yajurveda
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yajurveda [2018/02/26 18:13]
yajurveda [2018/02/26 18:13] (current)
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 +Yajurveda - One of the four main [[Vedas]], this is a collection of [[sacred]] [[ceremonies]] and [[rituals]] ([[puja]]).
  
 +Fair Use Source: [[Vaidya]] [[Vasant Lad]], [[BAMS]], [[MAsc]], [[Textbook of Ayurveda Volume 1]], 2001: p. 313
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 +{{Hindu scriptures}}
 +The '''''​Yajurveda'''''​ ([[Sanskrit]] {{Unicode|यजुर्वेदः}} ''​{{IAST |yajurveda}}'',​ a [[tatpurusha]] compound of ''​{{IAST|yajus}}''​ "​sacrificial formula',​ + ''​{{IAST|veda}}''​ "​knowledge"​) ​ is the third of the four canonical texts of [[Hinduism]],​ the [[Veda]]s. By some, it is estimated to have been composed between 1,400 and 1000 BCE, the Yajurveda '​Samhita',​ or '​compilation',​ contains the [[liturgy]] (mantras) needed to perform the [[yajna|sacrifices]] of the [[historical Vedic religion|religion of the Vedic period]], and the added [[Brahmana]] and [[Shrautasutra]] ​ add information on the interpretation and on the details of their performance.
 +
 +==Recensions== ​
 +There are two primary versions or ''​Samhitas''​ of the Yajurveda: Shukla (white) and Krishna (black). Both contain the verses necessary for rituals, but the Krishna Yajurveda includes the [[Brahmana]] prose discussions within the ''​Samhita'',​ while the Shukla Yajurveda has separately a Brahmana text, the Shatapatha Brahmana.
 +
 +===Shukla Yajurveda===
 +There are two (nearly identical) ''​[[shakha]]s''​ or recensions of the Shukla (White) Yajurveda, both known as Vajasaneyi-Samhita (VS):
 +*''​Vajasaneyi Madhyandiniya''​ (VSM), originally of Bihar 
 +*''​Vajasaneyi Kanva''​ of originally of [[Kosala]] (VSK)
 +
 +The former is popular in North India, Gujarat, parts of Maharashtra (north of Nashik) and thus commands a numerous following. The Kanva Shakha is popular in parts of Maharashtra (south of Nashik), Orissa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Sureshvaracharya,​ one of the four main disciples of Jagadguru [[Adi Shankara]], is said to have followed the Kanva ''​[[shakha]]''​. The Guru himself followed the Taittiriya Shakha with the Apastamba Kalpasutra. The Vedic rituals of the Ranganathaswamy Temple at [[Srirangam]],​ the second biggest temple in India, are performed according to the Kanva ''​shakha''​. The White Yajurveda has two [[Upanishads]] associated with it: the [[Isha Vasya]] and the [[Brihadaranyaka]] Upanishads. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is the most voluminous of all Upanishads.
 +
 +The VS has forty chapters or ''​adhyayas''​ (but 41 in Orissa), containing the formulas used with the following rituals:
 +:1.-2.: New and Full Moon sacrifices
 +:3.: [[Agnihotra]]
 +:4.-8.: [[Somayajna]]
 +:9.-10.: [[Vajapeya]] and [[Rajasuya]],​ two modifications of the Soma sacrifice
 +:11.-18.: construction of altars and hearths, especially the [[Agnicayana]]
 +:19.-21.: [[Sautramani]],​ a ritual originally counteracting the effects of excessive Soma-drinking
 +:22.-25.: [[Ashvamedha]]
 +:26.-29.: supplementary formulas for various rituals
 +:30.-31.: [[Purushamedha]]
 +:32.-34.: [[Sarvamedha]]
 +:35.: [[Pitriyajna]]
 +:36.-39.: [[Pravargya]] ​
 +:40.: the final adhyaya is the famous [[Isha Upanishad]]
 +
 +The VSM was edited and published by Weber (London and Berlin, 1852), and translated into English by [[Ralph T. H. Griffith]] (Benares, 1899).
 +
 +===Krishna Yajurveda===
 +There are four [[shakha|recensions]] of the Krishna ("​black"​) Yajurveda:
 +*''​{{IAST|Taittirīya saṃhita}}''​ (TS) originally of [[Panchala]]
 +*''​{{IAST|Maitrayani saṃhita}}''​ (MS) originally of the area south of  [[Kurukshetra]]
 +*''​{{IAST|Caraka-Katha saṃhita}}''​ (KS) originally of [[Madra]] and [[Kurukshetra]]
 +*''​{{IAST|Kapiṣṭhala-Katha saṃhita}}''​ (KapS) of the southern Panjab, [[Bahika]]
 +
 +Each of the recensions has or had a ''​[[Brahmana]]''​ associated with it, and most of them also have associated [[Shrautasutra]]s,​ [[Grhyasutra]]s,​ [[Aranyaka]]s,​ [[Upanishad]]s and [[Pratishakhya]]s.
