123, 134, 135  ​
 +self, selfhood ​ 44, 45, 73, 83, 86, 90, 91, 
 +93, 108, 110, 111, 125, 135, 143, 145, 
 +147, 163, 165, 174 
 +self-mastery ​ 10 
 +self-nature ​ 88 
 +Sengzhao ​ 62, 63 
 +sensation(s),​ sense(s) (see alsosix sense 
 +consciousnesses,​ senses) ​ 11, 45, 47, 
 +87, 114, 117, 118, 119, 123 
 +sense organs ​ 43, 135 
 +sense pleasures, sensuality ​ 25, 140 
 +sensory ​ 79, 83 
 +capacities ​ 83, 98, 102, 165 
 +data  86, 112 
 +troubles ​ 89, 135, 136 
 +sentient being(s) (see alsobeing; living ​
 +being) ​ 60, 74, 75–77, 78, 82, 85, 86, 
 +89, 90, 93, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 
 +103, 104, 105, 108, 110, 111, 112, 114, 
 +120, 122, 123–24, 125, 128, 131, 133, 
 +134, 138, 139, 140, 151, 153, 154, 
 +155, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 
 +165, 166, 167, 169, 171, 172, 175, 177 
 +capacity(ies) of  69  ​
 +categories of  75, 138 
 +emancipation,​ liberation of  78, 96, 
 +112, 155, 160 
 +faculties of  87, 90, 114 
 +illness(es) of  108, 109, 112, 164 
 +mental processes, thoughts of  70, 98, 
 +105, 109, 114  ​
 +minds of  81, 93, 114 
 +salvation of  73, 76, 100, 104, 112, 
 +114, 126, 134, 154, 161, 162, 174 
 +serene, serenity ​ 72, 73, 75, 86, 99, 110, 
 +115, 136, 145, 159 
 +204
 +Index 
 +Serene Capacity ​ 146 
 +Shuo Wuguocheng jingshu 63 
 +signless, signlessness (see alsoempti- ​
 +ness, signlessness,​ and wishlessness) ​
 +114, 146, 163 
 +Śikhin ​ 71 
 +śīla(see alsodiscipline;​ morality) ​ 20, 
 +69, 76 
 +śīla-pāramitā.Seeperfection,​ of disci- ​
 +pline, morality ​
 +silence, of Vimalakīrti ​ 59  ​
 +sincere, sincerity ​ 14, 76, 77, 99, 104, 
 +125, 136, 166 
 +six entrances ​ 134 
 +six mindfulnesses ​ 104 
 +six pāramitās,​ perfections. Seeperfec- ​
 +tion(s), six 
 +six penetrations ​ 84, 100, 114 
 +six sense consciousnesses,​ senses, sen- 
 +sory capacities, types of sensory data 
 +20, 45, 86, 165 
 +six stations ​ 23 
 +six teachers of heterodox paths  89 
 +skandha(s) (see alsoforces; psycho - 
 +physical elements, forces) ​ 63, 83, 
 +123, 162 
 +five (see alsoconception;​ conciousness; ​
 +feeling; form; process) ​ 43, 91, 102 
 +saṃskāra63 ​
 +skillful means  7, 17, 24, 25, 27, 30, 35, 
 +49, 60, 77, 78, 81–82, 83, 84, 100, 
 +107, 112–113, 122, 125, 133, 136, 
 +138, 161, 164 
 +power of  69, 104, 122, 141, 174 
 +Snowy Mountains ​ 71–72 ​
 +Sound of Thunder ​ 71 
 +Sound Striking the Mountains ​ 71 
 +South Asia  61 
 +space  10, 15, 73, 75, 76, 86, 96, 98, 101, 
 +115, 124, 135, 144, 145, 146, 152, 
 +159, 160, 165, 173 
 +speech (see alsobody, speech, and mind) 
 +10, 13, 20, 128, 146, 148, 153, 154 
 +spirits ​ 128, 152 
 +demonic ​ 119, 120, 168, 174, 177 
 +śramaṇa(s) ​ 81, 101, 103 
 +śrāvaka(s) (see alsodisciple) ​ 18, 62, 88, 
 +91, 93, 107, 115, 121, 128, 134, 135, 
 +136, 144, 149, 152, 153, 155, 158, 
 +160, 161, 167, 168, 173, 175 
 +Dharma (see alsoHinayana) ​ 113, 128, 
 +129, 130 
 +vehicle ​ 29, 79, 88 
 +Śrāvastī ​ 9, 49 
 +Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanāda-sūtra. SeeSutra ​
 +of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +Śrīmālā,​ Queen  5–6, 9–10, 13–14, 15, 
 +17–18, 22, 23–30, 31–32, 33, 35–36, ​
 +37, 38, 41, 43–44, 45–46, 47–48, ​
 +49–51 ​
 +srotāpanna.Seestream-enterer ​
 +stage(s) ​ 25, 26, 28, 29 
 +of cultivation ​ 105 
 +of defilement ​ 25, 26, 31 
 +of faith  47 
 +fearless, undaunted ​ 10, 28 
 +final ​ 24  ​
 +of ignorance ​ 25, 26, 27–28, 31 
 +of irreversibility,​ nonretrogression ​ 97, 
 +173  ​
 +of nirvana ​ 29 
 +stars (see alsoconstellations) ​ 72, 168 
 +storehouse(s) (see alsotreasury[ies]) ​
 +169, 173 
 +four jewel  6, 19, 129 
 +secret ​ 107, 129 
 +Store of Space  70 
 +Store of Virtue ​ 147 
 +stream-enterer ​ 89, 123 
 +stupidity ​ 88, 89, 108, 128, 133, 134, 
 +154, 167 
 +Subhūti ​ 83, 89 
 +205
 +Index 
 +suchness ​ 86, 93, 97, 98, 99, 165 
 +suffering(s) ​ 11, 13, 22, 27, 31, 35, 36, 
 +37, 39, 44, 45, 83, 91, 100, 110, 111, 
 +113, 117, 121, 139, 155, 174 
 +of birth and death, samsara, worldly ​
 +29, 163, 174  ​
 +extinction(s) of  27, 35, 36, 37, 41, 43, 
 +44, 117 
 +revulsion toward ​ 45, 74 
 +source(s) of  27, 31, 35, 39 
 +Sukhāvatīvyūha-sūtra 61 
 +Sumeru Lamp King  118, 119 
 +sun(s) ​ 72, 78, 90, 120, 129, 138, 139, 
 +167, 168 
 +Superior Excellence ​ 146 
 +Superior Moon  147 
 +Superior One (see alsoVimalakīrti) ​ 128, 
 +129 
 +sutra(s) (see alsoscripture) ​ 50, 51, 61, 
 +63, 133, 155, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 
 +177, 178, 179 
 +Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s ​
 +Roar 5–6, 7–51 ​
 +sympathy (see alsofour unlimiteds) ​ 77, 
 +84, 100, 104, 124–25, 139. 141 
 +great  85, 129, 160, 161, 163, 173 
 +mind of  87, 136 
 +
 +Taishō edition, text  63, 65 
 +Taishō University ​ 64 
 +Takasaki, Jikidō ​ 53, 64, 181 
 +talatrees ​ 49 
 +Tathāgata(s) ​ 9, 11, 14, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 
 +31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 47, 48, 50, 51, 78, 
 +82, 89, 93, 95, 124, 138, 150, 151, 
 +152, 153, 160, 165, 169, 171, 172, 
 +175, 178 
 +blessings of  95, 105, 152 
 +Dharma body, body(ies) of  10, 21, 29, 
 +35, 36, 44, 84, 95, 166, 172 
 +enlightenment-wisdom of  26, 27, 28 
 +land  75, 78 
 +merit(s) of  9, 11, 21, 49, 126, 160 
 +nirvana of  24, 172 
 +realm of  33 
 +sagacity, wisdom of  17, 37, 152 
 +seed of  134, 135 
 +tathāgatagarbha(see alsowomb, of the 
 +Buddha) ​ 5, 33, 35, 36, 37, 45–46, 50 
 +teacher(s) ​ 5, 89, 95, 102, 140, 162, 172, 
 +178 
 +six, of heterodox paths  89 
 +teaching(s) ​ 5, 7, 18, 22, 50, 51, 77, 98, 
 +103, 125, 129, 131, 134, 137, 139, 
 +151, 160, 163, 164 
 +of the emancipation of the exhaustible ​
 +and inexhaustible ​ 161, 164 
 +false, heterodox ​ 49, 171 
 +of the four attractions ​ 161 
 +of inconceivable emancipation ​ 119, 
 +121, 122 
 +Mahayana ​ 6, 155, 163 
 +“One Vehicle” ​ 62 
 +Tendai. SeeTiantai ​
 +ten ordination vows. Seevow(s), ten 
 +ordination ​
 +text(s) ​ 5, 6, 7, 50, 51, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 
 +64, 65 
 +Mahayana ​ 5, 6, 61 
 +“The Teaching of Vimalakīrti[Vimala - 
 +kīrtinirdeśa]:​ A Review of Four 
 +English Translations” ​ 64, 181 
 +thirty-two primary characteristics ​ 70, 76, 
 +102, 105, 115, 134, 137, 150, 159, 162 
 +three great vows. Seevow(s), three great 
 +three illuminations. Seeillumination(s), ​
 +three 
 +Three Jewels (see alsoBuddha, Dharma, ​
 +and Sangha; refuges, three) ​ 69, 73, 
 +87, 136, 146 
 +Thunder God  145 
 +206
 +Index 
 +Thurman, Robert ​ 64, 181 
 +Tiantai school ​ 61 
 +Tibet, Tibetan ​ 5, 60, 64, 65 
 +transcendence ​ 81, 98, 99, 111, 114, 128, 
 +141, 163, 174 
 +transcendental ​ 18, 23, 31, 44, 46 
 +transformation(s) ​ 6, 25, 73, 89, 150, 
 +151, 152, 161 
 +numinous ​ 72, 105, 168 
 +phantasmagorical ​ 89, 138, 144 
 +transgression(s) ​ 24, 28, 78, 82, 89, 92, 93, 
 +94, 100, 110, 133, 135, 144, 154, 178 
 +Trayastriṃśa Heaven ​ 119 
 +treasure(s) ​ 134 
 +seven  71, 137, 172, 173 
 +treasury(ies) (see alsostorehouse) ​ 140, 
 +169 
 +treatise(s) ​ 20, 59 
 +trimegachiliocosm ​ 71, 73, 79, 92, 120, 
 +121, 152, 160, 164, 172 
 +Tripiṭaka ​ 7, 67 