 +
 +'''​The [[Taittiriya Shakha]]:'''​
 +The best known and best preserved of these recensions is the TS, named after Tittiri, a pupil of [[Yaska]]. It consists of 7 books or ''​kandas'',​ subdivided in chapters or ''​prapathakas'',​ further subdivided into individual sections (anuvakas). Some individual hymns in this Samhita have gained particular importance in [[Hinduism]];​ e.g. TS 4.5 and TS 4.7 constitute the [[Rudram Chamakam]], while 1.8.6.i is the [[Shaivaite]] [[Tryambakam]] mantra. The beejas ''​{{IAST|bhūr bhuvaḥ suvaḥ}}''​ prefixed to the ([[Rigveda|rigvedic]]) Savitur [[Gayatri]] mantra are also from the Yajurveda. The Taittiriya recension of the Black Yajurveda is the ''​shakha''​ now most prevalent in [[southern India]]. Among the followers of this Shakha, the Apastamba Sutras are the common. The Taittiriya Shakha consists of Taittiriya Samhita (having seven kandas), Taittiriya Brahmana (having three kandas), Taittiriya Aranyaka (having seven prashnas) (See [[Aranyaka Literature]]),​ Taittiriya Upanishad (having three ''​prashnas''​ or ''​vallis''​ - Shiksha valli, Ananda valli and Bhrigu valli) and the Mahanarayana Upanishad. The Taittiriya Upanishad and Mahanarayana Upanishad are considered to be the seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth prashnas of the Aranyaka. The words ''​prapathaka''​ and ''​kanda''​ (meaning sections) are interchangeably used in Vedic literature. ''​Prashna''​ and ''​valli''​ refer to sections of the Aranyaka.
 +
 +There is another Short tract apart from the above and that is commonly known as Ekagni Kanda which mainly consists of mantra-s used in the marriage and other rituals.
 +
 +Three recensions have been edited and published: the Taittiriya by Albrecht Weber in "​Indische Studien",​ XI, XII (Berlin, 1871-72), the Maitrayani by Leopold von Schroeder (Leipzig, 1881-86) and the Kathaka by von Schroeder (Leipzig, 1900-09). Translations of the Taittiriya Samhita into English were composed by [[A. B. Keith]] (Oxford 1913) and Devi Chand.
 +
 +==Legend==
 +According to tradition, the vedic seer [[Yajnavalkya]] studied the Yajurveda collection under the tutelage of sage [[Vaishampayana]] maternal uncle of Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya'​s birth was with a purpose as purported by Gods. He was an ''​Ekasandhigrāhi'',​ meaning he learnt anything with just once teaching. The two came to have serious differences in interpretation. On one occasion, Vaishampayana was so enraged that he demanded the return of all the knowledge he had imparted to Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya returned in indignation or (literally vomited) all the knowledge he had learnt. The other disciples of Vaishampayana,​ eager to receive this knowledge, assumed the form of ''​tittiri''​ birds and absorbed while being recited during the return (or ate the knowledge). Thus, that knowledge came to be called the Taittiriya Samhita (a derivation of ''​tittiri''​). After having regurgitated the knowledge acquired from his teacher, Yajnavalkya worshipped [[Surya]] (the Sun God) and acquired new knowledge directly from [[Narayana]] ​ who taught the Shukla Yajurveda taking the shape of a stallion (''​vāji-rūpa''​).
 +
 +== References ==
 +{{reflist}}
 +
 +==Literature==
 +*[[Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith]], ''​The Texts of the White Yajurveda. Translated with a Popular Commentary''​ (1899).
 +*Devi Chand, ''​The Yajurveda. Sanskrit text with English translation. Third thoroughly revised and enlarged edition''​ (1980).
 +*''​The Sanhitâ of the Black Yajur Veda with the Commentary of Mâdhava ‘Achârya'',​ Calcutta (Bibl. Indica, 10 volumes, 1854-1899)
 +*Kumar, Pushpendra, ''​Taittiriya Brahmanam (Krsnam Yajurveda)'',​ 3 vols., Delhi (1998).
 +
 +==See also==
 +* [[Yajna]]
 +* [[Kalpa (Vedanga)]]
 +* [[Shatapatha Brahmana]]
 +* [[Mahīdhara]]
 +* [[Vedas]]
 +
 +== External links == 
 +* [http://​www.sanskritweb.net/​yajurveda Sanskrit Web] Freely downloadable,​ carefully edited Sanskrit texts of Taittiriya-Samhita,​ Taittiriya-Brahmana,​ Taittiriya-Aranyaka,​ Ekagni-Kanda etc. as well as English translations of the Taittiriya-Samhita etc.
 +*[[Albrecht Weber]], ​ [http://​www.archive.org/​stream/​indischestudien09gesegoog ''​Die Taittirîya-Samhita''​] 1871
 +*[[Ralph Griffith]], ​ [http://​www.sacred-texts.com/​hin/​wyv/​index.htm ''​The Texts of the White Yajurveda''​] 1899, full text, (online at sacred-texts.com)
 +*[[A. Berridale Keith]], ​ [http://​www.sacred-texts.com/​hin/​yv/​index.htm ''​The Yajur Veda - Taittiriya Sanhita''​] 1914, full text, (online at sacred-texts.com)
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 +[[Category:​Vedas]]
 +[[Category:​Sanskrit words and phrases]]
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 +[[de:​Yajurveda]]
 +[[es:Iáyur Vedá]]
 +[[fr:​Yajur-Véda]]
 +[[hi:​यजुर्वेद संहिता]]
 +[[id:​Yajurweda]]
 +[[kn:​ಯಜುರ್ವೇದ]]
 +[[la:​Yajurveda]]
 +[[ml:​യജുര്‍‌വേദം]]
 +[[new:​यजुर्वेद]]
 +[[ja:​ヤジュル・ヴェーダ]]
 +[[no:Yajur Veda]]
 +[[pl:​Jadźurweda]]
 +[[pt:​Iajurveda]]
 +[[ru:​Яджур-веда]]
 +[[sa:​यजुर्वेदः]]
 +[[sk:​Jadžurvéd]]
 +[[sl:​Jadžurveda]]
 +[[sh:​Yajurveda]]
 +[[sv:​Yajurveda]]
 +[[ta:​யசுர் வேதம்]]
 +[[tr:​Yajurveda]]
 +[[zh:​耶柔吠陀]]
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yajurveda.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/26 18:13 (external edit)