 +True Dharma ​ 5, 6, 9, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 
 +20, 21, 22, 23, 44, 46, 49, 50 
 +truth(s) ​ 9, 15, 17, 31, 32, 44, 46, 69, 84, 
 +89, 100, 138 
 +contrary ​ 43, 51 
 +of the extinction of suffering ​ 41, 43, 44 
 +eye of  22, 46 
 +noble. See four noble truths; noble truths ​
 +supreme ​ 30, 39, 41 
 +underlying ​ 37, 50 
 +wisdom of  22, 46 
 +Tuṣita Heaven ​ 97, 168 
 +
 +Unblinking ​ 143 
 +Unconditional Contemplation ​ 70 
 +unconditioned ​ 35, 44, 45, 92, 98, 118, 
 +135, 146, 154, 159, 161, 163, 164, 166 
 +dharma(s) ​ 94, 135, 161 
 +noble truths ​ 35, 36 
 +Undefeated ​ 71 
 +Unhindered Mind  146 
 +Universal Light  11 
 +Universally Manifests the Form Body  136 
 +universally same, universal sameness ​
 +73, 78, 87, 88, 98, 99, 100, 105, 111, 
 +144, 145, 147, 160 
 +Universal Maintenance ​ 145 
 +universal ruler (see also cakravartin) ​ 94, 
 +121 
 +Unresting ​ 71 
 +Upāli ​ 92, 93 
 +upāsaka. Seelayman, laymen ​
 +upāsikā. Seelaywoman,​ laywomen ​
 +upāya.Seeskillful means 
 +
 +Vaiśālī ​ 69, 71, 81, 86, 94, 99, 107, 119, 
 +152 
 +vajra 70, 95, 144 
 +vehicle(s) (see alsoGreat Vehicle; One 
 +Vehicle) ​ 24, 30, 122, 136 
 +buddha ​ 29 
 +disciple, śrāvaka 18, 19, 29, 79, 88  ​
 +pratyekabuddha 18, 19, 29 
 +three  29, 30, 36, 44, 128 
 +two  22, 23, 43 
 +verse  9, 72, 75, 136 
 +four-phrase ​ 169 
 +vexation(s) ​ 94, 95, 110, 112, 150, 154, 
 +166  ​
 +view(s) ​ 5, 43, 92, 98, 109, 111, 112, 135, 
 +175 
 +confused, mistaken ​ 83, 111, 123, 124 
 +contrary ​ 37, 43, 44, 46 
 +correct ​ 43, 44, 77 
 +discriminative,​ dualistic ​ 98, 111 
 +false, illusory ​ 25, 70, 83, 93, 113 
 +heterodox ​ 89, 109, 114, 139, 154, 173, 
 +174 
 +sixty-two ​ 85, 94, 109, 134 
 +207
 +Index 
 +Vimalakīrti ​ 59–60, 61, 62, 81–84, ​
 +85–96, 97–106, 107–115, 117–122, ​
 +123–27, 128–29, 131, 133–41, 143, 
 +148, 149–56, 157–58, 161, 165–66, ​
 +167, 168, 169, 179 
 +and Ānanda ​ 95–96, 158 
 +and Aniruddha ​ 91–92 ​
 +and Good Virtue ​ 103–106 ​
 +illness of  60, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 90, 
 +91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101, 103, 
 +106, 107, 108, 109, 110 
 +and Mahākāśyapa ​ 87–88, 122 
 +and Mahākātyāyana ​ 91 
 +and Mahāmaudgalyāyana ​ 85–87 ​
 +and Maintains the World  101–103 ​
 +and Maitreya ​ 97–99 ​
 +and Mañjuśrī ​ 60, 107–115, 118–119, ​
 +123–27, 133–36, 148, 150, 156, 157 
 +and Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra ​ 90–91 ​
 +and Radiance Ornament Youth  99–101 ​
 +and Rāhula ​ 93–95 ​
 +samādhiof ​ 90, 149, 168 
 +and Śāriputra ​ 85, 117–118, 119–121, ​
 +131, 149, 152, 166–67 ​
 +silence of  59 
 +and Subhūti ​ 88–90 ​
 +and Universally Manifests the Form 
 +Body  136 
 +and Upāli ​ 92–93 ​
 +Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra.SeeVimalakīrti ​
 +Sutra 
 +Vimalakīrti Sutra59–65,​ 67–179 ​
 +Vimalakīrti Sutra, Questions of the 
 +Brahmā (Deva) Viśeṣacinti Sutra, and 
 +Śū raṃ gama-samādhi Sutra. See 
 +Yuima-gyō, Shiyaku Bonten shomon ​
 +kyō, Shuryōgon Zammai kyō 
 +Vinaya ​ 23–24, 81, 92, 93, 153, 154, 159 
 +virtue(s) ​ 17, 18, 31, 73, 95, 122, 153 
 +vīrya(see alsoexertion;​ perseverance) ​
 +20, 69, 76 
 +vīrya-pāramitā. Seeperfection,​ of exer- 
 +tion, perseverance ​
 +vow(s) ​ 14, 15, 76, 93, 98, 99, 103, 131 
 +bodhisattva ​ 15, 17 
 +great  17, 81 
 +original ​ 131, 163 
 +ten ordination ​ 13–14, 50 
 +three great  15 
 +
 +water (see alsofour elements; great 
 +waters) ​ 83, 93, 109, 123, 137, 139, 
 +145, 159, 168 
 +Watson, Burton ​ 64, 181 
 +wealth, wealthy (see alsobody, life, and 
 +wealth; property) ​ 6, 72, 77, 81, 87, 
 +104, 137 
 +White Fragrant Elephant ​ 71 
 +wind(s) (see alsofour elements) ​ 83, 87, 
 +109, 120, 139 
 +wisdom(s) (see alsoprajñā) ​ 10, 20, 27, 
 +28, 31, 33, 37, 46, 47, 76, 83, 84, 87, 
 +89, 93, 100, 102, 104, 105, 112, 113, 
 +122, 125, 133, 136, 137, 138, 141, 
 +144, 145, 146, 153, 155, 160, 162, 
 +163, 165, 166, 172, 174 
 +of arhats ​ 26, 43 
 +of bodhisattvas ​ 69, 78 160 
 +buddha, of the Buddha, Tathāgata ​ 10, 
 +17, 22, 26, 27, 28, 39, 70, 75, 78, 
 +105, 115, 134, 140, 160 
 +of disciples, śrāvakas ​ 31, 152 
 +of emptiness ​ 31, 37 
 +enlightenment- ​ 26, 27, 28 
 +eye  147 
 +four  25, 31 
 +great  69, 128 
 +Hinayana ​ 90 
 +perfection of. Seeperfection,​ of wisdom ​
 +of pratyekabuddhas ​ 26, 31, 43 
 +of Śrīmālā ​ 5, 15, 17 
 +208
 +Index 
 +superior, supramundane,​ supreme ​ 31, 
 +82, 93, 133 
 +vajra 144 
 +of Vimalakīrti ​ 81, 82, 88, 93, 96, 103, 
 +107 
 +wishless, wishlessness (see alsoempti- ​
 +ness, signlessness,​ and wishlessness) ​
 +114, 146, 163 
 +woman, women (see alsofemale; gender; ​
 +good men and women, sons and 
 +daughters) 5, 6, 49, 82, 101, 102, 
 +103, 125, 167, 168, 172 
 +status, view of  5, 62 
 +womb  32, 46, 123 
 +of the Buddha (see alsotathāgata- ​
 +garbha) ​ 5 
 +Wonderful Arm  144 
 +Wonderful Mind  145 
 +Wondrous Birth  71 
 +Wondrous Joy world  167–69 ​
 +world(s) (see alsoGreat Ornamentation ​
 +world; Host of Fragrances world; ​
 +Wondrous Joy world) ​ 9, 10, 18, 19, 
 +27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 44, 59, 60, 71, 73, 
 +74, 75, 79, 88, 92, 94, 100, 105, 118, 
 +120, 129, 134, 139, 147, 149, 150, 
 +152, 154, 155, 161, 164, 168, 172, 173 
 +Brahmā ​ 114 
 +of four continents, fourfold ​ 71, 119, 
 +172, 173 
 +sahā 150, 151, 155, 168, 169 
 +triple ​ 74, 81, 85, 95, 100, 111, 114, 165 
 +World-honored One (see alsoBuddha) ​
 +73, 74, 75, 78, 79, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 
 +91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101, 103, 
 +105, 107, 108, 150, 153, 154, 157, 
 +158, 159, 161, 165, 166, 167, 168, 
 +169, 171, 172, 173, 175, 178, 179 
 +world lord(s), world protectors (see also 
 +heavenly, king)  81, 82, 121, 139 
 +worldly ​ 45, 70, 82, 154, 162, 163 
 +world-system(s) ​ 59, 118, 120, 121, 122, 
 +149 
 +
 +Xuanzang ​ 63 
 +
 +yakṣas (see alsospirits,​ demonic) ​ 71, 
 +73, 174 
 +Yao Qin dynasty ​ 67 
 +Yonezawa, Yoshiyasu ​ 64 
 +Yuima-gyō, Shiyaku Bonten shomon kyō, 
 +Shuryōgon Zammai kyō 64, 181 
 +
 +Zen. SeeChan ​
 +Zhi Qian  63  ​
 +Zhu Weimojie jing63  ​
 +209
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +(First Series) ​
 +Abbreviations ​
 +Ch.: Chinese ​
 +Skt.: Sanskrit ​
 +Jp.: Japanese ​
 +Eng.: Published title 
 +Ch. Changahanjing (長阿含經) 1 
 +Skt. Dīrghāgama ​
 +Ch. Zhongahanjing (中阿含經) 26 
 +Skt. Madhyamāgama ​
 +Ch. Dachengbenshengxindiguanjing (大乘本生心地觀經) 159 
 +Ch. Fosuoxingzan (佛所行讃) 192 
 +Skt. Buddhacarita ​
 +Ch. Zabaocangjing (雜寶藏經) 203 
 +Eng.  The Storehouse of Sundry Valuables ​
 +Ch. Fajupiyujing (法句譬喩經) 211 
 +Eng. The Scriptural Text: Verses of the Doctrine, with Parables ​
 +Ch. Xiaopinbanruoboluomijing (小品般若波羅蜜經) 227 
 +Skt. Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra ​
 +Ch. Jingangbanruoboluomijing (金剛般若波羅蜜經) 235 
 +Skt. Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra ​
 +Ch. Daluojingangbukongzhenshisanmoyejing 243 
 +(大樂金剛不空眞實三麼耶經) ​
 +Skt. Adhyardhaśatikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra ​
 +Ch. Renwangbanruoboluomijing (仁王般若波羅蜜經) 245 
 +Skt. Kāruṇikārājā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra (?) 
 +211 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +Ch. Banruoboluomiduoxingjing (般若波羅蜜多心經) 251 
 +Skt. Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya-sūtra ​
 +Ch. Miaofalianhuajing (妙法蓮華經) 262 
 +Skt. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra ​
 +Eng. The Lotus Sutra 
 +Ch. Wuliangyijing (無量義經) 276 
 +Ch. Guanpuxianpusaxingfajing (觀普賢菩薩行法經) 277 
 +Ch. Dafangguangfohuayanjing (大方廣佛華嚴經) 278 
 +Skt. Avataṃsaka-sūtra ​
 +Ch. Shengmanshizihouyichengdafangbianfangguangjing 353 
 +(勝鬘師子吼一乘大方便方廣經) ​
 +Skt. Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanāda-sūtra ​
 +Eng. The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion’s Roar 
 +Ch. Wuliangshoujing (無量壽經) 360 
 +Skt. Sukhāvatīvyūha ​
 +Eng.  The Larger Sutra on Amitāyus(in The Three Pure Land Sutras, ​
 +Revised Second Edition) ​
 +Ch. Guanwuliangshoufojing (觀無量壽佛經) 365 
 +Skt. Amitāyurdhyāna-sūtra ​
 +Eng.  The Sutra on Contemplation of Amitāyus ​
 +(in The Three Pure Land Sutras,​Revised Second Edition) ​
 +Ch. Amituojing (阿彌陀經) 366 
 +Skt. Sukhāvatīvyūha ​
 +Eng. The Smaller Sutra on Amitāyus(in The Three Pure Land Sutras, ​
 +Revised Second Edition\) ​
 +Ch. Dabanniepanjing (大般涅槃經) 374 
 +Skt. Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra ​
 +Ch. Fochuiboniepanlüeshuojiaojiejing (佛垂般涅槃略説教誡經) 389 
 +Ch. Dicangpusabenyuanjing (地藏菩薩本願經) 412 
 +Skt. Kṣitigarbhapraṇidhāna-sūtra (?) 
 +Ch. Banzhousanmeijing (般舟三昧經) 418 
 +Skt. Pratyutpannabuddhasammukhāvasthitasamādhi-sūtra ​
 +Eng. The Pratyutpanna Samādhi Sutra 
 +212 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +Ch. Yaoshiliuliguangrulaibenyuangongdejing 450 
 +(藥師琉璃光如來本願功徳經) ​
 +Skt. Bhaiṣajyaguruvaiḍūryaprabhāsapūrvapraṇidhānaviśeṣavistara ​
 +Ch. Milexiashengchengfojing (彌勒下生成佛經) 454 
 +Skt. Maitreyavyākaraṇa (?) 
 +Ch. Wenshushiliwenjing (文殊師利問經) 468 
 +Skt. Mañjuśrīparipṛcchā (?) 
 +Ch. Weimojiesuoshuojing ​  ​(維摩詰所説經) 475 
 +Skt. Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra ​
 +Eng. The Vimalakīrti Sutra 
 +Ch. Yueshangnüjing (月上女經) 480 
 +Skt. Candrottarādārikāparipṛcchā ​
 +Ch. Zuochansanmeijing (坐禪三昧經) 614 
 +Ch. Damoduoluochanjing (達磨多羅禪經) 618 
 +Ch. Yuedengsanmeijing (月燈三昧經) 639 
 +Skt. Samādhirājacandrapradīpa-sūtra ​
 +Ch. Shoulengyansanmeijing (首楞嚴三昧經) 642 
 +Skt. Śūraṅgamasamādhi-sūtra ​
 +Eng. The Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sutra 
 +Ch. Jinguangmingzuishengwangjing (金光明最勝王經) 665 
 +Skt. Suvarṇaprabhāsa-sūtra ​
 +Ch. Rulengqiejing (入楞伽經) 671 
 +Skt. Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra ​
 +Ch. Jieshenmijing (解深密經) 676 
 +Skt. Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra ​
 +Eng. The Scripture on the Explication of Underlying Meaning ​
 +Ch. Yulanpenjing (盂蘭盆經) 685 
 +Skt. Ullambana-sūtra (?) 
 +Ch. Sishierzhangjing (四十二章經) 784 
 +Ch. Dafangguangyuanjuexiuduoluoliaoyijing (大方廣圓覺修多羅了義經) 842 
 +213 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +Ch. Dabiluzhenachengfoshenbianjiachijing 848 
 +(大毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經) ​
 +Skt. Mahāvairocanābhisambodhivikurvitādhiṣṭhānavaipulyasūtrendra- ​
 +rājanāmadharmaparyāya ​
 +Ch. Jinggangdingyiqierulaizhenshishedachengxianzhengdajiao- ​
 +wangjing (金剛頂一切如來眞實攝大乘現證大教王經) 865 
 +Skt. Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgrahamahāyānābhisamayamahākalparāja ​
 +Eng. The Adamantine Pinnacle Sutra(in Two Esoteric Sutras) ​
 +Ch. Suxidijieluojing (蘇悉地羯囉經) 893 
 +Skt. Susiddhikaramahātantrasādhanopāyika-paṭala ​
 +Eng. The Susiddhikara Sutra(in Two Esoteric Sutras) ​
 +Ch. Modengqiejing (摩登伽經) 1300 
 +Skt. Mātaṅgī-sūtra (?) 
 +Ch. Mohesengqilü (摩訶僧祇律) 1425 
 +Skt. Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya (?) 
 +Ch. Sifenlü (四分律) 1428 
 +Skt. Dharmaguptaka-vinaya (?) 
 +Ch. Shanjianlüpiposha (善見律毘婆沙) 1462 
 +Pāli Samantapāsādikā ​
 +Ch. Fanwangjing (梵網經) 1484 
 +Skt. Brahmajāla-sūtra (?) 
 +Ch. Youposaijiejing (優婆塞戒經) 1488 
 +Skt. Upāsakaśīla-sūtra (?) 
 +Eng. The Sutra on Upāsaka Precepts ​
 +Ch. Miaofalianhuajingyoubotishe (妙法蓮華經憂波提舍) 1519 
 +Skt. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-upadeśa ​
 +Ch. Shih-chu-pi-p‘o-sha-lun (十住毘婆沙論) 1521 
 +Skt. Daśabhūmika-vibhāṣā (?) 
 +Ch. Fodijinglun (佛地經論) 1530 
 +Skt. Buddhabhūmisūtra-śāstra (?) 
 +Eng. The Interpretation of the Buddha Land 
 +Ch. Apidamojushelun (阿毘達磨倶舍論) 1558 
 +Skt. Abhidharmakośa-bhāṣya ​
 +214 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +Ch. Zhonglun (中論) 1564 
 +Skt. Madhyamaka-śāstra ​
 +Ch. Yüqieshidilun (瑜伽師地論) 1579 
 +Skt. Yogācārabhūmi ​
 +Ch. Chengweishilun (成唯識論) 1585 
 +Eng. Demonstration of Consciousness Only 
 +(in Three Texts on Consciousness Only) 
 +Ch. Weishisanshilunsong (唯識三十論頌) 1586 
 +Skt. Triṃśikā ​
 +Eng. The Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only 
 +(in Three Texts on Consciousness Only) 
 +Ch. Weishihershilun (唯識二十論) 1590 
 +Skt. Viṃśatikā ​
 +Eng. The Treatise in Twenty Verses on Consciousness Only 
 +(in Three Texts on Consciousness Only) 
 +Ch. Shedachenglun (攝大乘論) 1593 
 +Skt. Mahāyānasaṃgraha ​
 +Eng. The Summary of the Great Vehicle(Revised Second Edition) ​
 +Ch. Bianzhongbianlun (辯中邊論) 1600 
 +Skt. Madhyāntavibhāga ​
 +Ch. Dachengzhuangyanjinglun (大乘莊嚴經論) 1604 
 +Skt. Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra ​
 +Ch. Dachengchengyelun (大乘成業論) 1609 
 +Skt. Karmasiddhiprakaraṇa ​
 +Ch. Jiujingyichengbaoxinglun (究竟一乘寳性論) 1611 
 +Skt. Ratnagotravibhāgamahāyānottaratantra-śāstra ​
 +Ch. Yinmingruzhenglilun (因明入正理論) 1630 
 +Skt. Nyāyapraveśa ​
 +Ch. Dachengjipusaxuelun (大乘集菩薩學論) 1636 
 +Skt. Śikṣāsamuccaya ​
 +Ch. Jingangzhenlun (金剛針論) 1642 
 +Skt. Vajrasūcī ​
 +215 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +Ch. Zhangsuozhilun (彰所知論) 1645 
 +Eng. The Treatise on the Elucidation of the Knowable ​
 +Ch. Putixingjing ​  ​(菩提行經) 1662 
 +Skt. Bodhicaryāvatāra ​
 +Ch. Jingangdingyuqiezhongfaanouduoluosanmiaosanputixinlun 1665 
 +(金剛頂瑜伽中發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心論) ​
 +Ch. Dachengqixinlun (大乘起信論) 1666 
 +Skt. Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda-śāstra (?) 
 +Ch. Shimoheyanlun (釋摩訶衍論) 1668 
 +Ch. Naxianbiqiujing (那先比丘經) 1670 
 +Pāli Milindapañhā ​
 +Ch. Banruoboluomiduoxinjingyuzan (般若波羅蜜多心經幽賛) 1710 
 +Eng.  A Comprehensive Commentary on the Heart Sutra 
 +(Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya-sūtra) ​
 +Ch. Miaofalianhuajingxuanyi (妙法蓮華經玄義) 1716 
 +Ch. Guanwuliangshoufojingshu (觀無量壽佛經疏) 1753 
 +Ch. Sanlunxuanyi (三論玄義) 1852 
 +Ch. Dachengxuanlun (大乘玄論) 1853 
 +Ch. Zhaolun (肇論) 1858 
 +Ch. Huayanyichengjiaoyifenqizhang (華嚴一乘教義分齊章) 1866 
 +Ch. Yuanrenlun (原人論) 1886 
 +Ch. Mohezhiguan (摩訶止觀) 1911 
 +Ch. Xiuxizhiguanzuochanfayao (修習止觀坐禪法要) 1915 
 +Ch. Tiantaisijiaoyi (天台四教儀) 1931 
 +Ch. Guoqingbailu (國清百録) 1934 
 +Ch. Zhenzhoulinjihuizhaochanshiwulu (鎭州臨濟慧照禪師語録) 1985 
 +Eng. The Recorded Sayings of Linji(in Three Chan Classics) ​
 +Ch. Foguoyuanwuchanshibiyanlu (佛果圜悟禪師碧巖録) 2003 
 +Eng. The Blue Cliff Record ​
 +216 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +Ch. Wumenguan (無門關) 2005 
 +Eng. Wumen’s Gate(in Three Chan Classics) ​
 +Ch. Liuzudashifabaotanjing (六祖大師法寶壇經) 2008 
 +Eng. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch ​
 +Ch. Xinxinming (信心銘) 2010 
 +Eng. The Faith-Mind Maxim(in Three Chan Classics) ​
 +Ch. Huangboshanduanjichanshichuanxinfayao 2012A 
 +(黄檗山斷際禪師傳心法要) ​
 +Ch. Yongjiazhengdaoge (永嘉證道歌) 2014 
 +Ch. Chixiubaizhangqinggui (勅修百丈清規) 2025 
 +Ch. Yibuzonglunlun (異部宗輪論) 2031 
 +Skt. Samayabhedoparacanacakra ​
 +Eng. The Cycle of the Formation of the Schismatic Doctrines ​
 +Ch. Ayuwangjing (阿育王經) 2043 
 +Skt. Aśokāvadāna ​
 +Eng. The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka ​
 +Ch. Mamingpusachuan (馬鳴菩薩傳) 2046 
 +Eng. The Life of Aśvaghoṣa Bodhisattva ​
 +(in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) 
 +Ch. Longshupusachuan (龍樹菩薩傳) 2047 
 +Eng. The Life of Nāgārjuna Bodhisattva ​
 +(in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) 
 +Ch. Posoupandoufashichuan (婆藪槃豆法師傳) 2049 
 +Eng. Biography of Dharma Master Vasubandhu ​
 +(in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) 
 +Ch. Datangdaciensisancangfashichuan (大唐大慈恩寺三藏法師傳) 2053 
 +Eng. A Biography of the Tripiṭaka Master of the Great Ci’en ​
 +Monastery of the Great Tang Dynasty ​
 +Ch. Gaosengchuan (高僧傳) 2059 
 +Ch. Biqiunichuan (比丘尼傳) 2063 
 +Eng. Biographies of Buddhist Nuns 
 +(in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) 
 +217 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +Ch. Gaosengfaxianchuan (高僧法顯傳) 2085 
 +Eng. The Journey of the Eminent Monk Faxian ​
 +(in Lives of Great Monks and Nuns) 
 +Ch. Datangxiyuji (大唐西域記) 2087 
 +Eng. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions ​
 +Ch. Youfangjichao:​ Tangdaheshangdongzhengchuan 2089-(7) ​
 +(遊方記抄:​ 唐大和上東征傳) ​
 +Ch. Hongmingji (弘明集) 2102 
 +Ch. Fayuanzhulin (法苑珠林) 2122 
 +Ch. Nanhaijiguineifachuan (南海寄歸内法傳) 2125 
 +Eng. Buddhist Monastic Traditions of Southern Asia 
 +Ch. Fanyuzaming (梵語雑名) 2135 
 +Jp. Shōmangyōgisho (勝鬘經義疏) 2185 
 +Jp. Yuimakyōgisho (維摩經義疏) 2186 
 +Jp. Hokkegisho (法華義疏) 2187 
 +Jp. Hannyashingyōhiken (般若心經秘鍵) 2203 
 +Jp. Daijōhossōkenjinshō (大乘法相研神章) 2309 
 +Jp. Kan-jin-kaku-mu-shō (觀心覺夢鈔) 2312 
 +Jp. Risshūkōyō (律宗綱要) 2348 
 +Eng.  The Essentials of the Vinaya Tradition ​
 +Jp. Tendaihokkeshūgishū (天台法華宗義集) 2366 
 +Eng. The Collected Teachings of the Tendai Lotus School ​
 +Jp. Kenkairon (顯戒論) 2376 
 +Jp. Sangegakushōshiki ​  ​(山家學生式) 2377 
 +Jp. Hizōhōyaku (秘藏寶鑰) 2426 
 +Eng. The Precious Key to the Secret Treasury(in Shingon Texts) ​
 +Jp. Benkenmitsunikyōron ​  ​(辨顯密二教論) 2427 
 +Eng. On the Differences between the Exoteric and Esoteric ​
 +Teachings(in Shingon Texts) ​
 +218 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +Jp. Sokushinjōbutsugi (即身成佛義) 2428 
 +Eng. The Meaning of Becoming a Buddha in This Very Body 
 +(in Shingon Texts) ​
 +Jp. Shōjijissōgi (聲字實相義) 2429 
 +Eng. The Meanings of Sound, Sign, and Reality(in Shingon Texts) ​
 +Jp. Unjigi (吽字義) 2430 
 +Eng. The Meanings of the Word Hūṃ(in Shingon Texts) ​
 +Jp. Gorinkujimyōhimitsushaku (五輪九字明秘密釋) 2514 
 +Eng. The Illuminating Secret Commentary on the Five Cakras ​
 +and the Nine Syllables(in Shingon Texts) ​
 +Jp. Mitsugoninhotsurosangemon (密嚴院發露懺悔文) 2527 
 +Eng. The Mitsugonin Confession(in Shingon Texts) ​
 +Jp. Kōzengokokuron (興禪護國論) 2543 
 +Jp. Fukanzazengi (普勧坐禪儀) 2580 
 +Jp. Shōbōgenzō (正法眼藏) 2582 
 +Jp. Zazenyōjinki (坐禪用心記) 2586 
 +Jp. Senchakuhongannenbutsushū (選擇本願念佛集) 2608 
 +Eng. Senchaku Hongan Nembutsu Shū: A Collection of Passages ​
 +on the Nembutsu Chosen in the Original Vow 
 +Jp. Kenjōdoshinjitsukyōgyōshōmonrui (顯淨土眞實教行証文類) 2646 
 +Eng. Kyōgyōshinshō:​ On Teaching, Practice, Faith, and 
 +Enlightenment ​
 +Jp. Tannishō (歎異抄) 2661 
 +Eng. Tannishō: Passages Deploring Deviations of Faith 
 +Jp. Rennyoshōninofumi (蓮如上人御文) 2668 
 +Eng. Rennyo Shōnin Ofumi: The Letters of Rennyo ​
 +Jp. Ōjōyōshū (往生要集) 2682 
 +Jp. Risshōankokuron (立正安國論) 2688 
 +Eng. Risshōankokuron or The Treatise on the Establishment ​
 +of the Orthodox Teaching and the Peace of the Nation ​
 +(in Two Nichiren Texts) ​
 +219 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +BDK English Tripiṭaka ​
 +Jp. Kaimokushō (開目抄) 2689 
 +Eng. Kaimokushō or Liberation from Blindness ​
 +Jp. Kanjinhonzonshō (觀心本尊抄) 2692 
 +Eng. Kanjinhonzonshō or The Most Venerable One Revealed ​
 +by Introspecting Our Minds for the First Time at the 
 +Beginning of the Fifth of the Five Five Hundred-year Ages 
 +(in Two Nichiren Texts) ​
 +Ch. Fumuenzhongjing ​  ​(父母恩重經) 2887 
 +Eng. The Sutra on the Profundity of Filial Love 
 +(in Apocryphal Scriptures) ​
 +Jp. Hasshūkōyō (八宗綱要) extracanonical ​
 +Eng. The Essentials of the Eight Traditions ​
 +Jp. Sangōshīki (三教指帰) extracanonical ​
 +Jp. Mappōtōmyōki (末法燈明記) extracanonical ​
 +Eng. The Candle of the Latter Dharma ​
 +Jp. Jūshichijōkenpō (十七條憲法) extracanonical ​
 +220 
 +Title Taishō No.
 +
 +
 +
 +----
 +
 +[[Fair Use]] Source: https://​www.bdkamerica.org/​digital/​dBET_Srimala_Vimalakirti_2004.pdf
  
vimalakirti_sutra.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:13 (external edit)